Anda di halaman 1dari 9

Optimization of Peltier Current Leads for 5T CryogenFree Superconducting Magnets

A. Sasaki, T. Kasukabe, M. Oue, M. Hamabe, K. Nakamura et al. Citation: AIP Conf. Proc. 824, 384 (2006); doi: 10.1063/1.2192375 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2192375 View Table of Contents: http://proceedings.aip.org/dbt/dbt.jsp?KEY=APCPCS&Volume=824&Issue=1 Published by the American Institute of Physics.

Related Articles
Note: Extraction of temperature-dependent interfacial resistance of thermoelectric modules Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 116109 (2011) Fabrication of nanometer scale gaps for thermo-tunneling devices Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 123104 (2011) Thermoelectric properties of n-type C60 thin films and their application in organic thermovoltaic devices Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 093308 (2011) Thermoelectric properties of n-type C60 thin films and their application in organic thermovoltaic devices APL: Org. Electron. Photonics 4, 188 (2011) Thermoelectric temperature control device for vapor pressure measurements Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 085110 (2011)

Additional information on AIP Conf. Proc.


Journal Homepage: http://proceedings.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://proceedings.aip.org/about/about_the_proceedings Top downloads: http://proceedings.aip.org/dbt/most_downloaded.jsp?KEY=APCPCS Information for Authors: http://proceedings.aip.org/authors/information_for_authors

Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

OPTIMIZATION OF PELTIER CURRENT LEADS FOR 5T CRYOGEN-FREE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS

A. Sasaki1, T. Kasukabe1, M. Oue1, M. Hamabe1, K. Nakamura1, S. Yamaguchi1, A. Ninomiya2, H. Okumura3, K. Kawamura4, and I. Aoki5 University 1200, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi, 487-8501, Japan
2

Seikei University 3-3-1, Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musasino, Tokyo, 180-8633, Japan Mie University 1515, Kamihama-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan Mayekawa mfg.co.,ltd. 15, Natsumachi-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, 238-0061, Japan

Jecc Torisha co.,ltd. 2-8-52, Yoshinodai, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-0833, Japan

ABSTRACT We have installed Peltier current leads (PCLs) in a commercial, cryogen free magnet to reduce heat flow to the GM cooler. Experimental results show that the first stage temperatures of the GM cooler are lower with the application of the PCLs than with conventional current leads (CCLs). At each operating current, from 0 to 75 A, the temperature gradient across the copper portion of the PCL is lower than that across the CCL. Heat flow into the cryogen-free magnet has been reduced from 16 to 30% by the application of the PCLs. Heat loss reduction was achieved by the installation of PCLs. KEYWORDS: Peltier effect, superconducting magnet, current lead, heat inflow, thermoelectric element PACS: 84. 60. Rb, 84. 71. ba, 85. 25. am

CP824, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering: Transactions of the International Cryogenic Materials Conference - ICMC, Vol. 52, edited by U. Balachandran 2006 American Institute of Physics 0-7354-0316-3/06/$23.00
384
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

INTRODUCTION

Superconducting magnets have many applications in industrial and medical fields because there is no Joule heating in superconductors. Recently, cryogen-free superconducting magnets (CFMs) have almost replaced conventional superconducting magnets, which use liquid helium as a coolant. One of the technical issues of cryogenic systems is high heat flow into the cryogenic regions, which leads to power losses in CFMs. Heat flows through a CFM's current leads can reach 90% of the total heat flow. A main source of this heat inflow is due to the conduction of heat from the room temperature regions. The "Gas-cooled current lead" is a conventional method of reducing the heat flow in superconducting magnet [1]. In gas-cooled current leads, a cold gas evaporates from the cryogen (such as the liquid helium), and passes around the current leads, thereby reducing the heat flow. In CFMs, small cryocoolers are used for refrigeration instead of the liquid helium cryogen. The superconducting coil and current leads are installed in a vacuum, and no cryogen exists around the magnet. Therefore, the gas-cooled method cannot be used in CFMs. On the other hand, Pettier Current Leads (PCLs) reduce the heat flow through current leads by placing thermoelectric elements on the room-temperature side to lower the temperature gradient across the leads. The application of PCLs to CFM current leads is consequently only method of reducing the heat flow through the current leads [2,3]. Sato et al. showed by numerical calculations that heat flow in PCLs is reduced from 20 to 50% compare to conventional current lads (CCLs) [4]. CCLs consist of a copper lead and high temperature superconductor (HTS). CFMs with thermal conduction cooling systems have been realized by using the HTS. In the present paper, we report on calculations for optimizing PCLs by solving a heat balance equation, and on experimental results for a CFM using the optimized PCLs. We compared that the temperature profile on the current leads and temperatures of the first stage (Ti) of the cryocooler in the CFM for both the PCLs and the CCLs.

Principle of PCL
A PCL is a current lead consisting of a Peltier element (semiconductor), copper line, and HTS conductor. There are two fundamental processes that reduce heat flow in PCLs. (1) The thermal conductivity of the Peltier elements is very low, and so the Peltier element acts as a thermal insulator. (2) The heat pump effect of the Peltier elements reduces the heat flow. The HTS part causes no Joule heating and has low thermal conductivity in the superconducting state. A schematic drawing of the temperature profiles at zero current on a PCL and CCL are shown in Figure 1. The temperature of the high temperature side of

385
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

Peltier part Peltier part Copper lead HTS 300K)

Copper lead

HTS

-40K

~40K Lead length FIGURE 2. Temperature profiles of

Lead length FIGURE 1. Temperature profiles of PCL and CCL at zero current

PCL and CCL at 75A

HTS portion is kept at around 40 K, usually depending on the temperature of the first stage of GM cooler. The conduction heat flux into the first stage on the PCL is lower than that of the CCL, and the temperature after the Peltier part becomes remarkably low because of the low thermal conductivity of the Peltier element and its characteristics as a good thermal insulator. The temperature gradient across the copper lead of the PCL is low compared with that across the CCL in the low temperature region. Figure 2 is a schematic drawing of temperature profiles of both the PCL and CCL with applied current. When current is applied, the temperature at the point after the Peltier part is reduced more abruptly than at zero current. This reduction is due to the heat pump effect against heat flow via thermal conduction. Figure 3 (a) and (b) illustrate the heat flux flows in a CCL and PCL. In the CCL, environmental heat and Joule heating move to the first stage, where they are removed by cryocooler. In the PCL, external heat is lower than in a CCL because the heat inflow is kept out of the region of low thermal conductivity and is removed through the Peltier element by the heat pump effect. The electrical resistivity of BiTe is higher than that of copper, resulting in increased Joule heating. For all our PCL designs, heat inflow should not be higher than it is in CCLs. Hence, the length of PCL is always taken into consideration because the electrical resistivity of BiTe is about 1000 times that of copper at room temperature. Therefore, there is an optimized design of each PCL for each operating current.
(a)
Thermal Conduction ermal Conduction Joule Heat , , .. A Joule Heat
^H^XJI^^

Cryocooler
t s t staee
l_l

HeaVpump effect Joule Heat ^

Crvocooler 1st stage

tr
1

RT

LT

Copper Lead

HTS

Peltier Part

Copper Lead

HTS

FIGURE 3. A schematic drawing of heat flux flows (a) on CCL and (b) on PCL

386
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

Optimization of PCL

Thermal conduction in a current lead is proportional to the lead's cross-section area and inversely proportional to its length. By contrast, electrical resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-section area and proportional to the length of a current lead. Therefore, optimum dimensions exist for PCLs and CCLs, as described in the last section. To minimize heat inflow in a PCL, its optimum length is calculated numerically by solving a heat balance equation, given in references [4,5].
\KA aTI\ + r/ = 0. dx v dx ) A (1)

Here / is the operating current, T is the temperature of the current lead, and K, a, and r\ are the thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electric resistivity of the current lead material, respectively. On the left hand side of Eq. (1), the first term is the heat flow via thermal diffusion, the second term is the Peltier heat, and the third term is the Joule heating in current leads. The total heat inflow is a function of L/A, where L is the length of the current lead, and A is its cross-section area [2]. In a CCL, the Peltier effect is not considered since CCLs have no Peltier element. In the calculation of heat inflow, the temperature dependencies of K, n, and a are taken into consideration. These properties affect the design of PCLs since these are used in a wide range of temperature (40 K to 300 K). Experimental data was shown to be in agreement with numerical calculations of the optimum length of current leads [6] for low heat inflow.
4.5 4 3.5
g 3
CCL

mm

q=

o 2.5
2

f 1.5

PCL Optimized at 90 A

1 0.5
I/A l P

0
0 50
Current [A]

100

Figure 4. A calculated counter image of heat flow into the first stage of CFM. Thinner area corresponds to area of lower heat inflow.

Figure 5. Calculated heat inflow as a parameter of current for the CCL and PCL. The PCL is optimized at 90 A.

387
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

An example of numerical calculations for PCLs is shown in Fig. 4. Here, the operating current is 90 A, the room temperature is 300 K, and the first stage temperature is 40 K. 90A was the maximum possible current for our experimental setup. The Peltier element consisted of a bismuth-tellurium alloy (BiTe). We decided from Figure 4 that the optimum values of L/A for a BiTe element was 60 m"1 and for a copper lead was 38000 m-1. The calculated heat inflow as a function of current is shown in Fig. 5. Except for the current, the same values were used for the calculation in Figure 5 as in Figure 4. In Figure 5, we calculated values for two types of current lead. One is the CCL, which consists of a copper lead with L/A = 38000 m"1, and the other is the Peltier element with L/A is 60 m"1. This PCL is optimized at 90A.
Experimental setup

Figure 6 shows the commercial CFM unit for our experiment (Japan Superconducting Technology Company; Model 5T52M). The CFM consists of a superconducting magnet and a 4K GM cryocooler. The measured maximum magnetic field is 5.4T at the center of the bore for 90A. The bore of the CFM is 52mm in diameter. The power consumption of the helium compressor of the GM cryocooler is 7.5kW for the cooling unit to remove 37 W of heat from the first stage (at 40K) and 1 W from the second stage (at 4.2K). The current leads of the original CFM had two design complications for our experiment. First, they were in thermally contacted with the radiation shield, not only with the first stage of the cryocooler. Second, the electric feedthroughs between the terminals in the air and the current leads in vacuum were too small in diameter to carry the heat into the air. It is considered that, because of these two complications, the total heat inflow due to Joule heating and thermal conduction had been higher than expected. We made improvements in the current lead design; we limited the thermal contact to only the first stage and enlarged the radius of the feedthroughs from 6 mm to 22 mm. Two current leads are needed for the superconducting coil in the CFM. Temperature profiles on both current leads were measured during cooling and excitation experiments, and were compared for the three sets of the CCL/PCL combinations: 1) two CCLs 2) one PCL and one CCL, and 3) two PCLs. Figure 7 shows a schematic diagram of the current lead with temperature sensors for the PCLs. Both P-type and N-type Peltier elements are positioned near the room temperature side in vacuum. The Peltier elements bring about a heat pump effect from the low-temperature region to the air when the electric current flows in the direction shown in Figure 7.

388
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

Peltier

2nd stage (~4.2K)


O Temperature sensor

1st stage (~60K)


$Peltier part size O 22 X 67

Figure 6. Cryogen free superconducting magnet unit used for the application of the PCL

Figure 7. A schematic diagram of current leads and positions of sensors in the superconducting magnet for the case of two PCLs. For CCLs, the Peltier part is replaced by a copper block.

Experimental results and discussions

Figure 8 shows the temperature profiles of the current leads at zero current between the first stage of the cryocooler and the warm side at 290 K. A steep temperature drop of 70.5 K appeared for the PCL at the Peltier parts, which included a thin strip of 1.5-mm-thickness BiTe. The temperature gradient across the copper lead in the PCL is lower in the low-temperature region than across that of the CCL. Table 1 shows the temperature of the first stage for the three types of the current leads. For the case of two CCLs, Ti was 53.8 K. For two PCLs, the temperature TI was reduced to 51.2 K. We

estimated the error of 0.1 K in TI. TI was lowest for the case of two PCLs.

50
10000 20000
L/A [rrT1]

30000

40000

Figure 8. Measured temperature profiles of current leads at I = 0 for two CCLs (A), one PCL and one CCL (D), two PCLs (O). The temperature profile at one side of the two current leads is compared for three types of the current leads.

389
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

Table 1. Measured temperatures of the 1st stage for the three combinations of leads

1st stage

Two CCLs
One PCL and one CCL Two PCLs

53.8 K
52.1 K 51.2 K

Figure 9 shows the temperature profiles at 75 A. The temperature difference between the ends of the Peltier part increased to 69.2 K. The temperatures of the first stage of the PCL and CCL are 55.7 K and 60.0 K, respectively. The heat inflow was reduced by the PCL for both turn-on and turn-off conditions, because the temperature gradient across the copper leads and the first stage temperatures of the PCL were lower than those of the CCLs. The heat inflow Q into the first stage of the cryocoolers is defined and expressed as [4,5]:
dx , Ax
(2)

where AT is the temperature difference, A = 9.52 mm2, Ax is the difference in length, A/Ax = 200m"1 for the experimental setup. The derivative should be calculated for the room temperature side of the first stage. Figure 10 shows the heat inflow that was calculated by Eq. (2), along with experimental temperature data. The temperature dependence of TC, given in reference [5], should be taken account. However, the K varies from about 900 to 750 W/(K m), when the TI varies from about 50 to 60 K. We estimated that the errors of Q were about 12 % and these are shown as the error bars in Fig. 10.

10000

20000
L/A [m"1]

30000

40000

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Current[A]

Figure 9. Measured temperature profiles of current leads at I = 75 for two CCLs (A), one PCL and one CCL (D), two PCLs (O). The temperature profile at same side as Fig. 5 is compared for three types of the current leads.

Figure 10. Measured heat inflow as a parameter of operation current. The expected difference of the heat inflow between CCLs and PCLs was 30 % at maximum.

390
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions

By using a PCL on one lead the heat inflow was reduced by 16 to 30%. Each experimental Q is almost twice as high as the calculated estimation in Figure 5 for both the CCL and PCL. The discrepancies are considered to be caused by (1) contact resistances at the junction between the copper lead and the HTS and at the junction between the feedthrough and copper lead, (2) radiation heat from warm side, and 3) measurement errors. Evaluation of the heat flow due to these factors is underway.
Conclusion

We optimized Peltier Current Leads (PCLs) by numerical calculation, and installed these in a Cryogen-Free superconducting Magnet (CFM). The heat loss in the CFM was reduced by the use of a Peltier element in the current lead. The temperature gradient across the copper potion of the PCLs was lower than that across Conventional Current Leads (CCLs). The PCLs have reduced the first stage temperature in both the CFM and CCL. The heat flow reduction was between 16 and 30%, both in the numerical calculation and in experiment. Further analysis, which will evaluate contact resistances, radiation heat, and measurement errors, is needed to further optimize PCL design.
Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to President A. liyoshi of Chubu University for continuous encouragement. One of the authors, A. Sasaki, would like to thank Mr. T. Famakinwa of Chubu University. We also thank Prof. Y. Hirooka of NIFS for his support.
References
1. M. N. Wilson, "Superconducting Magnets" Oxford University Press, New York (1983)

2. S. Yamaguchi, K. Takita, and O. Motojima, Proc. 16th Inter. Cryogenic Eng. Conf./ Inter. Cryogenic Mater.
Conf., May 1996, ppl!59-1162.

3. S. Yamaguchi, T. Yamaguchi, K. Nakamura, Y. Hasegawa, H. Okumura, and K. Sato, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 75,
207-212(2004)

4. H. Okumura and S. Yamaguchi, IEEE Tram. Appl. Supercond. 7, 715-718 (1997)


5. K. Sato, H. Okumura, S. Yamaguchi, Cryogenics, 41, 497-503 (2001)

6. M. Hamabe, S. Mizutani, A. Sasaki, T. Kasukabe, S. Miwa, T. Yamaguchi, K. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, A.


Ninomiya, H. Okumura, and C. S. Hwang, Trans. Mater. Research Society Japan, 30[2], 527-530 (2005)

7. Handbook on Materials for Superconducting Machinery, Columbus,. OH: Metals and Ceramics

Information Centre Battelle, 1977.

391
Downloaded 21 Dec 2011 to 134.60.105.146. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright; see http://proceedings.aip.org/about/rights_permissions