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TITLE

: TEACHING VOCABULARY BY USING PICTURES: A CASE OF THE FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SD NEGERI TELOGOREJO 1 KECAMATAN WONOSALAM KABUPATEN DEMAK IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2010 / 2011

I.

INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Study Languages are one of human creation which has an important role in creating social interaction in a community. Ramelan (1992:10) stated that language is an arbitrary system of speech sound or sequences of speech sound which is used in international communication by an aggregation of human being in the human environment. English is one of the most important languages in the world; it is one of the major languages in the world used by most population in the world. Up to know, many books are written in English, specifically for scientific books and almost every field of books is written in English. It demands people to understand that language, especially the text itself. Many Indonesian people started to believe that English would help them so much in finding a job than who did not. As the most important foreign language in Indonesia, English became one of the

compulsory subjects taught from fourth grade of elementary school to a university. There are three main purpose and function of teaching English in Indonesia, which are: 1. Improving students communication skill in English both spoken and written. 2. Growing up the conscious about language for English as the second language in Indonesia. 3. Improving the understanding about

interrelated between language and culture. As the result, the government always made effort to improve the quality of English teaching. In line with the governments plan to have nine compulsory studies, it was possible to teach English in Elementary School. By applying the foreign language to early level (Elementary School), the students language mastery was expected to be satisfactory although it was only in simple English. There are many difficulties to teach English in elementary school because the students usually are confuse and difficult to memorize the vocabulary. Vocabulary is an essential means in learning English. Teaching vocabulary to children is different from teaching vocabulary to adults, because they have different characteristic and motivation. Children do not have self-motivation and need to learn English. On other hand, adults are aware in the importance of learning

English. So, they have self-motivation to learn the language. Allen (1983:33) stated that teaching English to the beginner should need the technique. The best technique is using an approach still has relation to their world. The technique here may use visual aids especially in teaching vocabulary. Visual aids are available in many forms such as games, puzzles, pictures, card etc. Many effort and media have been done in teaching English for the students; one of them is by using pictures as the media. Media is
one thing that is offered by many experts as a tool to increase the interest and motivations of the study. Thats why, the ability to use teaching media is one of competences that every teacher must have. Picture is one media which is suggested for helping the success of teaching-learning (Wright, 1989: 2-4).

By using pictures, the attention of the students will be focused because pictures can create their inspiration and the message lies of the pictures. Picture can trigger the students creativity through various languages. In this study, the writer wants to focus his research in finding out whether teaching vocabulary by using pictures is effective or ineffective for the students of elementary school especially for the fourth grade students of SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in the academic year 2010 / 2011.

B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic The writer chooses the title Teaching Vocabulary by Using Picture: a Case of the Study of the fourth Grade of The Student of SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in the academic year 2010 / 2011 because: 1. English is important in the international world because it became one of the international language, 2. Pictures as a media of English teaching are can be found in magazine and news paper easily and inexpensively. 3. The writer wants to find out whether teaching vocabulary by using pictures is effective or not for the students in understanding English. C. Statements of the Problem This study is limited to the vocabulary achievement and the benefit of teaching vocabulary by using pictures at elementary school at SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak, as follows: 1. How well does teaching vocabulary by using picture give contribution in developing

English skills?

2. What are the problems faced by the fourth grade students of SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in developing vocabulary by using pictures? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of teaching vocabulary by using pictures? D. Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study are as follows: 1. To know the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary by using pictures to the fourth grade students of SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak. 2. To identify the problems faced by the fourth year students of SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in developing vocabulary by using pictures. 3. To describe the advantages and disadvantages of teaching vocabulary using pictures. E. Significance of the Study The significances are as follows: 1. For the writer The writer will have an experience and capabilities to overcome students ability in English vocabulary.

2. For the students The result of the study will help the students about their ability in Mastering English vocabulary. 3. For the teacher The English teacher will be more creative and easily in teaching English vocabulary to the students. 4. For the reader The reader can take a lesson based on information about the students ability and how to solve the problem in teaching English vocabulary. F. Definition of Key Terms To give a clear clarification and to limit misunderstanding between the writer and the readers, the writer clarifies the terms which are used in this study as follows: 1. Teaching Hornby states that teaching is an activity that tries to help someone to acquire change, develop skill, attitude, idea, appreciation and language (Hornby, 1984:895). 2. Vocabulary Vocabularies are one of the four language components, which are spelling, grammar, phonology, and vocabulary. Hatch and Brown (1995:1) define the term vocabulary is a set or list of word particular language or that individual speakers of

language might use. Fardhani (1994:1) notes that vocabulary is an important area of language because vocabulary or words are tools to express our thought.

Dona Young (2007) explains that vocabulary is the study of: a. The meaning of the word Many words have several different meaning, each study the meaning of the words and the part of speech. b. How the words are used Study the words in the context; apply what you learn by writing sentences with your own words. c. Root words, prefixes, suffixes Studying these will aid in the study of vocabulary. d. Analogies This is comparing two pair of words and choosing the pair that goes together. 3. Teaching Vocabulary There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy

oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through pictures.

4. Pictures Pictures can be interpreted as any substances which play an important role in teaching and learning process. It help the students to master the material that is presented by the teacher. Harmer (2001:134) explains that pictures are clearly indispensable for the language teaching since they can be used in many ways. We can teach vocabulary, speaking and writing easily through pictures. 5. Pictures as a Teaching Media It is impossible to use all of those media for teaching language and picture is one of that mediums. Picture used by the teacher in the teaching learning process especially in teaching English vocabulary. A picture can be used to attract the students attention, so they will get their concept. A picture is one of visual media that can be used in language teaching. 6. SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan

Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak

It is the place where the writer conducts the research.

II.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Previous Study Vocabulary plays an important role in learning language especially in communicates to express ideas or feeling. Knowing vocabulary is important to know of the language used. We know that students have individual learning style and these dictate the optimum of vocabulary learning process. Vocabulary has an important role in our communication; we must have good and story vocabulary to make an effective communication to the other. Bambang Margono choose title Teaching Vocabulary by Using Pictures: a Case of The Fifth Grades Students of SD Negeri Tambirejo 2 Demak In Academic Year 2008 / 2009 and Muhammad Jazuli with his title The Effectiveness of Using Flashcard In Teaching Vocabulary at Elementary School: A Case of The Fifth Grade Students of SD Negeri Gajah 1 Demak In Academic Year 2008 / 2009. B. Vocabulary 1. General Concept of Vocabulary Broadly defined, vocabulary is knowledge of words and meanings. However, vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggest. First, words come in two forms: oral and print. Oral vocabulary includes those words that we recognize and use in listening and speaking. Print vocabulary includes those words that we recognize and use in reading and writing.

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Second, word knowledge also comes in two forms, receptive and productive. Receptive vocabulary includes words that we recognize when we hear or see them. Productive vocabulary includes words that we use when we speak or write. Receptive vocabulary is typically larger than productive vocabulary, and may include many words to which we assign some meaning, even if we dont know their full definitions and conditions or ever use them ourselves as we speak and write (Kamil & Hiebert, in press). Adding further complexity, in education, the word vocabulary is used with varying meanings. For example, for beginning reading teachers, the word might be synonymous with sight vocabulary, by which they mean a set of the most common words in English that young students need to be able to recognize quickly as they see them in print. However, for teachers of upper elementary and secondary school students, vocabulary usually means the hard words that students encounter in content area textbook and literature selections. For purpose of this booklet, we define vocabulary as knowledge of words and word meanings in both oral and print language and in productive and receptive forms. More specifically, we use vocabulary to refer to the kind of words that students must know to read increasingly demanding text with

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comprehension. We begin by looking closely at why developing this kind of vocabulary is important to reading comprehension. Vocabulary is the total number of words in a language. (Hornby, 1995:1331) Vocabulary is an important part to mastery English well. According to Pigeats theory, a child at the age 7 10 years is always interesting in recognizing and knowing new words, he stands to repeat new words repeatedly so that he will memorize them. There are essential steps of learning vocabulary (Brown, 1995:373) which has recited by Cameron : Having source far encountering words, Getting a clear new

image for the form of new words, Learning the

meaning of the new words, Making a strong

memory connection between the form and the meaning of

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the words, Using the words.

In teaching English to children, teacher has to use performance teach vocabulary to them because the children in literacy level are performance; it means children learn language with accompanying action / scaffolding. In this level, teacher can use media. According to Notion (1990) in recited by Cameron is listed basic technique of explaining the meaning of new words.

2. Kinds of Vocabulary Finnochiaro (1974:73) divides vocabulary into two kinds, namely active vocabulary and passive vocabulary. The first consist of words which student understand, can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking or in writing. The second consist of words that students recognize and understand when they occur in a context and she or he never uses them in communication. He or she understands them when he or she does not use them in speaking or writing. 3. Teaching Vocabulary Nowadays it is widely accepted that vocabulary teaching should be part of the syllabus and taught in a wellplanned and regular basis. Some authors, led by Lewis (1993) argue that vocabulary should be at the centre of language

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teaching because language consists of grammatical lexis, not lexicalised grammar. There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Grains and Redman (1986): Boundaries between conceptual meanings: knowing not only what lexis refer to, but also where the

boundaries are that separate words of it from related

meaning (e.g. cup, mug, and bowl). Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meanings of a

single word form with several

meaning but closely

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related (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organization). Homonymy: distinguishing between the various meanings of single word several form has

meaning

that is not closely related (e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a toll). Homophony: understanding words, which have the pronunciation different spellings meanings flour, flower). Synonymy: same but in and (e.g.

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distinguishing between the

different shade of meaning synonymous that word

have (e.g. extends, increase, expand). Affective Meaning: distinguishing between attitudinal emotional (denotation the and factors and

connotation), which depend on the

speakers attitude or the situation. Sociocultural associations of lexical items are another factor. important

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Style, Register, and Dialect: enable to distinguish between level of formality, the effect context and topics as well as different in

geographical variation. Translation: awareness certain and of

differences similarities

between native and foreign (e.g. cognates). Chunk Language: of multilanguage false

word verb, idioms, strong and weak and

collocations, lexical phrases.

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Grammar Vocabulary:

of

learning the rules that enable students to build up different forms of the word or even different that sleep,

word word

from (e.g.

slept, sleeping). Pronunciation: ability recognizing reproducing of and items

of word in speech. The implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching must be more simply covering a certain number of words on word list. We must use teaching technique that can help realise this global concept of what it means to know a lexical item. And we must also go beyond that, giving learner opportunities to use the items learnt and also helping them to use effective written system.

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4. Media The origin word of media is medium which is from Latin language that means carrier or escort that is a thing that bring the information from source to receiver. Media can be classified becomes three kinds, that are visual media, audio media, and audio visual media. Visual media is the media that can be seen and be touched, likes photos, pictures, maps, cards, dolls, and puppets. Audio media is the media that can be heard, like radios, cassettes, tape recorder, and compact disc. Audio visual media is the media that can be seen and be heard, like television, film, and computer. In the learning activities, media can help the teachers to carrier the learning matter for students because each of learning matters have some variation of difficulty level and to simplify it, they need the teaching media. Finnochiaro (1974:63) states that the subject understand and retain better when they have been taught or shown some objects associated with it. Moreover Brown (1973:1) emphasizes that using variety of media will increase the probability that the students will learn more, retain better than they learn and improve their performance of the skill, they are expected to

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develop. From the definition above, the writer concludes that visual aids are substances to implant ideas used by the teacher during teaching learning process to support the presentation of material. 5. Picture a. Definition of Picture Picture provides an excellent opportunity for the use of vocabulary and it may simulate the imagination encourage the students participation in an interactive classroom atmosphere so that they will get better result. Picture often conveys meaning as effectively as words and may enhance memory retention, especially when learner has to think about how to draw the meaning. Picture is one of the important media that can be used in the teaching learning process, especially in teaching English. The picture can represent human life such as people, animal, thing and activities. According Wright (1989:2) explain that pictures are not just an aspect method but through their representation of place, object and people. The picture is important, because it very possible to predict not only from what we hear and read but also from what we see around us and from what we remember

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as well. Picture used must be interesting for the students and be easy for the students to understand. b. Advantages of Using Picture in Teaching Vocabulary Pictures are one kind of media that can help the teacher draw the students interest and arouse their motivation to learn. According to Sadiman et all (2003:29) stated that the advantages of using pictures as a media are: 1. Picture s are

more realisti c in the point of view that verbal media. 2. Picture can solve the proble

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ms

of

limited place and time. 3. The price is cheap and easy to get and use without particul ar instrum ents. Pictures are often reminding us about real life experiences to suggest such experiences to us. According to Hamalik (1986:81) there are six reason of using pictures in teaching learning process as follow: 1. Picture

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are

concret e. It

means that by picture, the student can explain ed someth ing which to talking or to

discuss in class. 2. Picture s be can to

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solve the limited time and place. 3. Picture s be can to

explain someth ing. 4. Picture s are

easy to get and cheap. 5. Picture s are

easy to use. 6. Picture can be

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to solve the leak senses of the

human. It means that small thing that cannot see by eye, we can see it clearly by photog raph. Based on the idea above, it is clear that pictures a

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have some advantages in the teaching learning process. The problems that usually come up are that they get difficulties in choosing and finding suitable words to express something. Therefore, the teachers help and knowledge are useful to help the students to express their idea and though in making sentences.

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III.

METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH A. Research Design The research design in this study is an experimental research. According to Arikunto (1985:257) experimental research is a study to know whether there is an effect or not to the subject, that is given a treatment. The design of experimental research of this study, the researcher used two groups which are experimental group and control group. In experimental group was taught vocabulary with pictures and control group taught vocabulary without picture. In this study, the writer also does experiment related with the topic. The experiments are divided into two meetings, as follows: 1. Pre-Test 2. Post-Test B. Research Method 1. Population Population is the subject of the research. According to Arikunto (2002:108) defined population as a set (or collection) of all elements possessing one or more attributes of interest. In other word, population is the whole subject of the research. The population of this research is limited to the students of fourth year at SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in the academic year 2010 / 2011 consist of 40 students.

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2. Sample Sample is a part of population that is participates in the study. Arikunto (2002:109) sampling is the technique of choosing representative of the population. From the sample or representative, we can generalize the result for the whole population. In this study, the writer uses total sampling because all of the students of fourth year at SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in the academic year 2010 / 2011 are the subject of the research. C. Procedure of Collecting Data Collecting data was one step used in a research, since the data was absolutely needed to verify the hypothesis. It had been recognized that a research was a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions or problems, then to solve it; it was necessary to provide a number of data needed. To get the data, the researcher selected the simplest, cheapest and efficient system of data that was rapidly available and adjusted to the need of this study by using classroom action research and all of the events would be recorded during conducting the study such as the students motivation, atmosphere and result in every cycle into a journal and observation sheet. In this part, the writer determines the right method on

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collecting data as follows: 1. Try Out The goal of conducting this try out test was to measure the validity and reliability of the test. According to Suharsimi (2001:65) stated that the goal of the try out is to obtain a reliable instrument and also validate the test that would be used as an instrument for collecting data. 2. Test The form of test is multiple choice tests. According to Harris (1967:7) there are three reason of using multiple choice tests, as follows: a. The writer can directly get specific skill and learning he wants to measure, b. Scoring quickly, c. Multiple superior validity. The material of the test is taken from English books for the fourth grade student related with the subject discussion and based on the local content curriculum. In scoring the test, the writer uses following formula: choices reliability have and can be done

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R S = N x 100

Where: S = the Score R = total number of correct answer N = total number of the test items 3. Pre-Test Before the teacher teaches materials by using pictures, he gives a test to the students by taking the material. 4. Post Test Post-Test was done after pre-test. It was aimed to measure the students achievement and to compare the result between pre-test and post-test that would be processed into data. Materials of the test were taken from the vocabularies taught in the activities before. 5. Questionnaire Arikunto (2006:151) mentioned that questionnaire could be in the form of multiple choices, essays, check-list, and rating scale so respondents would only select one of the provided answer in it. In conducting this study, the researcher used a multiple choice questionnaire, in which the respondents only selected one of the provided answer (by crossing A, B, C or D) in 30

each question. The questionnaire was conducted after the activities above were completely done. It was purposed only to gain data from the students response about the teaching strategy applied. The questionnaire consists of five questions and it was in the form of essay. D. Technique of Data Analysis The data is useful to describe the students achievement in understanding vocabulary. 1. Analysing the result of the test To obtain student score, the researcher evaluates the students answer. The researcher applied scoring formula from 2004 curriculum. X Score = N B/N X 100 Where: B = correct items answered N = the number of the items Through scoring, the results of the students work were needed to put in a form that readily interpreted. 2. Mean The researcher calculates the actual test (pre-test and post-test) into the mean. Mean is the average of a group score. The computation for the means is done by adding up all 31

individuals score and then divided the sum by the number of the students.

The formula for computing the means are as follows: X M= N Where: M X N = the mean = the sum of score = the number of students After the mean of the score have been found out, and then put the result based on the table below: The Percentage of Grade Correct Answer 86 100 76 85 60 75 55 59 Below 55 A = Excellent B = Good C = Fair D = Poor E = Very Poor (Fail) Achievement Outstanding Above Average Average Below Average Insufficient Level of

After computing and comparing between the result of pre-test and post-test, the researcher decide is it effective or not teaching vocabulary by using pictures at SD Negeri Telogorejo 1 Kecamatan Wonosalam Kabupaten Demak in academic year 2010 / 2011.

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IV.

OUTLINE OF THE THESIS This thesis consists of five chapters. They are introduction, review

of related literature, method of investigation, result of the analysis, and conclusions and suggestion. Chapter I, the writer state the general background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, statement of the problem, objective of the study, and outline of the thesis. Chapter II, the writer state theoretical background of the study, experts opinion about teaching vocabulary, general knowledge of vocabulary, various types of mastery vocabulary, principles of teaching vocabulary, and pictures. Chapter III, the writer explains design and variable, population and sample, instrument, procedures of collecting data, and procedures of analyzing data. Chapter IV, the writer explains research findings and discussion. Chapter V, the writer writes the conclusion of the analysis and state suggestion.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, J.D. 1995. Understanding Research in Second Language Learning: A Teachers Guide to Statistic and Research Design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cameron, Dyne. 2001. Teaching Language to Young Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Finocchiaro, Mary, Banomo, Michael. (1974). The Foreign Language Learners: A Guide for Teachers. New York : Regents Company Inc. Harmer, J. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching 3. Cambridge: Longman. Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Press. Ramelan. 1992. Introduction to Linguistic Analysis. Semarang : IKIP Semarang Press. Sadiman, S.A et All. 2003. Media Pendidikan: Pengertian, Pengembangan, dan Pemanfaatannya. Jakarta: P.T. Raja Grafindo Persada. Webster, Noah. 1993. A Websters New World Dictionary. New York: Prentice Hall Press. Wright, Andrew. 1989. Visual Material for the Language Teacher. New York: Longman Inc. Website: Kamil & Hiebert. 2007. A Focus on Vocabulary. www.prel.org/products/re_/ES0419htm, accessed in January 19, 2010. Young, Donna. 2007. What is Vocabulary. www.donnayoung.org/form/help/vocabulary.htm, accessed in January 19, 2010.

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