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COMPLEX NUMBERS

REFERENCE: R. V. Churchill, J. W. Brown: Complex Variables and Applications Definition: A complex number is one of the form + where x and y are real numbers and i is a symbol with the property that 2 = 1 If = + is a complex number then x is called the real part of z, denoted by Re(z), and y is called the imaginary part of z, denoted by Im(z).

The real and imaginary parts of a complex number are both real numbers. E.g. 2 + 5 = 2 and Im 2 + 5 = 5 (Not 5)

If = 3, then = 3 and = 0, since = 3 + 0 If = 4, then = 0, = 4, since = 0 + 4 A complex number z is called real only if = 0; e.g. = 3 as above; And It is called purely imaginary if = 0; e.g. = 4 as above.

EQUALITY OF COMPLEX NUMBERS Two complex numbers 1 and 2 are equal if the real parts are equal and the imaginary parts are equal. e.g. Given that 3 + = + 6, where , are real variables, then for sure = 6 and = 3.

ARITHMETIC ON COMPLEX NUMBERS The sum and difference of complex numbers are defined by adding and subtracting their real parts and their imaginary parts: + + + = + + + + + = +
1

e.g.

2 + 3 + 4 2 = 2 + 4 + 3 2 = 6 +

The product of complex numbers is defined in a natural manner: + + = + + + 2

Since 2 = 1, this becomes + + = + +

e.g.

2 + 3 4 2 = 2 4 2 + 3 (4 2) = 8 4 + 12 6 1 = 14 + 8

We will discuss division shortly.

Conjugate If = + is a complex number, we define its conjugate to be = e.g. = 1 + 2 ; = 1 2 2 + 3 = 2 3 ; 2 3 = 2 + 3 ; 3 = 3 ; 3=3

Conjugates have the following properties: + = + ; = ; and for any integer n, e.g. (i) =

2 + 3 + (4 6) = 2 + 3 + (4 6) = 2 3 + 4 + 6 = 6 + 3

(ii)

2 + 3 (4 + 2) = 2 + 3 . (4 + 2) = 2 3 . 4 2
3

2 16

(iii)

1 + 2

(1 + 2)

= (1 2)3 = 11 + 2

Modulus (Plural : Moduli) The modulus, or absolute value, , of a complex number = + is given by = Notice that = ( + )( ) = 2 + 2 2 = 2 + 2 Therefore, =
2

2 + 2

[ a number which is real only and cannot be negative ]

As observed above, the RHS is a non-negative real number.

Division If , are complex numbers with 0, then = = 2 . . ii i 1 1 (1 2) 1 2 1 2 = = = 2 + 22 1 + 2 1 + 2 (1 2) (1) 5

3 + 4 (3 + 4) (2 + ) 2 + 11 2 + 11 2 11 = = = + 2 2 (2 + ) (2)2 + 12 5 5 5

SOLUTIONS OF QUADRATIC AND OTHER POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS Since 2 = 1, we can think of as a square root of the 1. Notice that ()2 = 2 = 1, and so is also a square root of 1. We say that is the principal square root of 1 and write 1 = . In general, if is any positive real number, we write = Thus, if 2 + + = 0 is a given quadratic equation with , , are real numbers, then 2 4 = 2

are the real solutions if 2 4 0.

However, if 2 4 < 0, then = 4 2 2

are the complex solutions. Observe that the two solutions of the quadratic equations are complex conjugates of each other. In general, solutions of any polynomial equation with real coefficient come in conjugate pairs a fact which is sometimes quite useful as you will observe in exercise sheet. Example: Solve 2 + 2 + 5 = 0
; =

2 4 20 2 16 2 4 = = = 1 2 2 2 2

Now we will consider other representation of complex numbers.

AS ORDERED PAIRS The complex number = + can be considered as an ordered pair (, ). In this case, , = (, ) and if and if = and = . As complex numbers we have: 2, 3 + 4, 2 = (6, 1) 2, 3 4, 2 = (2, 5) 2, 3 4, 2 = 14, 8
2, 3 1 4 = , (4, 2) 10 5 why?

Observe that the conjugate of (, ) is (, ) i.e. (, ) = (, ) e.g. (2, 3) = (2, 3)

Clearly performing multiplication and division in this notation is a very clumsy affair

GEOMETRIC REPRESENTATION Consider the -plane. The complex number = + is represented as the point (, ) on this plane.
y The axis is now called the real-axis; The axis is called the imaginary axis, = + y x x And the whole plane is now called the Complex Plane

Observe that the modulus of the , , is simply the distance from the point z to the origin. Also, if one reflects the vector z along the real-axis, one obtains .

= + ||

Notice: = || always

| |

POLAR FORM We know that any complex number = + can be considered as a point , in the plane. Such a point can be represented in polar coordinates as (, ) where = 0 and is the angle indicated below (measured with respect to the real-axis, in the anti-clockwise direction)

= +

Simple trigonometry yields: = , and = , = = = 2 + 2

r a

Hence,

= =
5

= 2 + 2 =

Since = + = + , We can write any complex number z in the form

= (cos + sin )
This is called the POLAR FORM of the complex number . The angle is called the argument of , and we write = arg (). OBSERVATION: 1. The angle, arg is NOT UNIQUE ; any two arguments of differ by an integer multiple of 2, () e.g. The complex number (3, 3 ) can also be written as: 3, 3 + 2 , 3, 3 + 4 ,

3, 3 + 6 , etc

The principal value of arg denoted by () is the value of arg that lies in predetermined interval of () () length 2 e.g. < () 0 < 2 or (all depending on the book one is using)

2. On the other hand, modulus of , is UNIQUE and always NON-NEGATIVE (could be zero sometimes!!) 3. the conjugate of = (cos + sin ) is = (cos sin ) = cos ( + sin() Examples: 1. Write = 1 + in polar form. Find r : = 12 + 12 = 2 Find : tan = 1 so =
4

(z is in the 1st quadrant)

Write in polar form: Hence, = 2(cos 4 + sin 4 ) 2. Write = 3 in polar form. Find r : = 3 + 12 = 4 = 2
1 3 2

Find : tan =

. Since lies in the fourth quadrant we can take = 6

Write in polar form: Hence, = 2(cos (-/6) + i sin(-/6))