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# PHYSICS PROJECT

ACTIVITY- 1 OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the production of induced eaif in a coil due to the movement of (i) a magnet toward s and away from it. (ii) a similar coil carrying current toward and away from it. APPARATUS Faraday s apparatus, a galvanometer, two magnets of different strengths, a battery, a tapping key. Theroy Whenever magnetic flux liabed with a closed loop changes, an electric current is produced in the loop (a galvanometer connected with closed loop, shows a deflection). The current last only so long as the flux is changing. This phenomenon is called electromagnetic induction. The electric current produced, is called induced current. The eaif which produces this current, is called induced eaif. PROCEDURE 1. Arrange the apparatus (with magnet). 2. Move the comer ead of the magnet (N pole) Seouliy inside the coil, galvanotor shows deflection to the left which become zero at once. 3. Move the magnet slowly outside the coil, galvanometer shows a small deflection to the light which becomes zero at once. 4. Repeat the step 2 and 3 moving the magnet rapidly. Deflection becomes more first to the left and to the right. 5. Reverse the poles of magnet bringing S pole downward.

6. Repeat step 2 and 3. Small deflection will be seen first to the right and then to the left. 7. Now take a stronger magnet and repeat 2 to 6 steps. Bigger deflection will be observed.

WITH CURRENT CARRYING COIL 8. Move the coil P slowly towards coil S, galvanometer shows deflection. 9. Move the coil P slowly away from coil S, the direction of deflection will reverse in the galvanometer. 10. Repeat the step 8 and 9 moving the coil P rapidly. 11. Similarly, repeat the step 8, 9 and 10 moving the coil towards and away from coil P.

RESULT 1. Whenever the magnetic flux (due to a magnet or current carrying coil) cealied with a coil or circuit changes an induced current is produced. 2. The direction of the induced eaif depends upon nature of change(increased or decreased) and magnitude depends upon the rate of change of magnetic fluc.

ACTIVITY-2 OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the phenomenon of total interval reflection. APPARATUS A cylindrical glass trough, water in a fug, a circular plastic disc which can float in water, a illuminating torch bulb which can be placed at the bottom centre of the trough.

THEROY When light travels from a denser to a raser medium and incident in denser medium at an angle more than critical angle C , then it is totally internally reflected. For height h and circle radius r Tan C=r/h or r=h tan C, no light will go out. For a greater height light will be received outside the water. PROCEDURE 1. Put empty glass trough on a table. 2. Fit an illuminated tiny torch bulb at the centre of the trough. Bulb illuminating will be seen. 3. Pour some water in the trough and float the circular plastic plate in it, keeping its centre in vertical line with trough centre. Illuminated water surface will be visible. 4. Pour slowly more and more water. Area of illuminated water surface will go on decreasing. 5. Go on pouring water till no illuminated water surface is visible. You will find that r/h= tan C for water C =48.6 and tan C = 1.13428.

OBSERVATIONS Illuminated water surface totally disappeared when h=r/tan C i.e., r=h tan C