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Automation in clinical chemistry Laboratory

. 13/01/53 Zz .. zZ
Intro.





automated analyzers
save time & staffs

Definition

Automation


Mechaniczl device ~ manual




Development



semi-automation autopipette / dispenser /
mixer / diluter / spectrophotometer



Fully-automation
1957 Dr.Leonard Skeggs Automate
AutoAnalyzer (AA)
Automate

Terminology ()

Complete(full) automation :

step ,
mix,incubate,,report
Partial(semi-) automation :


Single-channel : (1 ) 1 test
Multi-channal : () 1 test

Sequential(serial) analysis : sample

Discretionary multi-channal : Sequential+ Multi-channal


sample channal
channal
Parallel analyzer : test 1 sample

Batch analysis : test test


sample (clear test) test
Random-access : sample test (clear
sample) sample
Selective analyzer : 1 test

Non-selective : 1 test
test sample


electrolyze, blood gas
Dead volume : sample volume
Dwell time :
sample

Throughput : test sample 1 hour


Test repertoire : test run 1 ..

Sensing :
spectro, photometer

Stat testing :
Cost : ..
std.,control,
Analyzer configuration :

Open system :

Closed system :
..
Centralized testing : /
lab s ample

Point-of-care testing(POCT) :
test b
edside

POCT

.. lab
..
whole blood


, calibrate

..

automated : 2

Continuous-flow ( slide 12 6)

test


test
test
sample

.. 1 = 1 test
heating incubate
Discrete-flow (
slide 1 3 7)
sample

Discrete analyzer 2

Centrifugal analyzer ( slide 15 8)


mix specimen reagent ..

Dry chemistry analyzer (


slide 1 6 8)
..

..



( manual automate slide 1 7 9)
Sampler
Mixer
(mixing coil)

(mechanical mixer)

Dialyzer, resin column

Heating bath or block ..


( )

Detector



flow-though spectrophotometer, fluorometric, fleme photometer
Recorder, Printer, Computer

Automate of the analytical processes : 11


Specimen identification
lebeling
sample tray
bar coding bar code bar code reader
identification errors error sample
Specimen preparation manual
automate specimen whole blood
electrolyze, blood gas
centrifugation

.. 55
Specimen delivery

.. specimen
hemolysis

human
messenger

Specimen handling & transport specimen


primary tubes tube tube
.. 1 sample 1 tube
..
gel
sample cup cup
contaminate clot
Specimen processing
dialysis column chromatography filtration

Sample transport & delivery specimen


Continuous-flow pump & tube
Discrete systems auto pipette
Carryover pipette sample

flush-to-specimen ratio = 1:4, Carryover 1% .. sample/reagent volume


1:4 (?)
probe-wash station .. tip
outside probe-wipe .. Carryover
Reagent handling & storage .. open close
system

liquid reagent systems .. reagent probe


dry reagent systems ..
non-liquid reagent systems
reusable liquid reagent systems
Reagent delivery automate ..
sample
Chemical reaction phase
vessel & cuvet

reactants




heat block

water bath

Measurement approaches
photometry

Signal processing, data handling, process control
computer

..

sample test
throughput .. ..
Stat capability .. stat

Method .. basic?
photometry
..

test....
..
..
..

Computer compatibility.. com.


..

Automatic deproteinization
iden. Sample ..
.. test
automate (
)

user , automated analyzer

Trend

..fully automated

Maintenance

Daily :
Weekly :
Monthly :

Yearly :

Parameter setting : open system

leaflet.. + autoanalyzer..

Beckman CX4
..
.. endpoint kinetic
.. IU/L, mg/dl, g/L

.. positive( product ),
negative( substrate ) leaflet
Cal factor
calibrater conc. calibrator

linear
cal time limit cal factor calibrate

2
1wavelength 2
wavelength

test
read time blank(
OD. ) reaction(
)
lower & upper limit
Absorbance limit : blank( ) &
reaction .. lower & high limit

Substrate depletion
kinetic assay

!!
..

.. 555