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English is one of the sweetest languages. It occupies very important place in literary World. It is the language of Science and Technology. It has a special status in the society. People all over the world are trying to speak English well and effectively since it is the most wide spread language. The importance of English as World language is steadily growing. Speaking and Writing correct English is a skill which one can acquire by a sincere effort constant practice based on literary taste. We must learn English as it is a Link Language and an International Language. It is essential for Research and also aspiring of good jobs and employment. To be able to read and write or to speak a foreign language like English, it is necessary that you should have an adequate stock of words to express a number of ideas, feelings etc. In addition you should also have a thorough control over the structure of English sentences. Among the four equally important skills of learning a language, writing is one and without a proper acquisition of that skill correct expressions of ones ideas in writing is not possible. Writing skill cannot be acquired without perfecting oneself in spelling and punctuation. If we want to use any language effectively both in speech and in writing, our stock of words should be fairly adequate. Otherwise we have to struggle for expressions for want of an appropriate word. Hence it is quite necessary to improve ones vocabulary. Without which it is not easy to communicate. As such learning new words, their meaning and usage is the basic requirement for a skilful handling of a language as a tool for communication. English is a rich language which contains more than a million words.


3 Learning a language is not as difficult as people imagine. It may take a long time to master a language, but to learn the basic language should take a maximum period of six months. Vivekananda once had gone to France to deliver a lecture. He prepared his speech in English but the organizers of the meeting informed him that his lecture was postponed, for one month, due to unavoidable circumstances. They requested him to stay there and arranged a free boarding and lodging for him. During, this one month time he learnt French language and gave his lecture in French and got tremendous applause and appreciation from the audience. So, learning a language is not very difficult. More over English is not really a foreign language, for us as it has been there for more than 280 years now. What you should do now is to take guidance from the grammar units and learn to write simple sentences correctly. Then with the help of the linking words, learn to connect sentences. Develop each idea into a paragraph. But what is most needed to learn the language is that you should make it a point to read at least a few pages in English everyday and practice writing, what you have read, in your own words. Everyday just spend an hour for English. In one year you would become proficient in English.


Language is primarily spoken in the sense human beings learnt to speak before they learn to write. In the life of an individual, speech comes before writing. Writing to a large extent is based on speech. The causes for improving ones pronunciation are varied. Every educated man likes to be acceptable, pleasant and effective in his social surroundings. He can achieve this to a considerable extent by acquiring a good accent. Business men and sales men try to impress the customers with their spoken language and sell their goods. Travel and communications in the modern world, participation in National and International Conferences require a reasonable command over spoken English. It is but natural that a language so wide spread has many varieties. The English spoken in the United Kingdom, for example, is slightly different from the English spoken in the USA or Australia. There are occasions when an Indian from one region finds it is difficult to understand the English spoken by an Indian from another region.


A lot of initiative and effort is needed in training oneself to speak English well. We should try to speak slowly and clearly. Some people mistake the term fluency for speed. Fluency does not mean speaking fast. If you speak slowly and clearly, you will be understood better, your speech will be effective and you will gain confidence. Look for the company of good speakers of English, listen to good speakers over Radio and TV or Cinema and make it a habit to listen to good English everyday. Interaction is essential in developing confidence. It is common for all to make mistakes. We learn from mistakes, therefore, we should try to speak English with individuals or in groups in order to gain proficiency.

WHAT IS AN ALPHABET? From A to Z there are 26 letters in English. They are called Alphabet. Among these, 26 letters, 5 are Vowels i.e., A, E, I, O, U. The remaining 21 are called consonants. Y and W are called Semi Vowels. WHAT IS A SENTENCE? Ramesh, good, a, is, boy (W) 1 2 3 4 5 Ramesh is a good boy (R) So, a sentence is a group of words, which gives full meaning. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF GRAMMAR? Grammar teaches us how to write and speak without grammatical mistakes. When you write a sentence, the following 5 points should be remembered. 1. Begin the sentence with a capital letter. 2. The words must be placed in their proper order. 3. The personal Pronoun I should always be written in capital letter though it comes in the middle or end of the sentence. 4. All proper nouns must be written in capital letters. 5. A full stop or a question mark or an exclamatory mark should be placed at the end of the sentence, according to the nature of the sentence. Eg:- he and i went to delhi __ (4 mistakes) 1 2 3 4 He and I went to Delhi. KINDS OF SENTENCES 1. ASSERTIVE SENTENCE:- A sentence that makes a statement is called an Assertive sentence. Eg.:- 1. His mother is a teacher. 2. He is a good boy. 2. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE:- It asks questions. Eg.:- 1. What is your name? 2. Which is your native place? 3. IMPERATIVE SENTENCE:- It expresses an order, request, Advice and wish. Eg.:- 1. Shoot him (order) 2. Please lend me a rupee (Request) 3. Study Well (Advice)

6 4. May God Bless you (Wish) 4. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE:- It explains an emotional feeling and sudden surprise. It contains an exclamatory mark. Eg.:- 1. Alas! The child is dead! 2. How beautiful the Tajmahal is!

1. PROPER NOUN:- It begins with a capital letter. It points out a particular person, place or thing. Eg:1. Sonia Gandhi, India, Hero-Pen. 2. The days of the week and the months of the year are the proper nouns. 3. Sunday, Monday, January, February..

2. COMMON NOUN:- A noun which does not point out any particular Person, Place or thing. It is a name that can be given to all things or persons of the same class or kind. Eg:- Boy, girl, King, dog, Village, River etc. PROPER NOUN MOTHER THERISSA CHINA HERO-PEN BOMBAY COMMON NOUN WOMAN COUNTRY PEN CITY

3. COLLECTIVE NOUN:- If a common noun denotes a group of persons or objects of the same kind it is called a collective noun. Eg:- A forest, cattle, mob etc., 4. MATERIAL NOUN:- Common Nouns that refers to materials. It can be seen, touched or tested, as it exits physically. Eg:- Gold, Wood, Clay etc.

7 5. ABSTRACT NOUN:- The abstract noun is a word that denotes something that is abstract. The thing denoted may be an idea, an emotion, thought, kindness, freedom, joy, etc. Eg:- Grammar, Music, Logic, Chemistry are also abstract nouns. 6. COUNTABLE NOUNS:- The countable nouns denote things that can be counted. They have singular and plural forms. Singular A student A table A dog Plural Ten students Ten tables Ten dogs

7. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS:- Uncountable nouns are those that cannot be counted. They have no Plural forms. Eg:- Justice, honesty, oil, rice, milk, beauty, music, cricket, tennis, truth, liberty, and all abstract nouns are uncountable nouns. EXERCISE-1 Name the kinds of nouns: 1. Grammar. 2. A Bunch of flowers. 3. Silver . 4. School. 5. Opinion 6. France 7 Committee 8 A Dog. 9. A Forest 10.Rice. EXERCISE-2 Identify the following sentences: 1. N.T.R. was a famous actor. 2. What is your qualification? 3. Get out from our office. 4. Study well 5. Please post this letter. 6. May God bless you. 7. Oh God! He is murdered. 8. What a beautiful picture it is ! 9. How many vowels and consonants are there in English?


The words which we use are divided into eight parts according to the work they do in a sentence. 1. NOUN:- A noun is a word that denotes the name of a person, place or thing. Eg:- Vinodh, Hyderabad, ring. 2. PRONOUN:- A pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun. Eg:- 1.Narendra is absent because, he is ill. 2.Lakshmi got the 1st rank as she worked hard. 3. ADJECTIVE:- An adjective is a word which qualifies a noun. Eg:- 1.Latha is a clever girl. 2. Raja is a good boy.

VERB:- Verb denotes action. This is the most important word in a sentence. It is used to say something about some person, place or thing. There may be a sentence without subject or object but there cannot be a sentence without verb. Eg:-1.Stand, Come in, etc., 2. Police arrested the thief. 3. Calcutta is a big city (State of existence) 4. Iron and copper are useful metals. 5. She has a pearl chain (Possession)

5. ADVERB:- An adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another Adverb. Eg:- 1. He worked the sum quickly. (v) (adv) 2. The flower is very beautiful. (adv) 3. She pronounced the word quite correctly. (v) (adv) (adv) 4. He ran too quickly.

9 (v) (adv) (adv) 6. CONJUNCTION:- A conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences. It always occupies a centre point . Eg:- 1. Sita and Gita are sisters. c 2. Please give me a pen or pencil. c 3. Bride and Bridegroom. c 4. Father and Mother. c 7. PREPOSITION:- Pre = before Position = That which is placed before. A preposition is a word which is placed before a noun or a Pronoun to show the relationship between person or thing. Eg:- 1. The book is on the table. p 2. The cow is in the fields. P 8. INTERJECTION:- An interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feelings. Eg:- 1. What a beautiful palace it is! 2. Alas! Her fathers is dead! HOME WORK:- Prepare two examples for each part of speech in your own words. I. CONTENT WORDS:- 1. Nouns 2. Main Verbs 3. Adjectives 4. Adverbs. They are compared to bricks. They should be stressed. II. STRUCTURAL WORDS:- 1. Pronouns 2. Helping Verbs 3. Articles 4. Prepositions 5. Conjunctions.

10 These are like Cement. Structural words are unstressed. Eg:- 1. I am going to Bombay tomorrow. (going, Bombay, Tomorrow are stressed) 2.Paris is a beautiful city. Exercise: Identify the parts of speech in the following sentences 1. Rose is a beautiful flower st 2. He worked hard so he got 1 rank 3. She goes to college by bus 4. They played well 5. I have two pens and three pencils 6. That pen is yours 7. Either Ravi or Ashok is an intelligent student. 8. I received a letter from Suresh on Sunday. 9. Alas! Her father has died of heart attack. 10. Using the content words and structural words write two sentences of your own.


11 SECTION -1:- There are 3 persons in English. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Person. 1st Person I, My, Mine, We, Us, Our, Ours 2nd Person You, Your, Yours 3rd Person He, His, Him, She, Her, Hers, It, Its, They, Their, Theirs, Them. In English third person should be written first, second person next and the 1st person at the end. Wrong I, you and he will go to college. I and he will attend a party. You and he will go to cinema. I and my father went to Bombay. I and you will go to Office. SECTION - 2:1.

Right He, you and I will go to college. He and I will attend a party. He and you will go to Cinema. My father and I went to Bombay. You and I will go to Office.


Who is used for human beings. Which is used for animals, places, buildings, trees and birds. That is used for things.

Wrong Right I met Mr. Mohan that is the manager of S.B.I. met Mr. Mohan who is the manager of S.B.I. I I went to Rudraram who is in Medak Dist. I went to Rudraram which is in Medak Dist. I saw a Cobra who was very long. I saw a Cobra which was very long. I have a gold ring which is in the box. I have a gold ring that is in the box. In English different verbs are used for different nouns or pronouns in 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons. Singular 1 person 2nd person 3rd person

I You He, She, It

Plural We You They 1st PERSON PLURAL Present Tense Past Tense We are students. We were Students.

1st PERSON SINGULAR Present Tense Past Tense I am a student. I was a student.

12 I have a Scooter. I do some work. I walk a mile. I had a Scooter. I did some work. I walked a mile. We have Scooter. We do some work. We walk a mile. We had Scooter. We did some work. We walked a mile.

I = am, was, have, had, do, did, walk, walked. 2ND PERSON SINGULAR Present Tense Past Tense You are a student. You were a student. You have a scooter. You had a scooter. You do some work. You did some work. You walk a mile. You walked a mile. You = are, were, have, had, do, did, walk, walked. 3rd PERSON SINGULAR Present Tense Past Tense He is a student. He / She was a student. She has a scooter. She had a scooter.

We =are, were, have, had, do, did, walk, walked. 2ND PERSON PLURAL Present Tense Past Tense You are students. You were students. You have Scooters. You had Scooters. You do some work. You did some work. You walk a mile. You walked a mile You = are, were, have, had, do, did, walk, walked. 3rd PERSON PLURAL Present Tense Past Tense They are students. They were students. They have a scooter. They do some work. They had a scooter.

She does some She did some work. They did some work work. He walks a mile. He / She walked a They walk a mile. They walked a mile. mile. He/She = is, was, has, had, does, did, They = are, were, have, had, do, did, walk, walks, walked. walked.



1. Nouns are Singular in number if they refer to only one thing. Eg:- A book, A pen, A ring, etc. 2. Nouns are Plural in number if they refer to more than one thing. Eg:- Chairs, Ten Books, Five Pens, etc. 3. Uncountable Nouns have no Plurals. Eg:- Water - Not Waters Milk Not Milks PERMANENT SINGULAR NOUN (This Chapter is important for correction of sentences):In English there are some permanent singular nouns. When these nouns are used as subjects verb also must be singular. The following are permanent singular Nouns:2. NEWS, Luggage, Advice, Information, Furniture, scenery, Breeze, innings, measles, money, cement, wheat, rice, poetry, Machinery, Stationery, Jewellery.

Some words are plural in appearance, but singular in meaning. All the words ending in ics are permanent singular nouns. So verb must be singular. The following are such words. Politics, Economics, statistics, electronics, physics, ethics, classics, dynamics, mechanics, phonetics, linguistics. WRONG RIGHT News is bad. Information has been received. Put all my luggage in my car. The furniture in the shop is beautiful. Scenery is beautiful in Kashmir. The price of gold and silver has gone up. He gave me several pieces of information.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

News are bad. Information have been received. Put all my luggages in my car. The furnitures in the shop are beautiful. Sceneries are beautiful in Kashmir. The Prices of gold and silver have gone up. He gave me several informations.


8. Moneys are ready for my sisters marriage. 9. The machineries for this factory were imported from Germany. 10. Quality rices were sold in that shop. 11. She bought me Jewelleries. 12. Cool breezes are coming now. 13. They all gave him different advices. 14. Cements were carried in a Lorry. 15. The imageries in this Poem are striking. 16. No news are good news. 17. Physics are a difficult subjects. 18. Politics have ruined my son. 19. Mathematics are useful subjects. 20.Phonetics are useful subjects.

Money is ready for my sisters marriage. The machinery for this factory was imported from Germany. Quality rice was sold in that shop. She bought me Jewellery. Cool breeze is coming now. They all gave him different advice. Cement was carried in a Lorry. The imagery in this Poem is striking. No news is good news. Physics is a difficult subject. Politics has ruined my son. Mathematics is a useful subject. Phonetics is a useful subject.

PERMANENT PLURAL NOUNS In English there are some permanent Plural Nouns. When these nouns are used as subjects the verb also must be plural. We should not use singular verb; but if we get the Prepositional phrase A pair of in a sentence then we should use a single verb. The following are permanent Plural Nouns in English. 1. Spectacles. 2. Scissors 3. Trousers 4. People 5. Police 6. Poultry 7. Cattle 8. Tongs 9. Shoes 10. Assets. 11.Pincers. 12. Bellows.13. Drawyers. 14. Breeches. 15.Measles.16. Mumps. 17. Thanks.18. Nuptials. 19.Billiards. 20. Tidings. WRONG 1. My spectacle is broken. 3. Scissors was beautiful. 5. New shoes has been sold. 7. Trousers is beautiful. RIGHT My spectacles are broken. A pair of my spectacles is broken. Scissors were beautiful. A pair of scissors was beautiful. New shoes have been sold. A pair of new shoes has been sold. Trousers are beautiful. A pair of trousers is beautiful.

15 9. People was coming for the meeting. People were coming for the meeting. 10. A number of people has expresses their A number of people have expressed their willingness to help us. willingness to help us. 11. Cattle is grazing in the fields. Cattle are grazing in the fields. Note:- The same words are used as Singular as well as Plural. SINGULA R Deer Sheep Fish Cod Swine PLURAL Deer Sheep Fish Cod Swine SINGULA R Grouse Off spring Trout Innings Means PLURAL Grouse (Bird) Off spring Trout (Fish) Innings Means


If a word is wrongly pronounced, others can not understand it. So, word accent is an important feature of spoken English. Generally a word contains one or more syllables. Vowel is more important the rest and so it occupies the central place in syllable. Consonants take the marginal position. In English there are a number of two syllable words. If they are used as verbs the accent should be on the second syllable. For others i.e noun, adjective etc. the stress should be on the first syllable. In English we do not give much importance to all the syllables in a word. Only the more important syllable than the others will be stressed with a small upright mark(\) in front of it. Eg. City, adopt. Excersise-1: The following words have two syllables. We should stress on the first syllable. Students should repeat the following words after the teacher. 1. business 2.captain 3. certain 4. city 5. colour 6.common 7. country 8.different 10.dollar 11.dozen 12.early 13.either 14.English 15.even 16.every 17.figure 18.figure 19.follow 20.foreign 21.fortune 22.frequent 24.glory 25.golden 26.govern 27.greatful 28.healthy 29.hollow 30.honest Excersie-2 : For the following words we should accent on the second syllable. 1.advance 2.affair 3.afford 4.afraid 5.again 6.againist 7.ago 8.ahead 9.allow 10.along 11.among 12.amount 13.amuse 14.apart 15.appear 16.apply 17.appoint 18.arise How to pronounce the following silent letters: 1. Some words Knave Know 2. Some words Comb Climb 3. Some words Alms half Could 4. Some words Sign begin with a silent k knock knell end with a silent b lamb numb have a silent l folk palm Chalk have a silent g campaign resign knife knot thumb Dumb Knight knit knock

Bomb succumb



psalm (Sacred Song) Balm stalk(Plants stem or follow) Calm would should Foreign design sovereign

17 5. Some words begin with a silent w Write wretched wrinkle Wreck wrath wring (twist) Wrong wrist wriggle wrest (take by force) wry (Showing disbelief) (more with a twisting action) Some words have a silent t Fasten Chasten (correct by Christen (give a name to punishment) Baptize) Wrestle Hasten Listen Castle Whistle Thistle (A kind of plant) Apostle: (one of the 12 people chosen by Christ to preach and spread Christianity.)



Rule No -1. In the formation of plural, singular nouns ending with ch /sh / s/ o/x takes es . SINGULAR Church Brush Potato Box PLURAL Churche s Brushes Potatoes Boxes SINGULAR Bench Class Mango Fox PLURAL Benches Classes Mangoes Foxes

Exception to rule:- Some words ending with o however do not take es but s only SINGULAR Photo Studio Video PLURAL Photos Studios Videos SINGULAR Dynamo Auto Bamboo PLURAL Dynamos Autos Bamboos

Rule 2:- Words ending with y take ies because before the ending letter Y there is a consonant. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL Supply Supplies Baby Babies City Cities Country Countries Lady Ladies Reply Replies Lorry Lorries Glory Glories Cry Cries Story Stories

19 Rule 2(b) :- If the letter Y is preceded by a vowel, it takes only s and not ies to form plural number. SINGULAR Key Day Monkey Ray Valley PLURAL Keys Days Monkeys Rays Valleys SINGULA R Boy Toy Way Enjoy Sway PLURAL Boys Toys Ways Enjoys Sways

Rule 3:- Words ending with f or fe drop f or fe and take ves. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL Leaf Leaves Knife Knives Wife Wives Wolf Wolves Life Lives Calf Calves Thief Thieves

Exception to rule:- Some words ending with f or fe however take only s. SINGULAR Roof Safe Chief PLURAL Roofs Safes Chiefs SINGULAR Kerchief Belief Proof PLURAL Kerchiefs Beliefs Proofs

3(B) Words which end with a silent e, is added Live living Love Blame Blaming Save Dive Diving Tire Continue Continuing Praise Exception: Seeing,Agreeing,Guaranteeing

drop the E, When a suffix beginning with a vowel Loving Saving Tiring Praising

Rule 4 (a):- When a mono syllabic word ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the consonant is doubled before suffixes beginning with

20 a vowel. Dropped Running Begged Robbed Fatter Droppin g Runner Begging Robbing Fattest

Eg: Drop Run Beg Rob Fat

Beggar Robber Fatting Pot er = potter Step in = stepping Rob er = robber Run er = runner Mud y = muddy

Beg - ar = beggar Big ar = biggar Hat er = hatter Hit er = hitter Sit ing = sitting Fit est = fittest

Rule4 (b):- Words of more than one syllable follow the above rule, only when the stress is on the last syllable. Admit Admitted Admitting Admittance Begin beginning beginner Confer conferred Commit committed Omit omitted Regret regretted Rule 4(c):- If the stress is not on the last syllable, the consonant is not doubled. Eg:Differ difference Consider ed = considered Loyal ist = loyalist Enter ing = entering Suffer suffered suffering Offer offered Happen happened Visit visited visitor Murder murdered murderer

Exception:- Handicap handicapped Kidnap kidnapped Worship worshipped Rule 5:- The final Y does not change if it is preceded by a vowel.

21 Stay Play Pray Display Obey Delay Convey Staying Playing Praying Displaying Obeying Delaying Conveying Stayed Played Prayed Displayed Obeyed Delayed Conveyed

Rule 7: Words ending in o in English do not belong to English. They are borrowed from other languages. They form plurals with es or s . Ex. Hero Heros Negro - Negroes Mosquito - Mosquitoes Potato - Potatoes Cargo - Cargoes Photo - Photos Auto - Autos Studio - Studios Ratio - Ratios Rule 8(a) When we add full at the ending of a word, the second l is dropped. Ex. Use + Full = Useful Sorrow + Full = Sorrowful (b) If the word with suffix ful end in ll the second l is dropped. EX. Skill + Full = Skilful Rule 9(a) Mono syllabic words with one vowel do not end in c (alone); usually they end in CK. Ex. Back, Sick, Brick, Suck, Luck, Lick (b) Mono syllabic words with two vowels do not end in CK. But in end in K (alone). Ex. Break, Leak, Steak, Beak, Book, Look Rule 10(a) Monosyllabic words with one vowel never end in a single L. Ex. Bill, Kill, Skill, Stall, Still,Rill, Rule 10(b) Monosyllabic words with two vowels never end in LL. Ex, Tool, Pool, Feel, Peel, Wheel,Steel,Stool,


22 Identify the correctly spelt word from each of the pairs given below. 1(a) Foreign 2(a) Beginning 3(a) Arguement 4(a) Nineth 5(a) Receive 6(a) Truely 7(a) Delightful 8(a) Coincidence 9(a) Benefited 10(a) Acheivement 11(a) Case 12(a) Niece 13(a Decieve 14(a) Woolen 15(a) Hight 16(a) Parallelled (b)Foreign b) Beginning b) Argument b) Ninth b) Receive b) Truly b)Deliteful b) Coincidence b) Benefitted b) Achievement b) Caze b) Neice b) Deceive b) Woollen b) Height b) Paralleled 17(a) Releave 18(a) Occurred 19(a) Skillful 20(a) Eccentric b) Relieve b) Occurred b) Skilful b) Eccentrick


There are two kinds of Articles in English. 1. Indefinite Articles:- A and An 2. Definite Articles:- The Article A is used for consonant sound. Eg:- A boy, A cat, A ring, etc Article An is used before a word beginning with vowel. Eg:- An apple, An elephant, An ink-bottle, An Orange, An Umbrella 3. Special Note: Some words begin with Vowels, but produce consonant sound. In such case we have to use A only, but not An because U is pronounced as Yu (also) Eg:- 1.A University 2.A Union Leader 3.A useful book 4.A European 5.A uniform 4. a).Some words begin with a vowel but produce the consonant sound of W (won). So use A and not An. Eg:1) A one rupee note 2) A one way traffic 3) A one sided argument 4) A one eyed beggar 4. b). Use A before few and little Eg:- A few, a little, A small number. Few = little, practically nil. A few = A little, A small number 4. c). Use A before numerical expressions Eg:- A hundred, A dozen, A lot etc.


4. d). A is used before Mr./Mrs./Miss + surname if he is a stranger to the speaker. Eg:- He is a Mr. Paul ie., a man called Paul. 4. e). We use A in exclamation before a singular countable noun. Eg:- What a beautiful garden it is! 4. f).A is used before the names of some diseases. Eg:- A headache, A cold g).Some words begin with consonants but they are silent. The 2nd letter in the word is a vowel and produces vowel sound. Then we should use An and not A Eg:- An hour

Consonant Sound A year A one side love A University A hill A B.A. student

Vowel Sound An ear An Orange An Umbrella An honorable Minister An M.A. student

5 As a general rule, an article is used before common nouns, singular number. Eg:This is a theatre Here is an egg. I read the book that you gave me 6 A is used before the name of a profession, occupation and religion. Eg:- A doctor, A farmer, A Hindu 7 When H is pronounced heavily A should be used Eg:- A Hint, A house, A hill, A hen etc. 8 A and An should not be used before 1 Uncountable nouns 2 Abstract nouns 3 Material nouns Exercise No. 1:- Fill in the blanks with A or An:1. This is __________ important question

25 2. I shall be back in __________ hour. 3. Smith is ___________ English man. 4. My brother is __________ Engineer. 5. My sister brought me ____________ Radio. 6. I bought ________ horse _______ ox _______ and ______ buffalo. 7. Sri Lanka is ________ Island. 8. My father met _________ American and __________European. 9. The police man arrested __________ union member. 10. My father is working in _______University. Exercise No. 2:- Correct the following sentences:1. Please give me an oil 2. Budhas father had a sorrow. 3. He gave me a gold. 4. He is suffering from headache. 5. He is an European and she is a American. 6. Narayana is a M.Sc. and his sister is an B.Sc. 7. Maruti is good boy. 8. The price of an pen is Rs. 80/9. There is an house in which a honorable man lives. 10. There is book on the table. THE When do we pronouns THE as THA When a word starts with a consonant we pronounce as THA. Eg: - The Prime Minister of India. If a word starts with a vowel THE is pronounced as THE. Eg:- The Eenadu, The Hindu, etc., The is called definite article because it refers to a particular person, place or thing. Eg:- Give me the pen that I gave you yesterday. 1. The is used before the names of : 1. Rivers, 2. Seas, 3. Oceans, 4. Canals, 5. Group of mountains, 6. Group of Islands.7. United Countries, 8. Religion books 9. Religion 10. Departments. 2. The is used before the names of: 1. Deserts, 2. Valleys, 3. Banks, 4. Hotels, 5. Trains, 6. Ships,

26 7. Aero planes, 8. Musical Instruments, 9. Directions, 10. Unique things. 3. The is used before the names of: 1. Newspapers, 2. Nations, 3. Shops, 4. Charities, 5. Clubs, 6. Theatres, 7. Restaurants, 8. Plural proper nouns.

The is used when we tell about a thing the 2nd time. Eg:- There is a duster on the table; bring me the duster.

5. It is used before superlative degree. Eg:- The cleverest boy, the best book etc., 6. It is used before an adjective make it a noun in the plural. Eg:- The rich must help the poor. The educated should teach the illiterate. 7. If there are two comparative degrees in a sentence the should be used before both the comparative degrees. Eg:- The higher you climb, the better the view The more you read the better the marks. 8. The is used between two persons, and places if they have the same quality. Eg:- Kalidasa is the Shakespeare of India. Kashmir is the Switzerland of India. 9. The is used when we speak of a thing as the best of its kind. Eg:- This is the book on the subject. (The best book) He is the boy. 10. Use the before abbreviations, federations, and republics. Eg:- The U.N.O., The U.S.A., The I.A.S., The U.P.S.C. 11. Use the before a proper noun, only when it is qualified by an adjective. Eg:- 1. The great Kalidasa. 2. The immortal Shakespeare.

12. The is used before particular defects. Eg:- The blind, The deaf, The fame


13. Before descriptive names use The... Eg:- The Punjab, The Andhra Pradesh, The Madhya Pradesh 14. Before the names of human organs use The Eg:- The nose, The head, The heart, The eyes, etc. 15. The is used before the adjective only. Eg:-1. She is the only daughter of her parents. This is the only book shop in the village. 16. Repetition of Article:- When we mix two nouns with a single article it gives one meaning. Eg:- Sita has a green and Red saree. (Meaning only one saree with two colours) If there are two articles in the sentence it gives another meaning. Eg:- 1. Gita has a red and a green saree (2 sarees with two different colours) 2. The lecturer and Principal says it. (Lecturer and Principal is the same person) 3. The principal and the correspondent say it. (Principal and Correspondent are two different persons) The Should not be Written Before the Names of: Proper nouns, places, languages, hot drinks, etc., Eg:- I drank the coffee. (Wrong) I drank coffee.(R) 1. The should not be used before the names of : 1.Games, 2. Countries, 3. Days, 4. Months, 5. Seasons, 6. Man and Woman, 7. Single Island, 8. Towns, 9. Materials, 10. Single Mountain WRONG Cricket Sunday Winter Man is mortal Mount Everest RIGHT Cricket Sunday Winter Man is mortal Mount Everest WRONG India January Gudur Ceylone gold RIGHT India January Gudur Ceylone Gold

The The The The The

The The The The The

28 2. The should not be used before the names of meals if they refer to daily routine. Eg:- Shall we go to the dinner (W) Shall we go to dinner (R) 3. If the lunch is a particular one, implying social functions then The is used. Eg:- The lunch will be at the Taj. 4. The should not be used before the names of: Common nouns in the plural number. WRONG The dogs are faithful animals. The boys are generally naughty. The mathematics The Logic RIGHT Dogs are faithful animals. Boys are generally naughty. Mathematics Logic

5. The should not be used before concrete nouns. Eg:- The Hell (W) Hell (R) The Heaven (W) Heaven (R) 6. The should not be used before church, college, hospital, temple, prison, etc., When these places are visited for primary purpose. For other than primary purpose the is used before the above nouns. Eg:- Mr. Raju goes to college everyday. (To study) (Primary Purpose) The postman goes to the college everyday. (To deliver letters) The doctor goes to hospital. (To treat patients) Rajani goes to the hospital. (To see a patient) David goes to Chruch. (To pray to Lord Jesus) .. goes to the Chruch. (To see the dancing girls) EXERCISE: Fill in the blanks with a, an or the:1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

This is_______ boy who stood 1st in the class. _________ Geeta is _____ holy book of _________ Hindus. _______ Russians defeated __________ Chinese. _________ earth moves round ______ sun. ________ more read _________ better the marks. ________ Indian Express and ______ Hindu are standard NEWS papers.

29 7. Akbar treated _______ Hindus and ________ Muslims equally. 8. Kalidasa is ______ Shakespeare of India. 9. God made ________ nouns and man made ________ Adjective. 10. ____ thing of beauty is ______ joy for ever.


1. Personal Pronouns: I, We, You, He, She, It, They, Them, His, Her, Mine, Ours, theirs, him, me, us. 2. Relative Pronouns: Who, Whose, Whom, That, What, Which. Eg. He is the man who got the first prize. She is the woman whose books we have read. The Pronouns used for persons are of three kinds. They are used as the subjects of the sentences; Pronouns are used as the objects of the sentences, and also as possessive pronouns. Subject I You He She It We They Eg. Object Me You Him Her It Us Them Possessive Mine You His Hers Its Our Theirs. He saw me. s o This building is hers. p

I saw him. s o

3. Reflexive Pronouns: Myself, yourself, ourselves, himself, itself, themselves, herself. Eg. He killed himself, 2. I hurt myself, 3. They enjoyed themselves 4. Emphatic Pronouns: Eg. I myself will take you there.

30 You yourself are to be blamed. They themselves admitted. Demonstrative Pronouns: This, that, these, those, such, Indefinite Pronouns: One, none, nobody, some, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, everything. Interrogative Pronouns: Who, whom, what, which, whose. Eg. Who spoke? To whom did you speak? Reciprocal Pronouns: Each other, one another. Eg. They are made for each other. Distributive Pronouns: Each other, either, neither, one another. Eg. They cheated one another.

5. 6.





1. Adjectives of quality:Brave boy, Good girl. 2. Adjectives of quantity:- A little water, some rice. 3. Adjectives of Number or Numeral Adjectives:They are of three kinds:Definite Numeral Adjectives: Eg. One, two, three, 100 they are called Cardinals. Indefinite Numeral Adjectives: Eg. All, no, many, few, some, any, certain, several etc. Distributive Numeral Adjectives: Eg. Each, every, either, etc. Demonstrative Adjectives: Eg. This house, such books etc. Interrogative Adjectives: Eg. What sort of man is he? Which way shall we go? Whose pen is this? Exclamatory Adjectives: Eg. What an idea!

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


31 What a piece of work is man! CORRECT USE OF SOME ADJECTIVES Little, a little, the little Little = hardly any, practically nil. It has a negative meaning. Eg: 1. 2. Radhika has little chance of promotion. There is little (practically no) hope of her success. = Some, but not much. It has a positive meaning

A little Eg: 1. 2.

There is a little hope of her success. They have still a little money left in the bank.

The little = The small quantity available. This phrase cannot stand alone and must be followed by an adjectival clause or phrase explaining what exactly it refers to : Eg: 1. 2. She will give him the little property she has. From the little I know about her, she appears to be a trouble creating lady.

Few, a few, the few Few = hardly any, practically none. It has a negative meaning. Eg: 1. 2. I have seen few people (hardly any) who can keep secret. Few persons (hardly any) believe in fairies now a days

A few = A small number, not many. It has a positive meaning Eg: 1) 2) I have a few friends in Delhi Only a few days I stayed in Kashmir.

The few: The small number Eg: 1. I gave her the few old clothes I had.


First - fore most First: first in order Eg: Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India Foremost: Leading or most eminent Eg: Palkivala was the foremost lawyer. Farther, further Farther refers to distance. Eg: Let us walk a little farther. Further = Additional, Eg: He may continue until further orders. Eg: He may be given further punishment. Later and latest refer to time : Eg: What is the latest news from America ? What is the latest score ? Eg: A later bulletin announced the death of the two more victims of the Fire accident. Eg: This is the later edition of the book than that. Latter and last refer to order or position : Eg: 1) This is your last chance to win a prize. 2) She was the first to come and the last to go. 3) Between Ramesh and Suresh the former is a fool, but the latter is very intelligent. Less: Smaller in size, duration, number. It should be followed by than.



1) 2)

I have less confidence in him, than in you There were less than ten persons present

A great many = A large number Eg: A great many people attended my marriage. Utter most, utmost : Utmost = Extreme, in the highest degree

Eg: It is a matter of the utmost importance. Uttermost = The most distant or remote

Eg: With this telescope you can see the uttermost stars of the galaxy. OUTERMOST: Farthest from the center. Eg: 1) The outermost walls of the fort were damaged by enemy. 2) Scientists are trying to prove the outermost reaches of space. Exercise - 2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words selected from those given in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He is the ________ novelist in Telugu today (first, foremost) I am ________ than Chandrababu Naidu (elder, oider) His name is the _________ in the list (latest, last) As to tea and coffee, I prefer the __________ (Later, Latter) I can decide it only after ___________ investigation (farther, further)



Main verbs are of two kinds: 1. Regular or Weak Verbs: These Regular Verbs take the help of d or ed to get the past tense forms. Eg. Present tense Ask Type Past tense Asked Typed

2. Irregular or Strong Verbs: These Verbs do not take d or ed, in the past. They have a different past and past participle forms. Present tense Past tense Past participle Sing Sang Sung Go Went gone Except 180 words the remaining all the VERBS in English are Regular Verbs i.e weak verbs. The Verb has 5 forms. 1. 2. Root Root + S Ask Asks See Sees Eg.

3. Asked Saw Past

4. + ing Asking Seeing

5. +ed/en Asked Seen

THE FOLLOWING ARE REGULAR OR WEAK VERBS Present tense Announce Accept Admit Appear Past tense Announced Accepted Admited Appeared Past Participle Announced Accepted Admited Appeared

35 Arrive Abscand Admire Borrow Believe Blame Bother Consider Cheat Criticise Capture Convert Convey Commence Compensate Canvass Clarify Communicate Consult Chase Depend Dismiss Depart Delay Desire Deliver Arrived Abscanded Admired Borrowed Believed Blamed Bothered Considered Cheated Criticised Captured Converted Conveyed Commenced Compensated Canvassed Clarified Communicated Consulted Chased Depended Dismissed Departed Delayed Desired Delivered Arrived Abscanded Admired Borrowed Believed Blamed Bothered Considered Cheated Criticised Captured Converted Conveyed Commenced Compensated Canvassed Clarified Communicated Consulted Chased Depended Dismissed Departed Delayed Desired Delivered

36 Decrease Expect Enquire Entrust Exempt Form Frame Frighten Follow Gather Guide Guess Help Happen Hesitate Impress Indicate Invent Increase Insist Introduce Invite Jump Join Kill Kidnap Decreased Expected Enquired Entrusted Exempted Formed Framed Frightened Followed Gathered Guided Guessed Helped Happened Hesitated Impressed Indicated Invented Increased Insisted Introduced Invited Jumped Joined Killed Kidnapped Killed Kidnapped Decreased Expected Enquired Entrusted Exempted Formed Framed Frightened Followed Gathered Guided Guessed Helped Happened Hesitated Impressed Indicated Invented Increased Insisted Introduced Invited Jumped Joined

37 Like Listen Lift Lecture Move Murmur Manufacture Mourn Neglect Owe Perform Purchase Present Permit Preside Proceed Practice Possess Quarrel Remark Ridicule Recall Reflect Release Reject Suggest Liked Listened Lifted Lectured Moved Murmured Manufactured Mourned Neglected Owed Performed Purchased Presented Permitted Presided Proceeded Practiced Possessed Quarreled Remarked Ridiculed Recalled Reflected Released Rejected Suggested Liked Listened Lifted Lectured Moved Murmured Manufactured Mourned Neglected Owed Performed Purchased Presented Permitted Presided Proceeded Practiced Possessed Quarreled Remarked Ridiculed Recalled Reflected Released Rejected Suggested

38 Suspect Seize Search Scold Surprise Sympathise Tempt Trust Train Threaten Use Vote Verify Want Walk Waste Warn Worry Suspected Seized Searched Scolded Surprised Sympathised Tempted Trusted Trained Threatened Used Voted Verified Wanted Walked Wasted Warned Worried Suspected Seized Searched Scolded Surprised Sympathised Tempted Trusted Trained Threatened Used Voted Verified Wanted Walked Wasted Warned Worried


Present tense Abide Arise Beheld Bring

Past tense Abode Arose Behold Brought

Past participle Abode Arisen Beholden Brought

39 Beget Bid Brake Build Burn Buy Beat Begin Bite Bind Bread Become Bear Blow Catch Come Choose Cleave Cling Do Dig Drink Drive Eat Fight Find Clove Clung Did Dug Drank Drove Ate Fought Found Begot Bad Broke Built Burnt Bought Beat Began Bit Bound Broke Became Bore Blew Caught Came Chose Clove Clung Done Dug Drunk Driven Eaten Fought Found Begotten Bidden Broken Built Burnt Bought Beaten Begun Bitten Bound Broken Become Borne Blown Caught Come Chosen

40 Fly Forget Feel Feed Freeze Fall Forbid Fling Forsake Give Go Grow Get Hold Hide Have Keep Know Lay Learn Lose Lend Meet Make Mean Pay Flung Forsook Gave Went Grew Got Held Hid Had Kept Knew Laid Learnt Lost Lent Met Made Meant Paid Lost Lent Met Made Meant Paid Felt Fed Froze Fell Forbade Flung Forsoaken Given Gone Grown Got Held Hidden Had Kept Known Laid Learnt Flew Forgot Felt Fed Frozen Fallen Forbidden Flown Forgotten

41 Run Rise Ride Ring Seek Send Sell Spend Sweep Sit Sink Speak Stand Stick Strike Swim See Shake Steel Strive Swear Sling Slay Stink Sing Shine Swam Saw Shook Stole Strove Swore Slung Slew Stank Sang Shone Sworn Slung Slain Stunk Sung Shone Ran Rose Rode Rang Sought Sent Sold Spent Swept Sat Sank Spoke Stood Stuck Stroke Swum Seen Shaken Stolen Striven Ran Risen Ridden Rung Sought Sent Sold Spent Swept Sat Sunk Spoken Stood Stuck Stroken

42 Sting Shoot Strike Shrink Stride Take Throw Tear Teach Tell Think Wear Win Write Weep Weave Wind Wring Took Threw Tore Taught Told Thought Wore Won Wrote Wept Wove Wound Wrung Wept Woven Wound Wrung Stung Shot Struck Shrank Strode Taken Thrown Torn Taught Told Thought Worn Won Written Stung Shot Struck Shrunk / shrunken Striden

THE FOLLOWING WEAK VERBS DO NOT HAVE ANY CHANGE IN THEIR PAST AND PAST PARTICIPLE IN FORM FROM PRESENT TENSE Present tense Hurt Burst Split Read Past tense Hurt Burst Split Read Past participle Hurt Burst Split Read

43 Hit Put Cut Shut Let Wed Set Rid Bid Cost Bet Broadcast Cast Quit Spread Thrust Hit Put Cut Shut Let Wed Set Rid Bid Cost Bet Broadcast Cast Quit Spread Thrust Hit Put Cut Shut Let Wed Set Rid Bid Cost Bet Broadcast Cast Quit Spread Thrust

EXERCISE:1 Identify the verb and name the kind Ex : We posted the letter ( Regular) I met them last week ( Irregular ) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sheeba sang a song I forgot to bring my purse. They traveled by air I found out the address He closed the book

44 6. 7. We opened an account He pushed the girl 8. 10 . 12. 14. We sent it by VPP I saw him at last night We booked 3 tickets I gave him 50 rupees

9. He pulled the chain 11. They quarreled with me 13. They cancelled the order 15. She drove the car

EXERCIE : 2 Write the past forms and the past participles of the verbs given below : Present 1.Bring 2. Bear 3. Cry 4. Convey 5. Cut 6. Dig 7.Sink 8.Say 9.Fight 10.Divide 11.Drink 12.Fly 13.Make 14.Feel 15.Teach Past tense Past participle



KINDS OF VERBS(Chapter 10 b)
1. Main verbs or Principal verbs: They act independently without depending on other verbs. Eg. 1. Basha wrote a love letter. 2. She sang a song. Helping verbs or Auxiliary verbs: - (24). A helping verb is used along with main verb to form tenses and voices. They are 24 in number. No.1 Am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had, do, does, did, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, used, ought. 1. Helping verbs are used in negative sentences Ex. He is not a doctor 2.They are used in interrogative sentences Ex. What your name? Who are you? 3.They are used with tag questions Ex. He is not a teacher , Is he? 4.They help to form tenses Ex. He is teaching 5.Helping verbs are used in passive voice Ex. He was killed by a tiger Main verbs are numberless: Some times the Main verbs take the help of Auxiliary verbs. A Main verb supplies the meaning while helping verb lends grammatical support. Eg.1. Some birds can fly long distances. H M 2. The doctor will examine the baby today. H M In the above two sentences can and will are helping verbs. Some times the helping verb acts as a Main verb. Eg. Mr. Sharma is a doctor. I am a teacher. He was a student in 1940. You are a Lawyer. You were children then. (Here is is a Main verb) (Here am is used as a Main verb) (Here was is used as Main verb) (are is a Main verb) (were is a Main verb)



Be form Verbs: - Be = To exist (been, being also are be forms). Eg. 1. Be bold. 2. Be seated here until I come. 3. Be there I am coming. Just as Kunti has five children Be form verb also has five children. They are Am, is, are, was, were.

3. Intransitive verb: An Intransitive verb denotes an action, which does not go beyond the doer. It doesnt contain an object at all. Eg. Narayana murdered. (Whom? no reply - no object so no voice) Narayana = Subject. Murdered = Verb. Object = Nil. 4. Transitive verb: - Transitive verb denotes action passing from the verb to an object. Eg. 1. Narayana murdered a rich widow. Whom? A rich widow. 2. He wrote a letter. What he wrote? 5. Linking verbs: - ( Subject Complement) Eg. 1). Kamala is a student of B.A. class. (S) (V) (Subject Complement) 2). This child appears happy. (S) (V) (Subject Complement) In the above sentences the words that follow the verbs are subject complements. The verbs in the above sentences act as links between their subjects and the complements. Verbs of this kind are called Linking verbs. Most Important Points: Section 1:-After am, is, are, was, were (Be form verbs) add ing to the main verb Which comes after be form verb in a sentence. WRONG Eg. 1. I am write a letter RIGHT I am writing a letter

48 2. You are eat a fruit. You are eating a fruit. 3. Raju is drive his scooter. Raju is driving his scooter. 4. My sister was cook food yesterday My sister was cooking foodyesterday. 5. The workers were construct a temple. The workers were constructing a temple. Section 2:-After has been, have been, had been - add ing to the main verb.

WRONG RIGHT Eg. 1. Ramu has been write notes. Ramu has been writing notes. 2. I have been teach English grammar. Ihave been teaching English grammar. 3. All the girls had been watch T.V. All the girls had been watching T.V. 4. My younger brother is seeing T.V. My younger brother is looking at T.V. Section 3:- After has, have, had present tense is wrong. Past tense is also wrong. Past participle is correct.

WRONG Eg:-1. Madhavi has see a film. Madhavi has saw a film.. 2. I have drive a scooter. I have drove a scooter. 3. My brother had write a book. My brother had wrote a book.

RIGHT Madhavi has seen a film. I have driven a scooter. My brother had written a book.



Adverbs of Time I have not heard this before The train arrived late. He goes to school daily. My brother came Adverbs of Place: Come here, Go there Come in. He follows me everywhere. She looked up. Adverbs of manner: He walks quickly. She writes clearly. The essay is well written. She works hard.

50 yesterday. Adverbs of frequency I told you twice. She often makes mistakes. He always comes late They seldom come here Adverbs of degree or quantity: He is too careless. The fruit is always ripe I am fully prepared. You are quite wrong. Adverbs of reason: I therefore left theschool. He is hence unable to give the answer.

Adverbs of affirmation or Nagation: 1. He certainly wrote. 2. Surely she is mistaken. 3. I do not know you. Position of Adverbs Adverbs should be placed as near as possible to the verbs they modify. 1. When the verb is intransitive, place the adverb immediately after it. Eg:- 1. He works hard. 3. They walk fast. 5. She speaks fluently. V Adv V Adv V Adv 2. She smiles sweetly. 4. He came later. V Adv V Adv 2. When the verb is transitive with an object following, place the adverb immediately after the object. Eg:1. He gave up his reply immediately. 2. He drew the picture nicely. 3. Adverbs of time like always, before, never, seldom, some-time, often are placed before the verb. Eg:1. He seldom comes to see me. 2. They never admitted their fault. 3. I some-times felt like resigning this job. 4. We always try to help him. 5. He often absented himself. 6. He frequently attended the Rotary Club meetings.

51 4. When the verb consists of Auxiliary and a principle verb, the modifying adverb is placed between the two. If there are two Auxiliaries, the adverb is placed between them. Eg. 1. He was greatly praised for his service to the Nation. 2. I have not had the time to look into the matter. 3. I have always wanted to write a Novel. 4. I should never have thought it possible. 5. An Adverb is placed before an Adjective or another Adverb which it modifies. Eg. 1. He is very competent. 2. You are absolutely right. 3. He is a rather careless fellow. Note: The Adverb enough comes after the Adjective, which it modifies. Eg. 1. He was foolish enough to believe her. 2. The Indian Army is strong enough to defend the country. Correct use of some adverbs: Too: -Too means more than is good or desirable or required for a specific purpose. It should not be used in the general sense of very or much. It is usually followed by to or for. Eg.1. It is too hot to go out now. 2. It is too good to be true. 3. The hat is too large for you. Dont say: 1. He is too healthy. (say very) 2. You are too kind.(say very) 3. She is too good. (say very) 2. Ago: - Ago is used only when you date back from now i.e. the time of speaking. Before :- can be used when you date back from any point of time, which is made specific. Eg. 1. I saw him two years ago. (two years before now) 2. I had seen him two years before I went to England. 3. I shall be seeing him at Oxford before I get back to India.


As, So: -As is generally used in affirmative sentences and So in Negative Setenses. Eg. 1. Sita is as tall as Sarada. 3. Sharma is not so tall as Sastri.

Note: -Students often make the mistake of placing only after the word it modifies and not before. You must carefully avoid this error. 4. The Adverb only should be placed immediately before the word which it modifies. Note the change in the meaning of a sentence according to the change in the position of only. Eg. 1. Only John helped me to buy the house (i.e. Only John and no one else helped me) 2. John only helped me to buy the house (John helped me to buy the house, but didnt actually buy it for me) 3. John helped only me to buy the house. (i.e. he helped me, but didnt help any one else) 4. John helped me only to buy the house. (i.e. he helped me to buy the house but not to do any thing else) 5. John helped me to buy only the house. (i.e. he helped me to buy the house, but not to buy anything else)


(Infinitives are two kinds.)

Plain Infinitive: - All plain verbs i.e. without to before a verb is called Plain infinitive or Bare infinitive. Eg. sing, jump, laugh etc. To infinitive: - If we write to before a plain verb it is called to infinitive. Eg.:-To run, to go, to walk. We should not use past tense verb after to. Eg:-To told, to said, to wrote etc.



When do we use to Infinitive? We use to infinitive to know the purpose of some action. Eg. 1.I will go to Delhi to attend the marriage. Of ..(Purpose)

2. We use To infinitive with the sentence structure it is. Eg.1. It is impossible to get a rank without hard work. 2. It is better to forget the past. 3. We use To infinitive with imperative sentence in Indirect speech. Eg. 1. He told him, study well. (D.S) 2.He advised him to study well. (I.S)

54 The word WANT is used to express Ones need and desire with To infinitive. Eg.1. He wants money to buy a scooter.(need) 3. He wants to become a Judge. (desire)


The present participle is formed by adding ing to the main verb. Ex. I saw him running ( pp) Present participle is used after the following verbs with an object. See, Hear, Feel ,Smell, Notice, Find, Watch. Ex. She saw him reading a book 2. They felt the house shaking. 3.I noticed them quarreling. 4.We watched the girls playing 5.We found him stealing a purse. 1. The Present Participle is used as a verb. Eg.1. The bird is singing. (V) 2. In this sentence the word singing is used as a verb.

55 We can use the same verb singing as an Adjective. Eg.1.The boy is looking at the singing girl. (Adj) (N) So, participle acts as verb and also as an Adjective. Hence present participle is called Verbal Adjective. THE PAST PARTICIPLE : The past participle is formed by adding d or ed to the verb except in irregular verbs. Ex. Heard, Walked, Talked, Given, Risen etc., The past participle by itself is not a tense. It can be used in the past, present and in future tenses. The past participle is also used in the passive voice. Ex. He was killed by Tiger We can use the past participle as an adjective. Ex. His spoken English is not better than his written English Ex. I saw a burnt hut. It is used as a subject complement. Ex. Ravi became tired. GERUND 1. What is a Gerund? If an ing verb is used as a subject or an object in a sentence it is called a Gerund. Eg. 1. Swimming is a good exercise. Jyoti knows swimming. (S)(N) (V) (O)(N) 2. Riding is one of the best exercises. S+N V I like riding. S V ON

3. She likes dancing. S V ON 2. A Gerund is used as Noun: Eg. 1. Swimming is a good exercise.(N) I like dancing. (N) The word swimming came from the verb swim by adding ing. So it is also a verb. Hence Gerund is a Verbal Noun. So, If we use the ing verb as a Subject or an Object it is called a Gerund. If the same ing is used after am, is, are it is called the Present Participle.


Gerund 1. Swimming is a good exercise. 2. She likes dancing. 3. I like riding. 4. Riding is one of the best exercises.

Present Participle 1. See that boy is swimming. 2. See the girls are dancing. 3. She is riding on the elephant. 4. I am riding on the horse.


A Preposition is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the relation between two things. Ex. The pen is on the table. 2. The cow is in the fields. KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS Simple prepositions : ON, OF, IN, AT, BY, FOR, FROM, OFF, OUT, TO, TILL, UP, WITH, THROUGH. 1. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS : They are generally formed by prefixing a preposition ( Usally a or be ) to a noun, to an adjective or an adverb. Ex. Across, Along, amidist, about, above, among, around, amongst, before, behind, below, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without. 2. PHRASE PREPOSITIONS : By virtue of By means of Instead of By way of Incase of On account of In addition to In favour of On be half of In course of In front of Owing to According to In order to With reference to Along with In place of With regard to Away from In reference to For the sake of Because of In regard to Apart from In accordance with Inspite of By didnt of In comparison to In course of Except for Generally 80% of the prepositions come in the middle of the sentence. Only 10% before the sentence and 10% at the end of the sentence. Ex. 1.The camera is on the table ( It came in the middle ) 2.For which bus, are you waiting? For 2&3 they came in the beginning 3.With whom did you go to the market? For 4&5 they came at end of the sentence 4.This is the book that I asked for 5.What is she looking at ? We can use it after infinitive also. Ex. This is a good lodge to stay at 2. This is a good pen to write with.

58 When the indirect object comes before the direct object a sentence can be written without preposition. Ex. My son sent me a camera (I.O) (D.O) I sent my daughter a wrist watch (I.O) (D.O)

CLASSIFICATION OF PREPOSITIONS : 1.PREPOSITIONS OF TIME : Before Meet the principal before 10 a.m. After She left for Chennai after her daughters marriage. At. He goes to college at 7.30 a.m. On I will meet the chairman on Monday In You can meet the director in the evening. During For By Within Since Till We go to Shirdi during the holidays She has been working here for ten years Submit your application by next Wednsday He must pay the fees within a week. Since his marriage he has changed. Wait here till I come back

PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE : At In On BesideBy Between Up Towards Jhonsi works at Rudraram. My son lived in America The pen is on the table Hero sits beside the heroine She stood by the church Sheeta stood between Ram and Lakshman She climbed up the mountain Lalita traveled towards Varanasi


59 Into Out of About Round He came into the room She walked out of the college He went about the city The earth moves round the sun

PREPOSITIONS OF CAUSE , REASON AND PURPOSE From Of For Through Shridar is suffering from a head ache She died of cancer Ambedakar worked for the welfare of Harijans I got Job through the help of a Minister.

PREPOSITIONS OF AGENCY AND INSTRUMENTALITY : To know the Ex. ByThrough With method of action who use the following prepositions She sent me a wrist watch by post He came to know it through the news paper He cut the fruit with a knife

PREPOSITIONS OF POSSESSIONS : Of : With By Exercise I. Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions ; 1. We traveled ______________ train 2. Can you do something_______him? 3. I will come _________ the station to meet you 4. I wrote _________my mother yesterday 5. The boy has been crying ____________morning 6. He goes to church __________ Sunday 7. She takes ____________her mother 8. Children are fond ___________ toys 9. To the surprise of all Ramu gave _____________smoking 10. As he drove _______________the road he found it smoother Eligibeth is the queen of England I met the Minister with a bald head. There was no gold by her.


Preposition:-Is a word which is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show its relation to some other word in the sentence. The words given below are followed by preposition as written below. On:- depend, comment, decide, feed, time, day, date, head, shoulder, paper,etc., Eg:- 1. Children depend on their parents for education. 2. We should not comment on the character of others. 3. My father wants to decide on this problem. 4. Silk worms feed on Mulberry leaves. a) On is used when there is no movement or motion in the verb. Eg:- The book is on the table. (No movement)

Upon:- Upon is used when there is motion or movement. Eg:- The cat jumped upon the rat and killed it. To:-Friend, enemy, invitation, senior, junior, superior, inferior, elder, younger, prefer etc. Eg:- 1. Subhash is a friend to me. 2. Subhash is an enemy to me. 3. My father is elder to my mother. 4. Ganesh is junior to Rajesh. a) To is used when there is no change in the medium Eg:- Gopal ran to school. (no change in medium) b) To is used to indicate purpose. Eg:- She came to meet me. c) To is used for distance. Eg:- He walked to (upto) Kukatpally.



In, within:- With reference to time, in means at the end of a certain period, where as within means before the end of a certain period. Eg:-1. The loan will be repaid in a year. (at the end of the year) 2. The loan will be repaid within a year. (before the end of the year)

6. In, Into:- In denotes a state of rest, whereas into indicates movement. Eg:- 1. He is in bed. (or in deep sleep, in a coma, in town, in his room etc.) 2. He fell into a well (or into the river, into the sea)

61 3. He came into the room. (into the hall, auditorium etc.) a) Into:- Fell, jumped, drown, sink, rush, pushed, broke, cut, wrecked, throw, divide Eg:- 1. A soldier jumped into a camel to save a woman. 2. A villain pushed the hero into a river. 3. A damaged ship sank into a sea. 4. Space:- one stream flows into another. 5. Time:- He slept late into the day. 6. Water may change into ice. 7. Devotees entered the temple (movement) 8.He entered politics and sold away his property (W) He entered into politics and sold away his property (R) 9. Never enter into my room again (W) Never enter my room again (R) Enter = go into (to go or come into a place) Eg:1. Silence fell as I entered the room. 2. He entered the church as a young man. . Rule:- The word enter should not be used with into for a room, house, or a hall, but it should be used as enter into a discussion, a quarrel, a conversation, argument, business and politics.

6. In:- Morning, evening, night, English (any language) difficulties, troubles, dangers, sorrow, tears, ink, month, year, etc., Eg:-1. My father came in the morning. 2. My mother came in the evening. 3. If you speak in Hindi, I cannot understand. 4. The old woman is in tears. 5. Please answer the question in ink. a) Note:- For DAY and DATE use ON.For morning, evening, Month, year, use IN, But if the parts of the days are followed by dates or days on is used. Eg:- 1. On the morning of the 5th. 2. On Sunday afternoon. 3. On Thursday evening.

62 b) In:- It is used for big cities, countries, Islands. Eg:- In Delhi, In America, In Andaman, etc. Space:-He is not in the house. Time:- I will be back in an hour. Manner:- I saw her in tears. 7. About:- Enquired, questioned, talked, asked, worried, anxious, glad, eager. Eg:- 1. The doctor enquired the patient about his health. 2. The police officer questioned the thief about the theft he had committed in a house. 3. The villagers talked about my performance in the examination. 4. Shastri is worried about his daughters marriage. 5. I must be home about 7 P.M. (a little before or a little after) 8. At :- At expresses exactness of time or place. Eg :-1. I woke up at 5o clock. 2. She sat at the table. 3. At reveals State on condition. Eg:The two countries are at peace. 4. Direction:- All of them rushed at him 5. Source:- I got my information at his hands. 6. Point of time:- The murder happened at 2:00 A.M. a) At is used for villages and small towns and addresses. Eg:- He was born at Patancheru. He lives at Balanagar. b) At Look, live, war, peace, liberty, rest, good, home, sunrise, sunset, jump, surprised, wonder, play shocked, etc., Eg:- 1. A passenger is looking at my suitcase in the bus 2. My brother is good at Mathematics. 3. I am clever at any subject. 4. Rice is sold at the rate of Rs. 20/- per Kilo. Note:- I. After the word cited preposition should not be used. Eg:- 1. I invite your kind attention to the reference cited above (W) I invite your kind attention to the reference cited (R) 2. Enclosing herewith is also wrong.

63 3. Before abroad preposition is wrong. Eg:- My brother is going to abroad.(W) My brother is going abroad.(R) 9. UP:- Fill, missing, get, climb, wake, go etc., Eg:- 1. My servant filled up the pot with water. 2. The sun is rising up in the east. 3. I got up from bed at 6o clock in the morning. 4. Some pilgrims are going up the hill. 5. He puts up at Simhapuri lodge in Nellore. 10. UPTO:- Place, distance Eg:- 1. The child is walking upto the end of the road. 2. I want to walk upto a distance of three miles. 11. Under:-Tree, roof, preparation, construction, repair, suspencious, bridge, table, impression. Eg:- 1. Lovers are sitting under a tree on the campus of a University. 2. Some workers are sitting under the roof of a building. 3. My mother says that food is under preparation. 4. The new building is under construction. 5. The peon is under suspencion. 6. I am under the impression that man is a thief. 12. OF:- Afraid, fond, die, tired, beware, suspicious, consist, proud, ashamed, greedy, assured, aware, etc., Eg:- 1. Some people are afraid of ghosts. 2. I am fond of coffee. 3. My father is tired of over work in the office. (Belong to mind) 4. The farmer is weary of hard labour in the field. (Belongs to body) 5. Beware of Pick-pockets when you travel in a train. (Pick-pocketer is wrong) 6. The boy died of cholera. Note:- After the word discuss or describe the proposition about should not be used. Eg:- 1. The leader is discussing about the strike (W) The leader is discussing the strike (R) 13. From:- Different, escape, debar, prevent, protect, saved, recover, rescue, suffer, slavery, come, free, exempt.

64 Eg:- 1. My pen is different from your pen. 2. A thief escaped from a prison. 3. A student was debarred from the examination. 4. Donations are exempted from income tax. 5. He is saved from the danger. Rule:- From is used for point of time. The verb can be in any tense. Eg:- 1. I saw a film from 6:30 P.M. to 9.30 P.M. (Point of time) 2. My brother studied degree course from 1987 to 1990. Rule:- From expresses Motion or movement. Eg:-1. He went from home. 3. He save the child from falling. 2. He comes from London. 4. He speaks from experience. 14. FOR:- Life, day, place, somebody, noted, something, poverty, richness, respect, eligible, appear. Eg:-1. The murderer was sentenced for life. 2. The employee was sick for three days. 3. Sekhar is waiting for somebody. 4. Sikhs are noted for bravery. Rule:- For is used to describe period of time. It can be used in any tense. Eg:-1. I saw a film for three hours (Period of time no beginning and no ending) 2. She has been suffering from fever for the last week. 15. Since:- Since is used to describe point of time. The verb should be only in 4 tenses. Eg:-1. Present Perfect Tense:My father has worked in this office since 1986. 2. Present perfect continuous tense:I have been watching a film since 6:30 PM 3. Past Perfect Tense:He had changed since his marriage and joined bad company. 4. Past Perfect continuous Tense:The Mechanic had been repairing my scooter since Monday.


16. Down:- Go, come, put, get down, shut, take. Eg:-1. If you go down the street, you can reach the Railway station. 2. My friend asked me to come down the steps. 3. The strike was put down by Police force. 4. The teacher asked the students to write down some notes. 5. The factory was shed down due to strike. Note:- Closed down :- Closed Permanently. Shut down:- closed temporarily. 17. Against:- wind, waves, persons, danger, risk, fire, rule, report, objection, guard, warm, rebel. Eg:-1. It is difficult to ride on bicycle against wind. The boat is sailing against weaves I insured my life against risk. The building was insured against fire accident. Students should not behave against the rules of the college.

2. 3. 4. 5.

18. Among:- Many, belief, absent, present. Eg:-1. Some important people are present among the audience. 2. Some important people are absent from the audience. 3. There are some bad boys among the students. 4. There is a belief among the Hindus that a cobra is a sacred creature. Rule:- Among is used for more than two persons, animals, or things. Eg:-1. Ten ladies are fighting among themselves. (In 1st stage ladies shared at water tap and then tight with vessels). 19. Between:- Between is used for two human beings, animals or things. Whenever we use between we should add and Eg:-1. Sita sits between Kamala and Latha. 2. King and Queen are quarreling between themselves. 20.Across:- Road, river, air, page. Eg:-1. A dog ran across the road. 2. A boat sailed across the river. 3. A plane flew across the air. 4. The teacher put a line across the page.

66 21. By:-Day, night, time, someone, somebody, vehicle, post, telegram, telephone, force. Eg:-1. I received a letter by post. 2. I received some news by telegram. 3. My father comes to my house by day. 4. Gopi will come to my house by tomorrow Rule:- By is used for any vehicle (Motor vehicle or animal vehicle) Eg:-1. The P.M. arrived by Plane 2. The villager came to town by a bullock-cart. 3. Raja went to Madhura Nagar by a scooter. 4. Jaya went to Tirumala on foot. (No engine) 5. By walk is wrong. 7. By feet is wrong. 6. On feet is also wrong. 8. On foot is correct. Note:- on feet is wrong because any person cannot walk with feet at a time. By is used for human beings and animals. Eg:-1. A bird was killed by a boy. 2. A rat was killed by a cat. By a time:- means before/not later than that time. Eg:-1. By 15th June = Not later than 15th June. 2. By Sunday Evening = Before Sunday Evening . By expresses nearness of place. Eg:-1. Come and sit by me. (near to me) 2. I have no money by me. By Expresses Direction:Eg:-1. We came by the fields. (through) By is used for time:Eg:-1. I must be home by 10. (before ten) 3. I dont like to travel by night. (during the night) By Expresses Manners as method of action:Eg:-1. It came by post. 2. He took her by the hand. 3. Please let me know by letter.


By is used for out word show:Eg:-1. Dont judge a person by his clothes.

With:- Agree (disagree), angry, friendly, happy, alliance, popular, familiar, pleased, peace, war, concern, live, gifted, quarrel etc. Eg:-1. The officer agreed with the clerk. 2. My father is agreed with my brother. 3. I am friendly with my neighbour. 4. John is happy with his wife. 5. I am familiar with the areas in Madras. Rules:- With is used only for human beings and should not be used for animals. Eg:-1. He killed him with a sword. With:- is used for instrument. Eg:-1. A boy killed a bird with a stone.

23.Beside, Besides:- Beside means by the side of. Eg:-1. The queen sat beside the king. 2. The hero stood beside the heroine. Besides means in addition to, also Eg:-1. I have a scooter besides a car. 24.Off:- Light, Jump, cut, clear, call, fall. Eg:-1. The lights were put off after the film was over. 2. I cleared off all my debts. 3. The strike of the students was called off. (cancelled) 4. A robber cut off the ear of a woman to take away the ear ring. 5. Leaves of a tree fall of in Autumn. 25.Away:- Take, far, went Eg:-1. A pick-pocket took away my purse. 2. Kanya Kumari is far away from Tirupathi. 3. The calf went away from the cow.

68 26. Before and After:- Before is used with a point of time. Eg:-1. I cannot come before 8o clock. 2. she will not wake up before 7o clock. After: You should use an object the preposition after. Eg: 1. My friend came after me. 2. The college is named after him. 3. They are always after power. 27. Till and Untill: Till is used of time Eg:-1. We waited till 8o closk. 2. He gambled till he has lost all his money. Untill: Until also is used with a point of time. Eg: 1. The holidays lasts until September. 28. At, About, In, Within: 1. I must be home at 7o clock. (neither earlier nor later) 2. I must be home about 7o clock. (little before or a little after) 3. I must be home by 7o clock. (not later than 7o clock) 4. I will leave in a month. (After a month has passed.) 5. We will leave within a fortnight. (during the period) CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS The preposition on should be used with the verb congratulate and not for. Eg.1. I congratulate Ravi for his success in the examination. (W) 2. I congratulate Ravi on his success in the examination. (R) 2. Use from after the verb suffer and not with. Eg:-1.He is suffering with fever. (W) He is suffering from fever. (R) 3. We should not use Prepositions before time expressions like, last, next, this, that etc.

WRONG RIGHT The college starts by next week. The college starts next week He will come on the next Sunday He will come the next Sunday (Time expression)

69 They came in the last month


They came the last month.

Before Train, Bus, Taxi, Car etc. use by. WRONG He came on train He came by walk, on feet, by feet RIGHT He came By train He came on foot .

5. Agree is a verb. 1. If it is with an Object, with life we can use the preposition with in the sentence. Eg.1. I agree with you. (you is an object with life) 4. If the verb agree contains an object without life we should use the preposition to. Eg.1. I agree to your proposal. (life less object) 2. Rajan agreed to him. (W) Rajan agreed with him. (R) 3. Rajan agreed with his proposal. (W) (lifeless object) Rajan agreed to his proposal. (R) (object with life)

If the word angry is with beform verb, the preposition with must be used. Eg.1. She is angry upon me. (W). She is angry with me. (R). If the verb get is followed by the Noun angry (beside it), we should use the preposition on or upon and not with. Eg.1. He got angry with me. (W). He got angry upon me. (R).



Of :Of should not occur beside the verb comprise (contain). Eg.1. The Ramayana comprises of 600 pages. (W) 2. The Ramayana comprises 600 pages. (R) Of must be written beside consist. (contain)


70 Eg.1. The Gita consists 700 pages. (W) The Gita consists of 700 pages. (R)

Use the preposition with beside the verb contrast. Preposition to should not be used with contrast. (compare) Eg.1. Gandhiji was contrasted to Subhash Chandra Bose. (W) Gandhiji was contrasted with Subhash Chandra Bose. (R)


With-By: If there are two agents in the same sentence, use the preposition by before the agent with life and the preposition with can be used before the agent without life. Eg.1. The rich man was killed by a thief with a knife. (Agent with life) (agent without life) Note: Knife is a lifeless agent, so use with. Thief - agent with life, so use by. WRONG Let us await for them My friend will be awaiting for you I await for his arrival. I am awaiting for his reply. RIGHT Let us wait for them My friend will be waiting for you. I await his arrival I am waiting for his reply.

Note: Await is never followed by a preposition or for. 1. They discussed about the subject. (W) 2. They described about the battle. (W) ( both are wrong) Rule: We should not use the preposition about beside discuss or describe. 12. They discussed the subject. (R) They described the battle. (R) 13. I am leaving to Delhi. (W) I am leaving for Delhi. (R) Rule: When we say distance, we should use for but not to.

71 14. He got down the car. (W) She got down from the car. (R)

Shakespeare compares the world with a stage. (W) Shakespeare compares the world to a stage. (R)

16. Tagore is contrasted to Gandhiji. (W) Tagore is contrasted with Gandhiji. (R) Rule: The verb contrast should be followed by with and not to.

18. I contacted him by the telephone. (W) I contacted him on the telephone. (R) 19. We listened to the Presidents speech in the Radio. (W) We listened to the Presidents speech on/over the Radio. (W)

She spent too much money for clothes. (W) She spent too much money on clothes. (R) Usha is married with a Doctor. (W) Usha is married to a Doctor. (R) He was debarred to sit for the examination. (W) He was debarred from sitting for the examination. (R) My uncle went to abroad. (W) My uncle went abroad. (R)




24.His room is on Upstairs. (W) His room is Upstairs. (R) I went to Hyderabad for attending a meeting. (W) I went to Hyderabad to attending a meeting. (R)

26. We should pray God. (W) We should pray to God. (R)


27. Do not use for beside the verb order. I have ordered for 6 cups of coffee. (W) I have ordered 6 cups of coffee or I have given an order for 6 cups of coffee. (R) 28.Two people accompanied with him. (W) Two people accompanied him. (R)

The child died from Jaundice. (W) The child died of Jaundice. (R) I told him on his face that he was a liar. (W) I told him to his face that he was a liar. (R) The verb which comes after Let, Make, made, help in a sentence must be a plain Infinitive and not To Infinitive.. WRONG Please let me to know it. His jokes made me to laugh Please help us to serve you better. RIGHT Please let me know it. His jokes made me laugh. Please help us serve you better



CHAPTER 15 Wh. Question words

There are 9 Wh.Question words in English. They are : - Who, What, Which, How, Where, When, Why, Whose, Whom. Wh.questions should not be answered with Yes/No. We use Wh.questions to get information from others.

73 1. Who :- We use Who to get necessary information about other person. Eg: who is the P.M of India. ? Who is Mother Therissa? 2. What :- It is used to know the profession or occupation of others Eg: What is your husband? What is your son? (b) It is also used for instruments. Eg: What is Acqua pen? It is an instrument to purify the water. 3. 3.Which:- which is used for places Eg: Which is your native place.? It is also used for things. Eg: which pen do you use? Regarding languages there is some difference, when we use which and what. If we ask a question which language do you speak at home?(i.e among Indian languages like Telugu, Hindi, Tamil, Kannada etc. ). If I ask a question What language do you speak at home ? (Of all the languages in the world). 4. How:- It is used to know the condition of other person. Eg:How is the health of your mother? How is also used to know the manner of action. Eg: How did Rajani come? Rajani came by car. 5. Where:- We use where to know the location of the place. Eg: where is the Tajmahal. The Tajmahal is in Agra. 6. When:- It is used to know the time. Eg: When did the train arrive. The train arrived at 8:30 AM.

74 7. Why:- It is used to know the reason. Eg: Why is she angry? 8. Whose:- It is used to know the ownership of something. Eg: Whose pen is this? 9. To Whom:- It is used when we want information about the person receiving the action. Eg: To whom did you give the money? I gave the money to the clerk. With Whom:- It is used to get information about the partners in the action. Eg: With whom did you come ? I came along with Raju. With whom did you run? I ran along with Satish.



Section : A 1. The word order in an English sentence is more or les fixed. The subject begins a sentence and the verb follows. If there is an object it is placed after the verb. Eg: Shanti purchased a sari Sub + Verb + obj 2. The subject can be a single word as in the above sentence or a group of words. Eg: Mr. Ramakrishna and his family went out. The verb also may be a single word or a group of words. Eg: She smiles - single word He is singing group of words 3. Some times there will be two objects in a sentence. Eg: Rani presented him a wrist-watch. S+ V + I.O + D.O 4. Adjectives are placed either immediately after the nouns or before the nouns they --qualify. Eg: Sharada is intelligent(i.e.intelligent girl) Red car, White shirt He is an intelligent boy. Beautiful girl Adj + N 5. Adverbs normally follow the verb. Eg: He ran quickly V Adv If there are more than 1 or 2 Adverbs, the order is : (MPT=manner, place, time) 1. Adverb of manner 2. Adverb of place 3. Adverb fo time.

76 Eg: Ravi worked hard at the office on Monday Manner place time. Adverbs of time may be placed any where, depending on the context. Eg:1. Often I see them. I often see them I see them often. If the time is important, they are placed at the beginning of the sentence. Eg: 2.Yesterday we had a wonderful party. In Hyderabad, I met a lot of friends.



For subject use Noun or Pronoun. Doer of the action is called subject, the receiver of the action is called object. 1. First identify the verb in a sentence. 2. To find out the subject ask question who? Or what? Before the verb in the sentence. Then you get the name of the subject. Eg: Suresh loved Sujatha. (Who loved Sujatha?) S V O Eg: The train started slowly. S V Adv (What started slowly The train, so the train is the subject of the sentence.) 3. To identify the object put a question after the verb as whom or what?. The reply will be the object. Eg:1. I wrote a letter. ( wrote what? A letter, so a letter is the object in the sentence.) S V O

77 I met my friend. (whom? The answer is my friend. So my friend is object ) 3. I saw him ( saw whom? Him, so him is object.) 4. Mr.Prasad got ten-lakh dowry. (got what ? ten lakh dowry, so ten lakh dowry is the object)

There are two kinds of objects in English. 1. Direct object 2. Indirect object. what is a direct object ? A direct object is generally the name of something. Eg:A ring, a book, a pen etc What is an Indirect object ? An indirect object is usually the name of some person subject is omitted in some imperative sentences. Eg: Come here Go there Read Carefully (V) (Adv.p) (V) (Adv.p.) (V) (Adv.m) In some sentences object is omitted. Eg: He walked slowly. (S) (V) (Adv.m)

The word TENSE comes from the Latin TEMPUS which means time. Tense means time. There are three broad divisions of time Present, Past and Future. There are three main tenses and each of them has four divisions :- the simple (or the indefinet), the continuous (or the progressive), the Perfect and the Perfect continuous. How to use present tense ? 1. It is used to express habitual actions or about our daily routine. Eg: 1. I go for a walk every morning. 2. He gets up at 5 a.m.

78 2. We use it for current action. Eg: - Look, how nicely she smiles. 3. It speaks about the universal truths. Eg: - 1.Man is mortal. 2. The Sun rises in the East. 4. It is used for planned future actions. Eg: - 1. The P.M visits the U.S.A. in June. 2. The college re-opens on 1st July. 5. The simple present is used for commentaries. Eg: -Kapil comes forward and bowls to Richards. 6. Journalists use the simple present for head lines. Eg: -The PM discusses the problem with his Cabinet Ministers. 7. It is used for historic present tense. Eg: -Chatrapathi shivaji rushes at Aurangajeb with a sword in his hand. 8. The following words - daily regularly usually always everyday must be used only in present tense. They should not be used in P.C.T. Eg: -1. My father is reading newspaper daily (PCT) (W) My father reads newspaper daily. (R) 2. I am going to college regularly. (PCT) (W) I go to college regularly.(R) 3. My mother is cooking food every day. (PCT) (W) My mother cooks food every day. (R) 9. The following verbs should be used only in simple present tense and not in PCT. They are Seem, Appear, Need, Consist, Contain, Cost, etc Eg: -He is appearing old though young(PCT) (W) He appears old though young(R) Eg: -The Ramayana is consisting of 600 pages(PCT) (W) The Ramayana consists of 600 pages(R) 10.Wh.Question words are placed at the beginning of the sentence in present tense. Eg:- What is your name? When do you study your lesson? Why dont you go to the doctor? Where do your parents live? How often does she clean her room? 11. To issue orders / instructions we use present tense. Eg:- Bring this suitcase to my office. You should meet me at 10 a.m without fail.

79 12. When do we add the letter s to the present tense verb? To add the letter s to the present tense verb 1. The subject should be in third person. 2. The subject should be in singular number. 3. The verb should be in present tense then only we can add the letter S to the present tense verb. Eg:- She sings a song Sujani meets Rajani everyday. Negatives in Simple Present tense To frame Negative sentences in simple present tense, we use donot and doesnot. Do not = Dont, Does not = Doesnt Eg:I dont take coffee. She doesnt know English. We dont go for Pictures.

13. We can form questions in present tense by using do and does at the beginning of the sentence. Eg:-1.You smoke Do you smoke? Dont you smoke? (Positive Statement- P.S) (Positive Question- P.Q) ( Negative Question- N.Q)

2. She sings. (P.S) Does she sing? (P.Q) Doesnt she sing? (N.Q) 3. Negative questions can be made by using do not and does not. Eg:Do you not live in Hyderabad? Dont you live in Hyderabad? (Full form Question) (Short form Question)

Do they not sell flowers? (Full form) Dont they sell flowers? (Short form)


How to use Wh.Question words in present tense? Whenever we use Wh.Question words with simple present tense, the sentence should be started with Wh.Question word, next we should use the verb in the second place and subject in third place. Eg:1. Who is your father? 6. How do you know I am here? (1.Wh) (2.V) (3.S) 2. What goes up when the rain comes down? 7. How long do you work? 3. What makes you unhappy? 8. Which is your favorite game? 4. When does Madras Express arrive? 9. Why does she not come here? 5. Whom do you love? 10. Why does he come here? Be Form VERBS Am, is, are, was, were, are called Be form verbs. A sentence is divided into three

parts. 1. Subject 2. Verb 3. Object or Complement. Eg:- He is S V

It wont give full meaning. To get complete meaning we have to add some suitable word. Eg:- He is a doctor. The word which makes a sentence meaningful is called a complement. In the above sentence the word a doctor is complement. A doctor is a noun. So, it is called a Noun Complement. Like this we can use an adjective as a Complement. Eg:- She is beautiful. In the above sentence beautiful is an Adjective Complement We can use an Adverb also as a Complement. Eg:- Her Mother is Upstairs (Adverb Complement) We can make a prepositional phrase also as a complement.

81 Eg:She is at home

Negative Questions in B form To form negative questions in Be form Verbs, we must use the Negative word not in sentences. Positive Question (P.Q) 1.Am I cleaning well? 2. Is she coming regularly? 3. Are you feeling better? 4. Are they visiting us today? Negative Question (N.Q) 1. Am I not cleaning well? 2. Is she not coming regularly? 3. Are you not feeling better? 4. Are they not visiting us today? Short form Negative Questions 1. Isnt he studying well? 2. Arent they watching television? 3. You arent recording.?

Full form Negative Questions 1. Is he not studying well? 2. Are they not watching television? 3. You are not recording.?

Note: In short negative form Am not changes into arent Eg:- Am I a Judge? Am I not a Judge? Arent I a Judge? Note: In Full form the subject comes before not. In short form the subject comes after the word not. Eg:Is he not a teacher? (Full) Isnt he a teacher?( Short) Is she not a Minister? (Full)

82 Isnt she a Minister? (Short)



Structure : Sub + is/am/are + ing verb + other words Ex. I am teaching English grammar The Present Continuous tense is used: 1. For an action going on at the time of speaking. Eg:- 1. She is singing a song. 2. I am teaching Grammar 3. The boys are playing. 2. The P.C.T is used for the near future action. Eg:- 1. My son is coming tomorrow. 2. They are coming to night. 3. We often use the P.C.T to talk about present period: today, this month, this season, this year etc., Eg:- 1. Kapil isnt playing cricket this season. 2. What am I doing Venkat? You are teaching English Grammar, Sir. 3. What are you doing Sankar? I am writing notes. 4. Generally the P.C.T is used when the action is going on at the time of speaking; Sometimes though the action is not going on at the time of speaking we use P.C.T. Eg:- Sorry sir, my Grand Mother is reading it. 5. It is used for an uncertain future action. Eg:- Lakshmi is living in a rented house at present and she may vacate it at any time. 6. The following verbs are not normally used in P.C.T. They should be used only in simple present tense. (A) Verbs of The Senses See, hear, smell, taste, notice etc., Eg:- 1. She is listening the music on the Radio. (W) She listens the music on the Radio. (R) 2. I am seeing a film. (W) I see a film (R) 3. I am hearing a cry (W) I hear a cry ( R ) Verbs of feeling Like, Love, want, desire, wish, hate, fear etc.,


84 Eg:1. I am liking the servant. (W) I like the servant (R) 2. He is loving Sujatha (W) He loves Sujatha (R) 3. I am agreeing with him (W) I agree with him (R)


Verbs of Mental Activity Think, suppose, believe, know, understand, remember, forget, agree etc., Eg:- 1. I am believing my servant. (W) I believe my servant (R)

Verbs of Possession Have, own, owe, possess, belong etc., Eg:- 1. We are having two cars. (W) We have two cars. (R) 2. They are possessing 4 houses in this town. (W) They possess 4 houses in this town. (R) 3. They are having many children. (W) They have many children. (R) Exception: Some of the above words are used in the P.C.T with special meaning. Eg:- The Principal is seeing the candidates tomorrow. (Interview the candidates) In P.C.T useAm, is, are, at the beginning of the sentence to form Interrogative sentence. Eg:- 1. Shankar is writing a letter. Is Shankar writing a letter? 2. We are acting in a drama. Are we acting in a drama? 8. To prepare negative sentences (N.S) we should use NOT after is, am, and are. Eg:- I am not attending classes as I am sick. She is not acting in films. We are not attending the meeting. 9. To form a negative Interrogative sentences we should useis, am, are at the beginning of the sentence along with NOT. Eg:- Am I not a member in the horse club? Is he not a student?


85 Are they not attending your marriage. (Full) Arent they attending your marriage. (Short) Exercise:-Fill in the blanks either the simple present or the present continuous form of the verb given in brackets. 1. Please dont make noise. I --------------------(study) now. 2. 3. 4. I _________ (not belong) to any political party. The Godavari _________ (flow) through Andhra Pradesh. We usually ___________ (grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we

______________ (not grow) any. 5. me. 6. 7. 8. I _________ (not need) my umbrella now. I _________ (not believe) that he is 80 years old. What _______(Your/father/) ? He is a teacher, but he ________(not work) Can you drive? No but I __________ (learn); My mother ________ ( teach)

this year. 9. I usually __________ ( drink) milk in the morning, today I __________

(drink) tea. 10. She ____________( learn) French now. She _________ ( learn) languages

very fast. Note: The verbs, which come after 1. See, 2. Saw, 3.hear 4. Watch, 5. Bid, 6. Suggest 7. Observe, 8. Feel, 9. Made must be plain infinitives. To infinitive is wrong . Eg:- 1. I saw him to come. (W) I saw him come (R) 2. My brother made him to work hard. (W) My brother made him work hard. (R) Note: The wordsbetter than, rather than, can not, had better, had rather, had sooner, shouldnt be followed by To infinitive. It must be plain infinitive. Eg:- 1. He had better to go now. (W). He had better go now. (R)

86 2. I had sooner to walk than to ride. (W) I had sooner walk than ride. (R)


Structure: Subject + has/have + past participle + other words Eg:- Sunitha has lost her bag. 1. The present perfect tense is used to describe an action which started in the past and completed after sometime. Eg:- The train has arrived. Rakesh has written all the examinations. 2. It is used for an action just completed. Eg:- He has just gone out. They have just started work.

87 I have just had my meal. She has just arrived. It is used to express past action whose time isnt given. Eg:- Our uncle has gone to Madras. I have already seen the picture. It has already appeared in the paper. I have already read the book. It is used with the actions done for the first or second time. Eg:- This is the first time Swetha has driven a car. Is this the first time you have been to Delhi? I t is also used for actions never done or not done for sometime in the recent past. Eg:- My sister hasnt written to me for a month. Swapna has never driven a car. It is used to express an action that began in the past and continuing up to the present moment. Eg:- We have lived in Mumbai for ten years. (Still we are living in Mumbai) We lived in Mumbay for ten years. (Past tense as the action is completed) Lakshmi has worked in this office for five years. (She is still in service)





7. We use present perfect for actions, which have connection with present. Eg:- Ramana has lost his scooter. (He hasnt yet found it) Karim has gone to America. (He is still in America) 8. It is used for the actions that may still happen, if it will not happen in future, the simple past is used. Eg:- He hasnt married. (Still he is thinking of getting married) He didnt marry. ( He isnt thinking to marry at all) 9. The present perfect is used with:1. Just Eg:- He has just met me. 2. Already Eg:- I have already spoken to her. 3. Never Eg:- I have never seen white crows. 4. Yet Eg:- Jaya hasnt yet got her promotion. 5. So far Eg:- Ranga hasnt tried for a job so far.


Yesterday, last week, last year, in 1990, ago, are past tense phrases and they shouldnt be used with present perfect tense. WRONG I have bought this pen yesterday. He has gone to Madras last week. I wrote to him now. I have seen him a second ago. Note: Since refers to a point of time For refers to a period of time Since 6 0clock For five years Since 1st April For 10 years Since his marriage For 10 months Since his death For 6 months Droupati had five husbands but the preposition since has four husbands only and she should not move with others. Who are this husbands? They are 1. Present perfect tense. Eg:- My father has worked in this office since 1985. 2. Present perfect continuous tense. Eg:- I have been watching a film since 6.30 p.m 3. Past perfect tense. Eg:- 1. Since his marriage he had forgotten his parents and joined bad Company. 2. Since her fathers death, she had undergone many difficulties before she became a nun. 4. Past perfect continuous tense. Eg:- The mechanic had been repairing my scooter since Monday. The preposition for is a wide hearted lady. She is ready to move with any tense. Eg:- 1. I have watched a film for three hours. (Period of time) (No beginning and no ending) 2. I have been working here for 20 years. (Period of time) 3. He has been waiting for 24 hours. (Period of time) Note: Even in questions the simple past is used for completed action and present perfect if the period is continuing. Eg:- When did you come? I have come just now. RIGHT I bought this pen yesterday. He went to Madras last week. I have written to him now. I saw him a second ago.

89 1 2 3 My son has changed since his marriage. (Point of time) It is used in questions: Eg:- Have you seen the Tajmahal? What have you thought about it? Why have you written that letter now? Yes / No Questions in the Present perfect tense: If we use have/ has at the beginning of the sentence before the subject, we will get Yes/No answer. Eg:- Have you seen the Tajmahal? Yes subject Has she not married him? No. Hasnt she married him? No. Negative Sentence: By using Not with have/has negative sentence can be formed. Eg:- He hasnt made up his mind. They havent booked the ticket. To get information, use has/have with Wh. Words: Eg:- Where has he gone? How have they done it? Exercise:-Correct the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. They have been reading the same book since three days. She has suffered since a long time. He has waited for you since three days. I have been working here for 1996. He has been waiting for you for yesterday. I lived in Hyderabad since 1980.

Idioms and Proverbs:1. A sitting tenant: A person who is occupying the house. 2. The sitting member: A member of concern or Govt. who is currently on the list.

90 3. Standing orders: Rules and regulations, which remain in force until they are cancelled. 4. Moving earth and Heaven: Doing everything that is possible to achieve something. 5. Smooth/plain sailing: A course of action without any difficulties. 6. A growing business: A business that is prosperous. 7. Living in Ivory Towers: Staying away from relatives and out of reach for common people.


Present perfect continuous tense is used to describe an action, which began already, and still continuing. Eg:- I have been playing a cricket match. The Mechanic has been repairing my scooter. What is difference between Present continuous tense and Present perfect continuous tense? The Present continuous tense tells what is going on at present; but Present perfect continuous tense tells- not only, what is happening at present but also since how long it has been happening. Eg:She is smiling. (P.C.T) They have been waiting for the bus since 10 oclock. (Present perfect continuous tense)

Secondly unlike P.C.T in Present perfect continuous tense , we use has been and have been along with ing verb. Eg:- Rajani and Sujani have been dancing for two hours. Srinivas has been attending the classes for two hours. Note: The words How long, Since, For, shouldnt be used in Present continuous tense WRONG How long are you working in this RIGHT How long have you been working in this

91 office? She is learning music since 1998. They are playing chess for 2 hours. office? She has been learning music since 1998. They have been playing chess for 2 hours.

Positive Sentence (P.S) and Positive Question (P.Q) Eg:- They have been waiting for you for a long time. (P.S) Have they been waiting for you for a long time? (P.Q) Sita has been working here since 1998. (P.S) Has Sita been working here since 1998? (P.Q) Negative statement (N.S) and Negative Question (N.Q) Eg:- They have not been waiting for the bus for 2 hours. (N.S) Have they not been waiting for the bus for 2 hours? (Full) Havent they been waiting for the bus for 2 hours? (Short)


1. It is used to denote the Past action. Eg:- I met the P.M in 1998. 2. It is used to express the old habits. Eg:- He used to go for a walk last year. I used to act in dramas when I was young. Swapna used to speak in her sleep when she was young. 3. This tense is used to narrate the historical events. Eg:- India got Independence in 1947. Sipoy Mutiny against British Government happened in 1857. 4. It is also used to narrate epic stories:Eg:- Lord Rama lived in forests for 14 years. 5. Adverbs and Adverb phrases like- Ago, then, last year, at that time, in 19 th Century etc., are always used with past tense.

92 Eg:- She left the school last year. The Industrial Revolution affected England in 19th Century. He left the room a few minutes ago. Unlike the Present perfect tense, the Simple past is completely concerned with the Past. WRONG RIGHT 1. I have written letter yesterday. I wrote a letter yesterday. 2. I have passed my B.A in 1998 I passed my B.A in 1998. 3. They have left the house a week ago. They left the house a week ago. 4. I had gone to the cinema last night. I went to the cinema last night. 5. I told (ordered) the Principal to excuse I asked (requested) the Principal to me. excuse me. 6. I asked (requested) my servant to I told (ordered) my servant to bring bring water water. I. Negative sentences are made in the Past tense by using the words did - not and didnt. Eg:- 1. I met him in the college. I did not meet him in the college. I didnt meet him in the college. 2. I spoke to him on this issue. I did not speak to him on this issue. I didnt speak to him on this issue. II. Interrogative sentence can be formed in Past tense by using did at the beginning of the sentence. Eg:-1. She killed a snake. Did she kill a snake? 2. Veerappan released Rajkumar.Did Veerappan release Rajkumar? Note: We shouldnt use Past tense VERB along with Did. We should use only Present tense verb. Eg:- 1. Did Raja loved Rani? (W) Did Raja love Rani? (R) 2. Did Suresh looked at Sujani? (W) Did Suresh look at Sujani? (R)


III. To form Negative Interrogative sentences, we should use the words did not or didnt. Eg:- 1. Did you not attend her marriage? Didnt you attend her marriage? 2. Did you not write the examinations? Didnt you write the examinations? IV. When you give the answer as Yes or No- to a question, they are called Yes or No Questions. Eg:- 1. Did you meet Mr.Chandrababu Naidu? No. 2. Did you attend the class yesterday? Yes. V. Information questions in the Past tense We combine a Wh. Question word with did Eg:- 1. How did he pass in the examinations? 2. Where did she live in Delhi? VI. By combining did not with Wh.words, we get negatives in Past tense. Eg:- Why didnt you tell her the truth?Why did you not tell her the truth. Why didnt he meet me? Why did he not meet me. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE I. It is used for an in-completed action in the Past. We do not know when it was started and when it was ended. Eg:- He was going with his friends at Public Gardens. ( We do not know when he started from home and he will go back to home.) If there are two Past actions in the sentence, for the 1st action use Past continuous tense, for the 2nd action use simple past. Eg:- When he was crossing the road, a lorry knocked him down. When I was going to college, I saw a Cobra. When I was watching T.V Swetha came to me.


94 III. When two past actions take place at the same time, both the actions are described in the Past continuous tense. Eg:- While I was teaching, you were listening. While I was reading the newspaper, my son was writing a long letter. While mother was sleeping, daughter was dancing. (When and while are conjunctions) When is used for a point of time. Eg:- When Rajani came to my house, it was 10 p.m. While is used for a period of time. Eg:- Dont speak while you are eating.



Structure:- Subject + had + p.p + other words. Eg:- She had written a letter. I. Past perfect tense is used to describe an action which, began in the past and completed in the past. Eg:- 1. The doctor had given medicine to the patient. 2. You had driven a car for three hours. 3. By 8 oclock I had done my homework. II. If there are two completed actions we must use past perfect tense for the Ist action. Simple past for the 2nd action. Eg:- 1.Supraja had passed B.A before she married to Chiranjeevi. 2. After she had abused him, she realized her mistake. 3. Before you came to me, I had posted a letter. 4. A holiday was declared because the C.M had died. 5. I had given you the book, before you asked me.

Exercise:- Correct the following sentences: 1. The rain stopped before you arrived. 2. The thief ran away before the Police came. 3. Ranaga died before the doctor came. 4. We arrived after the bus left. 5. She didnt finish cooking when I went there. 6. You came at 4 p.m but he left at 3 p.m. P.S : He had worked hard. N.S: He had not worked hard. P.Q: Had he worked hard? N.Q: Had he not worked hard? (Full form)

96 Hadnt he worked hard? (Short form) General: I. When do you use the words each other? For two persons we use each other Eg:- 1. Raja and Rani love each other. 2. Rajani and Sujani love each other. (No problem) II. When do we use one another? For more than two persons we use one another. Eg:- We should love each other for National Integration. (W) We should love one another for National Integration. (R) Sita and Gita love one another. (W) Sita and Gita love each other. (R)

COMMON ERRORS Note:The Past perfect tense should not be used alone. Eg:- 1. He had gone to Madras yesterday. (W) He went to Madras yesterday. (R) 2. I had seen him an hour ago. (W) I saw him an hour ago. (R) Note:Eg:The Past perfect tense is used in conditional sentences also. If I had known of your arrival, I would have met you. (But I didnt know of your arrival, so I didnt meet you.) PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Structure:- Subject + had been + ing verb + other words Eg:- He had been singing a song. I. It is used to describe an action, which began already and continued for a long time. Eg:- They had been playing cricket. They had been playing chess. II. When two past actions are described, we must use past perfect continuous tense for the 1st action, and for the second action use simple past. Eg:- When I went to Ranis home, she had been watching T.V.

97 When I went to Railway station, the train had been going on to Madras. P.S:N.S:P.Q:N.Q:He had been working hard. He had not been working hard. Had he been working hard? (Full form) Hadnt he been working hard? (Short form)

Idioms and Proverbs:1. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. It is better to get what is certain than lose it and aim for some doubtful gain. 2. To be caught red-handed. To be in the act of doing something wrong. 3. Haste makes waste. Do not be in a hurry as hurry spoils everything. 4. All that glitters is not gold. Appearance may be misleading.


Structure: Eg:Subject + Shall/Will + Prest tense verb + other words. I will go to college tomorrow. They will buy a car. 1. The simple future tense explains about future actions and plans. Eg:- I will buy a Maruthi car. 2. It is used for imaginary statements. Eg:- Perhaps he may come. (May come or may not come) Perhaps Telugu Desam party may get a little majority this time. (May or may not) 3. It is used for formal announcements of future plans. Eg:- The P.M will meet the opposition members tomorrow.

98 The Minister will open the new school building this after noon. Note: Negative statements are made by using not after will in future tense. Eg:- 1. He will not see you tomorrow. 2. They will not buy the car. Will not (Full form) Wont (Short form) will not = wont Eg:- He wont get a job. They wont accept it. 4. We can form questions by starting the sentence with Will Eg:- Will he attend the meeting? Will they accept the proposal? 5. We can also form Interrogative sentences by using Wh-words at the beginning of the sentence. Eg:- Where will you stay? How will you come? What will you do? When will they meet us? Idioms and Proverbs:1. To back out- to drop, to withdraw. 2. Behind ones back- in ones absence. 3. Past pain is pleasure, Past pleasure is pain- The bad days of past do not worry us, the good days which are no more make us unhappy. 4. Rome was not built in a day- nothing great can be achieved within a very short time. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE Structure: Eg:I. Subject + will be + ing verb + other words. I will be going to college tomorrow at 8.00 a.m.

We use the future continuous for the actions which will start and continue in future. Eg:- Prakash was working in a factory. ( past continuous) Ravindra is working in a factory. (P.C.T) Manasa has got the appointment. (Present perfect) She will be working in her office from tomorrow. (Future continuous)

99 II. The future continuous is also used for planned and scheduled actions like the Present continuous tense. Eg:- I will be going to the library this afternoon. I am going to the library this afternoon. ( Both sentences are correct) I will be leaving for Delhi on 18th of this month. To ask about others plans, we use the future continuous. Eg:- Will you be using your car tomorrow? Will you be writing your exam from Monday? We use the word going to speak about the things that are going to happen in future. Eg:- Lakshmi is going to fall in the elections It is going to rain. We also use the word going to when we speak about a future action, which is the result of the present situation. Eg:- Daughters marriage is fixed. He needs money. So, he is going to sell two acres of his land. We use words not going to when we decide not to do something. Eg:- I am not going to attend his marriage. He is not going to change his mind. P.S: N.S: P.Q: N.Q: He will be working hard. He will not be working hard. Will he be working hard? Will he not be working hard?







Structure: Eg: I. Subject + will have + P.P + other words. We will have visited all the spots by Sunday.

Future perfect is used when the completion of an action in future is referred to. Eg:- By the time we reach the station, the train will have left. We will have reached Madras by 6.00 a.m tomorrow. We will have completed the work by tomorrow evening. By June2003, they will have come back to India. Any future perfect tense refers to the completed action. In this tense we talk about completion of an action in future. Eg:- I will have earned some money by the end of next year. I will have deposited Rs.80,000/- by next year. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


It indicates an action, which is in progress over a period of time that will end in future. Eg:- By the time you come back from America, our baby will have been walking towards you. They will have been living here for 5 years by the end of the month. By next July, we shall have been living here for 4 years.



There are two parts in a conditional sentence. No.1 The If- Clause No.2 The Main Clause. Eg:-If you try again, you will succeed. (If Clause) (Main Clause) There are three kinds of conditional sentences:They follow different tense patterns and convey different shade of meaning. Type- I, OPEN CONDITION 1. In the open condition system, the simple present tense is used in the if-clause. 2. Will, shall, can, may + plain infinitive is used in the main clause. In this type of conditional sentence the condition may or may not be fulfilled. Eg:-1. If you work hard, you will pass the examination. (If clause + S.present) ( main clause: will + Plain infinitve) Unless you work hard, you will fail in the examination. (If clause) (Main clause) 2.If you run quickly, you will catch the bus. (If clause + S.present) (Main clause + will + Plain infinitve) Unless you run quickly, you will miss the bus. (If. C + S.present) (M.C + will + Plain infinitive) 3.If he studies hard, he will pass the exams.

102 (If. C + S.present) (M.C + will + plain infinitive) Unless he studies hard, he can not pass the exams. 4. If you telephone her, she may come. ( If. C) ( M.C+ plain infinitive)

Type-II, IMPROBABLE or IMAGINARY CONDITION 1. Simple past is used in the If Clause. 2. Would, could, might + plain infinitive is used in the Main Clause. This type is used when the action in the if clause is considered unlikely to happen. It is only imaginary and contrary to known facts. Here the condition is impossible of fulfilment.

If wishes were horses, beggars would be riders. If I were you, I would marry her. If I were a P.M, I would remove poverty in the country. Type- III, UNFULFILLED CONDITION 1 Past perfect is used in the If Clause. 2. Would, should, could, might + have + Past participle is used in the Main clause. The reference is to the Past. It indicates that the action didnt happen because the condition was not fulfilled. Eg:If he had studied hard, he would have passed the examination. If I had known the address, I would have met him. TENSES THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES The word sequence means to follow. Rule: If the verb of the Principal clause is in the Past tense, the verb of the Subordinate clause also should be in the Past tense.


103 I.PRINCIPAL CLAUSE 1. He told me.. 2. I asked Mohammad. 3. John typed faster. 4. He worked very hard... 5. The manager asked. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE that he was ready for meeting. whether he had revised the draft. than I expected. because he wanted to get a rank. if the peon had gone to bring the mail.

Note:However, if the subordinate clause expresses a universal truth or states a habitual fact, its verb is usually in the Present tense even if the verb of the Principal clause is in the past. II. PRINCIPAL CLAUSE 1. The teacher told us.. 2. Suresh told me SUBORDINATE CLAUSE .that the earth moves round the sun. that he goes to bed early.

III. As if As though The conjunctions as if and as though usually take Past tense in the subordinate clause. PRINCIPAL CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE 1. She screamed if she had seen a ghost. 2. Hari talks to me .as though he were my boss.

IV. If the Principal clause is either in the Present tense or in the future tense, we can use the verb in the subordinate clause in any tense according to our requirements. PRINCIPAL CLAUSE 1. He thinks that. 2. He thinks that 3. He thinks that 4. He will think. 5. He will think 6. He will think... SUBORDINATE CLAUSE .she is there. she was there. she will be there. that she is there. that she was there. that she will be there.



1. Frame three meaningful sentenses on the pattern given below:Subject + Verb + Object + To-infinitive

105 Eg: He She I You She Subject + Verb Eg: requested ordered obeyed Instructed asked me him her him her to to to to to come leave follow sing dance


+ Object

+ Complement (Adjective)

He Painted the door green I purchased a car blue He married a girl white I saw the man weeping My son loved the women educated Subject + Verb + To infinitive to play to to to to

3. Eg:They

She We You He

wanted liked tried cooked prepared

read go eat give



Subject + Verb + indirect object+ direct object I sent him a book John presented Mary a ring She gave me a wrist watch My brother donated him a camera.

5. Eg.

Subject + I She He Raja Sujani Subject + saw looked found heard helped


Object ( Noun/Pronoun) + Present Participle the boy the girl the man the tiger the man Gerund running weeping stealing roaring suffering


Verb +


He The student She He She

gave up stopped loves finished enjoys

smooking writing painting eating singing


Subject Eg. He I The Boy The prisoner

Verb + got want found heard

Objective the door my shoes his bicycle

Past participle

painted polished damaged his name




Verb + Sang posted answered should help

Objective a song the letter all the questions the poor

Eg,. Sitha The clerk The candidate We


Subject The The The The The We case Judge boys thief news

Verb + made found painted broke drove like

Object the lawyer the accused walls the safe him our coffee

Objective Complement ( Adjective) famous quietly green open mad hot



Verb +

Subject Complement

107 He She He I We became gave wanted awarded sang a doctor a pen a watch a book songs


Subject I We They She The teacher

Verb + watched saw felt noticed made

object (Noun/Pronoun) him the boy the house some one the boys

Plain Infinite

jump leave the room shake come in know their mistake Complement (Noun etc) President Chairman a coward manager victor



Verb +

Object (Noun/pronoun)

The boys The Committee I We They

elected chose called appointed named

Rani Raja


Ramu they boy


Subject He We They The girls

Verb + Called elected appointed consider

I.O. me him her suresh

Object Complement (noun) a fool captain secretary a stupid



Verb +


Object Complement ( Past Participle)


We He Hari They

found saw Shot consider

the door the room Govind the matter

locked cleaned dead closed

Punctuation means the right use of the stops in a sentence. The changes in tone and pauses in speech make our meaning clear when we speak. Eg:- Sit down. ( with affection) Sit down ( with anger) Words are the same but meaning is changed when the speaker changed his tone. Similarly, to indicate them in writing we use certain marks called punctuation marks. For example, see the difference in the following: Eg:- What the meaning is not clear What? a question. What!an expression about some surprising thing. The following are important punctuation marks. 1. Full stop (. ) 2. Comma (,) 3. Semi colon (;) 3. Colon (: )

7. Apostrophe () 8. Capital letters 9. Exclamation mark ( ! ) 10.Slash (Oblique)

(/ )

109 4. Inverted commas or quotation marks. ( ) ) 6. Interrogation mark ( ? ) 11. Parentheses 12. Hyphen (-) (

1.The Full Stop The full stop represents the longest pause. It is used (a). At the end of an Assertive (Declarative) or Imperative sentence. Eg:- Padma sings sweetly. Ranga is an artist. Shoot him. (Order) Please give me your pen. (request) (b). After abbreviations and initials. Eg:- M.A. U.K. Dr.P.L. Rao. M.Sc. U.S.A. Dr.K.V.Reddy. B.E. I.A.S. Note:Full stops are not used in the abbreviations of International organizations and commissions like UNO, UNESCO, WHO, ILO, 2. Comma: The comma marks the shortest pause; It is used 1. To separate three or more words of the same part of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) Noun: I want to buy a pencil, a pen, a notebook and some paper. Verb: Srinivas bathed, breakfasted, dressed, and went out. Adjective: He is efficient, hard working and kind hearted. Adverb: He lifted the precious treasure gently, reverently and with infinite caution.

Note: (a). No comma is required before and. (b). Where the words are arranged in pairs joined by and or or the comma is omitted. Eg:- We can go by car or bus, by rail or air. 3. Punctuation marks can change the meaning of a sentence. Eg:- 1. The Judge says, the criminal should be beheaded. The Judge, says the criminal, should be beheaded. 2. The officer said to his steno regarding a criminal as:- Leave him, not kill him.

110 But by mistake instead of putting the comma after him he put it after not unfortunately as, Leave him not, kill him. So, he was killed. That is why a proverb came into existence as a Comma killed a man. 4. It is used to mark of question tags. Eg:- You will attend the dinner, wont you? 5. It is used before quotation marks. Eg:- He said, Will you attend the function to night? III. Semi- Colon The semi-colon represents a larger pause than the comma. It is used to separate two independent clauses of a compound sentence that are not joined by a conjunction. Eg:- 1. I dont relish coffee; I prefer tea. 2. Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; writing an exact man. 3. The train arrived at the platform; the passengers got in. IV. COLON A colon is a shorter pause than a full stop and longer than a comma. (a). It is used to get a list ( to introduce a formal list) Eg:- The animals I like most are: dogs, horses, cats and elephants. (b). Please send the following: 21 reams bound paper, 12 red-pencils, 3 gum bottles (Big). (c). To indicate proportions- Eg:5:3:1 (d). To indicate- subtitles for books. Eg: - 1.Applied communications: Business correspondence and Report writing. Eg:- 2.Shakespear said: Neither a borrower nor a lender be. (e). It is used to introduce a list Eg:- The poets I like the best are: Shakespear: Milton: Shelly: and Keats.

V. Inverted Commas or Quotation Marks. Quotation marks or Inverted commas are used to enclose words actually spoken by the speaker i.e a direct speech or quotation. . Eg:- Pope says, The proper study of mankind is man. He said, Please, take your seat. Keats says, A thing of beauty is a joy forever.

111 Rama said, It is very hot in the room. VI. Question Mark. Question mark is placed at the end of direct question. Eg:- What is your name? Have you sent the reply? Note (a):-It is not used after a polite question. Eg:- Would you mind giving me your pen. Would you mind passing the salt. Is he leaving for Delhi today? When will he finish this job? Note (b):- It is used at the end of question tags. Eg:- Post this letter, will you? He has already written the report, hasnt he? VII. Apostrophe It is used 1. To show the omission of a letter or letters. This is often done in contractions used in conversation. Eg:- I have Ive have not havent I had Id had not hadnt I would Id has not hasnt Let us Lets are not arent Shall not shant should not shouldnt Honorable Honble can not cant Will not wont would not wouldnt 2. It is used:(a). For the possessive of singular nouns. Eg:- --Haris books --The buyers wish --The writers desire (b). For possessive of plural nouns not ending in s. Eg:- --Womens hostel . --Mesns hostel. --Childrens clothes. (c). For possessive of plural nouns ending in s. Eg:- --shareholders meeting. --The buyers wish. --The writersconference.

112 (3). To indicate possession in compound words and expressions and in names of companies. Eg:- --father in-laws letter --Director of Educations circular/ --Minister of Food and Agricultures broad cast. (4). To indicate possession in monosyllabic proper names ending in s. Eg:- --Keatss poems --Joness memo (5). For the possession of proper names ending in s and having two or more syllables. Eg:- -- Dickens novels. -- Harbars books. -- Rohtas drafts. VIII. Capital Letters Capital letters are used: (a). for the 1st letter of the 1st word in a sentence. Eg:- My father is a teacher. (b). for the days of a week and months of a year. Eg:- My sister was born on a Sunday in June. (c). Each word in an address. Eg:- S.Rajan Plot No.4 S.R. Nagar Hyderabad- 500038. (d). for the personal pronoun I (e). for holidays and religious days. Eg:- New Year, Holi, Diwali, Sankranthi, May Day. (f). for the words referring to God. Eg:- Trust Him, He will look after you. (g). for proper nouns: Delhi, America, Sasi. (h). Adjectives of nationality. Eg:- Indian, American, African etc., (i). Names of trains, aeroplanes, and ships. Eg:- Charminar, Radoot, Jalavusha. (j). Abbreviations of degrees, eras, and organizations. Eg:- B.E., A.D., UNESCO.

113 (k). Personified or other important words. Eg:- O Death, O Life, O Time Reformation IX. Exclamation Mark:-It is used to express emotional feelings and sudden surprise. Eg:- Alas! Suseela is dead. How beautiful the Tajmahal is! X. Slash (oblique):1.It is used to separate alternative words. Eg:-I certify that I am married / unmarried / divorced (delete which ever does not apply.) 2. It is used to indicate the end of each line of poetry where several lines are run on. Eg:- Wordsworth famous lines: I wondered lonely as a cloud / that floats on high over vales and hills.. XI. Parentheses: 1. It is used to separate extra information or an after thought. Eg:-1. Mount Robson (12972 feet) is the highest mountain in Canada. 2. He thinks that modern music (ie. anything written after 1990) is Rubbish XII. Hyphen : 1. Used to form a compound from a prefix and proper noun . 2. Eg:- 1. Pro-Soviet, 2. It is used in compounds. Anti Soveit. Eg:- Love Sick, Blind belief



There are three degrees of comparisons in English. I. Positive Degree:- If there is only one person, or a place or a thing without comparison it is called Positive Degree. No comparison is made between Anil and other person. Eg:- Anil is a clever boy. II. Comparative Degree:- We use Comparative Degree in comparing two persons or things. The C.D is generally follows by than. Eg:- Sukumar is cleverer than Sridhar Here cleverer is used to indicate that Sukumar has greater cleverness than Sridhar. III. Superlative Degree:- When you compare three or more than three persons or places or things we use S.D.

115 Eg:This apple is the sweetest of all apples.

Study the following notes:(1). In all superlative degrees the should be used before superlative degree. Eg:- (a). Bhima is strongest of all boys in the class. (W) (b). Bhima is the storngest of all boys in the class. (R) (2). In all superlative degrees the noun that comes after S.D should be the plural noun. Eg:- (a). Calcutta is the largest of all city in India. (W) (b). Calcutta is the largest of all cities in India. (R) (3). Double superlative degrees in the same sentence is wrong. Eg:- (a). Elephant is the most strongest of all animals in the world. (W) (b). Elephant is the strongest of all animals in the world.(R) (4). Two comparative degrees shouldnt be used in the same sentence. Eg:- Phani is more braver than any other boy in the class. (W) Phani is braver than any other boy in the class. (R) When we write a negative word (no- not) we should write so-as. As-as in positive degree. WRONG Mohan is not as tall as Murali. Tirupati is not as cool as Tirumala. Coffee is not as good as milk. RIGHT Mohan is not so tall as Murali. Tirupati is not so cool Tirumala. Coffee is not so good as milk. is wrong


(5). A part of the body should not be compared with the whole body. Eg:- The nose of the child is better than my sister. (W). The nose of the child is better than my sisters nose. (R) (6). A thing should not be compared with a human being. A thing should be compared with another thing. Eg:- My house is more beautiful than my friend. (W) My house is more beautiful than my friends house. (R) (7). Many = countable noun Much = Uncountable noun

116 Eg:- There are much boys in the classroom. (W) There are many boys in the classroom. (R) (8). When negative words (no-not) are absent in positive degree-so-as is wrong; 'As-as is correct. Eg:- Mohan is so strong as Murali. (W) Mohan is as strong as Murali. (R) I. Nominative case:He, I, You, They II. Accusative case:- Me, him, you, us, her, it , them Rule:- A nominative case should be compared with another nominative case. It shouldnt be compared with accusative case. WRONG He and me. You and me. He is taller than me. He is better than me. RIGHT He and I. You and I. He is taller than I. He is better than I.

Note:1. Senior 2. Junior 3. Superior 4. Inferior 5. Prefer 6. Preferable 7. Prior 8. Elder The above adjectives are derived from Latin which are followed by to and not than. WRONG Am I inferior than you? I prefer tea than coffee. You are senior than me. He is elder than me. RIGHT Am I inferior to you? I prefer tea to coffee. You are senior to me. He is elder to me.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON MODEL-I I How to change a sentence from S.D. to C.D? Rules: No:1. Start the sentence with subject.

117 2. Keep the verb beside the subject. 3. Beside the verb write the comparative form of the given word. 4. Next add the words than, any, other. 5. Attach the end of the sentence which is after the S.D. Eg: Jyothi is the cleverest girl in the class. (S.D.) Jyothi is cleverer than any other girl in the class. (C.D.) II How to change a sentence from S.D. to P.D ? Rules:1.Start the sentence with No other. 2.Beside No other add the end of the given sentence that is after the word S.D. 3.Add the verb 4.Next to the verb keep the word So. 5.Link the P.D. of the given S.D. 6.Next add the conjunction as 7.Attach the subject at the end of the sentence. Eg: Jyothi is the cleverest girl in the class. (S.D.) No other girl in the class is so clever as Jyothy. (P.D.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I (1) America is the richest country in the world. (S.D.) (2) America is richer than any other country in the world. (C.D.) (3) No other country in the world is so rich as America. (P.D.) II (1) Kashmir is the most beautiful place in India. (S.D.) (2) Kashmir is more beautiful than any other place in India. (C.D.) (3) No other place in India is so beautiful as Kashmir. (P.D.) Change the following from P.D. to C.D. :-Note: There must be NOT either in PD or in CD but not in both degrees. Eg:- 1. (a) He is as dull as his brother. (P.D.) (b) His brother is not duller than he. (C.D.) 2. (a) He is not so dull as his brother. (P.D.) (b) His brother is duller than he. (C.D.) Change the following sentences from CD to PD :-1. (a)Madras is not larger than Calcutta. (CD) (b)Calcutta is as large as Madras.(PD) 2. (a)Pen is more useful than Pencil. (CD)

118 (b)Pencil is not so useful as Pen. (PD) By adding er to the root word we get comparative degree and by adding est we get superlative degree. Positive Degree 1. sweet 2. old 3. long 4. sad 5. great 6. bright 7. soft 8. high 9. young 10. clever Comparative Degree Sweeter Older Longer Sadder Greater Brighter Softer Higher Younger Cleverer Superlative Degree sweetest oldest longest saddest greatest brightest softest highest youngest cleverest

1) If words end in E, only R and St must be added to the positive degree to get CD and SD forms. Eg: Pure Purer Purest Large Larger Largest Dense Denser Densest 2) For words of one or two suyllables which do not end in E, add er and est to the positive degree to get CD and SD forms. Young Younger Youngest Clever Cleverer Cleverest High Higher Highest Soft Softer Softest 3) Words ending in D, T, M or N if they have a vowel before then, the final consonant will be doubled before adding er and est to the PD to get CD and SD forms. Eg: Sad Sadder Saddest Thin Thinner Thinnest Hot Hotter Hottest Slim Slimmer Slimmest Eg:

119 4) Words ending in Y change into I before adding er and est to the PD if they have consonant before them. Eg: Holy Holier Holiest Dry Drier Driest Lovely Lovelier Loveliest But If Y has a vowel before it, y is not changed. Eg: Gay Gayer Gayest Grey Grayer Grayest I Most adjectives of two syllables and all Adjectives of more than two syllables take more and most before them to form the comparative and superlative degrees. Eg: Difficult Honest ProfoundFruitful Splendid Beautiful Courageous-

more difficult more honest more profound more fruitful more splendid more beautiful more courageous

most most most most most

most difficult honest profound most fruitful splendid beautiful courageous

Doubtful Foolish Horrible

more doubtful more foolish more horrible

most doubtful most foolish most horrible

Note: A few sentences do not have the before S.D as they do not have the idea of comparison. Eg: 1. 2. 3. We had a most enjoyable holiday. It was a most pathetic sight. This is most unfortunate.

Exercise I Correct the following sentences : 1. I am his younger brother; he is elder than me by five years.

120 2. French planes are more superior than Italian planes. 3. Suresh is the eldest man in his village. 4. He has got much lesser marks than I. Change the following from positive degree to comparative degree. Note :-There must be not either in P.D or C.D but not in the both degrees. Eg:-Bombay is as large as Calcutta.(P.D) Calcutta is not larger than Bombay.(C.D) MODEL-II In model one it is stated that there is only one boy who is the cleverest among all the boys in the class. Eg:- Giri is the cleverest boy in the class. But in model two, it states that there are some boys who are as clever as Giri. In model two you should remember six important points. 1. In SD after subject and verb the word One of the occurs. 2. Next superlative degree follows. 3. Beside SD a plural noun must come. Singular noun is wrong 4. If you want to change from SD to CD you must use than most other/many other. 5. Start the sentence with Very few when you change sentence from SD to PD. 6. The remaining rules are the same like model one. Note: If subject is singular verb also should be singular. If subject is plural, verb also plural. I Change the following from SD to CD and PD:-1. Kavitha is one of the cleverest girls in the class. (SD) 2. Kavitha is cleverer than most other girls in the class. (CD) 3. Very few girls in the class are as clever as Kavitha. (PD) II 1. America is one of the richest countries in the world. (SD) 2.America is richer than most other countries in the world. (CD) 3.Very few countries in the world are as rich as America. (PD)

MODEL-III Negative type 1. In a given sentence of SD if there is a negative word use NOT and also than some other in comparative degree. 2. Start with some and use atleast in positive degree.


I Eg:(a) Raju is not the cleverest of all the boys in the class. (SD) (b)Raju is not cleverer than some other boys in the class. (CD) (c)Some boys in the class are atleast as clever as Raju. (PD) II (a)Some girls in the class are atleast as beautiful as Seetha. (PD) (b)Seetha is not more beautiful than some other girls in the class. (CD) (c)Seetha is not the most beautiful of all the girls in the class. (SD) III (a) Tennyson is not the greatest of all poets. (SD) (b) Tennyson is not greater than some other poets. (CD) OR Some poets are not less great than Tennyson. (CD) (c) Some poets are atleast as great as Tennyson. (PD) Note: Both, as well as gives the same meaning. Both = in addition to OR also As well as = in addition to OR also. Some people write these two words Both, as well as in the same sentence that is wrong. Eg: (a)He was both rich as well as generous. (W) (b)He was rich as well as generous. (R) (c)He was both rich and generous. (R) Note no.2 As well as, together with, in addition to, along with all these are prepositional forms. These are not conjunctions. You should remember carefully that the prepositional forms cannot change the number of the verb ie. Singular Plural. Eg: (a) Authority as well as responsibility rest with the P.M. (W) (b) Authority as well as responsibility rests with the P.M. (R)