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Families of elements
Periods: o Horizontal rows of the periodic table (7 periods)

Groups/families: o o o vertical columns of the periodic table Groups are assigned from 1-18 in the new system Elements in any group have similar physical and chemical properties

Alkali Metals: o o o GROUP 1 React violently with water to form an alkaline (basic) solution Soft, solids, most silver

Alkaline Earth Metals: o o o GROUP 2 Reactive, not as reactive as alkali metals Soft metals like earth

Halogens: o o o o GROUP 17 Very reactive Need only one electron to fill the outer shell May be solids, liquids, or gases

Noble Gases: o o o GROUP 18 Completely filled outer shells Non reactive/ stable

Metals: o Elements that are usually solid and at room temperature

Metalloids: o Elements that lie on a diagonal line between the metals and non-metals. Their chemical and physical properties are intermediate between the two

Non- Metals: o o Elements in the upper right corner of the periodic table Their chemical and physical properties are different from metals

Transition Metals: o o o Elements in GROUP 3-12 Less reactive, harder metals, variable reactivity Includes metals used for jewelry and construction


o Includes elements with atomic numbers 57-70


o Includes elements with atomic number 89-102

Transuranic elements:

o Synthetic elements with atomic numbers 93 or greater

Representative elements:

o Group 1, 2, 13, to 17 may be solids liquids or gases at SATP

Calculate number of protons, neutrons, and electrons


o The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of an element


o A negatively charged subatomic particle


o A small, positively charged centre of the atom


o Positively charged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom


o An uncharged subatomic particle in the nucleus of an atom

Atomic Number:

o The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom of that given


Mass Number:

o The sum of the number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an

Mass Number A Atomic Number

Particle Proton Neutron Electron

Location Nucleus Nucleus Orbits

Charge + +/-

Mass (amu) 1.0073 1.0087 0.0005486

Calculating number of neutrons in an atom: #of neutrons= Mass# - Atomic #


o Atom of the same element that has the same atomic number but different
mass number (#of neutrons) Example: There are 3 isotopes of Hydrogen Hydrogen-H Deutirium- D

Tritiruim- T

H (0N) (2N)


H (1N)


o Radioactive isotope of an element (gives off radiation)


o Something capable of spontaneously emitting radiation (particles) or gamma


Three types of radiation given off by radioisotopes:

Alpha particles Nuclei of the atoms relatively slow Positively charged

Beta Particles Electrons (fast moving, good penetration)

Gamma Rays High energy radiation Extremely fast Extremely good penetration

Calculate average atomic mass of an element from isotopic abundance

The atomic mass of an element depends on the abundance of its isotopes. If you know the mass of the isotopes and the fractional abundance of the isotopes, you can calculate the element's atomic mass. The atomic mass is calculated by adding the mass of each isotope multiplied by its fractional abundance. For example, for an element with 2 isotopes: Formula: Atomic Mass = massa x %abundancea + massb x %abundanceb
Example: Cl-35 mass is 34.968852 and % abundance is 0.7577

Cl-37 mass is 36.965303 and % abundance is 0.2423

Atomic mass = massa x %abundancea + massb x %abundanceb Atomic mass = 34.968852 x 0.7577 + 36.965303 x 0.2423 Atomic mass = 26.496 amu + 8.9566 amu Atomic mass = 35.45 amu

Predict trends in periodic table

Periodic Trends: o Properties of elements show variation in groups and periods and these trends can be predicted with the help of the periodic table

Periodic Properties: o o Atomic Radius Ionic Radius

o o o

Ionization Energy Electron affinity Electronegativity

Atomic Radius: o An atom is a group of electrons in different orbitals/levels around a tiny central nucleus, forming a sort of electron cloud around the nucleus. The atomic radius is the approximate distance from the nucleus to the borders of this cloud. The atomic radius is one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are bonded

Trends in atomic radius: o o Atomic radius increases from top to bottom within a group and decreases from left to right across a period Atomic radius increases from top to bottom b/c more energy levels are added, which are further away from the nucleus, shielding outer electrons from positive nucleus

Ions: o Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms Some compounds are composed of particles called ions An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge A cation is an ion with a positive charge An anion is an ion with a negative charge

*As an atom loses 1 or more electrons (becomes positive), it loses a layer therefore, its radius increases

Ionization Energy: o The ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove electrons from the atom (forming a +ion)

o o

Ionization energy is the energy in kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol) Na+ Energy Na+ (both sodium atom and sodium ion are in gaseous state)

Successive ionization energies: o The energy required to remove the first electron from an atom is called first ionization energy o The energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 1+ charge is called second ionization energy o It becomes more difficult to remove successive electrons since the pull of the nucleus becomes stronger (greater number of protons relative to electrons) and the electrons are more tightly held

Trends in Ionization energy: o Ionization energy tends to decrease from top to bottom within a group and increase from left to right across a period Ionization energy decreases from top to bottom because there are more energy levels, electrons are further away, less attracted to the proton, more easily removed Ionization energy increases from left to right because it becomes more difficult to remove electrons from atoms which have more protons attracting them

Electron Affinity: o Helps make negative ions Example : F+ e- F + energy o Easier to add electrons to smaller atoms and take away electrons from larger atoms

Electronegativity: (covalent bonding)

o o

Ability of an atom to attract the shore of an electron pair In a bonding situation it would show how powerful an atom is

Chemistry unit 2: CHEMICAL BONDING AND NOMENCLATURE Difference between different bond types: Polar covalent, non-polar covalent, ionic, single, double, and triple Write IUPAC names Write chemical formulas, including states for ionic and molecular compounds Draw Lewis structure for molecular compounds

Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry

Chemical- a substance with a distinct molecular composition that is formed through a chemical reaction. How to justify a chemical reaction (colour change, odour, formation of gas or solid, heat) Use reaction type, and balance equation to determine the products of a chemical equation Determine states through solubility table

Ionic equations display charges of reactants Steps on balancing chemical equations: Start by balancing metals, then balance non metals Use subscript to help with though equations Calculations: n=m/M To calculate limiting reagent, find number of moles of reactants and then multiply by mole ratio If given is greater than required it is the excess reagent, if its less than its the limiting reagent The amount of product created from calculating limiting reagent is equal to the theoretical yield Actual yield will be given Solve using the formula: percentage yield=actual yield/theoretical yield x100 Empirical formula is the simplest way a reaction takes place Empirical formula reactions dont actually take place, molecular formulas are most accurate

Eg. C2H2 C6H6

Solutions, Acids & Bases Unit 5!

Use solubility tables to predict states of substances (aq) always dissolves (s) never dissolves

Calculations for solutions preparations from solids and by dilution Concentrations of solutions:
1. w/v = mass of solute (g)

x 100 volume of solution (mL)

2. v/v = volume of solute (mL)x 100

volume of solution (mL)

3. w/w = mass of solute (g)x 100

mass of solution (g) Concentration of solutions in parts per million/billion/trillion

1. Ppm = mass of solute (g)

x 106

Mass of solution (g)

2. Ppb = mass of solute (g)

x 109

Mass of solution (g)

3. Ppt = mass of solute (g)

x 1012

Mass of solution (g) Molar concentration C=n V C = molar concentration (M)

n = number of moles (mol) V = volume of solution (L) *MUST BE IN LITERS (L)*

Preparing solutions Standard solution: a solution for which exact concentration is known A. Stock solution = high concentration C = n *Use when given 2 out of 3 (2/3) V 1. Obtain a 100.0 mL volumetric flask
2. Calculate the mass of the _____ required to prepare ___ mL of a

___M of(actual substance) standard solution. *ACTUALLY CALCULATE THE MASS, c=n/v m=nM* 3. Obtain the required mass by using electronic balance 4. Add half of amount of volume of distilled water needed to prepare in the volumetric flask 5. Transfer mass to volumetric flask 6. Fill to the mark with distilled water 7. Stopper the flask and mix the contents thoroughly by inverting the flask a number of times 8. You have successfully prepared a standard solution. B. Diluted solution = adding water to strong solution to make it less strong. CconVcon= CdilVdil *Use when only looking at ONE substance, given 3 out of 4, before & after of ONE substance*

1. Obtain 100 mL volumetric flask

2. Calculate the volume of ____M standard solution required to

prepare ____mL of ____M diluted solution CconVcon= CdilVdil 3. Add half of amount of volume of pure water to clean 100 mL volumetric flask 4. Measure required volume of standard solution using 10 mc pipet 5. Transfer required volume of initial (standard) solution into the 100 mL volumetric flask.

Ionic Equations Spectator ions = ions that dont form precipitate Participatory ions = ions that form precipitate Total ionic equation = show all entities present in reaction. Break up every substance BUT the one that formed precipitate Net ionic equation = show precise reaction that forms precipitate. Only elements that formed the precipitate

Stoichiometry problems 2 different substances 1. Balance chemical equation of reaction 2. Calculare the number of moles (n) for given compound
3. Use ratio n =n

nn 4. Convert number of moles to required Shorter Equation: CAVA = CBVB nA nB A=acid B=base

Titration Neutralization = acid + base KOH(aq) + HCl(aq) H2O(l) + KCl(aq) Base Acid Water Salt titrations the process of determining concentration of unknown acid or base To find unknown acid we need known base and vise versa

ACIDS & BASES Acid Sour Turn blue litmus red Neutralize base React with metals & release H2(g) donators Base bitter Turn red litmus blue Doesnt react with metals Neutralise acids Acceptors

Dissociation: ionic compound dissolving in H2O, break apart into separate ions Ionization: process of covalent compound breaking into ions Acids + water = ionize to produce H2(g) ions (H+ ) hydrogen Base + water = dissociates to produce OH ions (OH-) hydroxide Examples: Acids: HCl(aq) H+ (aq)+ Cl+ (aq) Base: NaOH(aq) Na+ (aq) + OH-(aq) Conjugate acid-base pairs : 2 molecules related by 1 proton. CN = conjugated acid CB = conjugated base Examples: HCl(aq)+ H2O(l) H3O + Cl(aq) Acid Base CA CB HCO3-(aq) + NH3 NH4 (aq) + CO32-

Acid Acids Weak




CB Bases


Partially ionized in H2O Degree of ionization less than 50% Low conductivity Partial dissociation of HA Found in food often Ex; citric acid, acetic acid, carbonic acid Almost completely ionized Degree of ionization greater than 99% 100% dissociation of HA High conductivity Ex; hydrochloric, sulfuric, perchloric

Degress of association less than 50% Ammonia -> weak base NH3 (aq)

Completely 100% dissociate into ions in aqueous solution Bases that belong to group 1 are always strong Soluble metal hydroxidesSodium (Na)

PH and [H+]

pH stands for power of hydrogen it is a way of indicating the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
in a neutral solution, [H+(aq)] = 1 x 10-7 in an acidic solution, [H+(aq)]> 1 x 10-7 in a basic solution, [H+(aq)]< 1 x 10-7

1. Given the [H+] concentration as 1 x 10x, the pH is equal to the x

[H+(aq)] = 1 x Ex. [H+(aq)] = [H+(aq)] = 1 x [H+(aq)] = 1 x

10-x, pH = x 1 x 10-7, therefore pH = 7 (neutral) 10-3, therefore pH = 3 (acidic) 10-11, therefore pH = 11 (basic)

2. Given the [H+] concentration as a value not expressed as 1 x 10x,

we use the equation: pH = -log [H+(aq)] Ex. [H+(aq)] = 4.7 x 10-11, pH = -log (4.7 x 10-11) = 10.33 (basic) [H+(aq)] = 1.3 x 10-2, pH = -log (1.3 x 10-2) = 1.89 (acidic)
3. Calculating concentration of H+ in a solution from the pH

[H+(aq)] = 10-pH Ex. pH = 5, [H+(aq)] = 10-5 = 1 x 105mol/L pH = 10.33, [H+(aq)] = 10-10.33 = 4.7 x 10-11 mol/L

Gases Unit 5!
*Anything highlighted red is on the exam*

Kinetic molecular theory: 1. All matter is made up of particles 2. Particles are in constant motion and collide with one another Properties of states of matter State Solid Properties Definite shape & volume Virtually incompressible Do not flow easily Rotational motion Vibrational motion Explanation using Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) - Low kinetic energy & strong intermolecular forces - As the energy is low, particles exhibit little motion and dont collide enough to separate particles - Due to strong attractive forces, there isnt any orderly arrangement of particles - Higher kinetic energy, therefore particles exhibit more motion - Strong attractive forces hold particles together but due to kinetic


Assume shape of a container, definite volume Virtually incompressible Flow readily Translational motion

Vibrational motion


Assume shape and volume of a container Highly compressible Flow readily Translational motion The volume gases can occupy is very large in comparison to the small volume occupied by individual particles

energy bring high than in solids particles are more apart than in solids High kinetic energy and virtually no intermolecular forces Particles collide often and spread (diffuse) as far from each other as possible, occupying the entire volume

Types of motions exhibited by particles 1. Translational motion: motion in a straight line 2. Rotational motion: spinner motion 3. Vibrational motion: back and forth motion of atoms within molecule

Pressure: force per unit area -

Measured using mercury barometer SI unit for pressure is pascal (Pa) = a force of 1 newton (N) ibnab area if 1 m2 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 or 1kPa = 1kN/m2

Standard Temperature & Pressure (STP) The average temperature and pressure sea level

Standard temperature = 0.C = 273K Standard pressure = 101.325 KPa = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg Standard molar volume Vm= 22.4 L/mol

Standard Ambient Temperature & Pressure (SATP)


Standard ambient temperature = 25.C = 298K Standard ambient pressure = 100 KPa Standard ambient molar volume = Vm= 24. 8 L/mol

Boyles Law: at a constant temperature (T), the volume (V) of a fixed
amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure (P). V = 1/P

As the pressure increases the volume decreasesproportionally P 1 V 1 = P2 V 2

Charles Law:at a constant pressure (P), the volume (V) of a fixed

amount of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature (T). V = T

As the temperature increases, the volume increases proportionally V1 =V2 T1 T2

Gay Lussacs Law: at a constant volume (V), the pressure (P) of a fixed
amount of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature (T). P = T As the temperature increases, the pressure increases proportionally P1 =P2 T1 T2

Combined Gas Law: the volume (V) of a fixed amount of gas changes
when both Kelvin temperature (T) and pressure (P) change of at the same time. This is called combined gas law because it combined boyles law, charles law and gay lussacs law into one.

P1V1 =P2V2 T1 T2

Avogadros Theory & Molar Mass of Gases

Avogadros theory: states that equal volumes (V) of gases at the same temperature (T) and pressure (P) contain equal numbers of molecules. Molar volume of gas: the volume that one mole of gas occupies at a specific temperature and pressure.

This concept combines the mole concept (1 mole of any substance always contains 6.022 x 1023 particles) with Avogadros theory (equal volumes of gases contain equal number of particles at the same pressure & temperature) At STP (0.C, 101.325 KPa) molar volume = 22.4 L/mol At SATP (25.C, 100 KPa) molar volume = 24.8 L/mol Molar volume = volume of gas moles of gas Vm= V n

Ideal Gas Law


an ideal gas is a hypothetical gas composed of particles that have zero size and travel in straight lines (translational motion) and have no attraction to each other (zero intermolecular force)

Combined gas law: the product of the pressure and volume of a gas is directly proportional to the product of the amount of kelvin temperature of a gas. PV = nT PV = nRT (R = universal gas constant = 8.31 KPa. L. mol-1. K-1) note: if pressures given in atm not KPa, then R = 0.0821 L. atm. mol-1. K-1

Daltons law of partial pressures:the total pressure of a mixture of

non-reacting gases is equal to the sum of partial pressures of the individuals gases. Ptotal= P1 + P2 + P3 + V & T constant

Partial pressures: refers to the pressure of a gas In a gas mixture that It would exert if it were the only gas present in the same volume and at the same temperature.

Law of combining volumes and stoichiometry

States that when measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume of gaseous reactants and products of chemical reactions are always in simple, whole-number ratios. By looking at the balances chemical equation for the reaction, we can use the mole ratios to determine the ratio of volumes of gases in the reaction

Calculations: 1. Start by writing a balanced chemical equation or the reaction 2. Write the information given by equation 3. Use the mole ratio to calculate the volume ratio for the gases Number of mol of X from balanced equation= Number of mol of Y from balanced equation volume of X volume of Y

Gas Stoichiometry
All stoichiometry problems require the use of a mole ratio, which we obtain from the balanced equation for the reaction You need to recall the following equations -

M = m/n N = n x Na (Na = 6.02 x 1023) C=n/V PV =nRT

n = V/Vm

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