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AHRI Guideline A (formerly ARI Guideline A)

2008 Guideline for

Energy Management Systems and Load Management through Duty Cycling

IMPORTANT

SAFETY DISCLAIMER

AHRI does not set safety standards and does not certify or guarantee the safety of any products, components or systems designed, tested, rated, installed or operated in accordance with this standard/guideline. It is strongly recommended that products be designed, constructed, assembled, installed and operated in accordance with nationally recognized safety standards and code requirements appropriate for products covered by this standard/guideline. AHRI uses its best efforts to develop standards/guidelines employing state-of-the-art and accepted industry practices. AHRI does not certify or guarantee that any tests conducted under its standards/guidelines will be non-hazardous or free from risk.

Note: This guideline supersedes ARI Guideline A-2003.

FOREWORD
AHRI recognizes the desire of many customers, users and other building owners to install an Energy Management System (EMS) device on heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. It is also recognized that some power suppliers encourage "Load Management through Duty Cycling," a program designed to reduce the peak load on a power distribution system and hence delay or eliminate the need for additional power generating capacity. AHRI offers this guideline without representing that energy savings, user comfort or equipment performance will be achieved. The product scope of AHRI encompasses a wide variety of products. The availability of various types of EMS devices is very broad and the effect of such devices on equipment warranties may vary product-by-product and manufacturer-to-manufacturer. Therefore, AHRI urges that the equipment manufacturer be contacted for specific recommendations concerning that equipment.

Price $5.00 (M) $10.00 (NM) Printed in U.S.A.

Copyright 2008, by Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Registered United States Patent and Trademark Office

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Section 4. Purpose.....................................................................................................................1 Scope ........................................................................................................................1 Definitions................................................................................................................1 General Guidance.....................................................................................................1

APPENDICES

Appendix A. References - Normative ...........................................................................................3 Appendix B. References - Informative..........................................................................................3

AHRI GUIDELINE A-2008

ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND LOAD MANAGEMENT THROUGH DUTY CYCLING


Section 1. Purpose 1.1 Purpose. The purpose of this guideline is to identify some of the issues that need to be considered when installing and operating energy management devices to control heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVACR) equipment in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. 1.1.1 Intent. This guideline is intended for the guidance of the industry, including utility companies, manufacturers, engineers, installers, contractors and users. 1.1.2 Review and Amendment. This guideline is subject to review and amendment as technology advances.

Section 2. Scope This guideline applies to the installation and operation of Energy Management Systems (EMS) to control heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment in all applications; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. In the event of any conflict between the manufacturers' specific instructions and these guidelines, the manufacturers' instructions should prevail over these guidelines.

Section 3. Definitions All terms in this document follow the standard industry definitions in the current edition of ASHRAE Terminology of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration unless otherwise defined in this section. 3.1 Duty Cycling. The process of turning off electrical equipment for predetermined periods of time during operating hours to reduce power consumption and demand. 3.2 3.3 Energy Management System (EMS). Formal system of building energy conservation through any available means. Load Management. Deliberate control or influencing of user loads to affect the time of day electric power and energy are used. Should. Should is used to indicate provisions which are not mandatory but which are desirable as good practice.

3.4

Section 4. General Guidance The following are some of the issues that should be considered when installing and operating Energy Management Systems to control heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration equipment. 4.1 Safety. Do not alter, disable or bypass any of the safety controls, including building fire emergency and smoke control systems. 4.2 Control Circuits. Control the HVACR unit operation through the control system provide by the original equipment manufacturer. An auxiliary power supply may be required to carry the load of any additional field supplied controls. Additional load on the HVACR equipment transformer can cause voltage drop, chattering contactors, and ultimate failure of motors, compressors and/or other components. 4.3 Fail-Safe Requirement. In the event of failure of an add-on control device(s), the normal operation of the equipment being controlled should not be jeopardized.

AHRI GUIDELINE A-2008 4.4 Cycle Rate. Do not short cycle motor controllers, motors, or compressors. The compressor off cycle should be five (5) minutes or longer. The compressor on cycle should be (3) minutes or longer. If more than four (4) cycles per hour are anticipated, contact the equipment manufacturer for specific recommendations. 4.5 Fossil Fuel Heating Equipment. Do not short cycle or underfire fossil fuel heating equipment. Adequate burner operating time and temperature is necessary to prevent condensation damage to the heat exchanger and/or the flue. Contact the equipment manufacturer for specific recommendations. 4.6 Thermostat Interface. If the EMS device is designed to interrupt a wall thermostat signal, then an evaluation is needed to determine if a resistor is required as a jumper in parallel with the EMS. Failure to do so with a mechanical thermostat could in-activate the anticipator (not recommended for efficiency and occupant comfort). Failure to do so with an electronic (power robbing) thermostat could result in display and memory power to be drawn from back-up batteries and/or super capacitors, and may ultimately lead to the loss of back-up power and thermostat memory. 4.7 Knowledge of the Area to be Managed. Customers, users, building owners, and power suppliers need to recognize other potential negative consequences that can result from the use of EMS devices and should ensure that such do not result in property damage, a compromise of health, and/or accidental death. Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration equipment may be added not only for occupant comfort, but also to address specific air quality problems, and should not be altered without careful consideration. Know and understand what auxiliary systems are connected to the main heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment, why they were added, and if the EMS device will impact their performance during Duty Cycling. 4.8 Installation and Inspection by Qualified Personnel. Installation of devices for EMS and Duty Cycling should be done by, and under the supervision of, qualified and experienced personnel to ensure proper installation. The work should be properly inspected to ensure that federal, state, and local code and regulatory requirements and guidelines are properly met, and safe conditions are maintained for occupants.

AHRI GUIDELINE A-2008

APPENDIX A. REFERENCES - NORMATIVE


None.

APPENDIX B. REFERENCES - INFORMATIVE


B1 Listed here are standards, handbooks, and other publications which may provide useful information and background but are not considered essential. References in this appendix are not considered part of this guideline. B1.1 ASHRAE Terminology of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration, Second Edition, 1991, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA 30329, U.S.A.