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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

Practice 1.1 (p. 11)


1 D
2 B
3 A
4 C
5 D
6 The temperature tells us how hot or how cold
a body is.
7 On the Celsius temperature scale, the lower
fixed point is the temperature of pure melting
ice at normal atmospheric pressure, defined as
0 °C.
The upper fixed point is the temperature of the
steam over boiling water at normal
atmospheric pressure, defined as 100 °C.
8 (a) Thermistor thermometer / liquid-in-glass
thermometer
(b) Resistance thermometer / alcohol-in-glass
thermometer
(c) Resistance thermometer
9 Since the energy of solid particles is not high
enough, particles are bound and held closely
together by strong attractive forces. They
cannot change positions and thus solids have
regular shapes.
For liquids, although particles are close
together, they experience smaller attractive
force. Hence, they can change positions, and
have irregular shapes.
Since gas particles are far apart, they
experience weak attractive force and can
change positions. Hence, gases have irregular
shapes.

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

8 Internal energy of a body is the energy stored


10 Let T be the temperature when the thread is inside the body. It is the sum of kinetic energy
7.7 cm long. and potential energy of the particles inside the
Separation between 100 °C and T 100 − T body.
=
Separation between 100 °C and 0 °C 100 − 0
Temperature shows the hotness of the body.
18.2 − 7.7 100 − T
= When it increases, the kinetic energy, and
18.2 − 3.2 100
T = 30 °C hence the internal energy, of a body increases.
11 Let x be the length of the mercury thread at 9 Heat is the energy transferred from one body
100 °C. to another due to temperature difference, while
Separation between 100 °C and 50 °C 100 − 50 the internal energy is the energy contained in a
=
Separation between 50 °C and 0 °C 50 − 0 body.
x − 15 50 10 (a) B.
=
15 − 5 50
It has a higher power and transfers more
x = 25 cm
energy to the water in a fixed time.
12 Let T be the temperature of the hot water.
Difference in reading between 100 °C and T 100 − T (b) By E = Pt,
=
Difference in reading between 100 °C and 0 °C 100 − 0 for electric kettle A,
60 − 42 100 − T E = 1500 × 5 × 60
=
60 − 10 100 = 450 000 J = 450 kJ
T = 64 °C
for electric kettle B,
E = 2000 × 5 × 60
Practice 1.2 (p. 18) = 600 000 J = 600 kJ
1 A (c) Boiling the same amount of water requires
2 D the same amount of energy, thus having
3 D the same cost.
4 B
5 Doing work (hammering and rubbing), heating Practice 1.3 (p. 32)
(putting objects of different temperatures
1 C
together).
2 B
E
6 By P =   , 3 D
t
E = Pt = 2000 × 30 × 60 4 C = mc = 5 × 480 = 2400 J °C−1
= 3 600 000 J = 3.6 MJ 5 Copper has a higher temperature rise than
E water.
7 By P =   ,
t
E 1 000 000
t= = = 2000 s = 33.3 min
P 500

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

6 Let T be the temperature of the soup after


5 minutes.
By E = Pt = mc∆T,
200 × 5 × 60 = 0.5 × 3500 × (T − 20)
60 000 = 1750T − 35 000
60 000 + 35 000
T=
1750
= 54.3 °C
7 Let c be the specific heat capacity of the metal
block.
By E = mc∆T,
energy lost by the metal block
= energy gained by the water bath
m1 c1 ∆T1 = m 2 c 2 ∆T2
3 × c × (100 − 31.7) = 5 × 4200 × (31.7 − 27)
204.9c = 98 700
c = 482 J kg −1 °C −1
The heat capacity of the metal block is
482 × 3 = 1450 J °C–1.
8 Let T be the final temperature of the mixture.
By E = mc∆T,
energy lost by the 80 °C water
= energy lost by the 30 °C water
m1c1∆T1 = m2 c2 ∆T2
2 × 4200 × (80 − T ) = 5 × 4200 × (T − 30)
160 − 2T = 5T − 150
7T = 310
T = 44.3 °C
9 Since water has a very high specific heat
capacity, it can absorb a lot of energy with
only a small temperature rise. Hence water is
suitable to be used as a coolant in motor cars
and air-conditioners.

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

Revision exercise 1 (b) P =


E
  (1M)
t
Multiple-choice (p. 35)
168 000
Section A =
7 × 60
1 C
= 400 W (1A)
2 D
The heating power of the microwave oven
3 B
is 400 W.
3 (a) By E = mc∆T (1M)
Section B
E = 1 × 4200 × (95 − 15)
4 B
= 336 kJ (1A)
5 B
The amount of energy removed from the
6 D
engine each second is 336 kJ.
7 C
(b) For the engine to raise to 200 °C,
By proportion,
E = mc∆T (1M)
40 − 10 l3 − l2
= = 200 × 450 × (200 − 15)
10 − 0 l2 − l1
= 16.65 MJ (1A)
3 × (l2 − l1) = l3 − l2
Energy required is 16.65 MJ.
l3 = 4l2 − 3l1
Let t be the time needed to overheat the
8 (HKCEE 2000 Paper II Q20)
engine if the cooling system failed.
9 (HKCEE 2000 Paper II Q22) 16 650 000
t= = 49.6 s (1A)
10 (HKCEE 2003 Paper II Q22) 336 000
11 (HKCEE 2004 Paper II Q44) It takes 49.6 s to overheat the engine if the
12 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q27) cooling system failed.
4 Given PC : PD = 3 : 4 and ∆TA : ∆TB = 4 : 3.
Conventional (p. 36) By E = Pt = mc∆T, (1M)
Section A we have:
1 Let m be mass of the block. PC × t = mA × c × ∆TA......................................................... (1)
By E = Pt = mc∆T, (1M) PD × t = mB × c × ∆TB............................................ ............(2)
100 × 1.8 × 60 = m × 130 × (50 – 23) (1A)
10 800 = 3510 m Divide (1) by (2), (1M)
m = 3.08 kg (1A) PC m Ac∆TA
=
2 (a) By E = mc∆T, (1M) PD mB c∆TB
E = 0.5 × 4200 × (100 − 20) PC
= 168 000 J = 168 kJ (1A) m A ∆TA P ∆T
= = C × B
mB PD ∆TA PD
The amount of energy gained by water is
∆TB
168 kJ.
PC ∆TB 3 3 9
= × = × = (1A)
PD ∆TA 4 4 16

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

Section B
5 (a) By E = mc∆T, (1M)
E = 0.8 × 4200 × (82 – 25)
= 191 520 J (1A)
E
(b) By P =   , (1M)
t
191 520
P=
4 × 60
= 798 W (1A)
The heating power of the electric kettle is
798 W.
(c) By E = mc∆T, required energy
E = 0.8 × 4200 × (100 – 82)
= 60 480 J
E
By P =   , (1M)
t
E
t=
P
60 480
=
798
= 75.8 s (1A)
It takes 75.8 s to further heat the water to
its boiling point.
6 (a) By E = mc∆T,
energy transferred E (1M)
= 0.17 × 4200 × (61 – 35)
= 18 564 J (1A)
(b) Let m be the mass of water.
By E = mc∆T,
18 564 = m × 4200 × (35 − 20)
18 564 = m × 63 000
m = 0.295 kg (1A)
E
(c) By P =   ,
t
the rate of energy transfer from the milk to
the water bath
18 564
P=
5 × 60
= 61.9 W (2A)

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

(d) The average kinetic energy of the water


molecules in the water bath at 35 °C is
higher than that at 20 °C.
7 (a) Let T be the final temperature of the water
in the bath-tub. Assume the taps have been
turned on for 1 s. By E = mc∆T, (1M)
energy lost by hot water
= energy gained by cold water
0.18 × 4200 × (60 − T ) = 0.2 × 4200 × (T − 20)
10.8 − 0.18T = 0.2T − 4
0.38T = 14.8
T = 38.9 °C
(b) Energy transfers from hot water to water in
the bath-tub. (1A)
The energy transferred is called heat.(1A)
8 (a)
T/ C

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10
t/s

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
(Correct labelled axis.) (2A)
(Correct points.) (1A)
(A smooth curve passing through all data
points.) (1A)

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

(b) (i) By E = Pt, (1M) Curve (i):


energy supplied by the stove (Initial temperature at 22 °C.) (1A)
= 2000 × 120 (Similar shape to the curve in (a) but
= 240 000 J = 240 kJ (1A) has a smaller slope, and a lower
The stove supplies an energy of temperature at t = 120 s.) (1A)
240 kJ from t = 0 to t = 120 s. Curve (ii):
(ii) By E = mc∆T, (1M) (Initial temperature higher than
energy absorbed by the soup 22 °C.) (1A)
= 1 × 4200 × (70 − 22) (The curve has a steeper slope than the
= 201 600 J = 201.6 kJ (1A) curve in (a).) (1A)
The soup gains 201.6 kJ from t = 0 to 9 (a) Let T be the final temperature of the coffee.
t = 120 s. Energy gained by milk
(iii) Energy loss = energy lost by coffee (1M)
= 240 000 − 201 600 0.05 × 4800 × (T − 5)
= 38 400 J = 38.4 kJ (1A) = 0.25 × 4200 × (85 − T)
The energy loss in heating process is T = 70.1 °C (1A)
38.4 kJ. The final temperature of the coffee is
(c) (i) and (ii) 70.1 °C.
(b) Let T be the final temperature of the coffee
T/ C
and teaspoon.
Energy gained by teaspoon
(ii)
80 = energy lost by coffee (1M)
(0.05 × 4800 + 0.25 × 4200) × (70.1 − T)
70
= 0.1 × 370 × (T − 20)
60 T = 68.7 °C (1A)
The temperature of the coffee is 68.7 °C
50 when he stirs it.
(i)
(c) Since the temperature of coffee drops
40
considerably after adding milk and stirring,
30 (1A)
adding sugar first can make sure that coffee
20 can has enough energy to melt sugar.(1A)

10
t/s
10 (a) Since the temperature of liquid A rises from
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
t = 0 to t = 120 s, and it drops after
t = 120 s, (1A)

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

the heater is switched on from t = 0 to temperature of the containers. Their


t = 120 s. (1A) final temperature is higher than the
(b) (i) By E = Pt, (1M) initial temperature. (1A)
energy needed (ii) The specific heat capacity of the
= 1000 × 120 pottery bowl is larger. With the same
= 120 000 J = 120 kJ (1A) mass, more energy is transferred to the
The energy needed to heat liquid A pottery bowl. (1A)
from 20 °C to 60 °C is 120 kJ. (c) The specific heat capacity of the metal mug
(ii) is smaller. It thus lets the soup cool more
quickly. (1A)
T/ C
13 (HKCEE 2000 Paper I Q8)
14 (a) By E = Pt and P = VI, (1M)
60
E = VIt

50
= 12 × 4.2 × 5 × 60
= 15 120 J (1A)
40 (b) (i) By E = mc∆T, (1M)
15 120 = 0.8 × c × 19
30
c = 995 J kg–1 °C–1 (1A)
20 The specific heat capacity of
aluminium is 995 J kg–1 °C–1.
10
(ii) (A) Not all the energy transferred to
t/s
the aluminium block as heat.
0 30 60 90 120 150 180
(1A)
(Line with a greater slope.) (1A) (B) Wrap the aluminium block with
(Initial temperature remains the poor conductor of heat. (1A)
same.) (1A)
(c) Liquid A is a better coolant. (1A)
It is because liquid A has a higher specific
heat capacity. (1A)
When the same amount of energy is
absorbed by liquids A and B, the
temperature rise of liquid A is smaller.(1A)
(For effective communication.) (1C)
11 (HKCEE 1992 Paper I Q4)
12 (a) Energy lost to surroundings as heat. (1A)
Energy lost to surroundings as light. (1A)
(b) (i) Take the initial and the final

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A Heat Chapter 1 Temperature, Heat and Internal Energy

15 (a) (i)The oil-filled radiator takes Physics in articles (p. 41)


0.75 hour (45 minutes) to reach (a) Renewable energy can reduce the reliance on
60 °C. (1A) exhaustible sources of fossil fuels, (1A)
(ii) The biggest temperature difference is with less emission of pollutants from the
12 °C (at 3:30 pm). (1A) environmental point of view. (1A)
(b) By E = mc∆T, (1M) (b) (i) Volume of water
E = 10 × 4000 × 20 = 800 kJ (1A) = 50 × 21 × 2 = 2100 m3 (1A)
The water in the radiator takes 800 kJ to Mass of water
raise its temperature by 20 °C. = density of water × volume of water
(c) The radiator loses heat to the surroundings = 1000 × 2100 = 2.1 × 106 kg (1A)
and it needs energy greater than that in (b). (ii) By E = mc∆T, energy required
(1A) E = 2.1 × 106 × 4200 × (27 – 22)
(d) The student is incorrect. (1A) = 4.41 × 1010 J (1A)
By E = mc∆T, the slope of the curve (rate E
By P =   ,
t
of change of temperature of the liquid)
E 4.41× 1010
implies the rate of energy transferred to the t= =
P 2 000 000
environment, not the energy given out.(1A)
= 22 050 s = 368 min (1A)
From 7:00 pm to 8:00 pm, the temperature
(c) Mercury-in-glass thermometer. (1A)
drop of water is 22 °C and that of oil is
It consists of a narrow glass tube. One end of
33 °C. Since the specific heat capacity of
the tube is made into a bulb that contains
water is twice that of oil, by E = mc∆T,
mercury. When the temperature rises, mercury
water gives out more energy than oil.(1A)
expands and rises up the narrow tube. When the
temperature falls, mercury contracts and falls
down the tube. The temperature is read from
the scale on the glass tube. (2A)
(d) Because of the large heat capacity of water,
(1A)
the rise in temperature of water is slower than
that of air. (1A)
Therefore, it is cooler in the water than in the
air. (1A)

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