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ANATOMI

PENGINDERAAN

Ahmad Azwar Habibi

28 Februari 2011

TOPIK BAHASAN

PENGINDERAAN MANUSIA

1.

PENGLIHATAN

2.

PENDENGARAN

3.

KESEIMBANGAN

4.

PENGHIDUAN

5.

PENGECAPAN

MANUSIA 1. PENGLIHATAN 2. PENDENGARAN 3. KESEIMBANGAN 4. PENGHIDUAN 5. PENGECAPAN
 1in·dra n alat untuk merasa, mencium bau, mendengar, melihat, meraba, dan merasakan sesuatu secara

1in·dra n alat untuk merasa, mencium bau, mendengar, melihat, meraba, dan merasakan sesuatu secara naluri (intuitif);

-- keenam alat untuk merasakan sesuatu secara naluri (intuitif); --

pencium alat untuk mencium bau (hidung); -- pendengar alat untuk mendengar (telinga); -- penglihat alat untuk melihat (mata); -- peraba alat

untuk meraba (kulit); -- perasa alat untuk mengecap rasa (lidah);

meng·in·dra v 1 berbuat untuk merasakan sesuatu; 2 Geo mengukur berbagai sifat fisik benda dng cara tidak menyentuhnya; peng·in·dra n alat untuk mengindra; peng·in·dra·an n 1 proses, cara, perbuatan mengindra; 2 usaha untuk menyidik datangnya ancaman dng sarana yg canggih dan peka; ~ jauh teknik mendeteksi dan mempelajari objek dr jauh tanpa adanya kontak

fisik dng objek atau sasaran tsb

2in·dra n 1 raja; 2 Hin (ditulis dng huruf kapital) nama seorang dewa yg

menguasai angkasa;

ke·in·dra·an n tempat tinggal Dewa Indra; indraloka

PENGLIHATAN

PENGLIHATAN  Early eye development results from a series of inductive signals. The eyes are derived

Early eye development results from a series of inductive signals.

The eyes are derived from four sources:

1. The neuroectoderm of the forebrain

differentiates into the retina, the posterior layers of the iris, and the

optic nerve

2. The surface ectoderm of the head

forms the lens of the eye and the corneal epithelium

3. The mesoderm between the above layers

the fibrous and vascular coats of the eye, mesenchyme

4. Neural crest cells

choroid, sclera, and corneal endothelium

Homeobox-containing genes, including the transcription regulator

Pax6, fibroblast growth factors, and other inducing factors play

an important role in the molecular development of the eye

 Roof  Formed by orbital plate of frontal bone and lesser wing of sphenoid

Roof

Formed by orbital plate of frontal bone and lesser wing of

sphenoid

Related to frontal lobe of brain in anterior cranial fossa

Floor

Formed by orbital plate of maxilla, zygomatic bone, and orbital process of palatine bone separating it from maxillary sinus

Includes infraorbital groove and canal

Apex

At optic canal just medial to superior orbital fissure

posterolateral

Medial wall

 Medial wall  Formed by orbital plate of ethmoid bone, lacrimal bone, frontal bone ,

Formed by orbital plate of ethmoid bone, lacrimal bone, frontal bone, and to small degree by body of sphenoid

Related to ethmoidal air cells, sphenoidal sinus, and nasal cavity

Includes fossa for lacrimal sac and opening of nasolacrimal canal

Lateral wall

Formed by zygomatic bone, greater wing of sphenoid, and frontal

bone

Related through greater wing of sphenoid to temporal lobe of brain

Doesn't extend as far anteriorly as medial wall, providing good

surgical acess to eye

A blow-out fracture is a fracture of the orbital floor with no involvement of the orbital rim and

is caused by blunt trauma to the orbital contents

(e.g., by a handball). The infraorbital nerve in the orbital floor may prevent the orbital contents

from being displaced into the maxillary sinus, but

an injured infraorbital artery can

cause hemorrhaging.Blow-out fractures are rare in

young children because the maxillary sinus is small and the orbital floor is not a weak point.

fractures are rare in young children because the maxillary sinus is small and the orbital floor
fractures are rare in young children because the maxillary sinus is small and the orbital floor
Tarsus and levator palpebrae superioris  Providing major support for each eyelid is the tarsus

Tarsus and levator palpebrae

superioris

Tarsus and levator palpebrae superioris  Providing major support for each eyelid is the tarsus 

Providing major support for each eyelid is the tarsus

superior/inferior

Lps raises the eyelid, innervated by the oculomotor nerve [III]

In companion with the levator palpebrae superioris muscle is a

collection of smooth muscle fibers

passing from the inferior surface of

the levator to the upper edge of the

superior tarsus superior tarsal

muscle

Loss of function of either the levator palpebrae superioris

muscle or the superior tarsal muscle results in a ptosis or

drooping of the upper eyelid

Innervation

The sensory nerves are all branches of the

Innervation  The sensory nerves are all branches of the trigeminal nerve [V]  the supra-orbital,

trigeminal nerve [V]

the supra-orbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, and lacrimal branches of the ophthalmic nerve [V1]; and

the infra-orbital branch of the maxillary nerve [V2]

 the infra-orbital branch of the maxillary nerve [V2]  Motor innervation is from:  the

Motor innervation is from:

the facial nerve [VII],

the palpebral part

of the orbicularis oculi;

the oculomotor nerve [III],

the levator palpebrae superioris;

sympathetic fibers,

the superior tarsal muscle.

 Loss of innervation of the orbicularis oculi by the facial nerve [VII] causes an

Loss of innervation of the orbicularis oculi by

the facial nerve [VII] causes an inability to close the eyelids tightly and the lower eyelid droops away, resulting in a spillage of tears.

Loss of innervation of the levator palpebrae

superioris by the oculomotor nerve [III] causes an

inability to open the superior eyelid voluntarily,

producing a complete ptosis.

Loss of innervation of the superior tarsal muscle by sympathetic fibers causes a constant partial

ptosis

Horner's syndrome  caused by a lesion in the sympathetic trunk in the neck that

Horner's syndrome

caused by a lesion in the sympathetic trunk in the

neck that results in sympathetic dysfunction

characterized by three typical features :

1. pupillary constriction due to paralysis of the dilator

pupillae muscle;

2. partial ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid) due to

paralysis of the superior tarsal muscle of the levator

palpebrae superioris;

3. absence of sweating on the ipsilateral side of the face

and the neck due to absence of innervation of the sweat

glands.

The commonest cause for Horner's syndrome is a

tumor eroding the cervicothoracic ganglion, which

is typically an apical lung tumor.

Lacrimal apparatus

involved in the production,

movement, and drainage of fluid from the surface of the eyeball.

It is made up of the lacrimal gland

and its ducts, the lacrimal

canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and

the nasolacrimal duct.

The lacrimal gland is anterior in the

superolateral region of the orbit and

is divided into two parts by the

levator palpebrae superioris

is anterior in the superolateral region of the orbit and is divided into two parts by
is anterior in the superolateral region of the orbit and is divided into two parts by
LR 6 SO 4
LR 6 SO 4
LR 6 SO 4

LR 6 SO 4

INDRA …

INDRA …
INDRA …
INDRA …
INDRA …

PENDENGARAN

PENDENGARAN
PENDENGARAN
The external acoustic meatus does not follow a straight course. From the external opening it

The external acoustic meatus does not follow a straight

course. From the external opening it passes upward in

an anterior direction, then turns slightly posteriorly

still passing upward, and finally, turns again in an

anterior direction with a slight descent. For examination purposes, observation of the external

acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane can be improved

by pulling the ear superiorly, posteriorly, and slightly laterally.

acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane can be improved by pulling the ear superiorly, posteriorly, and slightly
Figure 18-15 Drawings illustrating early development of the internal ear. A, Dorsal view of a
Figure 18-15 Drawings illustrating early development of the internal ear. A, Dorsal view of a
Figure 18-15 Drawings illustrating early development of the internal ear. A, Dorsal view of a

Figure 18-15 Drawings illustrating early development of the internal ear. A, Dorsal view of a 4-week embryo (approximately 22 days) showing the otic placodes. B, D, F, and G, Schematic coronal sections illustrating successive stages in the development of otic vesicles. C and E, Lateral views of the cranial region of embryos, approximately 24 and 28 days, respectively.

Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 28 February 2011 12:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier

Figure 18-18 Schematic drawings illustrating development of the external and middle ear. Observe the relationship
Figure 18-18 Schematic drawings illustrating development of the external and middle ear. Observe the relationship
Figure 18-18 Schematic drawings illustrating development of the external and middle ear. Observe the relationship

Figure 18-18 Schematic drawings illustrating development of the external and middle ear. Observe the relationship of these parts of the ear to the otic vesicle, the primordium of the internal ear. A, At 4 weeks, illustrating the relation of the otic vesicle to the pharyngeal apparatus. B, At 5 weeks, showing the tubotympanic recess and pharyngeal arch cartilages. C, Later stage showing the tubotympanic recess (future tympanic cavity and mastoid antrum) beginn ing to envelop the ossicles. D, Final stage of ear development showing the relationship of the middle ear to the perilymphatic space and the external acoustic meat us. Note that the tympanic membrane develops from three germ layers: surface ectoderm, mesenchyme, and endoderm of the tubotympanic recess.

Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 28 February 2011 12:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier

Figure 18-19 Illustrations of the development of the auricle, the part of the external ear
Figure 18-19 Illustrations of the development of the auricle, the part of the external ear
Figure 18-19 Illustrations of the development of the auricle, the part of the external ear

Figure 18-19 Illustrations of the development of the auricle, the part of the external ear not contained within the head. A, At 6 weeks. Note that three auricular hillocks are located on the first pharyngeal arch and three on the second arch. B, At 8 weeks. C, At 10 weeks. D, At 32 weeks. As the mand ible and teeth develop, the auricles move from the superior neck region to the side of the head.

Downloaded from: StudentConsult (on 28 February 2011 12:47 AM) © 2005 Elsevier

Nervus Vestibulocochlearis (VIII)

Nervus Vestibulocochlearis (VIII) 1) nervus Vestibularis, yang membawa impuls keseimbangan dan orientasi ruang tiga

1) nervus Vestibularis, yang membawa impuls

keseimbangan dan orientasi ruang tiga

dimensi dari apparatus vertibular 2) nervus Cochlearis, yang membawa impuls

pendengaran yang berasal dari organon corti

di dalam cochlea. Apparatus vestibular dan

organon corti terletak didalam pars petrosa

os temporalis.

 Nervus Vestibulocochlearis memasuki batang otak tepat dibelakang nervus facialis (VII) pada suatu daerah berbentuk

Nervus Vestibulocochlearis memasuki batang otak tepat dibelakang nervus facialis (VII) pada suatu

daerah berbentuk segitiga yang dibatasi oleh pons,

flocculus dan medulla oblongata, keduanya

kemudian terpisah dan mempunyai hubungan ke

pusat yang berbeda.

Nervus Vestibularis dan Cochlearis biasanya bersatu yang kemudian memasuki meatus acustikus

internus, disebelah bawah akar motorik nervus VII.

PENGHIDU

The two nasal cavities are the uppermost

parts of the respiratory tract and contain the olfactory receptors.

They are elongated wedge-shaped spaces with a large inferior base and a narrow superior apex

Held open by a skeletal framework

consisting mainly of bone and cartilage.

The smaller anterior regions of the cavities

are enclosed by the external nose,

whereas the larger posterior regions are

more central within the skull.

The anterior apertures of the nasal

cavities are the nares, which open onto

the inferior surface of the nose.

The posterior apertures are the choanae,

which open into the nasopharynx.

open onto the inferior surface of the nose.  The posterior apertures are the choanae, which
open onto the inferior surface of the nose.  The posterior apertures are the choanae, which
The nasal cavities are separated:  from each other by a midline nasal septum; 

The nasal cavities are separated:

from each other by a midline nasal septum; from the oral cavity below by the hard palate; and

from the cranial cavity above by parts of the frontal,

ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.

Lateral to the nasal cavities are the orbits.

Each nasal cavity has a floor, roof, medial wall, and

lateral wall

 Each nasal cavity consists of three general regions- the nasal vestibule, the respiratory region,

Each nasal cavity consists of three general regions-

the nasal vestibule, the respiratory region, and the

olfactory region

1. the nasal vestibule is a small dilated space just internal to

the naris that is lined by skin and contains hair follicles;

2. the respiratory region is the largest part of the nasal

cavity, has a rich neurovascular supply, and is lined by respiratory epithelium composed mainly of ciliated and

mucous cells;

3. the olfactory region is small, is at the apex of each nasal cavity, is lined by olfactory epithelium, and contains the olfactory receptors.

JARAS PENGHIDU

JARAS PENGHIDU
JARAS PENGHIDU

PENGECAPAN

PENGECAPAN
PENGECAPAN

REFERENSI

REFERENSI  Drake et al: Gray's Anatomy for Students 2E  Moore : Clinically Oriented Anatomy

Drake et al: Gray's Anatomy for Students 2E

Moore : Clinically Oriented Anatomy

Chaurasia : Human Anatomy 3

Bahan kuliah anatomi modul penginderaan FKUI 2009

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