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About Thomson Petersons


Thomson Petersons (www.petersons.com) is a leading provider of education information and advice, with books
and online resources focusing on education search, test preparation, and financial aid. Its Web site offers
searchable databases and interactive tools for contacting educational institutions, online practice tests and
instruction, and planning tools for securing financial aid. Thomson Petersons serves 110 million education
consumers annually.

Petersons.com/publishing
Check out our Web site at www.petersons.com/publishing to see if there is any new information regarding the test
and any revisions or corrections to the content of this book. Weve made sure the information in this book is
accurate and up-to-date; however, the test format or content may have changed since the time of publication.

For more information, contact Thomson Petersons, 2000 Lenox Drive, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648;
800-338-3282; or find us on the World Wide Web at www.petersons.com/about.
2004 Thomson Petersons, a part of The Thomson Corporation
Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.
Chapter 5: GRE Word List is excerpted from The Insiders Guide to the GRE CAT.
2nd Edition, by Karl Weber. Petersons, 2002.
Editor: Mandie Rosenberg; Production Editor: Megan Hellerman; Manufacturing
Manager: Ray Golaszewski; Composition Manager: Gary Rozmierski; Cover and
Interior Design: Allison Sullivan; CD Producer: Carol Aickley; CD Quality
Assurance: Jeff Pagano.
Contributing Writer: Keith Cox
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein
may be reproduced or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or
information storage and retrieval systemswithout the prior written permission of
the publisher.
For permission to use material from this text or product, submit a request online
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ISBN 0-7689-1432-9
Printed in the United States of America
10

6 5

06

05

04

First Edition

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Contents
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1
ABOUT
THIS TOOL KIT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V 2
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2
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Your Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v 2
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2
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Structure of the GRE CAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
vii 2
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1
INTRODUCTION
..............................
1 2
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Does This CAT Have Claws? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 2
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The Unique Petersons ApproachAdaptive
2
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2
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Preparation for an Adaptive Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 2
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2
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2
1
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1
HOW
TO USE THIS BOOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 2
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1
PART
I: UNDERSTANDING THE GRE
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2
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Chapter
1:
Everything
You
Need
to
Know
about
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1
the
GRE
CAT
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Chapter
2:
Section
Strategies
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PART
II: DIAGNOSING STRENGTHS AND
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WEAKNESSES
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Chapter
3:
Diagnostic:
Dipping
Your
Big
Toe
in
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1
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the GRE Waters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32 2
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PART
III: SECTION REVIEW
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Chapter
4:
Quantitative
Review.
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Take
It
to
the
Next
Level.
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1 Chapter 5: Verbal Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 2
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 2
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Chapter
6:
Analytical
Writing
Review.
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Take It to the Next Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 2
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PART
IV: THREE PRACTICE GREs
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1
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Chapter 7: Preface to Practice Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . 256 2
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Practice
Test
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Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 2
2
1
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Practice
Test
2
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Answers and Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 2
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iii

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Practice Test 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 2
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Answers
and
Explanations
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Chapter 8: Closing Remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 2
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PART
V:
APPENDIX
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About
the
CAT
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1
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iv
www.petersons.com

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About This Tool Kit


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2
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2
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2
1 Tools
Your
2
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2
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Petersons
Ultimate
GRE
Tool
Kit
provides
the
complete
package
you
2
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2
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need
to
score
your
personal
best
on
the
GRE
and
get
into
your
top-choice
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program. Unlike any book previously published, this tool kit contains 2
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many features that used to be available only to those who purchased 2
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2
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2
1 expensive test-prep classes.
2
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2
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2
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e-Tutoring
2
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Use the CD to go on line to register for one-on-one math help from a live 2
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expert whenever you need it. Tutoring is offered using an on-line 2
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whiteboard shared by you and the tutor, which allows you to communi- 2
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2
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1 cate with one another in real time. However, if you prefer, you can submit 2
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your math question in writing instead and receive a written answer within 2
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2
1 24 hours.
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The free tutoring offered with this product is limited to 30 minutes, 2
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2
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although
you
may
purchase
more
time
if
you
need
it.
A
written
response
to
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a
submitted
question
counts
as
20
minutes.
The
tutoring
service
is
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1 available for six months from the date you register on line. Note: The 2
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e-tutoring service offered to purchasers of this 2005 edition will expire on 2
2
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2
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January 1, 2006.
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This service is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week for most of the 2
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1 year. During the summer the service is available from 9 a.m. to 1 a.m. 2
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Eastern Standard Time. Due to low demand, the service is not available 2
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during several holiday periods, including Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter, 2
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2
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Labor Day, and Memorial Day.
2
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1 Remember, to register for this service, you will need the CD that 2
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accompanies this book. You will also need to refer to this book to provide 2
2
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2
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the
access
code
when
prompted.
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v

http://www.xtremepapers.net

About This Tool Kit

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2
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2
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Essay Scoring
2
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2
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The
CD
that
accompanies
this
book
allows
you
to
write
2
practice
test
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essays on line and receive a score for each of them, which approximates 2
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your performance on the essays in the actual GRE. In addition to a score, 2
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you will also receive constructive feedback on your essays, including tips 2
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to improve your score.
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With this tool kit, you get scoring for 2 practice test essaysone analysis 2
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2
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of an issue and one analysis of an argument. If you wish, for a fee, you may 2
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2
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obtain scoring information and feedback for additional practice essays 2
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2
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you write on line.
2
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1 Note: Your practice test essays will be scored by a computer, but on the 2
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2
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actual
GRE
test,
the
essays
are
scored
by
a
combination
of
a
computer
2
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2
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program
and
a
human
reader.
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To register for the essay-scoring service you need the CD that accompanies 2
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this book. In addition, you will need to refer to this book to provide the 2
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1 access code when prompted. Note: The scoring of 2 essays is offered free 2
2
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to purchasers of the 2005 edition and this offer will expire on December 2
2
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2
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31, 2005.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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Computer-Adaptive Tests on CD
2
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2
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The
actual
GRE
is
a
computer-adaptive
test
(CAT)the
test
questions
you
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1 see depend on your performance on previous questions. On the CD-ROM, 2
2
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2
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which
accompanies
this
book,
you
receive
3
practice
GMAT
CATs
that
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
carefully reproduce the experience you can expect on test day. The 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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additional 3 practice tests in the book can be used for further practice.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
vi 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

About This Tool Kit

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2
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2
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STRUCTURE OF THE GRE CAT
2
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2
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2
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Test
Section
Number
of
Questions
Time
Allotted
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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Computer-Based General Test
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Analytical Writing 2 writing tasks
75-minute section
2
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2
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2
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Present Your Perspective 45 minutes
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
on an Issue
2
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2
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Analyze
an
Argument
30
minutes
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Verbal
30 questions
30-minute section
2
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2
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Quantitative
28
questions
45-minute
section
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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Paper-Based General Test
2
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2
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Analytical
Writing
2
writing
tasks
75-minute
section
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1
2
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Present Your Perspective 45 minutes
2
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2
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on
an
Issue
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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Analyze an Argument
30 minutes
2
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Verbal
30 questions
30-minute section
2
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2
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Quantitative
28 questions
45-minute section
2
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1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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1
2
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2
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2
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2
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1
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 vii
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Introduction
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Does
This CAT Have Claws?
2
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2
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Unless
youve
been
living
as
a
hermit
in
a
hut
for
the
past
twenty
years,
2
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2
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chances
are
good
you
have
already
taken
at
least
one
standardized
test
in
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your lifetime. And we bet the list of tests you might have taken reads like a 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
bowl of alphabet soup: SAT, ACT, ITBS, TAAS, MAT, and the PSAT/ 2
2
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2
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1 NMSQT, to name just a few. Standardized tests such as these have become 2
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a fixture of Americas educational system, and like them or not, they are 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not going away anytime soon. Students encounter them at every stage of 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
their educationlike toll booths on the academic highway. Students in
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
grade school get the ITBS or a similar exam. Teenagers hoping to enter 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
college must pass through the SAT or ACT Assessment toll booth. For
2
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those brave folks who wish to enter graduate school, the exit is labeled 2
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2
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2
1 GRE (Graduate Record Examination).
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1 If you have taken the SAT, you will already be somewhat familiar with the 2
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GRE. Both tests are administered by the same company. Each test is a 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
timed, multiple-choice exam that schools use as a factor when making 2
2
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1 enrollment decisions. Like the SAT, the GRE has a Quantitative (math) 2
2
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2
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section
and
a
Verbal
section,
and
many
of
the
questions
in
these
SAT
and
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1 GRE sections are similar in style. For example, there are analogy, sentence 2
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completions, and reading comprehension problems in the Verbal section of 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
both tests. Many of the math topics covered on the SATgeometry, 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
algebra, understanding charts and graphsmake an encore appearance on 2
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1 the GRE.
2
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2
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While these similarities exist, dont be fooled into thinking the GRE is 2
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2
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simply another SAT. The GRE is more like the SATs weird older brother. 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Although you can see some family resemblance, some big differences are 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pretty obvious as well. For example, both tests have analogy and sentence 2
2
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1 completions problems, but GRE questions are typically much harder, since 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 they employ a more advanced vocabulary. This is because the GRE
2
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2
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problems
assume
a
college-level
vocabulary,
while
the
SAT
questions
are
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 set at a lower, high school level. This is just one reason why the GRE can be 2
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1

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Introduction

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

X-Ref

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2
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seen as an older brother, since it is geared toward an older, college- 2
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2
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educated audience. The GREs weirdness comes from its unusual format. 2
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2
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The SAT remains a pencil-and-paper test, meaning students across the 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 country are still using chewed-up number 2 pencils to fiercely darken ovals 2
2
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2
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on
a
score
sheet.
In
contrast,
the
GRE
is
now
primarily
a
Computer
2
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2
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Adaptive
Test
(CAT),
so
all
questions
appear
onscreen
and
are
answered
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2
1
2
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by
using
a
mouse
to
click
on
an
answer
choice.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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There
are
still
some
places,
mostly
outside
of
the
United
States,
that
offer
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pencil-and-paper
versions
of
the
GRE.
For
more
information
about
these
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 exams, and about registering for the GRE in general, turn to the 2
2
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2
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Appendix.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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The GRE CAT is more than just a pencil-and-paper test transposed onto a 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
computer screen, and unless you have taken the GRE previously, it is 2
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1 unlikely you have ever experienced an exam like it. For one thing, the 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
method used to score the GRE CAT is radically different from most tests. 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Most exams start with easy questions, and then gradually progress to 2
2
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medium and harder problems. People taking this type of test might get the 2
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2
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easiest problem wrong but still manage to answer the toughest problem 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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correctly. In the end, the number of right answers is added up (regardless 2
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2
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of which question was answered right or wrong), and a score is eventually 2
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2
1 determined.
2
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2
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2
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On
the
GRE
CAT,
things
are
a
bit
different.
How
well
(or
not
well)
you
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answer each question determines the next question. In each section of the 2
2
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2
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test,
you
start
off
with
a
question
that
has
a
medium
difficulty
rating.
If
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you get it right, the computer says, Okay, Brainiac, you handled that one, 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
now try this tougher problem. If you get the next problem right, you get 2
2
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1 a harder question, and if you get that one correct, an even tougher 2
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question comes next. Depending on how you answer each question, the 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
computer adapts the next question to make it either harder or easier than 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the next one. The way the computer adapts your GRE experience will be 2
2
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different from what other GRE test-takers experience, so even though 2
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2
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youre all taking the same GRE CAT, youre not seeing the same problems 2
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2
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as everyone else. In the same way, if you get the first question wrong, youll 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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get an easier one. And if you get the easier questions wrong, youll see an 2
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2
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easier question.
2
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2
1
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2
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1 One consequence of the computer adaptive format is that getting a high 2
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score means handling only medium and hard questions. The more difficult 2
2
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2
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your
questions
are,
the
higher
your
score
potential,
and
vice
versa.
And
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
there
are
no
easy
questions
at
the
start
of
a
section
to
help
you
get
your
feet
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Introduction

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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wet. The first question will be somewhat difficult, and it may well be the 2
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2
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easiest problem you see on that section. In terms of your score, seeing only 2
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2
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medium and tough questions tells you that you are getting problems right, 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 which is good news. However, having to answer one challenging question 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
after
another
makes
the
testing
experience
a
really
nerve-wracking,
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
unpleasant
affair,
kind
of
like
visiting
a
dentist
who
holds
a
personal
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
grudge
against
your
gums.
2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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The
Unique
Petersons
ApproachAdaptive
2
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2
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Preparation
for
an
Adaptive
Test
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2
1
2
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Test preparation is not a one-size-fits-all proposition. Each person has 2
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2
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different strengths and weaknesses, different quirks and anxieties. We 2
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2
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designed Petersons Ultimate GRE Tool Kit with those differences in 2
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mind. We provide a two-tiered approach that lets you decide how best to 2
2
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2
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organize
your
program
of
study
to
suit
your
needs.
The
first
tier
is
the
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1 general instruction in this book, and it provides skills and strategies you
2
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2
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will
need
to
handle
medium-level
questions
on
each
section.
You
then
have
2
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an opportunity to Take It to the Next Level, and learn skills and strategies 2
2
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2
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for
the
hardest
questions
on
the
GRE.
No
other
GRE
test-preparation
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
book does this. Its the next best thing to having a personal tutor.
2
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1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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1
2
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2
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2
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2
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1
2
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2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

How to Use This Book


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2
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2
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How
do
you
know
where
to
begin?
We
give
you
a
roadmap.
After
you
read
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2
1
2
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Chapters 1 and 2 required reading for all GRE CAT takers, no matter 2
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2
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whattake the diagnostic pretest in Chapter 3. Use the scoring discussion 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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provided on pages 3233 to assess your current GRE CAT testing level. 2
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You can then either follow the suggested course of study we provide, or 2
2
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2
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design
your
own.
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2
1
2
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Your
personalized
Petersons
GRE
course
of
study
will
help
you
2
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2
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accomplish
four
things:
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1. You will become thoroughly familiar with the computer adaptive 2
2
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2
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test format.
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2
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2. You will be comfortable with all question types you will 2
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2
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encounter on the three sections of the test.
2
1
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2
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3. You will brush up on any weak subject areas.
2
1
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4. You will learn and practice specific test-taking strategies to help 2
2
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2
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you
achieve
your
target
score.
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2
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If you give yourself enough time to work through your personalized course 2
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2
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of study at a measured pace, you will accomplish all of these things.
2
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2
1
2
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Combining
relevant
factual
knowledge
with
a
sound
strategic
approach
is
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the best way to score well on any standardized test, not just the GRE. This 2
2
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2
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book
will
provide
you
with
the
facts
and
strategies
you
need
to
succeed
on
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 the GRE. The first step is to learn about the computer adaptive format, 2
2
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2
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covered
in
the
next
chapter.
So,
lets
get
started.
2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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4

http://www.xtremepapers.net

PART

Understanding the GRE


Everything You Need to Know
about the GRE CAT 6
Section Strategies

19

PART I
http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter

1
Everything You Need to
Know about the GRE CAT

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2
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2
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Once
upon
a
time,
people
who
wanted
to
take
the
GRE
(Graduate
Record
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Examination) and go to graduate school had to take a paper-and-pencil 2
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test much like the SAT they had to take to get into college. They had to 2
2
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2
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show
up
at
a
test
center
early
on
a
Saturday
morning
with
dozens
of
other
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1 prospective grad students, all with their number 2 pencils sharpened, ready 2
2
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2
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to
fill
in
a
lot
of
answer
sheet
bubbles
and
spend
pretty
much
the
entire
2
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2
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morning slogging through the test.
2
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That was before the CAT (Computer Adaptive Test) came along and 2
2
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2
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changed everything. . . .
2
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2
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No more number 2 pencils, no more answer bubbles; the GRE world 2
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1 changed. Like anything new, of course, the GRE CAT takes some getting 2
2
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2
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used to. Most students have taken countless paper-and-pencil tests, but 2
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2
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few have taken a high-stakes standardized test in a computerized format. 2
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In this chapter, well help you get a grip on the world of computer adaptive 2
2
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2
1 testing.
2
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2
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2
1
2
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Why
the
GRE
CAT
Rocks!
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No one likes taking a big test and having to wait, and wait, and wait for 2
2
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2
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the
results.
The
time
between
finishing
the
test
and
getting
your
score
fills
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1 you with conflicting emotions. You might be confident one moment and 2
2
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2
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filled
with
despair
the
next.
The
doubt
and
uncertainty
wont
go
away
2
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2
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until
you
finally
get
your
scores
in
the
mail,
so
the
issue
goes
unresolved
for
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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about a month.
2
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the GRE CAT, waiting for your score is a thing of the past. Once you 2
2
1 With
finish
your test, you have the option to cancel your score. If you decide not 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 to cancel, your Quantitative and Verbal scores appear on the screen. Voila! 2
2
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2
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A
wait
of
six
weeks
reduced
to
the
time
it
takes
to
click
one
button.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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6

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Tip

Note

Chapter 1: Everything You Need to Know about the GRE CAT

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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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You
dont
receive
your
Analytical
writing
score
immediately,
since
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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two essays must be graded by professional readers. You should get your
2
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2
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Analytical
results
back
in
about
three
to
four
weeks.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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This
immediacy
is
the
prime
advantage
of
the
GRE
CAT.
It
lets
you
know
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
where
you
stand
in
terms
of
the
application
process
and
allows
you
to
plan
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 accordingly. Most schools release information about the average GRE 2
2
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2
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scores
of
their
incoming
graduate
students,
and
some
also
include
an
idea
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
about
the
range
of
scores
by
releasing
factoids
like,
Over
90%
of
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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incoming class of psychiatry students scored more than 600 on the GRE. 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If you wanted to go to that school, and you just received a combined 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Quantitative and Verbal score of 750, then you know your GRE score is 2
2
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2
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good enough to get into that program.
2
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2
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If
your
GRE
scores
are
not
as
high
as
you
wanted,
the
immediate
feedback
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 gives you a chance to shift to Plan B right then and there. You might decide
2
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2
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to
take
the
exam
again,
although
you
wont
be
able
to
do
so
for
at
least
one
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
calendar month. (You can take the GRE up to five times in a single year.) If 2
2
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2
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you
were
only
considering
extremely
competitive
schools,
you
might
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decide to broaden your search and look at some schools with more 2
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inclusive admissions standards. When your Analytical scores arrive, you 2
2
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2
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will
also
receive
a
form
you
can
use
to
report
your
scores
to
additional
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
schools. (You can download this from the GRE Web site.) Knowing your 2
2
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2
1 scores right away gives you a chance to react to them right away.
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The second big advantage to the GRE CAT is that you can schedule it for 2
2
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a convenient time. Other big standardized tests, like the business school 2
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2
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exam (GMAT) and the law school entrance exam (LSAT), are given at 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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fixed times on fixed dates at fixed locations. If any one of these three 2
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2
1 factors poses a problem for you, tough luck.
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This rigidity is not a problem for the GRE CAT. Most test centers are open 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
during
regular
business
hours,
and
all
you
have
to
do
is
call
one
up
and
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
decide
on
a
time
that
works
well
for
you.
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1 Before you schedule your actual GRE CAT, make sure you complete your
2
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personalized course of study with this book and take all the practice exams
2
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2
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we
provide.
At
that
point,
schedule
an
exam
for
two
weeks
in
the
future.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Use
the
two-week
interval
to
take
practice
CAT
exams
and
write
practice
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 esays using the CD-ROM included. Your skills will stay fresh and you will
2
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2
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be accustomed to taking the test on a computer.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

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2
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In addition to the flexible schedule and immediacy of the test results, you 2
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2
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can also send your scores to schools automatically by filling out the proper 2
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2
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computer form before the test.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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Why
the
GRE
CAT
Doesnt
Rock
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2
1
2
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No matter what the standardized test is, one fundamental truth always 2
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holds true: The more familiar you are with the test format, the better your 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 score will be. Familiarity with the test design allows you to focus more 2
2
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2
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attention
on
the
questions
themselves
and
expend
less
mental
effort
just
2
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2
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figuring
out
the
test
itself.
This
axiom
holds
true
whether
you
are
taking
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2
1
2
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the
MCAT
(medical
school
exam)
or
a
third
grade
math
and
reading
exam.
2
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2
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Now, answer this question: How many computer adaptive tests have you 2
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2
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taken in your lifetime?
2
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2
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Most people would answer none or one or two to the above question, 2
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2
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1 but the real answer is, not enough to be comfortable with them. The 2
2
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adaptive format is unusual, and this can work against your score. Most 2
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2
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people are already a little nervous about taking the GRE, and the added 2
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stress of having to tap dance with the three-legged wonder that is the GRE 2
2
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2
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CAT
only
makes
matters
worse.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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In addition to being stranger than a paper-and-pencil test, the GRE CAT is 2
2
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2
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riskier.
Heres
why:
2
1
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2
1
Typical Test
GRE CAT
What It Means
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Every question
Earlier questions are Minor mistakes at
2
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2
1
counts
the
same
weighted
more
the
beginning
have
2
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2
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toward
your
score.
than
later
ones.
greater
negative
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
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impact.
2
1
2
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You
can
skip
a
Must
answer
each
Limits
your
options
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2
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question that you
question presented.
regarding a tough
2
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2
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dont
understand.
You
cant
proceed
problem
you
dont
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2
1
to the next question understandyou
2
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2
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until
you
have
submust
guess.
2
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2
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mitted
an
answer
to
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2
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the current one.
2
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2
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Can go back and
Once the question is Adaptive format
2
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2
1
check
work
for
answered
and
verieliminates
the
abil2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
careless errors.
fied, its out of your ity to go back and
2
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2
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hands.
catch
any
mistakes.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 1: Everything You Need to Know about the GRE CAT

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2
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If the GRE CAT were a pencil-and-paper test, you could begin with the 2
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2
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easy questions and skip over any questions that were too tough for you on 2
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2
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the first pass. On a second pass, you could review your work to catch any 2
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1 careless mistakes, and devote time on those problems you skipped. This 2
2
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2
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sound
strategy
is
no
longer
available
to
you,
because
of
the
adaptive
nature
2
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2
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of
the
test.
Instead,
you
are
thrown
into
the
middle
of
the
fray,
and
how
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2
1
2
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well
you
answer
the
first
half
of
the
questions
posed
to
you
goes
a
long
way
2
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2
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toward
determining
your
score.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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This
doesnt
mean
the
adaptive
nature
will
invariably
lead
to
an
unfairly
2
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2
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low
score.
You
could
be
given
an
initial
set
of
questions
that
plays
right
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 into your hands, like a hard antonym that you just happen to know the 2
2
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definition of or a particular type of math problem youve always been 2
2
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good at. If thats the case, the weighted nature of the GRE CAT works to 2
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your advantage. Either way, the GRE CAT is a riskier test because many of
2
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the fail-safes you have on other standardized testsgetting easy problems 2
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2
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first, being able to go back over the entire section and not just one 2
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2
1 questionare not present on the GRE CAT.
2
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2
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2
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So,
yes,
you
get
your
score
back
super
early,
but
if
youre
not
ready
for
the
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adaptive format, it might not be the kind of score you want to get back 2
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2
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super early.
2
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Learning about the computer adaptive format will give you the opportu- 2
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2
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1 nity to eliminate many of the negative aspects of the CAT while keeping 2
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2
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the good ones, so the rest of this chapter is devoted to just that.
2
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2
1
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2
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2
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Putting
the Computer into the Computer
2
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2
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Adaptive
Test
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Take a moment and give an honest answer to the following question:
2
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2
1
2
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How would you describe your comfort level with computers?
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2
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In other words, do you feel your trusty laptop is like an extension of your 2
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2
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body, or do you believe that computers are little more than mutant 2
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2
1 typewriters determined to destroy the world? Take your time.
2
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2
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2
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Whichever
category
you
start
out
in,
by
the
time
you
take
the
GRE
CAT
2
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2
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you
need
to
be
completely
comfortable
navigating
through
a
computer
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test. If you start out already feeling good about computers, then it wont 2
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2
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1 take much time to get used to the commands used when taking the GRE 2
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2
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1 CAT. If youre closer to the mutant typewriter faction, then the amount 2
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of time needed to acclimate yourself will probably be much longer. Even if 2
2
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2
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that
is
the
case,
it
will
be
time
well
spent,
since
the
day
you
need
to
take
the
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2
1
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http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

10

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2
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test should be exclusively about answering GRE questions correctly and 2
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2
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not about learning how to move through a computer adaptive test.
2
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Before starting the GRE CAT, you go through a computer tutorial, which 2
2
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2
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goes
over
every
facet
of
the
onscreen
instructions
in
excruciating
detail.
2
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2
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You
could
wait
until
test
day
and
then
spend
1545
minutes
in
the
tutorial
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 familiarizing yourself with all the different instructions, but wouldnt you 2
2
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2
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rather
learn
the
instructions
beforehand
so
you
can
skip
the
boring
tutorial
2
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2
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and
get
right
to
the
actual
test?
The
goal
on
that
day
is
to
use
all
your
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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brainpower
to
take
a
GRE
CAT,
not
waste
time
and
mental
energy
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
learning
about
how
to
take
a
GRE
CAT.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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Be sure you go over this tutorial before taking any tests on that disk. 2
2
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Learning about the computer commands ahead of time is a valuable skill. 2
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2
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A tutorial similar to the one youll see on test day is contained on the CD 2
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2
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that came with this book. Or, check out the Appendix on page 332, which 2
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2
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goes over all the major screen commands, what they look like, what each 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 command means, and when they will appear. Be sure you understand all 2
2
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the different commands before you take the actual GRE CAT.
2
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2
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Now that weve talked about the instructions youll see on the computer, 2
2
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2
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lets
talk
about
the
computers
themselves.
You
know
those
computers
you
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see on every TV show, the ones with monstrous flat screens, dynamic 2
2
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2
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graphics,
and
blazing
computing
speed?
Those
are
NOT
the
computers
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2
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1 you will use to take the GRE CAT. Instead, the computer you will probably 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
use resembles the kind you find in a public library. It will be a no-frills, 2
2
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1 functional PC with an average keyboard, average mouse, average screen, 2
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2
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average everything, really.
2
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2
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Many people who work on computers for a long time make modifications 2
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2
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to their computers to maximize comfort. They might replace the regular 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mouse with a wireless trackball version designed to reduce carpal tunnel 2
2
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1 problems and place ultra-fine netting over their screen to reduce the glare. 2
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None of these modifications will be in place on the GRE computer, so if 2
2
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2
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you
are
someone
who
uses
modified
accessories,
you
have
two
options:
2
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2
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2
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1.
You
can
replace
your
nice
gear
with
the
basic
equipment
in
order
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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to simulate the real GRE experience.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2. You can use your nice gear at home but be aware that during the 2
2
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real test none of it will be there for you.
2
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2
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2
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Both
options
have
advantages.
Option
1
gives
you
greater
verisimilitude
(a
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 good GRE vocabulary word, by the way). If you want your computer 2
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practice to be as close to the real thing as possible, this is the plan for you. 2
2
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2
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On
the
other
hand,
if
you
understand
ahead
of
time
what
the
real
thing
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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will
be
like,
theres
no
reason
not
to
practice
in
a
way
thats
more
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 1: Everything You Need to Know about the GRE CAT

Alert!

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2
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physically or aesthetically comfortable. Ultimately, the type of computer 2
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2
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mouse you use wont be the deciding factor in your score, so this is not a 2
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2
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major point, but every little thing counts. Knowing what to expect and 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 planning for it is a good way to boost your confidence level going into 2
2
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2
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the
exam.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Before you register for the test by phone or computer, try to visit the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
actual
testing
site
ahead
of
timebefore
you
plunk
down
your
money.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Most testing sites are fine, but what if the testing site gives you a bad vibe
2
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2
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or
something?
Dont
go
there!
You
need
to
be
at
your
best
on
test
day,
so
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
make
sure
the
site
is
adequate
before
you
sign
up.
Once
you
call
and
get
a
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
time,
youre
locked
in,
and
even
if
you
cancel
the
appointment,
you
lose
a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
large
chunk
of
change.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
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The
Adaptive
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 To get a taste of what the computer adaptive format is like (without taking 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a test), rent a movie you know nothing about. Dont look at the cover or 2
2
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read any summary of the events of the film. Fast forward to the middle of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the film and begin watching at that point. After a few minutes, if you think 2
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2
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you understand whats going on, keep watching. If you start watching the 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
middle of the film and have no idea whats going on, go back about 20 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
minutes and start watching from that point. Move forward when the 2
2
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2
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movie
makes
sense,
and
rewind
when
it
doesnt.
Keep
watching
until
you
2
1
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2
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reach the end of the film.
2
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2
1
2
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You
have
just
watched
your
first
adaptive
movie.
Was
it
fun?
How
was
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
popcorn?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You probably dont watch movies this way on a regular basis, and you 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
dont take computer adaptive tests like the GRE every day, either. The 2
2
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danger is that the unusual format leads you to take the wrong approach to 2
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2
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the test. The chart on the following page lists some common mistakes 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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people make when taking the CAT.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 11
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

12

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Common Thinking
But Really . . .
2
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2
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2
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Tests
go
from
easy
to
GRE
CAT
problems
start
in
the
middle,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
hard problems.
and then go all over the place from there
2
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2
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depending on how you score.
2
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2
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Early
problems
on
the
GRE
play
a
greater
Work
at
a
consistent
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
role
in
determining
your
score
than
later
pace
to
have
a
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ones,
so
you
should
make
sure
to
spend
chance
to
answer
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
more time on the first 1015 problems.
every problem.
2
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2
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Even if this means you end up guessing on
2
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2
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the last five problems in a section because
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
you have no time left, your score will still
2
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2
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be better than if you rushed through the
2
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2
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first
questions.
Remember,
even
if
you
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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dont have time for the last few problems,
2
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2
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be
sure
to
guess.
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2
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If you have the necessary knowledge, then
If I study hard
2
1
2
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youll quickly find yourself mired in the
enough, the test
2
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2
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hardest
math
and
verbal
questions
the
should
be
easy.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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computer can dredge up. This means youre
2
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2
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heading
toward
a
good
score,
but
it
doesnt
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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mean the test will be easy. Unlike a pencil2
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2
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and-paper test with set easy, medium, and
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
hard problems, the computer will adapt to
2
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throw you the nastiest, toughest, most
2
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2
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convoluted
questions
it
has
to
offer.
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2
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2
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2
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On
many
standardized
tests,
people
rush
through
the
initial
easy
questions
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because they want to answer every problem. This impatience often leads to 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
careless errors at the beginning. This impatience is harmful on a regular test, 2
2
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1 but its deadly on the GRE CAT. The first 1015 questions you face on each 2
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section are the most crucial, and you should slow down and take as much as 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 minutes apiece if it will help you answer them correctly. As for the last 5 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions? If you dont have time for them, just guess. They are not as critical 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to your score. If you can get to them, its a bonus, but the real way to improve 2
2
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your score is to focus on the earlier questions to the best of your ability.
2
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2
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2
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Now
that
the
Slow
down
and
get
the
early
question
right
mantra
has
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
been beaten into your skull yet again, it might be a good time to clarify just 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
what
an
easy,
medium,
and
hard
question
looks
like.
Officially,
a
hard
2
1
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2
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1 problem is one that previous test-takers have seen and found to be very 2
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difficult to answer correctly. The official derivation of easy and 2
2
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2
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medium
also
comes
from
how
well
previous
test-takers
did
when
trying
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2
1
2
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to
answer
these
problems.
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

X-Ref

Chapter 1: Everything You Need to Know about the GRE CAT

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Yet these labels are all subjective, since everyone carries around a unique 2
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2
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knowledge set. You might have a knack for geometry, so a medium 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
geometry problem appears easy to you. The best way to get a feel for a 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 problems difficulty level is to look over samples of easy, medium, and 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hard
questions.
You
can
find
these
throughout
this
book,
and
you
can
also
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
th
go
right
to
the
source
and
purchase
The
Official
Guide
to
the
GRE,
10
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Edition,
by
the
Educational
Testing
Service.
This
roughly
$20
book
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
contains
a
host
of
old
pencil-and-paper
GREs
with
questions
arranged
in
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 old-timey easy/medium/hard order of difficulty. The exams are all over a 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
decade
old,
but
they
do
give
you
an
idea
of
what
constitutes
an
easy,
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
medium,
and
hard
problem.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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The
Official
Guide
is
a
good
place
to
work
on
sample
problems,
but
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
format has changed a lot since these test were issued, so dont bother
2
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2
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working the sections under timed conditions. Use the sample tests at the
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 back of this book for that, as they are geared toward the new exam.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The ability to determine easy, medium, and hard problems is a nice skill to 2
2
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have on the CAT, but it is not a crucial one. Dont spend any amount of 2
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2
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time looking at a problem and debating whether or not its a medium or 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hard one. Either way, its in front of you, so you have to work it one way or 2
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2
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another. But understanding what kind of problem you are looking at can 2
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1 help you avoid incorrect answer choices. For example, if you are taking the 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
math section and doing pretty well, youll notice the problems are getting 2
2
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2
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more
difficult.
Suddenly,
you
get
the
following
probability
question:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
There are seven tokens in a bag, labeled 8 through 14 consecutively. The
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
first number pulled out of the bag is 10. What are the odds that the next 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two numbers pulled out of the bag will BOTH be less than 10?
2
1
2
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1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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15
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
1
B.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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14
2
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2
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2
2
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C.
2
1
7
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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1
2
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D.
2
1
3
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
2
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E.
2
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5
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 13
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

http://www.xtremepapers.net

X-Ref

www.petersons.com

Note

14

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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
On the CAT exam, letters will not be used to designate choices, as each 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choice
will
simply
appear
on
the
screen
with
a
hollow
oval
next
to
it.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Obviously, the test-maker did not care that this lack of lettering would 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
make it hard on the poor souls who make a living writing test-prep 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
material. Throughout this book, all answer choices will have letters next 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to them so that they can be discussed without having to resort to phrases 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
like the second oval from the top or you know, the answer thats got 2
2
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the word hamster in it.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
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This is a medium difficult problem, something to keep in mind when 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 you look over the answer choices. If you try to figure this problem in your 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
head, you might think that there are two numbers less than 10 (8 and 9) 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and 7 tokens total, or 6 tokens now that the 10 has been removed. Choice 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(C) is (which is two tokens over 7 tokens, right), while choice (D) has 2
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7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 tokens 2 1
2
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5
5
.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6
tokens
6
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Both
of
these
answers
use
the
wrong
math,
but
they
are
also
too
easy.
If
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you know it is a medium difficult problem, how could the answer be so 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
simple
that
you
could
just
do
the
math
in
your
head?
Finding
choice
(C)
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
takes only 15 seconds and choice (D) takes only a bit longer than that. 2
2
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2
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When
you
find
the
answer
to
a
tough
problem
that
easily,
your
GRE
sixth
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1 sense should start tingling wildly, telling you that you are picking an 2
2
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2
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answer
that
is
so
easy
it
is
probably
incorrect.
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For this particular problem, eliminating incorrect answers is just as 2
2
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important as finding the correct choice. If you dont know how to do the 2
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math, eliminate choices (C) and (D) and take a guess. This gives you a 1 in 2
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2
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3 shot of choosing the right answer, which happens to be choice (A). Even 2
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2
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1 if you guessed wrong that time, you gave yourself a fighting chance by 2
2
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understanding the GRE CAT well enough to know which answer choices 2
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2
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were traps.
2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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The
math
regarding
this
problem
is
covered
on
pages
100101,
the
2
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2
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section
on
probabilities.
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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Chapter 1: Everything You Need to Know about the GRE CAT

Note

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2
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2
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The
Test
2
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2
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Use
the
following
checklist
to
prepare
for
the
day
you
take
the
actual
GRE:
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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2
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Items
to
Bring
to
the
GRE:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1. Good old picture I.D., preferably something legitimate like a 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
drivers license and not a badly laminated Honorary Member of 2
2
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2
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the
Justice
League
card.
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2
1
2
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2
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2.
Fruit
snack
or
something
light,
yet
filling,
like
nuts.
You
dont
2
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2
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want
to
eat
something
so
heavy
you
find
yourself
dying
for
a
nap.
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2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3. A bottle of water. Some would rather drown out the entire 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
experience, but this practice is frowned upon for a multitude of 2
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reasons.
2
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2
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4.
Overshirt
of
some
kind.
When
you
check
out
the
site
initially,
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you should get an idea of what the ambient temperature is like. 2
1
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Dress accordingly. The testing room is often rather small, just a 2
2
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2
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cubicle
farm
of
610
spaces.
Depending
on
how
many
people
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are taking tests next to you, the room can be either cold or 2
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warm, so the best advice is to start with light clothing with the 2
2
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2
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option of bundling up.
2
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5. A positive attitude. If thats asking too much, just dont bring a
2
1
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
negative one. Shoot for feeling relaxed and confident, since this 2
2
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1
disposition will help you stay sharp and focused on the task 2
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2
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at hand.
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Many test centers have a set of lockers just inside the testing room for you
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2
1 to keep valuables and whatever else you want. This is another thing you
2
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should look for when you are scouting out a GRE location.
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1 The tests sign-up process is a mixture of registering for a seminar and 2
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getting arrested. You have to write out a mini-essay claiming youll be a 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
good person and not sell your GRE secrets to a cheesy newspaper 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tabloidor anyone else for that matter. Then you sign in again, have 2
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2
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your identification checked, and get a mug shot taken . . . just in case. In 2
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2
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many locations, you are also filmed throughout the testing procedure. 2
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1 These actions are all part of the underlying theme of, Dont try 2
2
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2
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anything funny, bub.
2
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You have the option of wearing noise-blocking headphones while taking 2
2
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2
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the
GRE,
which
we
dont
recommended
unless
you
studied
for
the
GRE
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 15

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Alert!

16

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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wearing noise-blocking headphones. A little soundthe whir of the 2
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2
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computers fans, the hum of air-conditioningshould be the type of 2
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2
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background noise youre used to, and total silence can be a little freaky. 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Unless theres someone trying to cough up a lung next to you in the room, 2
2
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2
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skip
the
phones.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 At long last, you get in front of the computer, ready to get your GRE 2
2
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2
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groove
on.
Unfortunately,
the
meaty
portions
of
the
GRE,
i.e.,
the
sections
2
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2
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that
count,
are
still
a
long
way
off.
First
you
have
to
fill
out
a
basic
form
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2
1
2
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for
what
seems
like
the
umpteenth
time,
then
you
get
a
market
research
2
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2
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section
where
the
computer
asks
you
a
lot
of
basic
questions
like,
Why
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 are you taking this test? and Have you taken other standardized tests 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
before? Is the computer trying to hit on you, or is it just being nosy? Its 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
up to you to decide, but the fact is, youre stuck in that chair and you have 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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to answer all the questions before you can start taking the exam.
2
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2
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After
the
market
research
section,
you
get
another
section
asking
you
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2
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1 where you want the scores sent. You should have an idea of where you 2
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want to send your scores. If not, this section can take a while. Even if you 2
2
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2
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do
know
where
you
want
scores
sent,
scrolling
around
takes
awhile,
so
be
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2
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prepared to spend about 510 minutes futzing around in this section.
2
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Once you finish leaping through these hoops, the GRE begins . . . almost. 2
2
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2
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You
now
get
a
chance
to
go
through
the
tutorial
showing
how
to
navigate
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2
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1 the GRE CAT. Hopefully, you will already be very familiar with these 2
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commands, so you can just skip this section. Go through one of the 2
2
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1 tutorial lessons if you feel like it to reassure yourself, but this should not be 2
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necessary. Ideally, you can skip this entirely and get to whats important, 2
2
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the test itself.
2
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2
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2
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The GRE is like an awards show. Most people who watch awards shows 2
2
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1 are primarily interested in who the big winners will be. To find this out, 2
2
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though, they have to endure endless music performances, skits, sentimen- 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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tal retrospectives, and all sorts of other fodder before the big payoff. For 2
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2
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the GRE, these distractions come in the form of market research 2
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1 questions, tutorials, and basic questions about who you are, and so on. 2
2
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All you really want to do is take the sections that count toward your 2
2
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2
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score,
but
to
do
so
you
have
to
endure
the
GRE
equivalent
of
a
dance
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2
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medley.
2
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1 The test begins! It starts with the Analytical Writing portion, and you have 2
2
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2
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75
minutes
to
respond
to
2
essay
questions.
For
many
test-takers,
the
wait
2
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2
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is
over
and
its
time
to
get
cracking.
However,
some
people
apply
to
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 programs that do not care about the Analytical score. If this is the case 2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 1: Everything You Need to Know about the GRE CAT

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2
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for youand be sure this is the case before following the next piece of 2
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2
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advicethen you can be more relaxed in your approach to the essays. You 2
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2
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have to answer them, since a zero might raise eyebrows, but if the schools 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 arent going to give the Analytical score any weight, why should you? Save 2
2
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2
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your
brainpower
for
the
sections
of
the
test
that
do
matter.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Once youve finished clacking out your essays, the computer adaptive part 2
2
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2
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of
the
GRE
kicks
in.
You
will
see
a
Quantitative
section,
a
Verbal
section,
2
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2
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and
an
Experimental
section.
ETS,
the
company
that
administers
the
GRE,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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uses
your
answers
on
the
Experimental
section
to
fashion
future
GRE
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
CATs.
In
this
way,
ETS
seeks
to
guarantee
that
future
GRE
CATs
are
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 similar to current GRE CATs in terms of question similarity. This is all well 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and good in terms of fairness, but what it boils down to is that you have to 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
take an entire test section that doesnt count toward your score. For 2
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obvious reasons, you wont know which section is the Experimental
2
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section ahead of time.
2
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1 However, you can sometimes get an idea which section is the 2
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experimental one. It all depends on how adept you get at understanding 2
2
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2
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the
difference
between
easy,
medium,
and
hard
problems.
Lets
say
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youve taken one Quantitative section and one Verbal Section. The third 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section is another Quantitative section, so you know that either this 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section or the previous Quant one is the experimental. You start off the 2
2
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2
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third
section
with
four
questions
that
you
know
you
got
correct.
Youre
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 certain you nailed them. Yet the questions never seem to change in
2
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2
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difficulty
level,
not
like
they
did
on
the
previous
Quant
section.
There
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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are two explanations for this:
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1. You botched those questions and just dont realize it.
2
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2
1
2
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2.
You
are
working
on
the
experimental
section.
2
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1 There is no way to be 100 percent certain which section is Experimental, 2
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so the smart move is to treat all sections as if they count. If you guess 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
wrong about a section, your score goes down the drain, and you would 2
2
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2
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have
achieved
nothing.
Still,
it
can
be
reassuring
to
have
a
feeling
about
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 which section is Experimental. If you get this feeling, then you should
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
realize
that
you
are
pretty
GRE
savvy,
and
that
the
intricacies
of
the
test
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are not so mysterious after all.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
. .112345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
. And Then Some
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 You should have an idea from this chapter that the GRE CAT is a kind of
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
odd test. It is unlike most of the major tests in another way, and that is 2
2
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overall disposition of the proctors. On most big tests (standardized exams 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or final exams in the college class), the proctors giving tests have a serious, 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 17
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

18

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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formal air about them. Students are hushed, people avoid eye contact, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
everyone is a little nervous. Its sort of an Im a 9-year-old sitting with my 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
entire adult family at the Thanksgiving dinner table kind of vibe, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 nervousness and seriousness and formality all rolled into one. The proctors 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are
the
same
way,
acting
officious
and
ever-diligent
in
order
to
make
sure
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that
nothing
goes
wrong.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
GRE
CAT
is,
as
you
might
expect,
different.
Here
the
test
is
given
all
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
time,
every
day
and
sometimes
even
at
night
during
most
of
the
week.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Theres
nothing
exceptional
about
a
single
GRE
administration.
It
means
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lot
to
you,
but
the
people
at
the
test
centers
see
people
like
you
every
day
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 the week. For them its just a days work.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This does not mean to imply that the proctors are lazy, uncaring, or 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
anything bad. Nothing of the sort is true. Its just that they arent going to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
have that same Thanksgiving dinner table attitude, since they are just 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
doing a routine day of work. They will do it well and be courteous and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 helpful, but they wont have the sense of Wow, this is an important 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
moment that you will.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
They also wont be at the front of the classroom eagerly scanning the room 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
see
if
anyones
cheating
or
if
anyone
needs
help.
The
former
is
not
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
needed because you cant look at another persons GRE since it wont have 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
same
questions.
If
you
tried
to
bring
something
in
to
cheat
with
it
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 would be spotted on camera. If you need help you can raise your hand, but 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
theres no guarantee that it will be spotted immediately. Theres no person 2
2
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1 watching the testing room with eagle eyes since that mindset is just not 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prevalent. The overall point is that you should not expect the proctor to 2
2
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come rapidly if you need something during the middle of the section. 2
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2
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Therefore, make sure you have all the scratch paper you need during a 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
break and that you have enough pencils as well. Theres no way to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
guarantee someone will come speedily to your aid while the test is in 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
progress.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There! You now have a host of strategies to help you comprehend the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
computer
adaptive
aspect
of
the
GRE.
For
some
additional
test-taking
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
strategies on how to handle each section of the GREQuantitative, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Verbal,
and
Analyticalall
you
have
to
do
is
turn
the
page.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter

2
Section Strategies
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2
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2
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In
the
last
chapter,
we
familiarized
you
with
the
computerized
aspect
of
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GRE. In this chapter, well acquaint you with the three GRE sections. Our 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
goal is to eliminate any element of surprise you might have while taking 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
test,
since
unexpected
problem-types
lead
to
confusion,
uncertainty,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 and an overall negativity that can hinder your exam performance. Well
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tell
you
about
the
makeup
of
the
GRE
and
how
it
is
administered,
and
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your anxiety will diminish as the test becomes less of a mystery. While you 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might
still
run
across
some
individual
problems
that
throw
you
for
a
loop,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
well make sure you wont run into any question types that leave you 2
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2
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befuddled.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Quantitative
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The GRE section devoted to math goes by the mouthy word Quantita- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tive. Half of the problems in this section are regular multiple-choice 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems, but the other half are presented in a format known as 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
Quantitative Comparison (QC for short).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
QC Problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
directions
for
Quantitative
Comparisons
look
something
like
this:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Directions: Column A and Column B will have one quantity each.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Your
goal
is
to
compare
the
quantities
in
each
column
and
choose
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A if the quantity in Column A is greater
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B
if
the
quantity
in
Column
B
is
greater
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C if the two quantities are equal
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D
if
the
relationship
between
the
two
quantities
cannot
be
de12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
termined from the information given
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
19

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Part I: Understanding the GRE

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

20

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Heres a wildly simple example of a QC problem.
2
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2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
h52
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
h
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You have two columns, A and B, and there is a quantity underneath 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each one. This quantity might be a variable (like Column A), a number 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 (like Column B), or some mixture of the two with a little extra thrown in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for good measure. On occasion, floating above this columnar stew is some 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
additional information that applies to the quantity in both columns, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
like h 5 2.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Like
the
example
above,
the
items
in
the
two
columns
often
cant
be
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
compared to one another, because they are in different formats. In our 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
example,
one
column
has
a
variable
while
the
other
has
a
number.
You
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 would need to convert the variable into a number in order to compare 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
them. Since the centered information states h 5 2, you know that the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quantity, or value, of the letter h in Column A is 2. Under Column B, the 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
value is 1. There are no other possible interpretations or solutions using 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the centered information. We know that 1 is less than 2, so the correct 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer must be (A).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Converting the information in both columns into easily comparable 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
forms is a good strategy for many QC problems, especially if you find that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you are stuck.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Note the qualifying phrase There are no other possibile interpretations or 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 solutions in the previous sentence. Exploring alternate possible answers 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is critical on QC problems, because there are often hidden outcomes that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can affect the answer on a problem. Heres a QC problem that looks 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
similar to the previous one.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
Column B
Column A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
h
5
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
h
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Again, you want to convert Column A into a number so you can compare 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
it to the number in Column B. The obvious answer is that h 5 2, since 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(2)(2) 5 4. This would mean (A) is the answer . . . if there are no other 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
possibilities, that is. In this case, you should see that h could also equal 22, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 2: Section Strategies

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
since (22)( 22) 5 4. If you compare 22 with Column Bs 1, Column Bs 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quantity is larger, so (B) is the answer in this scenario.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One possible value for h gives you the answer (A), while another gives you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
an
answer
of
(B).
Whenever
you
have
a
conflict
like
this,
the
correct
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
response
is
choice
(D),
the
answer
cannot
be
determined
by
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 information given. A more precise statement for choice (D) would be that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
more
than
one
answer
can
be
determined,
and
theres
no
way
to
tell
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
which
answer
is
correct.
Its
not
that
you
cant
determine
an
answer,
its
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
just
that
you
dont
know
which
answer
is
correct.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To properly explore all possibilities on QC problems involving variables, 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
dont just use easy numbers like 2, 3, and 4 when giving values to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
variables. Be sure to insert some weird numbers like those on the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following list:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Weird
Numbers
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The Number
Why Its Weird
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0
Any
number
multiplied
by
0
equals
zero.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Also, any number to the zero power equals
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1,
or
x
5
1.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
Any number multiplied by 1 does not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
change.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Fractions between
Normally, when you multiply two numbers
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
0
and
1
together,
the
end
result
is
larger.
When
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
multiply two fractions less than one to2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
gether, the result is less than the original
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two numbers.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Negative numbers
Two negatives makes a positive when
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
multiplying
or
dividing,
and
22
is
greater
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than 24 even though our minds like to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
think
that
4
is
bigger
than
2.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
On our second sample question, realizing the existence of 22 (the weird
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
negative number) led us to the correct answer of (D).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 Many incorrect QC answers are chosen in the name of speed, as people
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
look at a problem and see the answer that must be the correct one. If the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer is so obvious, why not pick it quickly and zip on to the next 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 question? The response to this hypothetical question is that answers that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
look correct are often traps designed to catch those who do not actually 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
work
the
problem.
Heres
a
classic
QC
trap
on
a
medium-difficulty
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 21

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

22

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4(g 1 i) 5 76
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3i
5
57
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
g
g
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8
6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If g is a regular, Joe Schmo kind of number, the answer seems pretty 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
obvious. Column B is going to be greater since 8 is bigger than 6 and both 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers are being taken to the same exponential power, g. An experienced 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GRE takerwhich you will be after reading this bookshould have 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
internal alarms going off at the sight of this problem. It just looks too 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 simple, and there has to be something more to this problem in order to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
justify the fact that its a medium problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Take the time to solve for both g and i, and youll discover the trap. From 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
second
equation,
you
will
discover
that
i
5
19.
Placing
this
value
into
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the first equation, you will find:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4(g
1
i)
5
76
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4g
1
4i
5
76
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4g 1 (4)(19) 5 76
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4g
1
76
5
76
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4g 1 76 2 76 5 76 2 76
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
4g 5 0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
g
5
0
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If g equals zero, then Column As 6g 5 60 5 1 and Column Bs 8g 5 80 5 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 1. Both columns are equal, and theres no other possible value for g, so the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
correct answer must be (C).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You will see a lot of QC problems throughout this book, so use the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 following checklist as a way of remembering the key strategies to use when 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
handling these problems.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
QC Approach Check List
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1.
For
the
answer
choices,
the
word
always
is
critical.
You
can
only
pick
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
(A) if the quantity in Column A is always greater, and you can only 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pick (B) if Column Bs quantity is always greater. Choice (C) is the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer if the two columns are always equal, no matter what weird 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers are punched in. Whenever you find a QC problem that has 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
more than one possible outcome, (A), (B) and/or (C), you have (D) as 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

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Chapter 2: Section Strategies

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. The goal is to compare the two problems, so you should take 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
information and try to rearrange it in a way that makes comparison 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
easier. If you have a problem with a lot of variables, you should 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
realize the goal will be to get comparable variables into both 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
columns. If one column only has numbers in it, the key to that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem
is
finding
a
way
to
convert
the
other
column
into
a
number
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than
can
be
compared.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3.
When
variables
are
involved,
dont
be
content
to
plug
in
one
value
for
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
variable
and
then
use
that
as
the
result.
Use
a
weird
number
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
challenge
your
initial
finding.
If
you
find
a
weird
number
that
leads
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
a different result, you know the correct choice on that problem is (D). 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(See the table on page 21 of this chapter)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4.
Many
QC
problems
are
designed
to
look
like
there
is
one
obvious
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer. Never jump to this answer unless you have done all of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
actual math that the problem demands. The obvious answer is often 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
an incorrect choice set there to trap hurried test-takers.
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
How Much Does Your Brain Weigh?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
are
several
ways
you
can
answer
this
question.
You
could
take
your
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
brain out and place it on a scale, although this is not recommended. You 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
could find out what the average brain weighs by looking it up in a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 reference book or surfing the Net. You could place both your hands 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 around your head, lean over, and use your arms as a scale.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Or you could just guess. You wont be completely accurate, but you should 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be pretty close. Look at the following choices, and then take a guess:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Which
of
the
following
is
the
most
likely
weight
of
your
brain?
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
A. 1 pound
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 3 pounds
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 6 pounds
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 10 pounds
2
1
E. 15 pounds
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The correct answer is B. Estimating an answer can sometimes lead you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 directly to the right answer, but this does not happen very often. More 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
important
than
determining
the
correct
answer,
guessing
can
often
help
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
eliminate
wrong
answers,
which
increases
your
odds
of
getting
a
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 problem right. If your brain weighed 10 or 15 pounds, you would need 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
metal girders in your neck to help support its weight. So, (D) and (E) can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be
eliminated,
leaving
you
three
choices.
Choice
(A)
is
a
little
light,
and
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
although
this
answer
provides
a
fertile
ground
for
a
cutting
remark,
its
not
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 23

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

24

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
correct. This leaves (B) and (C), and if you thought 6 pounds was a bit 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
portly for a brain, you were right. The answer is (B).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Some problems are hard because the math required to answer them is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hard.
If
you
can
use
your
eyeballs
and
your
3-pound
brain
to
estimate
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
what
the
answer
should
be,
you
will
increase
your
chances
of
getting
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 problem correct. It might not lead you directly to the right answer, but it 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
steer
you
clear
of
answer
choices
that
are
clearly
wrong.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Geometry problems involving angles, lines, figures, or measurements are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the most susceptible to estimating, although the fact that the images are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
displayed on a computer screen makes it a little problematic. Whenever 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you are given a figure on the screen, redraw it on paper in front of you as 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
accurately as possible, and then work with that figure. For example:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The shortest side of a triangle is n centimeters long. Another side is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
three
times
this
length,
while
the
third
side
is
22
centimeters
greater
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than n. If this is the case, which of the following is the only possible 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
value
of
n?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 2 centimeters
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 4 centimeters
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 5 centimeters
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 6 centimeters
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 8 centimeters
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Theres an equation you can use to solve this problem, but you can also 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 attack it with just a number 2 pencil and some scratch paper. Start with 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choice (A), 2 centimeters. The second side would be (2)(3) 5 6 cm and the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
third
side
is
2
1
22
5
24
cm.
Now,
try
to
accurately
draw
a
triangle
with
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sides of 2, 6, and 24. With one side 24 cm, how are the sides of 2 cm and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6 cm actually going to connect?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
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Since
(A)
fails
spectacularly,
you
might
want
to
head
to
the
larger
values
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
like choice (E). If n 5 8, then the other two sides are 24 cm and 30 cm. If 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you freehand this, it seems to work. At this point, knowing the math 2
2
1
2
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would come in handy, but if you dont know it, guess (E) and move on.
2
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2
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2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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1 In a triangle, the length of every side must be less than the sum of the other 2
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two sides. Choice (E) fulfills this, since even the length of the longest side, 2
2
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2
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30, is less than the sum of 8 and 24.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 2: Section Strategies

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Techniques, strategy, practice, and factual knowledge can be combined to 2
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2
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give you a good score, but it doesnt guarantee a perfect score. Inevitably, 2
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2
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there will be one or two questions that seem to defy explanation, and these 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 often appear as time is winding down on the section. If you cant take an 2
2
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2
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educated
guess,
just
take
a
plain
guess
and
move
on
to
the
next
problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
On
the
computer,
you
must
place
an
answer
down
on
every
problem,
even
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
if
it
that
means
youre
simply
filling
in
(E)
on
the
last
couple
of
questions.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Keep
in
mind
that
these
questions
are
not
worth
as
much
as
the
earliest
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 questions. On a 28-question test, you can randomly fill in the last 6 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions
and
still
get
a
score
in
the
high
700s.
The
point
is
that
guessing
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
late
in
the
test
wont
hurt
you
as
much
as
you
might
think.
If
you
have
to
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
guess
early
in
the
math
section,
try
to
use
estimating
and
common
sense
to
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
eliminate
some
answers,
and
then
just
take
your
best
shot.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
Verbal
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 The Verbal portion of the GRE will be eerily familiar to anyone who took
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the SAT when applying for college. All four question types have made an 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
appearance on the SAT at one time or another, and theyve even starred in 2
2
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other standardized tests as well.
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Question Types on the GRE Verbal
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
Question Type
Description
2
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2
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1.
Antonyms
You
are
given
a
single
word
and
then
must
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2
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find its opposite in the answer choices.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2. Analogies
Youll see two words separated by a colon
2
1
at the beginning of each problem. These
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are
called
the
stem
words,
and
the
stem
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
words have some sort of relationship with
2
1
2
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each
other.
Your
job
is
to
find
the
paired
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
words in the answer choices that have the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same,
analogous
relationship
as
the
stem
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
words.
2
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2
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2
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3. Sentence
A good old fill-in-the-blank exercise where
2
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2
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Completions
you must add the correct missing word or
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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words to an initial sentence.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4. Reading
Read some text and then answer questions
2
1
2
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Comprehension
about it. The staple of standardized verbal
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(RC)
exams
everywhere.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 25
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

X-Ref

26

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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There are 30 problems on the Verbal section and four different question 2
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2
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types, so you might think that there will about 78 of each question type 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on the test. It rarely works out that way. Although every CAT is different, 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 for the most part, Sentence Completion problems get short shrift on the 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GRE
CAT,
and
this
is
especially
true
if
you
are
answering
a
majority
of
the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions
correctly.
If
youre
doing
well,
youll
find
yourself
bombarded
by
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
antonyms
and
analogies.
These
two
question
types
are
very
vocabulary2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
centric,
since
knowledge
of
the
words
used
is
a
large
factor
in
getting
the
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 problems right. The better you do on the GRE CAT Verbal, the more the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section
resembles
a
vocabulary
quiz
by
the
end.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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In-depth
discussion
and
suggestions
on
how
to
tackle
each
of
the
four
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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Verbal question types is covered starting on page 25.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The Verbal section also starts out like a vocabulary quiz, since the first 36 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
questions are usually antonyms and some analogies. This means that on 2
2
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the initial part of the Verbal test (when questions count the most), a lot 2
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2
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depends on whether you know the particular word given in a question. 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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This makes the beginning of the Verbal section a little arbitrary. People 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with large vocabularies might get an unfamiliar word, while someone with 2
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1 a less-developed vocabulary will get a tough word whose meaning they 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
just happen to know. All in all, the start of the section is a bit of a crap 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
shoot.
Getting
the
right
word
or
words
can
help
your
score,
especially
if
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you dont consider yourself someone with a large vocabulary.
2
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2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
Verbal
section
might
seem
less
fair
than
the
Math,
but
theres
no
real
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
difference. If youre strong in geometry, and your first two math questions 2
2
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1 concern geometry, then youre in luck. If geometry is your worst subject, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
then youre out of luck. The adaptive format, with early questions 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
counting for more, is the culprit (or helper) in both cases.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In
the
end,
just
knowing
how
the
Verbal
section
will
begin
gives
you
a
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mental advantage over someone who just shows up and starts answering 2
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2
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questions blindly.
2
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2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A reading passage will show up sooner or later, with 24 questions 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
attached
to
it.
If
you
do
a
lot
of
Web
site
reading,
then
you
wont
have
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 much problem with the computer format. Theres a scroll bar to help you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
move
up
and
down
the
text,
but
the
actual
text
box
is
ridiculously
small.
It
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
only
holds
two
or
three
sentences
at
a
time,
so
no
matter
how
short
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 reading passage is, theres always going to be some scrolling to do. To give 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Tip

Chapter 2: Section Strategies

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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yourself a preview of what it will be like, open up some text on a computer, 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and place it in a box about 3 inches by 4 inches. Give yourself some big 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
letters, and allow for a nice amount of space between each line.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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On RC problems, the passage takes up the upper left portion of the
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
screen,
while
questions
appear
on
the
right
side.
The
bottom
of
the
screen
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
contains a lot of basic instructions like Time on/off and Wanna quit,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fraidy
cat?
stuff
that
you
will
rarely,
if
ever,
use
during
the
exam.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
the
above
instructions
are
too
tech-savvy
for
you,
dont
sweat
it.
The
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
point
is
that
you
will
have
to
move
up
and
down
to
read
some
text,
so
be
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prepared
to
do
just
that.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
last
problem
type,
Sentence
Completion,
translates
very
well
to
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
computer. Of the four Verbal question types, these questions are probably 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the easiest to prepare for and improve on, which might be why they show 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 up the least. Even so, when they do pop up on your screen, lick your chops 2
2
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and dive right in.
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
. . . And Youre Done
2
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2
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For
most
people,
time
is
not
as
big
an
issue
on
the
Verbal
section
as
it
is
on
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Math section. Many hard Math problems are complex, multi-step 2
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2
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1 questions that require a lot of computations in order to unravel the right 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer. This takes time. In contrast, hard questions on the Verbal section 2
2
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1 consist mainly of hard vocabulary words. You still need time to go through 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the answer choices and use some strategies, but this doesnt take as long as 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
7
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
9 15
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is.
figuring
out
what
the
value
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8 14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
25 33
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Theres no need to rush through any questions on the Verbal section, since 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lack
of
time
is
rarely
a
problem.
On
average,
you
have
a
minute
per
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 question, but some questions will take less time. For example, if theres an
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
antonym question with a word that you know, finding the right answer 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can take under 15 seconds. Dont spend less than15 seconds, because you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
want to make sure not to make a careless error by speeding. That gives you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a lot of extra time to spend on another problem, such as a RC question. 2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
These typically take more time since you want to check your answer with 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
1 the information in the passage.
2
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2
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If
you
are
running
out
of
time
on
a
practice
Verbal
section,
then
you
are
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 probably staring at some questions and dredging your brain to come up 2
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S DS D
S DS D

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Alert!

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2
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with a definition of a word. This is not a good use of your time. The 2
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2
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vocabulary on the GRE can be tough, so there will be some words whose 2
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2
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meaning you dont know. Accept this, use any elimination strategies you 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 can on those problems, pick an answer, and move on.
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
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2
1
Analytical
Writing
2
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2
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The
first
essay
prompt
you
see
poses
an
issue,
and
then
gives
you
45
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 minutes to analyze and discuss that issue. This is your standard, Theres 2
2
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2
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no
right
or
wrong
side,
all
that
matters
is
how
well
you
present
your
side
of
2
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2
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the
case
kind
of
essay.
You
are
often
given
two
topics
to
choose
from,
so
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2
1
2
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pick
the
topic
you
feel
comfortableum,
talking
about.
2
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2
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For the second essay, analysis of an argument, you only have 30 minutes to 2
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write. This time, you are first given some text, in which someone makes an 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
argument about something. This argument is lame in some way or another. 2
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2
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1 Your goal here is to evaluate the argument, i.e., explain ways in which the 2
2
arguments lame and ways in which it works.
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2
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2
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Combined,
the
two
essays
take
over
an
hour
to
start
at
the
beginning
of
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every GRE CAT. Thats a lot of time spent typing, and the key word here is 2
2
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2
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typing.
How
fast
do
you
type?
Answering
this
question
will
determine
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your approach to these essays. Many English aficionados will talk 2
2
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2
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gushingly
about
the
standard
five-paragraph
essay
approach
that
virtually
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1 guarantees you a top score of 6 on the Analytical portion. Yet, this 2
2
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2
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approach
doesnt
work
if
youre
such
a
slow
typist
that
you
cant
type
five
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2
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paragraphs in the time allotted.
2
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2
1
2
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As
stated
in
the
previous
chapter,
if
youre
applying
for
a
graduate
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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program in astrophysics, your Analytical score might not be of highest 2
2
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1 importance. Do your best, but spend your time studying the section that 2
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2
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matters most, which is Math.
2
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2
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2
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2
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Before anything else, find out how fast you can type. Sit down in front of a 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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computer with some word processing program. Start timing, and then type 2
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2
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something like, The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog over and 2
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1 over again until one minute is up. If you make a mistake while typing, stop 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and correct your error while the clock is running. Now count up the 2
2
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2
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number
of
words
you
typed
correctly
in
one
minute.
Take
this
number
and
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2
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2
1 use it to answer the following question:
2
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2
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28
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Chapter 2: Section Strategies

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2
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2
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Question How long should my essays be?
2
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2
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2
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Step
1
Take
the
amount
of
time
given
for
an
essay.
For
essay
1,
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
this means 45 minutes.
2
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2
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Step 2
Subtract 5 minutes. This time will be used to decide
2
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2
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what
you
want
to
write
in
your
essay.
You
shouldnt
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2
1
2
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just blaze off at the start; it helps to plan out your essay
2
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2
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a
bit.
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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Step
3
40
minutes
remain.
Take
the
number
of
words
you
type
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
per minute and multiply by 40. If you can type 20
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
words per minute, then (20)(40) 5 800.
2
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2
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Step
4
This
is
the
number
of
words
you
could
type
if
you
knew
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
exactly
what
you
were
going
to
say
and
typed
nonstop.
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Since there will be many points in your essay where you
2
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2
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pause
for
a
moment
to
come
up
with
the
right
phrase
or
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sentence, 800 is not really achievable. Halve this
2
1
2
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number
for
a
more
realistic
assessment,
giving
you
400
2
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2
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words.
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Step 5
If you assume a standard paragraph is around 100
2
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2
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words,
you
can
see
that
your
essay
will
not
make
the
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five-paragraph format due to technical reasons (i.e.
2
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2
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your
slow
typing.)
You
only
have
time
for
four
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1
paragraphs. You should therefore state your case clearly
2
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2
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in
Paragraph
1,
back
it
up
with
claims
in
the
next
two
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2
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paragraphs, and then wrap things up in Paragraph 4 as
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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time expires on you and your nondexterous fingers.
2
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2
1
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Unless you practice typing or type a lot, you might be appalled at how 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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slow you are. Even with fast fingers, theres no way to compose a flawless, 2
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1 five-paragraph essay on a previously unknown topic in 45 minutes. 2
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2
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Flawless essays require time to map out, draft, and then rewrite. Maybe a 2
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2
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professional essay writerif there are any still around these dayscould 2
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do it, but folks taking the GRE cant, and it isnt expected of them. What is 2
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
expected is that the thoughts you do punch into the computer are good, 2
2
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2
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and
that
the
overall
structure
of
your
essay
is
sound.
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1
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On both essays, dont sacrifice quality for quantity. Two body (middle) 2
2
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2
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paragraphs
with
13
compelling
sentences
that
back
up
your
initial
claim
2
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2
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are
all
that
is
needed
to
get
a
decent
score
on
the
Analytical
section.
Some
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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1 people have even peppered their essays with jokesrelevant to the
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
discussion, of courseand received a 6, so you dont have to kill yourself 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to place words on the screen. Just make sure that the words you do put 2
2
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2
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down help support your position in the essay.
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http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part I: Understanding the GRE

30

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2
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If you want to increase your typing skills, get a dictionary, a computer, and 2
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2
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get ready to kill two birds with one stone. Purchase a book that lists 2
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2
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college-level vocabulary words, and then spend time typing in each word 2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 and its definition into a word processing document. By doing this, you will 2
2
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2
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improve
your
typing
skills
and
create
a
vocabulary
study
guide
at
the
2
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2
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same
time.
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
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2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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2
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2
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2
1
2
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2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

PART

II
Diagnosing Strengths
and Weaknesses
Diagnostic:
Dipping Your Big Toe in the GRE Waters

32

PART II
http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter

3
Diagnostic: Dipping Your Big Toe
in the GRE Waters

Alert!

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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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6
12
Now that you have some section-specific techniques, its time to put them to use. Trying a 6
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12
2
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
sample set of math and verbal questions has the following benefits:
6
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1. It gives you an idea of how you might do if you were to take the real GRE this very 6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
moment.
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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12
2. It lets you see what areas of study youre strongest in, and what areas need 6
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6
12
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
improvement. This knowledge can be used to fine-tune your study plans for the GRE. 6
6
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6
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3. No matter how you do on the diagnostic, it doesnt count.
6
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The third point is perhaps the most important. If you answer every sample question correctly, 6
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then bellow out a proud Huzzah! You cant send that score to universities, but you can feel 6
6
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6
1
good
about
the
fact
that
youve
demonstrated
the
ability
to
do
well
on
GRE-type
questions.
On
2
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the other hand, if you miss a lot of diagnostic questions, dont sweat it.
6
1
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12
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6
12
If you waited until the last moment and are taking this diagnostic the night before
6
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6
12
the
real
GRE
CAT,
you
can
sweat
a
little.
Hopefully,
you
are
taking
this
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12
2
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6
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diagnostic at least a month in advance of the real test, giving you ample time to go
6
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6
1
through
the
rest
of
the
book
at
a
measured
pace.
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12
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12
The whole point of the diagnostic is to determine what subjects youre good at and what 6
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6
12
6
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subjects
you
need
help
in.
You
can
then
use
this
information
to
devise
a
study
plan
tailored
to
2
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your strengths and weaknesses.
6
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1
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12
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6
12
Should You Take It to the Next Level?
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6
12
6
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As
stated
earlier,
the
adaptive
nature
of
the
GRE
makes
it
likely
that
someone
shooting
for
a
2
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1
good score will only see medium and hard questions. Since you probably didnt purchase this
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6
12
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book to get a lousy score, it makes sense to concentrate on medium and hard GRE questions. 6
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12
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The bulk of this book does just that. The first part of each chapter in the subject review section 6
6
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focuses on how medium questions will appear on the math and verbal sections, and it provides 6
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32

http://www.xtremepapers.net

DIAGNOSTIC
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12
you with the facts and strategies needed to tackle these problems. The general instruction for 6
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6
12
the Analytical section goes over the basic structure of the essay, giving you the knowledge 6
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12
6
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needed to gain a respectable score on the written portion. For most students, starting with the 6
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12
2
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6
1
medium-level material is the wisest course of action.
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6
12
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12
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12
However, suppose you feel very confident about your math abilities. A high score on the math 6
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6
12
2
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1
portion of the diagnostic proves that this confidence is well-founded. If thats the case, you may 6
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6
12
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6
12
choose
to
skip
over
the
general
study
material
on
math
and
go
straight
to
the
Take
It
to
the
Next
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12
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12
Level material. This material focuses on more advanced topicsinvolved probabilities and 6
6
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6
12
number
sets,
for
exampleand
it
shows
how
these
topics
appear
on
hard
problems.
The
Next
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12
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12
Level Verbal and Analytical sections cover advanced topics and problems in a similar fashion. 6
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6
12
2
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6
1
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12
So whats the best study plan? Not to get too mystical or anything, but the answer to this 6
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12
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question can only be found inside you. By working through the entire book, you give yourself a 6
12
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6
12
look at everything this book has to offer. Yet this approach takes time, and time is a scarce 6
2
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6
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commodity in many peoples lives. Therefore, you might wish to Take It to the Next Level in 6
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6
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subjects you feel comfortable with in order to use the time you have to concentrate on your 6
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6
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weakest areas.
6
1
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12
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12
The requirements of your graduate program might let you tailor your approach in another way. 6
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6
12
2
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For example, some fine arts programs require students to take the GRE, but these programs are 6
6
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6
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not
concerned
with
a
students
Quantitative
(math)
score.
If
this
is
the
case
for
you,
you
could
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decide to skip the Next Level math, since a high score in math will not help you one way or 6
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another. It would still be a good idea to go over the basic study materialyou dont want to 6
6
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6
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completely blow the math sectionbut a high math score is just not a relevant concern.
6
1
2
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Before making any decision, take the diagnostic and let the results guide you. There are 28
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6
1
Quantitative questions, roughly divided so that the first half contains medium questions while 6
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6
12
the second half contains hard questions. If you ace 201 Quantitative problems in allotted time, 6
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12
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6
12
then you are a good candidate for skipping the general material if you want. If you miss 6
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6
12
questions randomly throughout the section, it would be a good idea to look over both the 6
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12
2
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general and Next Level materials, since theres no clear pattern as to why you got some 6
6
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6
1
questions
right
while
missing
others.
It
could
mean
you
were
weak
in
a
specific
subjectlike
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determining mean/median/mode, for instancein which case a comprehensive review of a wide 6
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6
12
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6
12
range
of
topics
would
be
beneficial.
If
you
miss
a
bunch
of
medium
questions
but
get
all
the
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12
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12
harder problems right, chances are your problem lies in pacing. You rushed through the 6
6
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2
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medium questions, making careless errors, in order to spend more time on the harder problems. 6
6
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6
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If
this
is
the
case,
slow
down,
Sparky!
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1
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12
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12
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12
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12
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2
6
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1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
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12
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12
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http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

Tip

Note

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12
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12
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6
12
In our diagnostic the Quantitative section starts off with 14 QC questions, and then
6
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6
12
follows
with
14
regular
math
problems.
The
14
QC
problems
are
arranged
in
order
2
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6
1
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6
12
of
difficulty,
and
the
14
regular
questions
are
also
in
their
own
order
of
difficulty.
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12
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12
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12
2
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12
Things are a little different for the Verbal section. There are 30 questions, still divided into half 6
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6
12
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6
12
medium/half
hard,
but
there
are
four
distinct
question
types:
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12
2
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6
1
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6
12
Antonyms
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12
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6
12
Analogies
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6
12
2
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6
1
Sentence Completions
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6
12
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6
12

Reading
Comprehension
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12
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12
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12
Questions within each question type are arranged in order of difficulty, so the first antonym you 6
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6
12
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12
see is (theoretically) the easiest, while the last is the hardest. After that section, you proceed to 6
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12
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12
analogies, with all analogies arranged in their own order of difficulty. For the Reading 6
2
6
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6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Comprehension section, the first passage is easier than the second one.
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12
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6
12
You can fine-tune your approach depending on how you do within each question type. Suppose 6
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12
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
you answer every analogy correctly but miss half of the Reading Comprehension problems. If 6
6
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6
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this
occurs,
a
voice
inside
your
head
should
start
hollering,
Focus
on
Reading
Comprehension
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in both levels, and dont worry about analogies as much.
6
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This book has been designed to give you a variety of study plan options. You want to take 6
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6
1
charge of the GRE, and a good way to start doing this is to take charge of your study plan.
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6
12
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12
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6
12
Optimal Diagnostic-Taking Conditions
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6
12
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12
As much as you might like to, you should not take the diagnostic while watching television, 6
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12
answering questions only during commercial breaks. Seal yourself away in some solitary 6
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6
12
2
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location with a heap of scrap paper and a handful of number 2 pencils as your companions. 6
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6
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Give yourself 45 minutes for the Quantitative section and 30 minutes for the Verbal section. 6
1
6
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Take both sections consecutively with a 1-minute break in between. Dont rush, but try to 6
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2
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6
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answer as many of the questions as you can.
6
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1
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6
12
You can write your answers in the book, but make sure to do all work on scratch
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6
12
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6
12
paper
since
that
is
what
you
have
to
do
for
the
GRE
CAT.
Afterward,
check
to
see
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12
6
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how much scratch paper you used on each section. This will help give you an idea
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6
12
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6
12
of how much youll need on the real GRE.
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12
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12
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2
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Once finished, give yourself a pat of the back. You will have just finished a GRE-like test. It 6
6
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6
12
wasnt a computer adaptive test, but it was a GRE-like test nevertheless.
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6
12
Good luck!
6
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34

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

DIAGNOSTIC
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12
6
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The Test
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6
12
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12
6
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Quantitative
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6
12
2
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6
1
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6
12
General Information
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12
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6
12
1. The test has 28 questions. You have 45 minutes to complete the section.
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6
12
2
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6
1
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6
12
2. All numbers used are real numbers.
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12
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6
12
3. All angle measurements can be assumed to be positive unless otherwise noted.
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6
12
2
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6
1
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6
12
4.
All
figures
lie
in
the
same
plane
unless
otherwise
noted.
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12
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12
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12
5. Drawings that accompany questions are intended to provide information useful in 6
2
6
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6
12
answering
the
question.
The
figures
are
drawn
closely
to
scale
unless
otherwise
noted.
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12
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
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Directions: For questions 114, Column A and Column B will have one quantity each.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Your
goal
is
to
compare
the
quantities
in
each
column
and
choose
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
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A if the quantity in Column A is greater
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B if the quantity in Column B is greater
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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6
12
C if the two quantities are equal
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D if the relationship between the two quantities cannot be determined from the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
information in the problem
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
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On some questions, information about one or both quantities will be given. This
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
information
will
be
centered
above
the
two
columns.
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Column A
Column A
Column B
Column B
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6
12
2
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692
4
6
1 1.
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6
12
1,781
15
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12
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
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3.
6
1
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
a2
(c2b)
2
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
2.
40
1
9
7
1
63
=
=
6
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1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6 35
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

36

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
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12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Column A
Column B
Column A
Column B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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6
12
2
1
2
8.
u5x y
x0y
6
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50 1 2~2 1 3! #
@
2 2
@4~2 1 3! #
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
4.
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
10
x
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3
2
4 2
xu
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6
12
u 5x y
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
y
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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6
12
5.
A circle has a radius q.
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6
12
2
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6
1
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6
12
Twice the area of
The circumference
9.
x is a positive integer.
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
the circle divided
of the circle
(x2 2 3x 1 2)
x2 2 4
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6
12
by
the
radius
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
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6
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6
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6
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6.
The area of a
The area of a
6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
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square with a
rectangle with a
6
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perimeter of 20
perimeter 20
6
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1
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
10.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
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6
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1 1 1 2 3
1 2 1 1 2
6
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7.
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
6
1
3
2
7
5
4
4
5
7
5
3
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Point C is at the center of the circle.
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
AB
5
DE
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
CBD
CEA
6
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1
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12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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http://www.xtremepapers.net

DIAGNOSTIC
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
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12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Column A
Column B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
Directions:
Select
the
best
answer
for
each
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
11. The sum of all even
The sum of all odd
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
of
the
following
questions.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
integers
one
integers
one
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
through one
through one
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
15.
There
are
13
marbles
in
a
bag.
One
is
red,
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
hundred
hundred
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
4
are
blue,
and
8
are
yellow.
If
a
blue
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
marble
is
drawn
from
the
bag,
what
is
the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
probability that a red or yellow marble
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
will be drawn next?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A.
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
4
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
12.
The cube of an
The square of an odd
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
even
prime
number
prime
number
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
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8
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C.
6
13
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
1
3
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
4
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
9
6
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13.
x,0
E.
6
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13
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
2
2
6
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2
12x
2
4
x
x
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
16.
Bananas
at
Maxs
Grocer
went
on
sale
for
6
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2x
2
3
2
x
1
1
6
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50 percent off. They were then marked
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
down
again
by
30
percent.
If
x
is
the
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
original price of bananas per pound, how 6
1
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
much does it cost to buy 2.5 pounds of
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6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
bananas?
6
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6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A.
0.15x
14.
x
5
(x)(x
1
1)
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12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
B. 0.375x
6
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(3)
(3)(3)
6
1
C.
0.42x
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. 0.50x
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. 0.875x
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6 37
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

38

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
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12
17.
Questions 2021 refer to the following graphs. 6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
If BE bisects AC, what is the length of
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
EC?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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12
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12
A. 2=3
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
4
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C. 4=3
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. 8
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E. 8=3
6
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1 18. If x is an odd integer, in which one of the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
following expressions must y be even?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
A. x 1 y 5 12
6
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20. Which of the following has the greatest
6
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B. x2 1 y 5 16
6
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value?
6
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C. xy 5 25
6
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2
6
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A. Segment of Manchester population
D. xy 5 49
6
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025 in 1920
6
1
E. xy 5 98
2
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
B. Byson population in 1900
6
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6
1 19. Export Auto charges $30 for an oil change
C. Byson population in 1915
6
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6
12
and
$40
for
a
brake
job.
On
Tuesday,
they
D.
Segment
of
Manchester
population
2
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charged a total of $320 for all oil changes
2550 in 1920
6
1
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6
12
and
brake
checks.
They
performed
a
fourth
E.
Segment
of
Manchester
population
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
as many brake checks as oil changes. How
50100 in 1920
6
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6
1
many
oil
changes
did
they
perform
on
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
21. Which town in which decade had the 6
Tuesday?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
greatest percentage increase in population? 6
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6
12
A. 2
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6
12
A. Manchester 19001910
6
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B. 4
2
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6
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B. Ledbetter 19201930
C. 6
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C. Ledbetter 19301940
D. 8
6
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6
1
D.
Byson
19201930
E.
10
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E. Manchester 19301940
6
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1
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12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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DIAGNOSTIC
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
@~6a!a 2 ~4a 1 7a!#
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
7a
1
J
5
22.
25.
If
x
is
an
odd
integer,
what
is
the
value
of
half
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
a
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
the sum of x and the next three odd integers? 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
2
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6a 2 18a
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
1
J
A.
A.
2(x
1
3)
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
a
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
3(x
1
3)
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6a
2
4a
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C.
4(x
1
3)
1
J
B.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
a
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
D. 5(x 1 3)
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C. 7 2 a 1 J
E.
6(x
1
3)
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D. 211 2 a 1 J
6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. 13a 2 11 1 J
Questions 2628 refer to the following graphs. 6
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
23.
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6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
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6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
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1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B is the midpoint of AC, and E is the
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6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
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midpoint of FD. If the area of rectangle
6
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6
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BCDE is 12, what is the perimeter of
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
rectangle ACDF?
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
A. 18
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
B.
20
6
1
2
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C. 22
6
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6
1
D.
24
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. 26
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
24.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
What is the perimeter of DABC?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
A. 2 1 =2
6
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
B. 2 1 2=3
6
1
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6
12
15 20
25
30
35
40
45
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
4
1
2
2
C.
=
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. 4 1 2=3
2
6
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6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E. 4 1 4=3
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6
12
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6 39
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

40

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12
26. Whose annual savings/annual spending
28. Over what 5-year span did percentage of
6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
ratio was the smallest?
spending increase the most?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A. 15
A. 1520
6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
20
B.
2530
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C. 30
C. 3035
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
D. 35
D. 3540
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E.
45
E.
4045
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
27. What category of sales had the greatest
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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6
amount of money spent on it if you only
12
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6
12
consider
15-,
30-,
and
45-year-olds?
2
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6
1
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12
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6
12
A. Home Entertainment
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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6
12
B.
Clothes
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C. Lawn Care
6
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6
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D.
Sporting
Goods
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E. Apparel
6
1
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12
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12
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12
2
6
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Verbal
6
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6
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General
Information
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1.
The
test
has
30
questions.
You
have
30
minutes
to
complete
the
section.
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1
Directions: Each question contains a word printed in capital letters, followed by five
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
answer choices. Choose the answer choice that contains the word or phrase most nearly
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
OPPOSITE in meaning to the word in capital letters.
6
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12
2
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1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
1. PRISTINE :
3. LUCID :
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6
12
2
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A. dull
A. translucent
6
1
6
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B.
hopeless
B.
myopic
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2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
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C. congested
C. putrid
6
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6
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D.
majestic
D.
luminescent
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1
E. polluted
E. opaque
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6
12
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12
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12
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6
12
2. IMPREGNABLE :
4. MALLEABLE :
6
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2
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6
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A. penetrable
A. brittle
6
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6
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B.
tangible
B. ductile
6
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6
1
C.
intractable
C.
pliant
2
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1
D. tolerable
D. flaccid
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6
12
6
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E.
reliable
E.
verdant
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12
2
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6
1
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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DIAGNOSTIC
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
5. CASTIGATE :
8. TRUCULENT :
6
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12
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6
12
A. criticize
A. pugnacious
6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
laud
B.
boorish
2
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6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C.
ignore
C.
gentle
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D. mollify
D. beneficent
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
E. obfuscate
E. altruistic
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6. APPROBATION :
9. SALUBRIOUS :
2
6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A. disapproval
A. salutary
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
fanfare
B.
deleterious
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12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
C. calamity
C. beneficial
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D.
enigma
D.
acrid
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12
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6
12
E. rejoinder
E. ignominious
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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12
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12
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6
12
7. MENDACITY :
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
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1
A. evil
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B. wisdom
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
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6
12
C.
perfidy
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. honesty
6
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6
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E.
irregularity
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1 Directions: In each question, there is an initial pair of words or phrases that are related in
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
some manner. Select the answer choice containing the lettered pair that best expresses a
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
relationship
similar
to
the
initial
pair.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
10. POTTER : CLAY ::
12. HOMOSAPIEN : MAMMAL ::
2
6
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6
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6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
A. bull : rider
A. lung : organ
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
B. conductor : instrument
B. beach : ocean
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C. poet : words
C. canine : feline
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D. doctor : patient
D. mystery : novel
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E.
lady
:
gentleman
E.
bovine
:
husbandry
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
13. IMMUTABLE : CHANGE ::
6
1 11. MINISCULE : SMALL ::
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A. large : gigantic
A. political : mastermind
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B. contingent : necessity
B. exuberant : happy
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2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C. ecstatic : joy
C. downtrodden : unjust
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D. imminent : proximity
D. humorless : hapless
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. humble : hubris
E. tense : relaxed
6
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6 41
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

42

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
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12
14. VITUPERATE : BERATE ::
16. LACONIC : VERBOSE ::
6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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6
12
A. destroy : rebuild
A. terse : taciturn
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
vacillate
:
waver
B.
delicious
:
delectable
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C.
synthesize
:
raze
C.
passive
:
lethargic
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D. confuse : clarify
D. guileless : deceitful
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
E. pacify : enrage
E. fastidious : studious
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
15. BUCOLIC : PASTORAL ::
17. MALEVOLENT : BONHOMIE ::
2
6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A. frigid : lukewarm
A. hateful : disgust
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
basic
:
advanced
B.
calm
:
anxiety
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
C. irascible : temperamental
C. dangerous : peril
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D.
haughty
:
selfish
D.
hungry
:
want
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. pugnacious : optimistic
E. facetious : sarcasm
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Directions: Each sentence below contains one or two blanks, with each blank
6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
corresponding
to
an
omitted
word.
Find
the
answer
choice
that
has
the
word
or
set
or
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
words that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
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18. The mayors unpopularity was dramati20. Normally the press secretary is fairly
6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
cally demonstrated by his __________
__________, but in todays briefing her
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
performance in the citywide straw poll.
face was quite ___________ and her
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
responses lively.
A. sanguine
6
1
6
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B.
dismal
A.
peppy.
.morose
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C. fiery
B. subjugated. .active
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
D.
impoverished
C.
noxious.
.expressive
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. discouraging
D. concise. .perturbed
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E.
subdued.
.animated
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
19. Country X will never stabilize its economy
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
if it does not ___________ its disastrous
21. A slight ___________ of the soils settling 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
inflationary spending practices.
rate caused the buildings foundation to
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
1
___________, which led to the building
A. exacerbate
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
being deemed unusable.
12
B. curtail
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C.
strengthen
A.
estimation.
.settle
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. maximize
B. deviation. .bulge
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E.
weaken
C.
miscalculation.
.shift
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
1
D. permutation. .stabilize
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E.
escalation.
.liquefy
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

DIAGNOSTIC
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
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12
22. Prison reform in Victorian England,
23. For three centuries, classical mechanics
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
though ___________, was not far-reaching
was the __________ paradigm in physics
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
enough
to
eliminate
all
the
___________
until
developments
in
quantum
mechanics
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
vestiges of harsher times.
began to call __________ assumptions of
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
classical
mechanics
into
question.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A.
appreciable.
.miscellaneous
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
B. significant. .cruel
A. strongest. .tangential
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C.
dogged.
.basic
B.
supreme.
.superficial
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D. laudable. .benign
C. reigning. .fundamental
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E.
wrongheaded.
.base
D.
secondary.
.basic
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. unchallenged. .facile
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
Directions: Questions follow each passage. After reading the passage, determine the best
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
answer for each question based on the passages content.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1 Passage 1
imperial family. Even when the Yamato
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
clan
had
nominally
laid
claim
to
the
title
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
Line
Though
the
founding
myth
of
the
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
of the imperial throne, their power was
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Yamato
clan
sets
the
beginning
of
their
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
still
not
as
absolute
as
their
titular
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
dynasty
at
the
dawn
of
time,
the
Yamato
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(30)
pretensions
suggested.
The
aristocratic
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
clan did not unify Japan under their
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
clan
chieftains
still
maintained
significant
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(5)
monarchical
rule
until
the
sixth
century
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
power
bases
in
the
regions
historically
6
1
B.C.E. It is difficult to designate a specific
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
linked with their clans.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
date
for
the
beginning
of
the
Yamato
6
1
This
scenario
of
power
diffusion
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
monarchy
because
the
process
of
political
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
(35)
under
the
political
rubric
of
monarchy
is
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
evolution in ancient Japan was not
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
not
peculiar
to
ancient
Japan.
In
fact,
it
is
6
1 (10) marked by clearly defined stages. Rather,
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
a
common
theme
in
the
narrative
of
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
the political evolution from aristocratic
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
kingdom formation in Medieval Europe. 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
rule centered on a number of clan
6
1
Many monarchs, with the notable
families; the monarchical rule dominated
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(40)
exception of Charlemagne, had great
by
one
family
was
a
gradual
process.
2
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
difficulty consolidating their kingdoms
(15)
The slow pace of the transformation
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
resources under their authority given the 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
was
mirrored
by
the
means
employed
to
6
1
prominent and powerful positions of
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
achieve the result. The Yamato clan did
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
dukes, lords, and wealthy merchants that 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
not
militarily
subjugate
the
competing
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
(45)
populated their lands.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
field
of
clans,
but
instead
gained
ascen2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(20)
dancy through political, economic, and
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
diplomatic
means.
Since
such
means
6
1
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
generally preclude decisive shifts in
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
power,
the
Yamato
clan
had
to
patiently
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
leverage their advantages until they were
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(25)
able
to
demand
recognition
as
the
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456 43

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

44

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
24. In line 34, the word diffusion could most
6
Passage 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
reasonably be replaced by which of the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
Line
Grasping
the
interrelationship
between
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
following?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
structure
and
function
is
essential
to
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A.
Assimilation
gaining
a
basic
understanding
of
molecu3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B. Sharing
lar biology. All biological entities are
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
(5)
C. Hegemony
composed of molecules, and every
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D.
Mongering
molecule
has
a
specific
shape.
A
hydro3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E. Imbalances
gen molecule, for instance, has a simple
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
linear
shape,
while
DNA,
the
molecule
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
25. What is the main point of the third
12
that stores most of a cells genetic
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
paragraph?
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1
(10)
information, has a complex double helix 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
shape. The shape of a molecule, comA.
Ancient
Japans
political
evolution
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
bined with the configuration of its
was dissimilar to Medieval European
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
valence
electrons
(the
electrons
available
political
evolution.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
for bonding with other molecules),
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B. Charlemagne was a powerful mon3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
(15)
determine
the
structure
of
a
molecule.
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
arch comparable to the great emper6
1
Since this structure determines the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
ors
of
ancient
Japan.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
biological
functionality
of
the
molecule,
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
C.
Both
Medieval
European
monarchs
and
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
it
is
of
paramount
importance.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Japanese
emperors
had
difficulties
in
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
The
chemistry
of
the
brain
illustrates
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
unifying the lands under their power.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(20)
the
interaction
between
molecular
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. Dukes, lords, wealthy merchants, and
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
structure
and
biological
function.
One
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
clan chieftains were politically obtuse
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
nerve
cell
in
the
brain
communicates
with
6
1
throughout the world.
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
another nerve cell by the emission and
6
E. Clan chieftains of ancient Japan
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
uptake
of
molecular
signals.
A
transmitresembled wealthy merchants in
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
(25)
ting
nerve
cell
initiates
the
communicaMedieval
Europe
with
respect
to
the
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
tion with a second nerve cell known as a 6
political role each played in their
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
receiving cell. The transmitting cell
respective eras and locales.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
releases signal molecules that are
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1 26. What is the authors attitude toward the
structured specifically to bond with
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(30)
receptor molecules located at specific
notion of absolute monarchical rule in
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
sites
on
the
receiving
cell.
The
signal
and
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
ancient
Japan
and
Medieval
Europe?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
receptor molecules have complementary 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
A. Harsh criticism of the weak monarchs
molecular structures which allow for
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B. Measured skepticism about the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
their bonding ability. You can say the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
absoluteness of the monarchs rule
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
(35)
signal
molecule
functions
like
a
key
while
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C.
Strenuous
objection
to
the
monarchs
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
the receptor molecule is the lock. In this 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
political practices
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
analogy,
the
molecular
structure
can
be
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D.
Moderate
praise
of
the
monarchs
6
1
thought
of
as
the
nodes
on
the
key
and
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
restraint
6
1
within
the
lock
that
complement
each
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
E.
Fulsome
praise
of
the
monarchs
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
(40)
other
and
allow
for
the
key
to
turn
the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
policies
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
lock. The bonding of the signal and
6
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

DIAGNOSTIC
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
receptor molecules sets in motion a series
6
29. What is the function of the second
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
of chemical reactions within the receiving
paragraph in relation to the passage as a
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
cell.
Thus,
through
the
biological
whole?
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1 (45) mechanism of complementary molecular
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
A.
It
relates
an
anecdote
that
demon3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
structure,
one
brain
cell
is
able
to
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
strates
the
principle
described
in
the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
communicate
and
affect
another
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
first paragraph.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
brain
cell.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
B.
It
gives
further
explanation
to
the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
theoretical hypothesis made in the
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
27. The primary purpose of this passage is to
first
paragraph.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
C. It provides an example that illustrates 6
A. demonstrate the importance of
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
the relationship discussed in the first
biological functionality regarding
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
paragraph.
brain
functioning
capacities.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
D. It presents a second viewpoint on the 6
B. criticize the contemporary theory that
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
issues raised in the first paragraph.
molecular
structure
and
biological
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E. It debunks a common misconception 6
12
functionality are interrelated.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
about the principle discussed in the
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
C. present competing views on the nature
6
1
first paragraph.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
of
the
interrelationship
between
brain
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
chemistry and molecular structure.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
30. Based on the passage, which of the
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
D.
explain
the
contemporary
theory
of
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
following
statements
would
the
author
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
the
interrelationship
between
molecu3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
most
likely
agree
with?
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
lar structure and biological function6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
ality.
A. The study of molecular functionality
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
1
E. argue that molecular structure has
is an important field in molecular
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
greater explanatory force than does
12
chemistry.
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
biological functionality.
B. The advancement of understanding in 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
molecular biology is contingent upon 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
28. Why does the author mention a hydrogen
further research in how molecules are 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
molecule and DNA in lines 611 in the
structured.
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
first paragraph?
C. Brain chemistry will not ultimately be 6
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
understood
until
neurotransmitters
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
A. To contrast a simply shaped molecule
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
are
fully
conceptualized.
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
with a complexly shaped molecule
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D.
Biological
functionality
is
not
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
B. To demonstrate that DNA is similarly
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
dependent
on
molecular
shape.
6
1
shaped to hydrogen
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E. DNA is the most complex molecule
C. To illustrate that biological function6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
known
to
biology.
ality is not directly related to molecu6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
lar
shape
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
D. To give examples of the molecular
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
structure
of
two
different
molecules
6
1
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
E. To undermine the assertion that
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
hydrogen
is
more
simply
structured
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
than DNA
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6 45
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part II: Diagnosing Strengths and Weaknesses

46

1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456
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12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
Answer Key
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
Quantitative
Verbal
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
1. B
15. D
1. E
16. D
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2. A
16. E
2. A
17. B
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3. A
17. B
3. E
18. B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
4. C
18. E
4. A
19. B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
5.
C
19.
D
5.
B
20.
E
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
6. D
20. E
6. A
21. C
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
7.
B
21.
D
7.
D
22.
B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
1
8. D
22. D
8. C
23. C
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
9.
D
23.
C
9.
D
24.
B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
10. C
24. C
10. C
25. C
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
11.
A
25.
A
11.
B
26.
B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
12. B
26. E
12. A
27. D
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
13. D
27. A
13. E
28. A
6
1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
14.
A
28.
B
14.
B
29.
C
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
15. C
30. B
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 66
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
2
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
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3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
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2
6
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6
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6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345
1 3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
2
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1
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
3456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
12
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345 6
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456

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http://www.xtremepapers.net

PART

III
Section Review
Quantitative Review
Verbal Review

48

134

Analytical Writing Review

227

PART III
http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter

4
Quantitative Review
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
All
the
Math
You
Left
Behind
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For those who have not seen a triangle since high school geometry, its 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scary
to
think
that
your
graduate
school
aspirations
partially
rest
on
your
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 ability to work with the math concepts of your youth. Those of you who 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
studied math extensively in college arent off the hook either, since the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
concepts tested on the GRE are not the ones studied by math majors or 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
engineering students. Brainiacs who are used to working with orthogonal 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
matrices might not remember dividing with remainders.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Thats the half-empty news. The half-full news is that the GRE math 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section tests a limited number of math concepts, so the math content of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 GRE can be mastered. With a little bitokay, for some of you, a lotof 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
studying, you can be confident that you will not be tested on an unfamiliar 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
math
concept.
The
reason
for
this
comes
partly
from
the
fact
that
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
material covered in the GRE math section is not very difficult. Instead, the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 difficulty comes when the test demands you apply this basic set of GRE 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
math
knowledge
in
creative
ways
to
solve
problems.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Mastering the basic math knowledge of the GRE becomes the first goal, so 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this is what well focus on for now (without such mastery, the math will 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
indeed be difficult). Once this is done, the second step is learning to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
recognize how and when to apply the basic math knowledge on the GRE. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This will take more time than the first part, but you will have more than 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
enough questions to practice on before you have to exercise this skill on 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
test day.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
On test day, you can expect to see a lot of math jargon in the Quantitative 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
section.
But
dont
fear;
you
dont
have
to
be
intimidated
by
math
speak.
In
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 this section, we will define all the terms that you need to know for the test, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and we will work with them so that you can get comfortable with phrases 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
like
positive
even
integers
divisible
by
4.
As
you
learn
(or
refresh
your
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
memory
about)
this
math
jargon,
remember
that
learning
a
math
term
is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
48

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

Alert!

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
just like learning a new word. Dont let the jargon-ness (jargonosity?) of it 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
throw you. A math term simply refers to a specific math notion, just like 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the word chair refers to a specific idea we have of furniture you sit on. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 When a math term is introduced, read the definition, consider the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
example,
and
think
of
it
as
your
new
word
for
the
day.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 So, dont let the GRE math section bully you, or your feelings, around. It 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
be
conquered
with
a
little
effort.
Roll
up
your
sleeves,
get
to
work,
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
comfort
yourself
with
the
thought
that
once
you
finish
the
math
section
on
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
GRE,
you
will
probably
never
have
to
be
concerned
about
the
area
of
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
parallelogram
again
(unless
you
decide
to
go
to
business
school
and
need
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 to take the GMAT, that is).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Arithmetic,
or Fun with Numbers
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Most people hear the word arithmetic and think add-subtract-multiply2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 divide, but arithmetic actually covers many basic math concepts and 2
terms. GRE math loves to pile one math topic on top of another, so theres 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a lot of arithmetic in the Quant section. Take your time and dont just skim 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
over this portion to get to a juicier topic like Geometry, since Arithmetic 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
covers the fundamental terms that will be prevalent on almost every 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
question, in one form or another.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Integers, or Pretty Much Everything Thats Not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
Fraction
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Integers are the numbers that you count with (1, 2, 3 and so on). They can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
also
be
negative
(21,
22,
23
.
.
.).
Zero
is
also
an
integer.
The
numbers
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
23, 22, 21, 0, 1, 2, and 3 are all integers. Pretty much any whole number 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you can think ofany number that is not a fraction or a decimalis an 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 integer, and if you put a negative in front of that number, it also is an 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
integer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In
the
real
world,
the
terms
integer
and
number
are
fairly
synonymous,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
since when any real person says pick a number, they dont expect you
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
13
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to pick a fraction like . However, integer is a more precise term, and
2
1
8
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
since its also something people are unfamiliar with, it makes many
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
appearances
on
the
GRE.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Besides
zero,
all
integers
are
positive
or
negative,
and
they
are
also
even
or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
odd.
Positive
integers
are
greater
than
zero
(like
2,
15,
or
309),
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 49
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

50

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
negative integers are less than zero (21, 223, 290). Think of the integers 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
as being along a line with zero at the center.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This
figure
above
is
called
a
number
line,
and
seeing
it
may
provoke
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
jarring flashback to the eighth grade. As you go from left to right on a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number line, the value of the number increases. Notice that this means that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
25 is greater than 210.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The mathematical definitions for even and odd values use integers, stating 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that an integer is even if you can divide it by 2 and have no remainder 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(nothing left over). For example, 24 and 10 are even since two evenly 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
divides
into
both.
11
and
227,
on
the
other
hand,
are
odd
since
2
does
not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
evenly divide into them.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234
4123456789012345678901234
4 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123
even
1
even
5
even
e.g.,
12
1
8
5
20
4
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123
12345678901234567890123412345678901234567890123
123456789012345678901234 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
even 1 odd 5 odd
e.g., 6 1 13 5 19
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
odd
1
odd
5
even
e.g.,
7
1
9
5
16
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
even 3 even 5 even
e.g., 4 3 6 5 24
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
even 3 odd 5 even
e.g., 3 3 8 5 24
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
odd 3 odd 5 odd
e.g., 1 3 9 5 9
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(Remember, if you forget one of these, like what an even times an
2
1
odd is, just pick an even and an odd number and multiply them.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Their
product
will
remind
you.)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
might
not
remember
how
basic
math
operations
work
with
that
pesky
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
negative sign, so see the quick refresher on the following page.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Working with Negative Numbers
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456
1234567890123456789012345
6123456789012345678901234
5 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345
(negative) 1 (negative)
e.g., (24) 1 (25) 5 29
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345 6
123456789012345678901234 5 2
6
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1234567890123456789012345
123456789012345678901234 5 2
5 negative
12345678901234567890123456
1234567890123456789012345 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(positive) 1 (negative)
e.g., (10) 1 (212) 5 10 2 12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
(positive)
2
(positive)
5
22
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(26)
1
(8)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
5826
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 (positive) 2 (negative)
e.g., 12 2 (23) 5 12 1 3 5 15
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 positive 1 positive
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(positive)
3
(negative)
5
negative
e.g.,
26
3
3
5
218
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(negative) 3 (negative) 5 positive e.g., (27) 3 (24) 5 28
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
e.g., 0 3 (210) 5 0
2
1 Zero is not negative, but it is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
good
to
remember
that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0
3
(anything)
5
0
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
How many integers are there from 25 to 7 inclusive?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
13
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
D.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 212
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Heres a simple math question with two well-traveled math terms, integer 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and inclusive. You know the first term, so if you figure out what inclusive 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
means, you should be able to solve this problem. Inclusive means you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 include 25 and 7 when you are counting the number of integers. How 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
many negative numbers are there from 25 to 7? Five. How many positive 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers are there from 25 to 7? Seven. Test-takers in a hurry may add 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these numbers, 5 and 7, and then pick choice (C). Yet this would be too 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hasty, for if you recall, zero is also an integer. That makes the correct 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer
for
this
problem
13,
choice
(B).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This problem typifies the GRE Quant section. The question contains two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
basic
math
terms
and
in
many
ways
looks
deceptively
simple.
You
can
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
come
up
with
a
quick
answer,
12,
thats
just
begging
for
you
to
choose
it.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 However, if you take time and use a strong understanding of the basic
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
terms integer and inclusive, you will not forget the presence of zero.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 51
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

52

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The terms divisible and product are often used along with integers. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Divisible is the math term for when an integer can be divided by another 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
without there being a remainder. For instance, 12 is divisible by 3 since 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 12 4 3 5 4, and there is no remainder. In this instance, 3 also has a name, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
divisor,
since
it
evenly
divides
into
12.
When
you
multiply
two
numbers
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
together,
the
answer
is
the
product.
So
12
is
the
product
of
3
times
4.
In
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this
case,
3
and
4
are
called
factors
of
12
because
their
product
is
12.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
factors
of
12
are
the
integers
that
multiply
together
to
give
12:
1
3
12,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
3
6,
3
3
4.
Notice
that
the
factors
of
12
and
the
divisors
of
12
are
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same.
They
just
involve
using
a
different
math
operation.
Think
of
it
as
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 going up a set of stairs or heading down a set of stairs. Either way, its the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same set of stairs.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There is another related term, multiple. The multiple of an integer is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that integer times counting numbers like 1, 2, 3, and up. So the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 multiples of 3 are 3(3 3 1), 6(3 3 2), 9(3 3 3), 12(3 3 4), 15(3 3 5), 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
18(3 3 6) . . . and so on. The integer 12(3 3 4) is a multiple of 3, and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
its also a multiple of 4.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
Keeping all these terms in your head can be a bit tricky. Its like having 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
identical triplet cousins whose names are Tad, Todd, and Ted. Dont lose 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
heart in this flurry of terms. None of them individually is difficult to grasp, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 but they can be a little confusing if they are all heaped together at the same 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
time like in the following problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column
B
Column
A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The greatest
The first even
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
common
factor
of
integer
greater
than
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
18 and 36
434
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The greatest common factor, or GCF, is the largest number that is a factor 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of both 18 and 36. You might notice right off the bat that 36 5 2 3 18, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and so 18 must be the GCF. If you dont catch this, dont sweat it. Just start 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 writing down the factors of 18 and 36.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Factors
of
18:
1,
2,
3,
6,
9,
18
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Factors of 36: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 18 is the largest number they share, so the integer value of Column A is 18. 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Looking
at
Column
B,
you
just
have
to
unpack
the
terms.
The
first
integer
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 greater than 16 (4 3 4) is 17, and the first even integer greater than 16 is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
18.
Column
B
also
equals
18,
so
(C)
is
the
correct
answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Tip

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice
that
both
Columns
A
and
B
describe
specific
numbers
that
will
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
have a definite relationship. Therefore, (D) cannot be the correct answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One
final
integer-related
term
to
cover
concerns
prime
numbers.
Prime
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers
are
divisible
by
only
two
integers,
themselves
and
one.
Another
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
way of saying this is to state a prime number only has two multiples: Itself 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and 1. 11 is a prime number since the only integers that evenly divide into 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
11 are 11 and 1. Notice that 1 is not a prime number since it has one 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
multiple (1 3 1) and not two.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It is a good idea to be familiar with the smaller prime numbers because you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might need them at your fingertips for a problem. Heres the first ten: 2, 3, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, and 29. If you want any more, youll have to figure 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
them
out
yourself
or
pay
extra.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
If n equals the number of prime numbers greater than 10 and less
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than 20, then 3n 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
9
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
15
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Before you can find 3n, you must figure out what n is. Looking at the list of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prime numbers in the paragraph above, you can see that there are four 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prime numbers between 10 and 20: 11, 13, 17, 19. If n 5 4, then 3n will be 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 (3)(4) 5 12. Therefore, (D) is the correct answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1Fractions, or Pretty Much Everything Thats Not
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
an Integer
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A fraction is a number made up of two integers and it looks like this: . 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The number on top, a, is called the numerator. The number on the bottom, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b,
is
called
the
denominator.
(If
you
can
come
up
with
a
clever
way
to
help
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
yourself
remember
that
the
numerator
is
on
top
while
the
denominator
is
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
on bottom, you should do so.) A fraction means you are dividing the top 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 by the bottom, so a is the same thing as a 4 b. Since a 5 a 4 b, b cannot 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b
2
1 equal zero becauseb mathematicians dont think it makes
any sense to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
divide by 0. I dont have the exact reasons for this, but in general, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 53
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mathematicians are a serious lot and I dont think they would say this just 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to pull our leg.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The GRE math section is going to expect you to do things like add and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
divide
fractions,
so
here
is
a
quick
review
of
how
to
perform
these
math
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
operations
with
fractions.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. Addition
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
can
only
add
fractions
that
have
the
same
denominator.
If
you
are
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
asked what 1 equals, you have to make the bottoms look the same. In 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
math speak, this is called finding a common denominator. The common 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominator
will
be
a
number
that
is
a
multiple
of
both
4
and
3.
12
is
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
smallest
common
multiple
(in
math
speak,
the
least
common
multiple
or
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
LCM). To get 12 as your denominator for both fractions, you multiply the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
first denominator by 3 to get 12 and the second denominator by 4 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 to get 12.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
However, you cant just multiply only the denominator by whatever 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number you please. You must also multiply the numerator by that same 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number. Multiply the first fraction by and the second one by .
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This gives you:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
3
9
2
1
3
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 3 12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 4
8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3 5
2
1
3 4 12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3 3
2 4
9
8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
5
1
2
1
4
3
3
4
12
12
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now that the denominators are the same you can add the numerators,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
9
8
8
1
9
17
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
5
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12 12
12
12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 2. Subtraction
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Like
addition,
you
have
to
have
the
same
denominator
in
order
to
subtract
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fractions.
Once
you
have
that,
just
subtract
the
two
numbers
on
top
(the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 numerators). So,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
9
8
928
1
3 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
5
2
5
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
4 3 12 12
12
12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

SD SD

54

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Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3. Multiplication
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This is a lot easier. Multiply the numerators together and multiply the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominators together. For example,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
210
3
230
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
5
20
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Fractions in answer choices on the GRE will usually be in their simplest 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
230
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
form, and so
would not be an answer on the GRE. It would be 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
20
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
simplified,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
230
23
3
10
23
10
23
3
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
5
5
3
5
3 1 5 2 or 21
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
20
2
3
10
2
10
2
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4. Division
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Dividing
two
fractions
can
look
like
this,
4
,
or
it
can
look
like
this,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
8
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
These two expressions are the same. You solve them with a two-step 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
process.
First,
flip
the
fraction
you
are
dividing
by,
so
that

.
In
math
2
1
8
7
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
speak, this flipping is called finding the reciprocal. Now multiply the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 flipped fraction and the other fraction. So,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
8
16
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
3
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
7
35
7
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A catchy phrase to remember the dividing procedure is, When dividing, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
dont
ask
why;
just
flip
it
over
and
multiply.
If
you
forget
it,
any
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
14-year-old kid can remind you of this phrase.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Fractions also come in hybrid form. Theyre called mixed fractions, and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 they look like 37, which means 3 1 7. In order to do any arithmetic 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
operation like the ones discussed above, mixed fractions should be 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 converted into pure fractions. You might be able to multiply the mixed 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 fractions 32 with 43, but it would be pretty messy.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
5
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 55
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Note

56

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To convert a mixed fraction into a pure fraction, first multiply the integer 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
out front by the denominator, then add that product to the numerator.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
3 3 7 5 21
(multiplying the integer 3 with the denominator 7)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
21
1
2
5
23
(adding
the
product
to
the
numerator
2)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
23
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Voila,
you
have
it.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
All
integers
can
be
expressed
as
a
fraction.
Place
the
integer
in
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numerator and a 1 in the denominator. For instance, 7 in fractional form 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is
.
If
you
think
about
it,
5
7
4
1
5
7
should
make
sense
to
you.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
1
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x
3
2
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
4
5
4
then
3
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
8
3 4x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
2
1
3
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
C. 1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Heres a basic GRE question that seeks to overwhelm you with a bunch of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fractions and arithmetic flitting about. You cant solve the second equation 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
until you learn the value of x, which can be found by solving the first 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 54
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
8
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x 3 3x 8 24x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
5
3
5
5
4x
(This
solves
the
left
side
of
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
8
2
3
6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation.)
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4x 5 4
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
x51
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Plugging x 5 1 into the second equation will get you:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
3 4x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
8
4
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
3
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
4
1
12
3
~
!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
4
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You might have noticed that 5 1, so multiplying out the second equation 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
wasnt
necessary.
Either
way,
you
end
up
with
(B),
the
correct
answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Decimals
(Fractions
in
Disguise!)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Decimal form is another way to write a fraction. Decimals can easily be 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
converted into fractions, since every decimal has a denominator that is a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 multiple of 10. The decimal 0.7 is the fraction 7 , while the decimal 0.765 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
765
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
.
You
take
the
number
and
make
it
the
numerator,
then
you
look
is
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1,000
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
count
how
many
spaces
there
are
to
the
right
of
the
decimal
point.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This number equals the number of zeroes you need to place after a 1 in the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominator. 0.7 has only one space to the right, so you put only one zero 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
after the 1, giving you 10 in the denominator. The decimal 0.765 has three 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
spaces, so you put three zeroes, giving you 1,000 in the denominator.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
All the numbers to the right of the decimal point have place values that end 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in the suffix -th. The decimal 0.7 is expressed seven tenths, while 0.25 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is twenty-five hundredths. Place values on either side of the decimal 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
point might crop up, so its good to have a quick review:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Take the number 934.167:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789011234567
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890
9 is in the hundreds place, so the 9 means1
900
11234567
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890
1234567
12345678901234567890123456789011234567
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3 is in the tens place, so the 3 means 30
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 is in the units place, so the 4 means 4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1 is in the tenths place, so the 1 means 1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6
6
is
in
the
hundredths
place,
so
the
6
means
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
100
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
7
is
in
the
thousands
place,
so
the
7
means
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1,000
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 57

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Alert!

58

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A
tricky
part
about
place
values
and
decimals
is
that
there
is
no
unit-ths
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
value. In this example, the 4 is four units and the number to the left of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
it is the tens. However, the number immediately to the right of 4over 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the decimal point divideis the tenths, not unit-ths.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When you add and subtract with decimals you need to make sure you line 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
up the decimal points. For instance, 345.4 minus 202.45 is:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
345.4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2 202.45
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When multiplying decimals, do the multiplication as if the decimal points 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
werent there. Just ignore them for starters. Once you have the product, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
count how many decimal places you have behind the decimal in both 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
factors, and then put the decimal that many places into the product. If that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 sounds confusing, in application its not. For instance, 3.5 3 0.5 175 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(multiplying forgetting the decimals). Or, there are two places behind the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
decimal
in
the
two
factors,
one
for
each
factor.
Putting
two
numbers
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
behind the decimal in the product gives you 1.75. If you change the initial 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers
to
0.35
and
0.005,
you
still
multiply
and
get
175
to
start.
But
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
now there are five spaces to the left of the decimal point (two in 0.35 and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
three
in
0.005),
so
your
final
answer
will
be
0.00175
for
that
problem.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To divide a decimal by a decimal, first move the decimal in the divisor until 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
it is a whole number, and then move the decimal point as many spaces in 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the number being divided. The expression 2.3 4 0.5 would look like this 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
23.0
in
long
division
form.
You
would
have
to
move
the
decimal
one
5
=
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
space to the left to transform 2.3 into the integer 23, so you must move 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the divisor one space to the left as well, making 0.5 into 5. Now do the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 division, and put the decimal in the quotient right where it lies in the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4.6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number being divided, 5q23.0.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If you need to convert a fraction into a decimal, remember that means 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
4
b.
So
if
you
are
given
a
fraction
and
you
need
to
know
its
value
in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 decimal form, divide the top by the bottom, and you have it. For example, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is
in
decimal
form,
divide
2
by
7,
if
you
need
to
know
what
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0.28
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2.00
q
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
60
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
56
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
' 0.28
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
Column B
Column A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
d, c, e are distinct prime numbers and
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
d 1 e 5 c. They are also part of the six
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
digit number 54de.3c.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The value in the
The value in the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tens
place
in
the
tenths
place
in
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
6-digit number
6-digit number
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The test is trying to confuse you with math speak. Dont let it. Distinct 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
prime numbers are prime numbers that are different from each other, so 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 d e c. You can also infer that d, c, e must be 2, 3, 5, or 7 since those are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
all the single digit prime numbers.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Lets look at Column A and try to pin it down. The value in the tens place 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is d. With what you know, d 1 e 5 c could be 2 1 3 5 5 or 2 1 5 5 7, but 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
theres no way to tell which equation is valid. Therefore, d could be 2, 3, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or
5.
That
narrows
it
down
as
much
as
possible,
so
its
time
to
turn
to
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 Column B. The tenths place is the one just to the right of the decimal,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
which
is
3.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This gives us three possibilities. Depending on ds value, it could be less 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than, equal to, or greater than 3. This makes Column A less than, equal to,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or greater than Column B, depending on what value you use for d. 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Therefore, choice (D) is the correct answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 59
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

60

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Exponents(Those Tiny Raised Numbers) and Roots
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Exponents
can
be
a
little
weird,
and
thats
putting
it
nicely.
A
basic
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
exponent
looks
like
4
,
with
the
integer
4
called
the
base
and
the
number
2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
called the power, or exponent. The expression 4 is math shorthand for 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 3 4, which might make you think people have to be in a real hurry to use 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that shorthand. Exponents come in handy when you deal with numbers 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
like 4350, since writing out 350 fours is a bit time-consuming.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
While
you
might
be
using
some
arithmeticadding,
subtracting,
fractions,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and decimalsin your everyday life, youre usually not walking around 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
th
power.
Here
is
a
condensed
version
of
how
raising
values
to
the
n
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 exponents work. Look it over, play with them (plug in numbers and such), 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
get
comfortable
with
them.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Exponent Refresher
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
5
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
1
x
5
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x 5x3x
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x3 5 x 3 x 3 x
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You get the picture. But just for good measure, heres one more:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
xx
5
x
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 Exponents can also be negative.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
21
5
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
1
22
2
1
x
5
5
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
3
x
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 You can add and subtract numbers with exponents if they have the same 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
base and are raised to the same power.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2x
5
5x
3x
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x2 2 x2 5 x2
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but
3x
1
3x

6x
since
they
are
not
raised
to
the
same
power.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 You can also multiply and divide numbers if they have the same base.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a b
a1b
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x x 5x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
3
5
2
3
For
instance,
x
3
x
5
x
.
This
makes
sense
if
you
see
that
x
3
x
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 (x 3 x)(x 3 x 3 x) 5 x5.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
a
2
b
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
5x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For example,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
3
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
x
5
x
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
x2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This
also
makes
sense
if
you
see
that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
x
xxx
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
xx
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can also raise a number with an exponent to a power. In gambling 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
terms, this would be like saying, Ill see your exponent, and raise you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 another.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a b
ab
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
)
5
x
(x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
So,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
3
6
23
3
29
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(x
)
5
x
or
(x
)
5
x
5
9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a and b are positive distinct integers.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22
2
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2a
4b
10
b
~
!
~
!
~
!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a2b23
5~2a! a2a2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Here is another problem filled with complex-looking math things, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
standard issue for the GRE math problem visual. At first, dont worry 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
about the positive distinct integer bit. Just simplify the expressions step 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
by step.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column B
Column A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22
2
2
2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
10(b )
~2a ! ~4b!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 23
2 2 2
2
1
a
b
5(2a)
a
a
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4b~b3!
10b4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 2
5
2
2
2
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2a
5
4a
a
~
!
~
!
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4b4
10b4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6
6
2
1
4a
20a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b4
b4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
2
1
6
6
a
2a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now that youve done the work, you can go back to the positive distinct 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
integers
phrase.
Since
the
two
variables
are
positive
integers,
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 61

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Part III: Section Review

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Tip

62

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominator in Column A is smaller than the denominator in Column B, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
while the numerators are equal. Try substituting some small positive 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
integers into the equation if you like. If the denominator in Column B is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1 1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
greater, this means that Column A is greater in value, since . . Using 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
these
simpler
values,
you
can
see
how
the
numerators
are
equal
and
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fraction
with
the
smaller
denominator
is
the
largest
value.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
the
variables
werent
distinct
they
could
both
equal
1,
and
the
two
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fractions
would
be
equal.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equal?
What
does
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4243
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
26
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
23
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 2
2
1
21
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 25
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One way to do this is to raise each number to its power, multiply where 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
needed, and then simplify. You might be able to work this method on this 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem,
but
if
the
numbers
are
raised
to
higher
powers,
this
method
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 becomes very difficult very quickly. The other way is to try to make the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers
in
the
numerator
and
the
denominator
have
the
same
base
so
that
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you can simplify directly. Since 4 5 (2)(2) then
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2 2
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 5 [(2)(2)] 5 2 2 5 2 ,
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
43 5 [(2)(2)]3 5 2323 5 26
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
So we can rewrite the fraction like this,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
4
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
4 6
10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 3
2
2
2
4
4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This can be simplified straightforwardly,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
4 210
26
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
2
5
2
10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 You could also have transformed the numerator into a base of 4. Either 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
method would lead to the right answer, although since a majority of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer choices have a base of 2, transforming everything into that base 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
increases your chances of simply coming up with the right answer without 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
having to do one last conversion.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The annoying relative of the exponent is the square root. It looks like this 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
, and its the opposite of squaring a number. When you square 4, you 2
=
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
multiply it by itself to get 16, but when you take the square root of 4, you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
get
the
number
that
times
itself
gives
4(2
3
2)
5
4,
so
4
52.
Square
=
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
roots can also be written as exponents, =x 5 x .
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Even more annoying than the square root is the cube root. Just look at it, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
. Something like this practically screams convoluted math process 2
=
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
up ahead. When you cube something, you multiply it by itself twice (so 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the cube of 3 is 33 5 3 3 3 3 3 5 27). The cube root is the opposite, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
3
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
27 5 3 or =8 5 2 because 2 3 2 3 2 5 8. Cube roots are written as 2
=
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
exponents like this, =x 5 x3.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
25
2
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3!~x12!#
~
!~
@
2x
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
x
5
3
then
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4~x4!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. =3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
27
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 81
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
is
good
news
and
bad
news
about
this
problem.
The
good
news
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that with a problem like this, there are no hidden tricks. The bad news is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 that you have to work this problem out step by step, but you know 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
everything
you
need
to
know
to
do
that.
To
the
solving,
then!
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
25
2
2
1
2 25
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3!~x12!
~
!
~
2x
x
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x12x 4
5
x
x
3
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
!
~
4 x
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 The four in the denominator is cancelled out by the 2 that gets squared. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now we need to find a common denominator for the exponents in order to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
add and subtract these fractions. This process was discussed earlier on 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
page 62, and as you can see, straightforward concepts have a way of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
showing
up
in
odd
places
on
a
GRE
math
question.
12
is
an
easy
choice.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 25
24 1 8 1 25 2 9
48
3
2
2
4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12
5 x12 5 x
x x3x12x 4 5 x
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
x
5
3
then
the
answer
is
81,
or
(E).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 63
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

S D

64

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Common Exponents to Know
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
4
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
5
8,
2
5
16,
2
5
32
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
4
3 5 27, 3 5 81
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 5 64
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
125
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 One more tip when dealing with exponents: Always remember that the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
36,
its
base
can
be
a
negative
number.
If
a
problem
states,
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
common
to
assume
that
x
5
6.
This
is
a
tried-and-true
test
trap.
Without
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
any more information given in the problem, all you know is that x could be 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6 or 26. Any number raised to an even power will yield a positive number, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
but the base could be positive or negative. When the exponent is odd, the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
base is the same sign as what it equals.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
232
then
x
5
22.
For
instance,
if
x
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Percents Are about 4.6% of This Entire Chapter
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Percents
are
not
an
alien
concept,
but
the
GRE
expects
a
greater
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
understanding of percents than what you need to navigate the local 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
grocery
store.
It
isnt
a
huge
amount
of
additional
information
that
you
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 need to understand, but a few things probably need to be ironed out in 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
your mind about percents. Lets get to ironing.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Percent just means per hundred or divided by one hundred.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
27
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
So 27% 5
, or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
100
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0.6
6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0.6% 5
5
2
1
100 1,000
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If bananas are 40% off at the store, and their normal price is $3/pound, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
then
their
sale
price
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(100%
2
40%)($3
pound)
5
(60%)
($3
pound)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
60
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
$3 pound!
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~
2
100
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 (0.6)($3 pound)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
$1.80
pound
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice that we multiplied the price times 60% because the sales price was 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
40% off. You could also have found out how much the bananas were 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
discounted due to the sale, and then subtracted that number from the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 original price. This would give you:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
40
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
(40 sale)($3 pound) 5
~$3 pound!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
100
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
(0.4)($3
pound)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
5 $1.20 discount
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Subtract
$1.20,
the
discount,
from
the
original
price
of
$3/pound
and
you
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 get $1.80/pound, the same answer as before.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A straightforward use of percent is when you are given two numbers and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
asked to figure out a percentage value. A simple question of this kind 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
might ask, What percentage of 33 is 3? To answer this problem, it helps 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to travel back in time to the fifth grade and dredge up the skill known as 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 cross-multiplying. Given two fractions equal to each other, you can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
multiply the numerator of the first fraction with the denominator of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
second fraction. Then you can multiply the numerator of the second 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fraction with the denominator of the first fraction, and set both products 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equal
to
each
other.
Like
many
basic
math
concepts,
the
explanation
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tougher than the actual cross-multiplying.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 One way to set up this problem is 3 5 x , because you want to know 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
33 100
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
what percentage the original fraction equals. Solving for x by cross- 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
multiplying yields
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
3
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
33 100
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~33!~x! 5 ~3!~100! (the second step is the
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cross-multiplying
one)
33x
5
300

12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
300
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x5
'9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
33
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With no calculator, 9 is a good estimate. Therefore, 3 is about 9% of 33. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
shortcut
on
this
problem
was
to
see
that
5
,
and
using
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
33
11
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 fraction-decimal conversions, 5 0.09 5 9%.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
11
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 65
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

X-Ref

S D

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

66

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Those are the user-friendly percent questions. Percent increase and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
decrease problems are a tad bit trickier. With these problems, the critical 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
point to remember is that any increase or decrease is relative to the original 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 value (what is increasing or decreasing). You need to use the original value 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
if
you
are
trying
to
find
the
percent
change.
Suppose
a
problem
tells
you
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that
a
certain
stock
started
the
year
priced
at
$40/share
and
ended
the
year
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
at
$56/share.
What
was
the
percentage
change?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This
percentage
change
is
relative
to
the
original
value
of
$40/share.
To
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
find
the
percentage
change,
you
find
how
much
the
stock
price
changed
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
$16
share
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
0.4
($16/share)
and
divide
it
by
the
original
value,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
$40 share
10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 40%. Since the change was an increase, the stock price increased 40%. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The same method would be used to find a percentage decrease.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You might see a percentage change problem like this but be given the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
percentage
change
and
the
final
value
of
the
item
and
asked
to
find
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 original value. In that case, you are doing the same problem you just did in 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reverse. Here is the formula you can use to solve either kind of problem, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
|x
2
y|
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 z, where x is the original value, y is the second value, and z is the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
percentage change. (If the lines around the numerator are like alien 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
scribblings to you, look forward to the section on absolute value for an 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
explanation of them.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The price of a house increased 15%, and then decreased 20%.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Compared
to
the
original
price,
the
final
price
was
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. an 8% decrease.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. a 5% decrease.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. the same.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. a 3% increase.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
E. a 5% increase.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Choices (B) and (E) are the big traps here. It seems so inviting to just add 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 or subtract percentages together, but this is almost always wrong. This is 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because the two percents are often reflections of different numerical 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
values. In other words, you could add 50% of 100 and 25% of 100 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 together only because they have the same base value, 100. But you cant 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
just add up 50% of 2 and 25% of 100 because these are percentages of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
different
numbers,
2
and
100.
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Theres
a
simple
trick
that
makes
this
kind
of
problem
a
lot
easier.
If
youre
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not told what the original price of the house is, pick a value and work the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem
with
it.
You
want
to
make
things
easy,
so
dont
pick
a
tough
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Tip

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number like 17.53. Using the value of 100 is a much better choice, as this 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
makes the first percent change easy to figure. A 15% increase on 100 is 15, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and so after the first increase the price of the house is 115.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
now
have
to
calculate
a
20%
decrease
on
a
house
valued
at
115.
If
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
recall
those
fraction-decimal
conversions
on
page
57,
20%
5
0.20
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
.
Therefore,
to
find
the
value
of
the
20%
decrease,
multiply
115
by
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 115 115
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 one fifth, 3
5
5 23. The price of the house decreased 23 from 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
1
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
115,
which
means
the
final
value
of
the
house
is
92(115
2
23).
What
is
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
percentage
change
from
100
to
92?
Its
an
8%
decrease,
choice
(A).
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Ratios, Where You Can Compare Apples to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Oranges
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Ratio problems on standardized tests are like affable guests on a talk 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 show: They make a lot of appearances. Ratios can be tested in lots of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
different kinds of problems, which is one reason for their common 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
occurrence. You might see ratios in a word problem or a probability 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem, or maybe in just a straightforward ratio problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Ratios
are
a
fancy
way
of
writing
fractions.
There
are
a
couple
of
different
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
forms of ratios that you might see on a test, but they are all equivalent to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 each other and they are also all equivalent to the fractional form of the 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ratio. In a word problem, a ratio would look like this: 9 bananas were 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 sold for every 4 apples that were sold. The ratio of bananas to apples sold 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is 9 to 4, or 9:4. These three expressions are equivalent, and they are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(the
first
number
in
the
ratio
is
the
numerator
equivalent
to
the
fraction
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and the second the denominator).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
From a precise mathematical standpoint, ratios and fractions are not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
completely interchangeable. However, the precise distinction between
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ratios and fractions is not relevant for the GRE, so dont sweat it.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Like fractions, ratios can be reduced to lowest terms. If the ratio had been
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 9 bananas sold for every 3 apples, the ratio would be 9:3 or 3:1. These 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ratios are the same, just as is the same thing as .
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
3
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Since you can compare fractions and say that one is greater than another, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you can do the same thing with ratios. For instance, which ratio is greater, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 4:3 or 5:4? Convert both to fractions and compare. Is greater or smaller 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 67
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than ? It is greater because a third is greater than a fourth (bigger 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominator
means
smaller
value,
just
like
earlier),
and
four
thirds
is
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 third greater than one, while five fourths is a fourth greater than one.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column
B
Column
A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Before 4 girls entered the class, there were
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
18 boys and 16 girls in the fourth grade
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
class at Santiago Elementary School.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The original ratio of
The final ratio of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
boys
to
girls
in
girls
to
boys
in
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the class
the class
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
First, you know that you can determine the two ratios, which means you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
compare
them.
Since
there
will
be
a
definite
relationship
between
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A and Column B, choice (D) is out. The original ratio of boys to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
20 10
18 9
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 . The final ratio of girls to boys is 20:18 or
5 . 2
girls is 18:16 or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
16 8
18
9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column
A
is
one
eighth
greater
than
one,
and
Column
B
is
one
ninth
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
greater than one, so (A) is greater.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Absolute Value (not a vodka-related concept)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Do
you
remember
the
number
line
on
page
50
of
this
chapter?
The
concept
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of absolute value is related to the number line. The absolute value of a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 number is how many numbers (how far) it is away from zero on the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number line. 214 is 14 numbers away from zero on the number line, so the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
absolute value of 214 is 14. Of course, the powers-that-be came up with a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cute little way to denote absolute value. For our example, its like this: 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
|214| 5 14.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
Algebra
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The word algebra usually conjures up memories of numbers and letters 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mashed together in strings like 9y 1 3x 5 2 . In simplest terms, algebra 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
uses
placeholders,
called
variables,
as
substitutes
for
a
known
value.
Using
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 variables in this manner often allows someone to set up an equation and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
then
solve
this
equation
to
find
the
actual
value
of
the
variable.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Setting
up
equations
with
variables
and
manipulating
these
equations
are
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 standard fare for all standardized math tests, and the GRE is no exception. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Problems filled with variables will be easily recognizable algebra prob- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lems, but these are not the only ones you will encounter. On others, the key 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will be to create the correct equation on your own, although this might not 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
68
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Alert!

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be the most obvious step required. The end point is that you should get 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
comfortable with the idea of using variables and making equations, since 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this is yet another tool you can use to crack open and solve GRE 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Quantitative questions.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Many algebra problems have a geometry component, and others are filled
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with
the
sort
of
math
jargon
you
just
finished
studying.
As
you
work
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
through
the
rest
of
this
chapter,
you
will
see
how
a
firm
foundation
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
arithmetic
aids
you
on
all
types
of
problems.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Equations
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Equations
are
like
sentences
written
in
math.
Unlike
sentences
written
in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
English, sentences written in math always follow the same form and rules: 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. There is stuff on the right side of the equation, and it equals the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
stuff on the left side of the equation.
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. If you do something to the right side, you have to do the exact 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same thing to the left side, and vice versa. (That is how you can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
keep the equal sign between them. If you do the same thing to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each side, they remain equal.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3. It doesnt matter what you do to one side, so long as you follow 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Rule #2.
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Burn Rules #2 and #3 into your head, since youll often be given an 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation to start with and asked to do something to it. Anythings fair 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
gamemultiplying, dividing, raising to a power, cubing the root, adding 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 43,000,000,000so long as its done to both sides.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If 3x 2 12 5 33, then what does x equal?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 This is a simple equation. To find out what x equals, you need to get x all 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
by itself on one side of the equation. The variable x will then equal 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
everything on the other side of the equation.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x
2
12
5
33
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x 2 12 1 12 5 33 1 12 By adding twelve to both sides, we can
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
get
rid
of
the
212
on
the
left
side.
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x 5 45
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Dividing
both
sides
by
three
will
get
rid
3x
4
3
5
45
4
3
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of the 3 in front of the x.
x 5 15
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
you
have
it.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 69
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

70

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice that in the example there was only one equation and one variable. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The next step up is a problem where you are given two equations and two 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
unknowns. Its all still good, because if you have two equations you can 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 solve for two unknowns. It just takes a little bit longer. (The general math 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rule
is
that
you
can
solve
for
as
many
unknowns
as
you
have
distinct
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equations.)
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
4x
1
3y
5
13
and
x
1
2y
5
2,
then
what
is
the
value
of
27xy?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 224
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
B. 24
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
21
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
28
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There are two different ways to try to solve this problem. The first way is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
solve
and
plug.
You
solve
for
one
variable
in
one
equation
and
then
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 plug it into the other equation. It looks like this:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(Plug
this
in
for
x
in
the
other
x
1
2y
5
2

x
5
2
2
2y
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(Now we have one equation with
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4~2 2 2y! 1 3y 5 13
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one
unknown,
so
we
can
solve
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for y.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
8 2 8y 1 3y 5 13
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
25y 5 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(We
can
take
this
information
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y 5 21
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
plug
it
back
into
our
equation
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
5
2
2
2y
2
1
with
x.)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
2
2(21)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
54
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Once
you
have
the
values
for
both
variables,
you
can
determine
what
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
27xy equals.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7xy 5
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7~4!~21! 5 228
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
That was the first way. The second way is a little more inventive and can be 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quicker. To do it, you want to make the coefficients of one of the variables 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the same in both equations. Then you can subtract one equation from the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 other and so eliminate one of the variables. In our example, it is easiest to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
make
both
of
the
xs
have
a
coefficient
of
4.
You
can
get
this
by
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
multiplying
the
second
equation
by
4:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x 1 2y 5 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
4~x 1 2y! 5 4~2! Rule #2 at work!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4x
1
2y
5
8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Line the two equations up and subtract one from the other:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4x
1
3y
5
13
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 4x 1 8y 5 8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
25y 5 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y 5 21
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Plugging this back in, you will find that x 5 4. As you would hope, this is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the same result that we got doing the problem the first way.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
More Complicated Equations
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Equations
on
the
GRE
dont
get
much
more
complicated
than
the
previous
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 ones. There are, however, quadratic equations occasionally lurking around
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
test.
These
sound
intimidating,
but
if
you
got
through
high
school
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
algebra, you have already mastered these imps once. Youll just need a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
little refresher so you can master them again.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A quadratic equation means that one variable will be raised to a power like 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this, x2. In order to solve these buggers, you often have to factor.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Factor Refresher
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ab
1
ac
5
a
b
1
c
~
!
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~a 1 b!~c 1 d!5 ac 1 ad 1 bc 1 bd
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a 1 2ab 1 b 5 ~a 1 b!
2
1
2
2
2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a 2 2ab 1 b 5 ~a 2 b!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
b
5
a
2
b
a
1
b
~
!~
!
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 71
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

72

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Think back, way back, to Algebra I. You might recall the memory aid 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
called FOIL. FOIL is used when you are multiplying two groups of two 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
variables that look like this: (a 1 b)(c 1 d). The expression stands for, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 First, Outside, Inside, Last.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
multiply
the
First
terms
(a
3
c),
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
Outside
terms
(a
3
d),
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Inside terms (b 3 c),
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the Last terms (b 3 d),
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
then
you
add
them
all
together.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
are
asked
to
expandthats
the
term
often
usedthe
expression,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
just
follow
FOIL:
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~2x 1 3!~x 2 4! 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2x
2
8x
1
3x2
12
5
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x2 2 5x 2 12 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Factoring
is
the
reverse
of
FOIL.
Factoring
is
when
you
make
the
math
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
expression have parentheses instead of the other way around, so you take 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
something like 2x2 2 5x 2 12 and must factor it into two parentheses like 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the (2x 1 3)(x 2 4) you started with above.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Factoring is 2often not as straightforward as doing FOIL. Lets use the 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
expression x 2 2x 2 15 as an example of what needs to be factored. First, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 if there is no coefficient in front of the squared termx2 in our 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
examplethen you can put an x in the first place of each parentheses, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(x
)(x
). Next, notice that the 15 has a minus in front of it. This 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
could only be the case if one of the last terms in the parentheses is negative 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and the other last term is positive, which means (x 1 )(x 2 ).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 The product of the last two terms is 15. What factors give fifteen? 1 3 15 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and 3 3 5 answers this problem. One of these factored pairs is the one 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
needed to complete the parentheses, but figuring out which one is correct 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
take
some
trial
and
error.
The
difference
between
the
factors
must
be
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
since that is the coefficient of the x-term, so 3 3 5 has to be what goes in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
blanks
of
our
parentheses.
But
which
goes
where?
Since
the
x-term
is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 negative (22), the larger number, 5, should go in front of the minus sign. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This
gives
us
(x
1
3)(x
2
5).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Note

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can always check to see if you have factored correctly by FOILing to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
see
if
you
get
what
you
started
with:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
x 1 3!~x 2 5! 5 x 2 5x 1 3x 2 15 5 x 2 2x 2 15
~
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
want
to
be
comfortable
using
FOIL
and
factoring,
since
many
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems
will
require
these
math
operations.
If
this
one
example
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 factoring didnt get all those old factoring juices flowing, then it is a good 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
idea
to
play
around
with
factoring
to
get
more
comfortable
with
it.
Make
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
up
a
few
expressions
like
(x
2
5)(x
2
2)
or
(x
1
8)(x
1
2),
expand
them,
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and then factor them. With practice, factoring can become as straightfor- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ward as expanding.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
Column B
Column A
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
c is a positive integer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
1
c
2
4
2c
2
c
2
6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When you see a problem like this, you should immediately suspect that you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can factor these two expressions and then compare them directly. The GRE 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
isnt going to give a problem where the only way to solve it is just plug in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers randomly; thats just not how its designed. Column A is one of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
classic factors from the chart, although you may have to look hard to see 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 a2 2 b2 5 (a 2 b)(a 1 b). Its there, though, and c2 2 4 5 (c 1 2)(c 2 2). 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Keep
these
results
in
mind
when
factoring
Column
B.
You
should
be
on
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
look out for a (c 1 2) or a (c 2 2) since that would make it easier to directly 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
compare
Column
A
and
B.
In
factoring
Column
B,
the
first
terms
can
only
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be: (2c
)(c
). If you dont see that, play with the numbers and it 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
should become clear. Since there is a negative sign in front of the 6, there 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 must be one plus and one minus sign in the parentheses. The factor pairs of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6 are 1 3 6 and 2 3 3. Since the middle c-term has a coefficient of one, 2 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
3
are
probably
our
factors,
but
with
the
2
in
front
of
the
first
c,
we
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cant be sure.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Play with the numbers to see if 2 and 3 can make it work. After some 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
unavoidable trial and error, you should hit upon (2c 1 3)(c 2 2). Since 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 both columns have a (c 2 2) term in them, you can disregard that term in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each column and focus on the other terms. You are now left comparing (c 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 2) and (2c 1 3). Since c is a positive integer, it seems likely that (2c 1 3) 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 is greater, but plug in a few numbers to confirm this if you arent sure. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Make sure to plug in c 5 1, since 1 is the lowest positive integer and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
therefore
the
most
likely
candidate
for
making
(A)
greater
or
equal
to
(B).
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It
turns
out
that
(B)
is
always
greater
than
(A),
so
the
correct
answer
is
(B).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 73

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Part III: Section Review

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Note

74

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When factoring quadratic equations, the first thing to be done is to get all 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the numbers and variables on one side and have the other side of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation equal zero. Suppose you were given the equation x2 1 x 2 6 5 6, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 and asked to determine the value(s) of x. The first step is:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
x 1x2656
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
1
x
2
6
2
6
5
6
2
6

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
1
x
2
12
5
0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
is
a
good
reason
why
you
do
this,
but
you
dont
need
to
know
it
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because
GRE
math
tests
the
hows
and
not
the
whys
of
algebra.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now its time to factor, and with some work you will get: x2 1 x 2 12 5 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(x
1
4)(x
2
3).
To
determine
the
value(s)
of
x,
look
at
the
two
sets
of
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 parentheses and remember that any number multiplied by zero is zero. You 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
deduce
that
either
(x
1
4)
5
0
or
(x
2
3)
5
0
equals
zero,
although
at
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this point you dont know which. When you are dealing with quadratic 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equations
(equations
that
have
squared
terms
in
them),
there
will
often
be
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two answers. In this example, x equals 24 or 3. Keep the two answers are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
correct
point
in
mind
when
you
see
quadratic
equations,
since
thats
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 kind of funky math knowledge that the test-makers love to test.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
3x 1 11x 1 6
2
1
5 0, then x 5
If 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
1
6x
1
9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
1
2
A.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 21
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As always, dont be intimidated by how complicated that algebra 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 expression looks. If you see something like this, you should know that the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
winning strategy on this type of problem is to find a way to simplify it. The 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominator looks less intricate, so lets start there:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
1
1
6x
1
9
5
(x
1
3)(x
1
3)
x
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It is a good bet that in factoring the numerator, you will find a (x 1 3) 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
term. Start with that premise and see where it leads you:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3x2 1 11x 1 6 5 (x 1 3)(3x 1 2)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
it
is.
Its
not
a
coincidence,
either.
Putting
it
all
together,
you
have:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
3x 1 11x 1 6 ~x 1 3!~3x 1 2! ~3x 1 2!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
50
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
x
1
3
x
1
3
x
1
3
x
1
6x
1
9
~
!~
! ~
!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Remember that a fraction equals zero if the numerator equals zero, and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(3x
1
2)
5
0
if
x
5
2
,
which
is
the
correct
answer,
choice
(A).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Not
Equations
But
Inequalities
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Inequalities are like equations except that there is not an equal sign between 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the left and right side. Instead you might find one of the following:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
Various Inequality Signs
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

not
equal
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
, less than
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
less than or equal to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
. greater than
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
greater than or equal to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If 4x 1 2 , 12, then 4x 1 2 is less than 12. If you needed to solve for x in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 this inequality, the rules are the same as for equations. Whatever you do to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one side, you have to do to the other. For example:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4x
1
2
,
12

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4x
1
2
2
2
,
12
2
2

2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
4x , 10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4x
4
4
,
10
4
4

2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There is one caveat to working with inequalities. If you multiply or divide 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 by a negative number, the direction of the inequality sign switches. Freaky, 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
eh? Suppose you need to solve the inequality 4 1 2g . 8 2 4g. First, collect 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
all
the
gs
on
one
side:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 1 2g . 8 2 4g
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4 2 8 1 2g 2 2 g . 8 2 8 2 4 g 2 2 g
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2 4 . 2 6g
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 75

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Part III: Section Review

76

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Divide each side by 26 and remember to switch the inequality. You get 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
, g.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column
B
Column
A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
10 . 2 2x 1 3 . 4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
23
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 If 10 . 22x 1 3 . 4 looks a little overwhelming, just think of it as two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
separate
inequalities
(10
.
22x
13
and
22x
1
3
.
4)
and
solve
them
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
separately.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22x
1
3
.
4

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22x
1
3
2
3
.
4
2
3

2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22x . 1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22x
4
22
.
1
4
22

12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x,2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
10 . 22x 1 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
10 2 3 . 22x 1 3 2 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
.
22x

2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7 4 22 . 22x 4 22
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 ,x
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Column B is an actual number, 23. As for Column A, all you know is that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
is
between
negative
seven
halves
(23.5)
and
negative
one
and
one
half.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 This means that x could be smaller than, equal to, or greater than 23, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
depending on where it is within its range. The correct answer is (D).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1A Statistics Excursus (Look It Up!)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
next
three
statistical
concepts
are
kind
of
like
the
Marx
Brothers.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
are
three
main
ones,
and
then
another
thats
sort
of
the
Zeppo
of
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
bunch. Some combination of mean, median, and mode will make an 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
appearance
on
your
GRE
math
section.
Test-makers
like
to
make
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 questions using these statistical concepts because they test your ability to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
apply a concept to a math scenario.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Statistics Refresher
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
arithmetic
mean,
mean,
or
sum
of
numbers
divided
by
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
average
number of items in set
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
median
middle number when set is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
lined
up
in
numerical
order
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mode
number
that
appears
most
often
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
a
set
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
range
difference between the greatest
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
smallest
values
in
set
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To
compare
all
the
terms,
consider
the
number
set,
{14,
12,
8,
15,
5,
8}.
To
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
determine
the
mean,
you
add
up
the
numbers
in
the
set
(14
1
12
1
8
1
15
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 5 1 8 5 62), then divide the sum by number of items in set. There are six 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
62
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
items,
or
numbers,
total,
so
5
10
.
This
is
the
average
mean
of
the
set.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6
3
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When
people
use
the
word
average
in
everyday
speech,
they
are
referring
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
mean.
But
there
are
two
other
ways
to
find
what
can
be
considered
an
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
average of a group and these are median and mode. To find the median, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you must first line up the numbers in numerical order, {5, 8, 8, 12, 14, 15}. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You then pick the one in the middle, and thats the median. This works 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quickly
if
there
is
an
odd
number
of
items
in
the
set,
but
it
takes
a
teensy
bit
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 of work if there is an even number of items in the set. If thats the case, the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
there
is
not
one
single
number
in
the
middle.
Instead,
there
are
two
in
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
middle, 8 and 12. To find the median of this set, you must find the mean of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8 1 12 20
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5 10. The median of this group of 2
the two middle numbers.
2
1
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
numbers
is
10,
even
though
10
is
not
one
of
the
numbers
listed
in
the
set.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 The mode of a set is the number that appears most often. It is 8 for the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number set in question, since this is the only number that occurs more than 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
once. To find the range (the Zeppo of this group), you subtract the smallest 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
number
from
the
greatest
number,
15
2
5
5
10.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The test, though, wont ask you questions as easy as, What is the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
average? It will expect you to be able to find these different values and 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
then work a problem from there. For example, with the number set above, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you might be asked a QC question like:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column B
Column A
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
{14,
12,
8,
15,
5,
8}
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The median of
The range of the set
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the set
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012 77

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

78

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You have already found the value of 10 for both these concepts, so the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer to this question would be (C). This problem is easy for anyone 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
knowledgeable with the terms, but to someone who doesnt know what is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 being asked, it would be time for a one-in-four guess.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Gina
has
received
the
following
four
scores
on
tests:
87,
92,
90,
and
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
85.
If
after
a
fifth
test
Ginas
test
average
was
91,
what
was
her
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
score
on
the
fifth
test?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 85
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
B. 88
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
95
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 98
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
101
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There are two ways to attack this problem. The first is to set up an 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation
using
the
average
formula
and
place
a
variable
for
the
unknown
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 fifth test score, 87 1 92 1 90 1 85 1 x 5 91. You then solve for x. The 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
second way of attack is to take the likely answer choices and use them as 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the fifth test score and see if the set averages to 91. With a little mental 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
work, you can guess that neither 85 nor 88 is the correct answer since the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fifth test will need to be above 91 to bring the average up to that. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Proceeding with this approach, you should start with 98, the middle of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 three remaining numbers. This way, if 98 is not the answer, you should be 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
able to figure out what the right answer is. Placing 98 as the fifth score, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 you get 87 1 92 1 90 1 85 1 98 5 452. However, since 91 3 5 5 455, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you know this answer choice is 3 points too low. You need a higher score, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one
preferably
higher
by
three
points.
Looking
at
your
answer
choices,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
there is only one possible choice thats higher, choice (E). Its the correct 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This approach might seem unconventional or non-mathy, but thats good. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You dont want to limit yourself to a single method for all problems. The 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
more creative you get in approaching problems, the more flexibility you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
give yourself to find the right answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1Word Problems
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A
train
leaves
Pittsburgh
at
12
p.m.
(EST)
traveling
due
east
at
a
speed
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
45
mph.
A
second
train
leaves
San
Francisco
at
2
p.m.
(PST)
traveling
at
50
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 mph heading due north. When will the two trains cross paths?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Alert!

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The trains will never meet. The Pittsburgh locomotive will soon run into
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 the Atlantic Ocean, while the San Fran train will take a while before
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sliding off into the Pacific.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Admittedly, you probably wont see that word problem on test day, but it 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
does illustrate that word problems are questions that contain a set of math 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
conditions in written form. Many word problems on the GRE involve 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
converting
a
statement
in
English
into
an
algebra
equation,
and
then
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 solving the equation for the desired variable. Suppose you are told that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two
doughnuts
and
three
coffees
cost
$2.70
at
the
local
bakery.
At
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same
bakery,
2
doughnuts
and
a
coffee
cost
$1.50.
You
can
translate
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
first sentence into algebra like this:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 doughnuts 1 3 coffees 5 $2.70
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2d 1 3c 5 $2.70
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With
this
one
equation,
you
dont
have
enough
information
to
determine
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
how much a coffee or a doughnut costs. But if you translate the second 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
statement into an equation, then you will have two unknowns and two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equations. This will give you the same set-up as seen on page 70 earlier, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
when
you
solve
for
two
variables
using
two
equations.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The second equation is 2d 1 c 5 $1.50. If you subtract the second 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation from the first, the 2d terms cancels out and you are left with 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2c 5 $1.20 c 5 $0.60. Plugging in the price for coffee into the second 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation, you can solve for d, which is 0.45. Ta da! You used algebra to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
decipher a word problem and then manipulated two equations to find the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
values of two unknown variables. Youll be an expert GRE mathematician 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
yet!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The key to translating English into algebra is to do it piece by piece. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Suppose
a
question
states,
The
difference
between
Tom
and
Johns
age
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
13,
and
Tom
is
older.
The
term
difference
means
you
are
subtracting,
and
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the word is means equals, so our translation would be T 2 J 5 13 (it is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
T
minus
J
because
T
is
older).
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There are a number of key words and phrases often used when translating 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
English to algebra, as you can see from the chart on the next page.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 79
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

80

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Translation Key
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
You
See
This
Do
This
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
sum, plus, added to, combined with, greater
Add
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
than, increased by
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
difference between, minus, subtracted from,
Subtract
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
less
than,
reduced
by
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
product,
times,
multiplied
by,
twice,
doubled,
Multiply
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
half
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quotient,
divided
by,
per,
ratio
of
blank
to
Divide
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
blank, out of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equals,
will
be,
was,
is
the
same
as,
costs,
Equals
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
adds up to, results in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A mixture of 14 ounces of water and oil is 50% water (by weight).
2
1
How many ounces of oil must be added to the mixture to produce a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
new mixture that is only 25% water?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 10
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
14
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 16
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
20
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
E. 28
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This
is
a
little
tricky,
so
we
have
a
little
unpacking
to
do.
In
the
first
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mixture, 50% of the 14 ounces is water, which we could represent by 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
14~0.5!
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 0.5. The numerator is the number of ounces of water, and the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
denominator
is
the
total
number
of
ounces.
That
might
seem
obvious,
but
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 it is helpful for being able to write down the second mixture, which is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
going to have ounces of oil added to it (added to the denominator in this 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
case) until the percentage equals 0.25. This can be written down as 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
0.5
14
~
!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
0.25.
All
that
remains
is
to
solve
for
x,
which
after
some
2
1 14 1 x
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
working will get you x 5 14, choice (B). The alternate way to do this 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem is to start with the answer choices and work backward. Always 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 start with the middle value so that if it does not yield the right answer, you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will know if you need to go higher or lower (and so eliminate the answer 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choices in the opposite direction). If you add 16 ounces of oil, then you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 will have a total of 30 ounces with 7 ounces of water. That is a little under 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
25% water, so 16 is a little too much to add. 14 then would be a good 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
guess
if
you
are
crunched
for
time.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

Tip

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
Geometry
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Fortunately,
there
will
be
no
proofs
and
no
mention
of
Euclid
in
the
GRE,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
so you wont have to revisit those painful experiences from high school. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
There
is
a
limited
set
of
basic
geometry
that
you
will
be
expected
to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
understand
and
apply
to
solve
problems,
so
the
first
order
of
business
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 the review of this material.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1Lines and Angles
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It doesnt get much more basic than the line. Most of the geometric figures 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that you see on test day will be composed of lines or segments of lines, with 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
circles being the major exception.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The test will use the notation AB sometimes to refer to the line segment 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 AB. This notation will also refer to the length of the line segment AB. You 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will be able to tell from the context which is intended.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The angle is one step up in complexity. It will include at least two lines.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When two lines intersect as in the above figure, the angles across from each 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
other are called vertical angles, and they are equal (so a 5 c and b 5 d). 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The sum of the four angles is 360 degrees, while the sum of any of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles adjacent to each other is 180 degrees ( a 1 b or d 1 c, for 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 example). The adjacent angles sum to 180 degrees because two adjacent 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles in our example define the angle measure of a straight line, and the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
measure
of
a
straight
line
is
180
degrees.
If
a
5
90,
then
you
could
deduce
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that
all
four
of
the
angles
are
90
degrees
because
if
a
5
90
then
c
5
90,
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and if c 5 90 then d 5 90 because d and c must sum to 180 degrees, and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
so
on
around
the
diagram.
Ninety-degree
angles
also
go
by
the
special
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 name of right angles. They have a special symbol as well, the .
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Angles
that
add
up
to
180
degrees
are
called
supplementary
angles.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 Angles that add up to 90 degrees are called complementary angles.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 81
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

82

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If two lines intersect and the angles formed by their intersection are right 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles, the lines are said to be perpendicular. In our example, if the angles 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are right angles then l1 is perpendicular to l2, which is denoted as l1 l2.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Two
lines
can
have
one
other
kind
of
special
relationship,
which
is
known
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
as parallel and denoted by two close-together straight lines such as l1 i l2. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Like
train
tracks,
parallel
lines
never
intersect.
Two
parallel
lines
are
not
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 that interesting, but if you cross two parallel lines with a third line, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hoo
boy!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Since they are vertical angles, 1 equals 4, 2 equals 3, 5 equals 8, and 6 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equals 7. Also, angles 2 and 4, 1 and 3, 5 and 6, 5 and 7, and a host of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
others
are
all
supplementary
angles.
Thats
just
the
start.
Alternate
interior
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 angles are also equal. To unpack that term, consider that interior refers to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
an angle on the inside (3, 4, 5, 6) of the parallel lines. Alternate means the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles that are on different sides of the non-parallel line (3 and 6, 4 and 5). 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
So 3 5 6 and 4 5 5. Notice this means we can deduce a lot more about the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 relationships of the different angles (1 5 8, 2 5 7).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column
B
Column
A
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
l1 i l2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
b
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 This looks a little different than the figure we were just working with, but 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
if you rotate it ninety degrees, you can see that it is basically the same. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b 5 90 because it and the right angle must sum to 180 (supplementary 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles). At this point there are two ways to get the answer. You could 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
reason, Two lines that are parallel will intersect a third line at the same 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angle, which would mean that a is a right angle. If you didnt see that, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
dont worry, since there is another way to get the answer. b is equal to the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angle across from it (vertical angles), and so b is also equal to the angle 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 across from a (alternate interior angles). So a and b are equal since they are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equal
to
the
same
angle.
The
correct
answer
is
(C).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Triangles
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Triangles are tri-angled geometric figures that have three angles and three 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sides.
There
are
many
different
kinds
of
triangles
that
all
have
different
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
names,
but
we
dont
need
to
concern
ourselves
with
those
here.
The
GRE
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will test some general principles about triangles and will also focus on a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
few special kinds of triangles. The wisest course of action is to review these 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
general principles and then get really familiar with the triangles that are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the GREs favorites.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A
rule
that
holds
true
for
all
triangles
is
that
the
three
angles
sum
to
180
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 degrees. This means that if you know two angles of a triangle, then you can
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
find
the
third.
So
if
a
triangle
has
two
angles
that
are
equal
and
third
angle
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is 50 degrees, what is the measure of the other two angles?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To answer this, lets go back in this chapter and employ some algebra. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Calling the two equal angles x, you get
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x 1 50 5 180
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x 1 50 2 50 5 180 2 50
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x 5 130
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x 4 2 5 130 4 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
x
5
65
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Another general rule for trianglesreferenced earlier in the bookis that 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 any two sides of a triangle must be longer than the third side. Otherwise, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the sides would not meet. You might need this information on a QC where 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one column is the length of the longest side of the triangle and the other 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
column is the maximum length of the other shorter sides combined. In that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
case, the other two sides must be longer for the figure to actually be a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
triangle.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Another
principle
that
holds
for
all
triangles
is
the
formula
for
the
area
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a triangle, A 5 ~base!~height!. Using this formula would be simple if you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
knew what the base and height of the triangle are, but most problems 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
arent going to tell you that directly. To find them, you must know that the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
height is the measure of any line segment that begins at one of the vertices 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and ends at the opposite side, forming a right angle with that side, and that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 83
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

84

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the base is the length of the line that the height forms the right angle with. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Look at this figure if that explanation didnt clear everything up for you.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
One
thing
to
keep
in
mind
is
that
the
base
and
the
height
of
a
triangle
are
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not
fixed
values.
In
the
figure
above,
we
could
have
drawn
a
line
from
C
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 and perpendicular with AB. In that case, the height would be the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
perpendicular line going from C to AB, and the base would be AB. To 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
decide what to make the height and what to make the base, follow this rule 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of thumb: find the base and height wherever it is easiest. Generally it is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
harder to find the heightunless you can draw the height so that it is one 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of the triangle sidesso approach an area problem looking for the easiest 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 way to find the height.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Sometimes you have to get really creative in finding the height of a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 triangle. That is what the figure above shows. The height doesnt have to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be a line inside the triangle. The height is the length of the line from one 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angle to its opposite side if that line is perpendicular to the opposite side. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
What
is
the
area
of
the
above
figure?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. 8
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With the triangle-ometry that we have covered thus far, there is only one 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
way to pick the height and base so that you can solve this problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 You can pick one of the sides to be the height since it forms a right angle 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with the side it intersects. So A 5 ~3!~4! 5 6. Therefore, the correct 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer is (B).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Special Triangles
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The important thing about special triangles is that the GRE likes to use
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 them. When one pops up on the test, you need to be able to identify it and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
then use its special properties to solve the problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
first
kind
of
special
triangle
to
discuss
is
usually
pretty
easy
to
spot.
A
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
right triangle is a triangle that has one 90-degree angle in it. Visually, this 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angle might be denoted by one of those box symbols in it. Recalling that all 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
three angles in a triangle always equal 180, you know that in a right 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
triangle,
the
other
two
angles
always
sum
to
90.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The Pythagorean theorem is a special equation that only applies to right 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
b
5
c
,
where
c
is
the
triangles.
Call
it
the
Big
P,
and
its
equation
is
a
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
length of the side opposite the right angle (called the hypotenuse by the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
math establishment) and a and b are the lengths of the other two sides. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With this equation, if you know two sides of a right triangle, you can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
always find the third. That is a basic move the test will expect you to be 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 able to make. A problem wont be that easy, but that will be one necessary 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
step for solving a problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column B
Column A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Area of DABC
Area of DDEF
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 To answer this question, you need to be able to determine the base and the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
height of each of the triangles. Can you do that? You can with the right 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
triangle, but you cant with DDEF. Choice (D) is the correct answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 85
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Part III: Section Review

86

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A second kind of special triangle is the isosceles triangle. It has a funny 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
name but a simple meaning: Two of the sides of the triangle are equal. A 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem will either tell you that a triangle is isosceles and expect you to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 know what that means, or you might see a figure like this:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
lines
through
two
of
the
sides
of
the
triangle
mean
that
those
two
sides
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 are equal.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now
lets
think
about
triangles
for
a
second.
If
one
angle
of
a
triangle
is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
largesay 120 degreeswill the side opposite that angle be large or small 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
comparison
to
the
other
angles?
Draw
out
a
triangle
with
this
angle.
The
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
side opposite the big angle will be big in comparison to the other sides. The 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 converse is also true. The side opposite the small angle will be small in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
comparison to the other sides.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
With these illustrations, you can see that the size of an angle in a triangle is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
related to the length of the side opposite that angle. Again, the converse is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
true; the length of a side of a triangle is related to the size of the angle 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
opposite it. Now think about an isosceles triangle, where two sides are the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same
length.
Since
the
sides
are
equal,
the
angles
opposite
those
sides
are
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
also equal. In the isosceles triangle above, A 5 B.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A
wrinkle
on
the
isosceles
triangle
is
the
right
isosceles
triangle.
Its
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
nothing more than a right triangle with two sides that are equal. You know 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 one angle equals 90 degrees, and that the other two sum to 90 degrees. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Since you also know the other two angles are equal, it can be stated 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 algebraically that
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x 1 x 5 90
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2x
5
90
Here,
x
is
the
angle
for
the
two
equal
sides.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
5
45
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The other two angles are 45 degrees. If the right triangle is a special 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
triangle,
then
the
45-45-90
triangle
is
a
super
special
triangle
because
it
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is a special kind of right triangle.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
As you can see, the relationships between the sides and angles of a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
45-45-90 triangle are all nailed down. The test-makers like this feature of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the triangle because they figure that if they give you enough information to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 identify a triangle as a 45-45-90 triangle, you should be able to determine 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
most
everything
about
that
triangle.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If you want to know how the side ratios are determined, just use the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Pythagorean theorem on the 45-45-90.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
If a 5 c, then x 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. =3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. =5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. =6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This is a busy little diagram, but youll get some of those. If your test radar 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 is working, you should suspect that there is a special triangle in here 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
somewhere. Notice that b must be 90 for the angles in the top triangle to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sum
to
180
degrees,
and
since
a
5
c,
they
both
must
be
45
because
a
1
b
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
c 5 180 (it is a straight line). This means that the triangle on the right is a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
45-45-90 triangle, and since we know the length of one side we can find 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 the length of all sides, including x, which is:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x 5 (length of one side of the 45-45-90 triangle)(=2)
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
5
6
or
choice
(D)
x
5
=
=
=
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 87
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Part III: Section Review

88

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The next kind of super special triangle is the 30-60-90 triangle. There is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not a special name for it, but they appear on the test with great frequency 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for the same reason that the 45-45-90 triangle does. You are expected to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 identify the 30-60-90 triangle and then use its properties to solve 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problems.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Call the smallest side length x. This will be the side opposite the 30-degree 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angle.
The
side
opposite
the
60-degree
angle
is
x
3,
and
the
length
of
the
=
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
hypotenuse is always 2x.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The equilateral triangle, the triangle whose sides are equal, is related to the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 30-60-90 triangle. An equilateral triangle is like two 30-60-90 triangles 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
back-to-back.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Since the sides of an equilateral triangle are all equal, what must the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
relationship
of
the
angles
be?
Equal.
This
means
that
3
sides
5
180.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
So,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3s 5 180
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
s 5 60
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For
every
equilateral
triangle,
each
angle
is
60
degrees.
The
lengths
of
all
3
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sides in an equilateral triangle are of equal lengths.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 There are two other special right triangles that appear regularly on the 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GRE. Both are defined by the relationships of the sides.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If you recognize one of these triangles in a problem, and you know two 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sides of the triangle, you can simply read off the length of the third side.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If y 5 3, then x 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
A. 21
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When you see the 30-degree angle, you should immediately start looking 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to see if you have 30-60-90 triangle. The top triangle is a right triangle 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 since the bottom right angle is vertical with the right angle. This means the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
top triangle is a 30-60-90 triangle. So 2(x 1 y) 5 6, which means that if y 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 3 then x 5 0.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Triangles: Similar and Congruent
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
When you say that a Cheeto looks similar to an orange caterpillar, you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
probably
arent
using
an
exact
definition
of
similar.
When
mathematicians
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
use the term similar, they are being much more precise. To a mathemati- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 cian, two triangles are similar if all corresponding angles are equal and all 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
corresponding sides are proportional. Similar triangles look the same, but 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one
can
be
bigger
than
the
other.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Triangle M has sides that are three times as large as triangle N, but all 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles are equal. It doesnt matter that triangle N is flipped around in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
relation to M. Since the angles are equal and the sides proportional, the 2
2
1 two triangles are congruent.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
were
to
increase
the
size
of
triangle
Ns
sides
by
a
factor
of
3,
then
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
would
have
two
triangles
with
equal
sides
and
angles.
This
is
the
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 definition of congruent triangles.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 89
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Part III: Section Review

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http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

90

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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Other Polygons
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Polygon
is
the
fancy
geometric
word
for
shapes
that
have
three
or
more
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sides. Lots of shapes are polygons like triangles, squares, pentagons, and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
octagons, to name just a few.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The one general rule to remember about polygons comes in the form of a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 formula. The interior angles of an n-sided polygon sum to (n 2 2)(180). 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can try this formula out on a triangle and get (3 2 2)(180) 5 180. This 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
restates the old all three angles of a triangle sum to 180 rule that should 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
be hammered about halfway into your skull by now. You dont need the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(n 2 2)(180) formula to find out the sum of the interior angles of a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 triangle, but you might need it if you need to find the sum of the interior 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles
of
a
hexagon.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The rectangle is a polygon. It has four sides, so the sum of its interior 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angles
must
be
(4
2
2)(180)
5
360.
There
are
two
important
properties
of
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rectangle:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
1. All interior angles are 90 degrees.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2.
Opposite
sides
are
parallel
and
equal
in
length.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Note that only opposite sides of a rectangle need to be equal in length. If all 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
sides of a rectangle are equal, you have the figure known as a square.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The perimeter of a rectangle can be found by the formula P 5 2(l 1 w) 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and its area is A 5 l 3 w. For a square, the equations are pretty basic: 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
P 5 4s and A 5 s2.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In
the
figure
above,
ACDF
is
a
rectangle,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
ABEF
and
BCDE
are
squares.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
32
Area
of
ACDF
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 You have to find the area of ACDF to compare the two columns, which 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
means you need to find the length and the width of the rectangle. The 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
diagonal in the square bisects two right angles, creating your new friend the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
45-45-90 triangle. This makes =32 the hypotenuse. From this, you can 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
32
=
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 =16 5 4. Line segment EF 2
2
1 read off the side length of the square,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
=
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
4,
as
does
ED,
AF,
AB,
BC,
and
BE.
This
makes
the
length
of
the
rect2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
angle 8 (4 1 4), while the width the rectangle is 4. Placing these values into 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
formula
for
the
area
of
a
rectangle
gives
you
4
3
8
5
32.
Choice
(C)
is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the correct answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The parallelogram and the trapezoid are two other 4-sided polygons to
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 know. A parallelogram, like a rectangle, has opposite sides that are parallel 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equal. Unlike a rectangle, the interior angles of parallelograms are not
2
1 and
right angles. The opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal and they 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sum to 360, which makes sense if you remember that n-sided polygon 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
formula.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The area of a parallelogram is the base times the height. These values are
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
determined similarly to the way you determine the base and height of a 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
triangle. Pick the base, then draw a line perpendicular to it that intersects 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with the side across from it. That line is the height. The one difference is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that the height of a parallelogram doesnt have to intersect with an angle. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 As you can see, trapezoids do not have equal opposite sides or angles. In
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
fact,
to
be
a
trapezoid,
all
you
need
is
4
sides,
where
2
of
those
sides
are
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 parallel. In the trapezoid shown, the top and bottom sides are parallel.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 91
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

92

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
What
is
the
area
of
the
above
figure?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
A. 20
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
28
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
32
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 34
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 40
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 If you have no idea how to do this problem, you can at least eliminate 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
choices (A) and (B), since you know that this trapezoid will be bigger than 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a rectangle with length 7 and width 4. Thats because you can see how this 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
trapezoid is like a rectangle with length 7 and width 4 with a triangle 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
attached
to
it.
Viewing
it
this
way
is
the
key
to
the
problem.
To
find
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 area of a trapezoid, first draw a dotted line to turn the trapezoid into a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rectangle and a triangle.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 You can read off the third side of the triangle if you recognize that it is a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3-4-5 triangle. The area of the rectangle is 28, and the area of the triangle 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
4
5
6.
So
the
area
of
the
trapezoid
is
34,
choice
(D).
You
found
is
~
!~
!
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 the answer, and you also saw a way in which special triangles can be 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
cropped and provide the key to a problem.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Circles
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For
many,
circles
evoke
ideas
like
elegance
and
eternity.
Sadly,
elegance
is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not one of standards commonly tested on the GRE. Instead, the more 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
mundane properties of the circle are focused on, so any musings about 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
eternity must take a back seat to the definition of circumference.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
O is called the center of the circle, and all the points along the edge of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 circle are the same distance from O. That distance, r, is called the radius. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
radius
is
any
line
that
goes
from
the
center
to
the
edge
of
the
circle.
If
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a line starts at the edge of the circle, runs through O, and continues on to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the
opposite
edge,
it
is
called
the
diameter.
By
definition,
every
diameter
is
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
made up of two radii, so diameter 5 2(radius). Any line whose endpoints
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
are on the edge of the circle is called a chord, like MN. The diameter is one 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 particular chord.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If you were to walk along the edge of a circle once, the distance you would 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
have traveled is called the circumference. The circumference is like the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
perimeter of a polygon except that you have to be a little more 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sophisticated in calculating it because the circumference isnt composed of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
straight
lines.
This
is
the
beauty
of
the
concept
of
pi,
often
shown
by
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
symbol p. Mathematicians way back when came up with this concept, and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 boy, does it help.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To dispel the mystery around it, p is simply defined as the circumference of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
circle
divided
by
its
diameter:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
circumference
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
p
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
diameter
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The neat thing about p is that its value remains constant regardless of the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
size of the circle. The ancient mathematicians figured this value to be 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3.14159 . . . and a bunch of other numbers, since pi goes on for a long, 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 long time. For our purposes, just remember that it is a little bigger than 3,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
about 3.14.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 93
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

S D

94

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Note

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
From the definition of p, you can determine the formula for circumfer- 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ence:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
circumference
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
p5

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
diameter
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
c
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
p5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
d
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
c
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
p
3
d
5
3
d

2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
d
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
pd
5
c
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
p 3 diameter 5 circumference
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or
c
5
pd
for
short.
Remember
that
since
the
diameter
is
twice
the
radius,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you can also state:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
c 5 pd 5 2pr
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Lets go back to that mythical walk around the circle. If you only walked 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
partway around the circle, the distance that you walked would be called an 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
arc
of
the
circle.
Imagine
you
walked
from
A
through
B
to
C
in
the
figure
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
below:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This arc would be referred to as arc ABC, since it starts at A, goes through 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B, and ends at C.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 The distance you walked is part of the circumference, but what part is it? 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
To answer this, you must recall that there are 360 degrees in a circle. (If 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you think this is a foolish number, blame the Babylonians.) The angle of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the arc is 60 degrees, and since there are 360 degrees in a circle, the arc 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
60
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5 .
angle is one sixth of the degrees in the circle
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
360
6
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The arc length will have the same relationship with the circumference as 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the arc angle does with the total number of degrees in a circle. Therefore, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
arcABC
5
c.
All
this
can
be
encapsulated
in
a
formula,
the
arc
length
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
n
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2pr,
where
n
is
the
measure
of
the
arc
angle.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
360
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
The area of a circle is pr . This means that if you know the radius (or the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
diameter) of a circle, you can find the area and the circumference of that 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 circle. A common test question is to give enough information to find the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
radius
of
a
circle
and
ask
for
the
area
or
circumference
of
a
circle.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
area
of
a
circle
is
py.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The diameter of the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
circle
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
this
question
is
a
mystery
to
you,
you
can
at
least
reason
that
Column
A
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will have a y in it. This means that the two columns will probably have a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
definite relationship, so (D) is out. The trick is to make Column A look like 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
something you can compare to Column B, which you can do if you figure 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
out
what
the
diameter
of
the
circle
is:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Area of a circle 5 pr2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
py
5
pr

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
py 4 p 5 pr2 4 p
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y5r
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y5r
=
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If thats the radius, then the diameter is twice that, or d 5 2=y. Compare 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
this with Column B after you sort it all out:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
1
2
2
y
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
5 y2 2 2 5 y2 5 =y
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
y
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 (A) is greater.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 95
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

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Part III: Section Review

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Alert!

96

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If you didnt know that the y had to be positive since it is a distance, you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
would not know which column was greater.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A tangent to a circle is a line that has one point in common with a circle. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The figure below is an illustration of a circle and one tangent line. Notice 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that the tangent line forms a right angle with the radius that shares a point 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
with
it.
Tuck
that
fact
away
in
your
head
because
you
might
need
it
later.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Another word that might come up with circles or other shapes is inscribed. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 A polygon is inscribed (in-scribed, drawn in) in a circle if each of its 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
vertices lies on the circle. A circle can also be inscribed in a polygon if each 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of the polygons sides is tangent to the circle. Circumscribed is related to 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
inscribed in an antonym-like way.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Notice that when figures are inscribed and circumscribed, they share 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
certain
features.
With
the
circle
inscribed
above
in
the
square,
the
diameter
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
of
the
circle
is
also
the
length
of
one
side
of
the
square.
These
sort
of
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 overlapping features are what the GRE focuses on when there are multiple 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
figures involved in a problem. Be aware of what features figures share 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because that often is the clue to the answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column B
Column A
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The area of the above circle is 16p.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The area of the
6l
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rectangle
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Look at the features the two figures share. Notice that the diameter of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
circle is the width of the rectangle. If you can find the diameter, you can 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
compare the two columns:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A
5
pr
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
16p
5
pr
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
16 5 r
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
r
5
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If the radius is 4, then the diameter is twice that, so d 5 8. The area of the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
rectangle is 8l, which means that (A) is greater.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 One last point: Concentric circles have the same center but do not have the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
same radius.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1Coordinate Geometry
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The above phrase refers to geometry done on a coordinate plane. When 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you
see
the
following
visual,
youll
either
remember
coordinate
geometry
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
or playing the game Battleship! as a child. B . . . 4 . . . Miss!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 A coordinate plane is just two number lines perpendicular to each other.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
one
going
up
and
down
is
called
the
y-axis,
and
the
one
going
left
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 right is called the x-axis. Any point on the plane gets two coordinates, an 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 97
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

98

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x one and a y one, and they tell you where the point goes on the plane. The 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
notation for this looks like this (x,y), with the x-coordinate always first.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The number in the x spot tells you where along the x-axis the point goes, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and
the
number
in
the
y
spot
tells
you
where
along
the
y-axis
the
point
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
goes.
The
points
(24,2)
and
(0,3)
would
be
here:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Say that a line was drawn between those two points. Would the slope be 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
steep or flat? Looking at it, the slope would rise if you were going from left 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
right,
and
that
is
the
direction
that
geometrists
are
always
going
on
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
coordinate planes. Yet you can say more than the slope is going up. You 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
can
give
it
a
value
since
there
is
a
mathematical
definition
of
slope.
It
is
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
change in the y values over the change in the x values, also called the rise 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
over
the
run.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In this case, the slope is
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
322
1
Dy y1 2 y2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Dx x1 2 x2 0 2 ~24! 4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Always subtract the coordinate values of the point on the right from the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
coordinate values from the point on the left. The slope is positive 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one fourth, which means that the line goes up one in the y-direction for 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
every four it goes over in the x-direction (again, if you are traveling left to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
right). A negative slope means that the line goes down from left to right 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
instead of up.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The geometry part of coordinate geometry comes in when geometrical 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
figures
are
put
on
the
coordinate
plane.
In
one
way,
this
makes
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 geometry easier because you have the coordinate plane to help do the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
geometry.
In
another
way,
though,
the
test
will
up
the
complexity
of
a
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem
by
expecting
you
to
make
inferences
about
the
geometrical
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 figures based on your knowledge of coordinate geometry.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A figure is defined by these points (1,1),
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(3,1),
and
(1,22)
on
a
coordinate
plane.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
area
of
the
The
perimeter
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
figure
the
figure
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If this question mystifies you, or you are short on time, realize that the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
perimeter of a figure and the area of a figure will have a definite 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
relationship, and so the answer is probably not (D). That makes guessing a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
one in three chance. If you have the time to do the problem, you should 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 suspect that this figure is a triangle since it is defined by three points. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Regardless of what you suspect, though, the way to attack this problem is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to quickly plot the points on a coordinate plane
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 It is a right triangle, and you can use this fact to find both the area and the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
perimeter. Lets do the area first. The distance between (1,1) and (1,22) is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
three units, so the height is three. The distance between (1,1) and (3,1) is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
two units, making it the base.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
bh
A
5
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
3
5
3
A
5
~
!~
!
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 The perimeter is the sum of the sides. You have
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Perimeter
5
2
1
3
1
hypotenuse
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
1
3
Perimeter
5
5
1
~
!
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The Pythagorean theorem was used for the hypotenuse. At this point, you
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 dont have to finish the problem since this sum is clearly greater than 3. 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Therefore, choice (B) is the correct answer.
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 99
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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2
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Data
Analysis
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
read
USA
Today
on
a
regular
basis,
youll
have
experience
with
data
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
analysis. The data that you are expected to analyze usually comes in the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
form
of
chart,
graph,
or
table,
three
things
that
national
newspapers
love
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
print.
Its
visual
information
that
needs
to
be
understood
and
then
used
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 in some manner.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Before jumping into all the different graphs, there is one other topic often 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
placed under the Data Analysis umbrella. What are the odds you can guess 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
what it is?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Probability
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
flip
a
coin,
what
is
the
chance
that
it
will
land
on
heads?
Pretty
much
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
everyone knows the answer is one out of two or fifty-fifty. This is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
because
there
are
two
possible
outcomes
that
are
equally
probable
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 (landing heads, landing tails), so the chance the coin will land on heads is 2
2
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one out of two.
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Thats kid stuff, but you just covered the basics of probability theory. In 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
any probability scenario, the probability of A occurring is the number of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ways A can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes. In our 2
2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
case, A is the coin landing on heads, and that can only happen one way. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 There are two possible outcomes, heads or tails, so the probability is .
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
number of desired outcomes
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
probability
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
total
number
of
possible
outcomes
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Things get a little more interesting when you start talking about multiple 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
event
probability,
but
thats
nothing
you
cant
handle
if
you
followed
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 things thus far. Say you flip the coin again. What are the chances that it will 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
land
on
heads
this
time?
Its
still
.
If
you
thought
otherwise,
remember
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that each coin toss is independent and unaffected by previous coin tosses. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 Moving up one more notch, what is the probability of tossing the coin twice 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and it landing on heads twice? It is the probability of the first event times 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
1
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
the
probability
of
the
second
event.
Therefore,
probability
5
.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2 2
4
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Thats the basics of multiple-event probability. The probability of multiple 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 events occurring is the product of the individual probabilities involved.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
100 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

S DS D

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
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There are 5 boys and 7 girls in the fifth grade class at Saddleback
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Elementary. What is the probability that if 2 students are chosen at
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
random
from
the
class,
that
both
students
will
be
girls?
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2
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A.
2
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24
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
7
2
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2
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B.
2
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22
2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
D.
2
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12
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
11
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This probability problem involves two events, and you first need to 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 determine the probability of each event. A girl getting picked first has a 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
since
there
are
7
girls
and
a
total
of
12
students
in
the
probability
of
2
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12
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
class. The probability of a girl getting picked the second time is . Why? 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
11
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Because
one
girl
has
been
picked
already,
leaving
only
6
girls
left
in
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
class of 11 students. Multiplying the two probabilities together gives you: 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
6
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12 11
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~7 3 6! 5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~
12 3 11!
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
7
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
22
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Thats choice (B).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 101
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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Workin the Data
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Data
or
information
can
come
to
you
in
lots
of
different
forms.
You
are
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
getting text information right now, for instance, as you read this sentence. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Earlier you might have looked at the table of contents of this book to get 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
some information about where to start reading. The GRE likes to test your 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
ability to take in information and answer questions about that informa- 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
tion. Specifically, the GRE math section will present information or data in 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the form of a line graph, a circle graph, a bar graph, a table, or some 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 combination of all of these, and then expect you to answer questions about 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the information presented. You might think this sounds too easy, and in a 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sense it is. All the answers will be right in front of you in a graph or table. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The hard part is that the GRE is pretty creative in coming up with 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
complicated
tables
and
charts
and
graphs,
which
makes
understanding
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and using them a challenge.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Usually you will see one or two sets of graphs and tables on the GRE math 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 section. Each set will most likely have multiple parts, like a circle graph 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
combined
with
a
table
or
a
diagram
coupled
with
a
bar
graph.
Each
set
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
will have 24 questions that refer to it.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The first thing to do when you come upon a set of graphs and charts is read 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the title. It sounds simplistic, but do it. The simplest steps can make the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
great
difference,
so:
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1. Read the title.
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2. Read whatever key there is.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
3. Read down any graph axis to see what information is being 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
presented.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4. If there are two graphs or charts, look to see how they relate to 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
each
other.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Basically, spend 20 to 30 seconds getting familiar with the layout of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
everything,
then
proceed
to
the
first
question.
This
will
not
be
a
waste
of
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
time, as you will be able to answer each of the following questions more 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
quickly. These kinds of questions try to trap you with an overload of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 information you have to wade through to get to the answer. If you dont 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
have a good sense of what you are wading through, you will probably get 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
bogged down and frustrated. That is why getting a sense of the 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
information being presented is task one.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
102 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Tip

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For which year was the ratio of exports to imports the greatest?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 1978
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B.
1982
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
C. 1984
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D.
1987
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. 1980
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
First, determine which line is for exports and which is for imports. Once 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you have that straight, you have to pull out the trusty concept of ratios. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Remember
that
ratios
can
be
expressed
as
fractions,
and
here
the
exports
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 will be the numerator and the imports the denominator. To get a big ratio,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you are looking for years when the exports were high and the imports were 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
low. Eyeballing the graph, which years are candidates? In 1984 and 1987 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the export-import lines are farthest apart, so these are the best candidates, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 and they are both answer choices. In 1984 the ratio was approximately 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
15.5
14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
.
3,
and
in
1987
the
ratio
was
approximately
,
3.
Choice
(C),
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
4
5.5
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 1984, is the correct answer.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This
question
shows
how
basic
concepts
like
ratios
are
used
in
other
areas
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
to
make
questions
more
difficult.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
What was the greatest consecutive two-year total of exports?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A.
14
billion
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. 18 billion
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
C. 24 billion
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 26 billion
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
E. 28 billion
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 103
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Youre looking for exports, so youre looking at the dotted line. The 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
greatest consecutive two-year total will be the two consecutive years 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
whose sum is the greatest. Eyeballing the chart, the sets of years that are 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 the best candidates will be the ones where the export line spikes upward. 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You
have
two
good
candidates:
8384
and
8788.
Summing
each,
you
will
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
find
8384
is
a
little
more
than
26
billion,
and
8788
is
about
76
billion.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Therefore,
choice
(D)
is
the
correct
answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
previous
example
involved
one
line
graph.
Things
can
get
a
little
more
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
complicated
when
there
are
multiple
graphs
involved.
Again,
take
a
few
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
seconds
to
get
familiar
with
the
graphs
involved,
and
especially
take
note
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 of how the graphs are related.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Student
Enrollment
Part-Time
or
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Full-Time
Employed
at
College
T:
19761980
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Breakdown of Student
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Majors
at
College
T
in
1979
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
In what years did the percentage of part-time employed students at
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
college T increase most dramatically?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. 19761977
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
B. 19771978
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C.
19781979
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
D. 19791980
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E.
19771979
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
It might take a moment to determine whether the bar graph or the pie 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
chart
will
provide
the
answer.
Since
part-time
students
are
listed
on
the
bar
2
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
graph, thats where you should look. Specifically, you are looking for two 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
years
where
the
striped
lines
had
the
greatest
percentage
increase.
The
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 actual numbers wont be as importantindeed, they will be wrong 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answersas the percentages you derive from them.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1978 to 1979 is out because it is a decrease. If time was running out, you 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 could eliminate this choice and take a guess. Since the question concerns 2
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
104 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Note

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
percentage change, take a close look at 1976 to 1977 because 1976 is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
small in comparison to the other years. 100 to 150 is a 50% increase. How 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
about the other years? 1977 to 1978 have the raw numbers 150 to 250, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 which is a 66% increase (100 is 66% or two thirds of 150). 1979 to 1980 2
2
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2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
starts
at
200
and
goes
to
350,
which
is
a
75%
increase
(150
is
75%
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
200).
This
is
the
biggest
increase,
so
(D)
is
the
correct
answer.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Percentage
increases
are
greater
when
the
starting
numbers
are
very
small,
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 which is why a company like General Electric (GE) might improve its
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
profits
by
30
billion
dollars
and
only
have
a
1%
increase.
The
fact
is
that
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
GE
was
already
making
so
much
cash,
the
additional
amount
is
a
small
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
percentage
increase.
In
contrast,
if
a
kid
sets
up
a
lemonade
stand
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
makes
$1
on
Saturday
and
$3
on
Sunday,
his/her
profits
increased
by
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
300% from one day to the next.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Which of the following represents the greatest number of students?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
A. Part-time employed in 1976
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
B. Full-time employed in 1976
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
C. Humanities majors in 1979
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
D. Engineering majors in 1979
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
E. Full-time employed in 1978
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This question involves the bar graph and the pie chart. Look down the left 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 side of the bar graph to get a sense of the numbers that the graph is 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
displaying.
Then,
try
to
get
the
same
sense
with
the
pie
chart.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Now attack the answer choices. You can eliminate (A) because all the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
full-time
numbers
are
greater
than
all
the
part-time
numbers.
Reading
(B)
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
off the bar graph gets you 300. Looking at choices (C) and (D), you can see 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that the percentage of Humanities (23%) is less than the percentage of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Engineering students, at 24%. (D) has to be greater than (C), so you dont 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
even need to figure out the exact number for it. To calculate the number of 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Engineering majors in 1979, youll need to establish the total number of 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
students in that year. That number is the total height of the bars in the bar 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
graph for 1979: 700 students. For Engineering majors, you must 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
determine what is 24% of 700. It works out to a little less than 280. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Reading (E) off the bar graph, it is 750. Choice (B) is the answer.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 105
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Take It to
the Next Level
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
2
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2
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2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Math:
The Multi-Step Complicated Stuff
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The
harder
questions
on
the
GRE
do
not
require
you
to
understand
more
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sophisticated
math.
The
math
concepts
required
to
answer
a
500-level
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
problem and a 750-level problem are, for the most part, the same. The 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
difference
is
that
the
750-level
problem
will
challenge
you
to
be
more
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 clever, creative, and inventive in your approach. Showing you how to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
out-clever the test will be a major focus of this chapter.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Before that starts, there are a few math concepts you are probably only 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
going to see on harder questions. These harder concepts are really just 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
extensions of what weve already covered in this chapter, so its not as if 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the easier questions are algebra and the harder ones are calculus. Basically, 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the harder questions contain the basics revved up to make problems more 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 interesting and difficult.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
a
math
concept
comes
up
that
you
are
not
familiar
with,
or
you
cant
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
remember exactly what it is, look back to the beginning of the chapter to 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
see
if
it
is
covered
there.
If
youve
skipped
the
beginning
of
the
chapter,
its
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
not a bad idea to leaf through it anyway and make sure that all the math 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
content is fresh in your mind. Once thats done, you can Take It to the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 Next Level and start honing your clever skills.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
Advanced
Arithmetic
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Hard arithmetic problems will use jargon to make problems more 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
complex. Problems will include multiple phrases like the sum of the first 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1 three prime numbers or the product of two consecutive integers. The 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
way to decode such math speak is to attack it piece by piece and phrase by 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
phrase. Unless you are a math wunderkind, trying to conceptualize whole 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
sentences of math speak at one time is impossible. At the least, it is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
foolhardy.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Lets decode these two phrases. The first three prime numbers are 2, 3, and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5,
and
their
sum
is
10.
In
the
second
phrase,
since
we
dont
know
what
the
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
106

http://www.xtremepapers.net

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
first integer is, lets call it x. The product of x and the next integer is 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
(x)(x 1 1). None of that was too difficult, but suppose a problem reads, If 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the sum of the first three prime numbers plus 2 equals the product of two 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 consecutive integers, what is the value of the first integer?
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Using algebra in the form of the variable x to help describe an arithmetic
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
expression
is
fairly
common
practice.
Dont
hesitate
to
draw
information
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 from any field of math if you believe it will help you solve a problem.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
If
you
decode
this
jargon
piece
by
piece,
it
is
manageable.
The
sum
of
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
first
three
prime
numbers
plus
2
is
12,
and
you
already
know
what
the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
product of two consecutive integers is. Therefore, you can set up the 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
equation:
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
~x!~x 1 1! 5 12
2
1
2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
1
x
5
12

2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
x
1
x
2
12
5
12
2
12

2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x2 1 x 2 12 5 0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x
1
4
x
2
3
5
0

~
!~
!
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
x 5 24,3
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1 Theres a bit of everything in the above problem, and thats not unusual
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
for
hard
problems.
You
had
to
use
arithmetic
to
decipher
the
problem
and
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
algebra to set up an equation. Then you had to do some factoring to split 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the equation x2 1 x 2 12 5 0 in order to find the values for x. If you 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 handle each step, though, the answer falls into your lap.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A
Column B
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a c e
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
1
.
.
.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b d f
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
is
a
sum
in
which
all
the
variables
are
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
1
positive consecutive integers greater than 1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
that increase in alphabetical order.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The third term in
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
the sum
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 22
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
First, you must decode. Positive consecutive integers are things like 4, 5, 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and 6, and these increase in alphabetical order, which means that b 5 a 1 1 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2 107
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

Take It to the Next Level

Alert!

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Part III: Section Review

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
and c 5 b 1 1. Notice that since b 5 a 1 1, then c 5 (a 1 1) 1 1 5 a 1 2. 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
This means that the sum can be rewritten
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
a12 a14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1
1
....
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a11 a13 a15
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
1
4
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 This makes the third term
. Thats Column A, so far.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a15
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Compare
this
to
the
fraction
in
Column
B.
The
smallest
value
that
a
can
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
have
is
2,
so
it
will
be
interesting
to
start
with
this
number
and
see
what
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
6
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
,
while
Column
B
is
you
get.
Column
A
becomes
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
7
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
2
2
2
2
0
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
5
5
5
0.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a
2
1
2
2
1
1
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Column A is greater is this instance, but to play it safe, it helps to try 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
another number. A small number was used the first time, so a large number 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
14
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
can
be
plugged
in
this
time
for
variety.
Making
a
5
10,
you
get
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
15
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
8
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
in
Column
B.
Column
A
is
again
greater,
and
placing
an
Column
A
and
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
9
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
even
larger
number
will
probably
not
make
a
difference.
The
correct
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
answer is (A).
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
1 Ratios are another arithmetic topic that can be made interesting. Suppose 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
you are told the ratio of a to b is 4:7 and the ratio of b to c is 8:7. You are 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 then asked, What is the ratio of a to c?
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
The easiest way to approach such a problem is to make the common 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
element in both ratios, b, the same so that you can directly compare a and 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
c. To do that, find a common multiple of 7 and 8, preferably the least 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 common multiple. 56 works, since its 7 3 8.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
First
ratio:
a
to
b
5
4:7.
Multiplied
by
8,
this
becomes
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
a to b 5 32:56
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1 Second ratio: b to c 5 8:7. Multiplied by 7, this becomes
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
b to c 5 56:49
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
For
both
ratios,
b
is
now
56.
This
allows
you
write
to
both
ratios
as
a
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
single long ratio:
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
1
a to b to c 5 32:56:49
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
You can now see that a : c 5 32 : 49. If these numbers in the ratio had any 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
common
multiples,
then
the
ratio
should
be
simplified.
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
108 12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012

www.petersons.com

http://www.xtremepapers.net

Chapter 4: Quantitative Review

Take It to the Next Level

X-Ref

123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901 2
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
Finding
a
common
element
for
these
ratios
is
similar
to
the
practice
of
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1 finding a common denominator before adding and subtracting fractions.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
See page 54 of this chapter.
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
If m and n are integers and (m 1 n) is even, then which of the
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
following
must
be
true?
2345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
1
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
2
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
I.
Both
integers
are
even.
2
1234567890123456789012345678901212