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CURS DE LIMBA ENGLEZ

TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT ONE COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS................................................................2 1. SOCIALISING IN BUSINESS............................................................................................................2 1.1. Lead-in..........................................................................................................................2 1.2. Language focus: The Noun...........................................................................................3 1.3. Functions.......................................................................................................................3 2. IT APPLIED TO BUSINESS.............................................................................................................4 2.1. Lead-in..........................................................................................................................4 2.2. Reading..........................................................................................................................4 2.3. Language focus: The Article.........................................................................................5 2.4. Functions.......................................................................................................................6 3. WRITTEN VS. ORAL COMMUNICATION ..........................................................................................6 3.1. Lead-in..........................................................................................................................6 3.2. Reading..........................................................................................................................6 3.3. Language focus: The Adjective and the Adverb............................................................9 UNIT TWO MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................10 1. THE MANAGER........................................................................................................................10 1.1. Lead-in........................................................................................................................10 1.2. Reading........................................................................................................................10 1.3. Vocabulary development.............................................................................................11 2. WORK RELATIONSHIPS..............................................................................................................11 2.1. Lead-in........................................................................................................................11 2.2. Reading........................................................................................................................12 2.3. Vocabulary development.............................................................................................12 2.4. Language focus: The tense system: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous..............13 3. MULTINATIONALS....................................................................................................................14 3.1. Lead-in........................................................................................................................14 3.2. Reading........................................................................................................................14 3.3. Vocabulary development.............................................................................................15 3.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Simple vs. Past Continuous........................15 LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.............................................................................................16 SUGGESTED BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................................................................20

UNIT ONE COMMUNICATING IN BUSINESS

1. Socialising in business

1.1. Lead-in Answer the following questions: Are manners important to business? Can we speak of business etiquette? BUSINESS MANNERS Your manners are always under examination, and by committees little suspected, awarding or denying you very high prizes when you least think it. Ralph Waldo Emerson 1. Companies are looking for persons who can network effectively and adapt to a variety of social and business situations. You may have the business qualifications. You have an excellent record of good education and work experience. However, without good business manners you will not succeed. Treating people with respect should be second nature to you. It helps to get on well with the people you work with and with your superiors. It always pays to be polite. Here are some basics of polite business manners: 2. At social events, place your name tag on the right side of your chest so that the people you meet will have a clear view of it when they shake your hand. Dont stand around waiting for introductions to be made. Introduce yourself. Offer your business or calling card. Address both married and single women as Ms. When you introduce two people name the person of higher standing first. 3. Shake the hand of a woman the same way you should shake the hand of a man. Avoid the extremes bone-crushing shakes and wimpy fingertip shakes. 4. If you are vegetarian, tell the server before you sit down so that special arrangements can be made for you. Dont blow on your soup. Dont use a toothpick or put on makeup at the table (do it in the restroom). Dont answer pages or cell phone calls. Turn you pager off, and leave your cell phones at home. Dont ask for a doggie bag. Dont pick up the check unless you invited the other diners. 4. Pick up your clients at the airport personally. Carry their bags and open doors for them. Assist them at the hotel check-in desk. Stand by in the hotel lobby while your clients examine their rooms. Do everything you can to make them feel comfortable and important. 6. Dont light up unless your host or client does. If you do not smoke and your client or host does, say nothing. Suffer in silence. 2

7. Pay attention to your surroundings and the people you meet, and the right thing to do will often become apparent. When in doubt, imagine the actions of courteous, accommodating people you know. And ask yourself: how would they act in your situation? (Source: Jerome R. Stockfish, No Wimpy Handshakes, Please, The Tampa Tribune, 9 September 1998, on-line http://www.tampatrib./com/sections/story2bz.htm (26 September 1998) 1.2. Language focus: The Noun 1.2.1. The Noun Study the following nouns from the text; can you detect any difference? Business businesses: His business is buying and selling shoes. There are different types of businesses. Introduction introductions: The introduction of the book is interesting. He made the introductions. People peoples: People think he is a successful businessman. Peoples in Asia are different from peoples in Europe. Manner manners: He has a self-confident manner. You should study business manners. Silence no plural: Silence in the room! 1.2.2. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the correct form (singular or plural) of the appropriate noun: business (2), card, diner, event (2), family (2), friend, gentleman, man (2), meeting, phone, register, responsibility, time, woman (2), year. Many 1. ago 2. was conducted predominantly by 3. . A 4. s role was to maintain the 5. and home 6. . Evening 7. and 8. were strictly for them enjoying with 9. and 10. . Social 11. were maintained so only those in the business group would be included. A 12. never carried his business 13. to these 14. , but a social card with just his name. 15. have changed. Now, 16. is conducted continuously (thanks to breakfast 17. , e-mail, and cellular 18. ); and 19. are now as present in the business world as 20. . 1.3. Functions a. Identifying yourself Hello, Im.. from Hello, my name isI work for.. Hello, let me introduce myself, Im.Im in charge of// Im responsible for Hello, first name+ surname.Ive got an appointment with.. b. greetings when you meet someone for the first time

First greeting Neutral How do you do? Im (very) pleased/ delighted to meet you. Its (very) nice to meet you. Informal How do you do? Nice/ good to meet you. Hello. Nice to have you with us. Hi. Pleased to meet you.

Reply to the greeting How do you do? Its (very) nice to meet you too. Im pleased to meet you too. Nice/ good to meet you too. Pleased to meet you too.

2. IT applied to business

2.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: 1. Can the full effect of the current information revolution be predicted? 2. Is human power able to effectively control the way information technology shapes our economic and political lives? 2.2. Reading Read the text and find an appropriate title for it. 1. There is a big influence of technique on our daily life. Electronic devices, multimedia and computers are things we have to deal with everyday. Especially the Internet is becoming more and more important for nearly everybody as it is one of the newest and most forward-looking media and surely the medium of the future. The Internet changed our life enormously, there is no doubt about that. A few years ago, if someone wanted to know about a companys products, he would call and say: Can I have some brochures? Today, he does it all on the Internet. Its the most efficient way to do business. 2. Although no one can predict the full effect of the current information revolution, we can see changes in our daily lives. The computer is an important component of every modern office. Companies already present their products, their services on the Internet and so they get more flexible. Furthermore, they are able to exchange experiences, novelties and often they start new projects together. They can also add files to their e-mail and thats why a big data transfer is possible. They dont have to send disks with information around the world anymore, having access to information digitally. Consequently, we may say that especially in the business sector, knowledge provided by the Internet is power. 3. Another advantage of the Internet is the e-mail that has replaced the traditional letter. You do not have to buy stamps anymore and it is much faster and also for free. But a question arises here: is electronic correspondence more valuable than meeting face-to-face? Some neighbours still stop by when a family crisis strikes but other people offer condolences via e-mail. Whichever we prefer, the electronic seems to represent the future. The Internet pushes life beyond the old physical barriers of time 4

and space. Here you can roam around the world without leaving home. Make new friends. Exchange the results of laboratory with a colleague overseas. Read stock quotes. Buy clothes. Research a term paper. Stay out of the office, conducting business via a computer that becomes your virtual office. Virtual community. Virtual travel. Virtual love. A new reality. 4. One example: for the women staying home and taking care of their own children tele-working (the work on computer at home) has become a current procedure. Also men take this opportunity. What are the consequences, the advantages of teleworking? If you have a family, you can spend more time at home, probably with your children. You can organize every day the way you want. Meetings at the company are reduced to a minimum. Tele-working is also an advantage for the owner of the company. Official studies substantiate that people who work at home are more motivated than their colleagues at the office. 5. The Internet can also help people who cannot go out to find friends in the real life because they are disabled. But they can chat with other people via the Internet. Sometimes it is also easier for shy people to chat with a person they do not know. 6. Additionally, another big advantage of the Internet is the easy access to information. Online reference books and dictionaries replace the real bookshop or the library. It is again cheaper to search for information on the Internet than buying a book. The Internet contains a lot of information which is renewed and up-dated. Moreover, you can read the daily newspapers from all over the world, sometimes for free. In addition, most newspaper sites have an archive in which you can search for old articles. 7. The Internet is also a big advertising company A lot of enterprises have a homepage with ads and support opportunities. To stay competitive in international economy corporations must open themselves to information and new ideas. Issues must be presented quickly with visual aids. 8. Obviously, technology promises more and more information for less and less effort. As we hear these promises, we must balance faith in technology with faith in ourselves. Wisdom and insight often come not from keeping up-to-date or compiling facts, but from quiet reflection. What we hold most valuable things like morality and compassion can be found only within us. While embracing the future, we can remain loyal to our unchanging humanity. (Source: text adapted from http://newroom.cisco.com) (One possible suggestion for the title: The Impact of the Internet in Our Daily Life; can you find some others?) 2.3. Language focus: The Article 2.3.1. Notice the use of the article definite, indefinite, zero in the following sentences: But a question arises here (par. 3) The Internet is also (par. 7) technology promises more and more information for less and less effort (par. 8) 5

2.3.2. Insert the correct form of the article definite, indefinite, zero in the following text: There are 1. people who do not read 2. paper in 3. morning anymore. They are reading 4. e-paper. Even in the morning they are sitting in front of 5. computer and not talking to each other while drinking 6. cup of tea. In 7. future there will be more and more e-papers and 8. newspapers will disappear. Some are beginning to talk to their computer (Come on, lets work!) but they are not able to talk to each other anymore. While chatting on 9. Internet you are frequently using 10. abbreviations, incomplete sentences and so on. This leads to speaking disabilities in everyday life. 2.4. Functions Presenting and supporting opinions asking for opinions What are your feelings on this? To one person What are your views on.? What are your feelings about? What do you think about.? Whats your opinion about that? To a group of people Any reaction to that? Has anybody any strong feeling about / views on that? Whats the general view on/ feeling about that? Has anybody any comments to make?

3. Written vs. oral communication

3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: 1. Which is, in your opinion, more effective in business environment: oral or written communication? 2. Can silence be considered a business communication tool? 3.2. Reading Silence: A Hidden Business Tool 1. In todays frantic world, silence is not often perceived as a business communication tool. Yet, the strategic use of silence ranging from five-second pauses in a conversation to extended periods of quietness can result in tremendous benefits to those who practise it. 2. Here are twenty ways you may be able to use silence for your and others benefit. Pick a few suggestions that may work well for you and resolve to practise the powerful art of silence on those many occasions when you have the opportunity to do so. 1. Inspire yourself: during periods of silence, the mind has a way of retreating to tranquil thoughts that calm you down when you are worried. 6

2. Build productivity: quiet time is perfect for focusing on important, detail-oriented tasks. Want a subordinate or colleague to work on a project for you? Youll get it done faster if you arrange for the individual to work in a silent place. 3. Reduce stress: tough morning? Too much tension around you? Retreat to a corner and remain still and silent for a few minutes. 4. Raise your stature: cultivating the art of graceful silence is one of the characteristics of successful people. Next time you hear a distorted comment, angry retort, or biased question thrown at you, remain silent for a short time. Others will respect you for your thoughtfulness. 5. Emphasize the seriousness of an action: When it comes time to describe a vital initiative, or to speak with a subordinate or colleague about something he/she has done wrong, let silence play a part in your comments. 6. Get your prospect talking: when you are in the midst of a sales call, resist the temptation to present every facet of your product or service. Instead, pause at key junctures, without question or comment. 7. Raise the esteem of others: Many people are afraid to speak up during meetings. When you sense fear on the part of a person near you, ask a general question, something that calls for a thoughtful response and then wait. The individual might be uncomfortable at first, but by stepping back and giving him centre stage for a few moments, youll give him the opportunity to build selfconfidence. 8. Analyse your own thinking: use quiet time to better understand your own reactions to proposals and ideas. 9. Create atmosphere: silence, perhaps punctuated by gentle music, create a warm, inviting atmosphere perfect for an employee retreat or a meeting requiring focus. 10. Generate ideas: while brainstorming is often a frenzied activity, great brainstorming is frequently preceded by moments of calm silence, time for participants to gather their thoughts and energy for what follows. 11. Stimulate discussion: running a meeting? Its easy for you to dominate the discussion. But instead of going this route, pose a few problems to the group and resolve to remain silent while the group grapples with them. You may be amazed at what comes out of the discussion. 12. Solve problems: next time youre faced with a thorny problem, retreat to a quiet corner. Dont try to force a solution. Just play with the problem in your mind, and let your latent experience and skills forge a solution. 13. Ponder important questions: has a co-worker or customer asked you an especially thought-provoking question? Have you read or heard something that intrigues you? The next step: a period of silence, time to reflect on the implications of the question, as well as your next step. 14. Ease conflict: parents use silent time-outs to ease friction in the home. Leaders in the workplace can use periods of silence to cool conflicts and set the stage for productive discussion of problems. 15. Visualise: rarely can you achieve breakthrough objectives while you are in the midst of loud or frantic activity. Instead, use quiet time to walk through difficult problems or imagine how youll achieve important initiatives. 16. Emphasize a point: when you want others to remember an important pronouncement, nothing does it better than a short period of silence. 17. Gain energy: if you are feeling tired or anxious, a few moments of silence can help restore equilibrium and clear the mind. 7

18. Concentrate: wise group leaders often call for a moment of silence while discussing complex issues. The quiet time helps group members collect themselves and focus their attention on the thorny problems at hand. 19. Give yourself strength: when you are about to enter a difficult meeting or engage in a troublesome task, a quiet period helps you marshal your strength and feel a sense of poise as you prepare for the task at hand. 20. Learn: when you remain silent and listen intently to the random chatter that fills your day, you have a powerful opportunity to learn. Listen for gossip, ideas, and a wide range of commentary about the people and the world around you. The result: greater knowledge and wisdom that you can readily put to work. (Source: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/sociable/regualting-interaction.html) Having read about the advantages of being silent in doing business, imagine how you can use them in business situations in which you have to communicate: Orally In written form The memo: is used for the routine, day-to-day exchange of information within an organization. A memo should be clear and concise. The format of the memo: E.g.: To: Mike Andrews From: Personnel Manager Date: 13 April 2003 Subject: Marketing training courses We need to improve the marketing knowledge and selling skills of our staff, in accordance with the growing demand of well-prepared salesmen on the market. Please see what the needs of our staff are and the domains in which they feel they need training. Look for the best specialist able to prepare them and arrange staff workshops till the end of May. Please have the data ready on 5 May. Let me know if you have any conflict in meeting this due date. The report The format of the report: - title page: the title, your name, department - table of contents (if it is a detailed report about sth.) - introduction: it states the problem that should be analysed, an explanation of conditions/ circumstances/ general trends (applied to the problem in discussion), your expectations - experiment: describe the method you used to collect your data and observations - discussion: analyse the results - conclusion: summarize your results - acknowledgements: you should give credit to all who assisted you - references: the list includes any documentation that is not your own (books, articles)

3.3. Language focus: The Adjective and the Adverb 3.3.1. The Adjective and the Adverb Consider the following expressions from the text Silence A Hidden Business Tool and notice the use of adjectives and adverbs: important detail, oriented tasks, complex issues, vital initiative, greater knowledge Youll get it done faster, Remain still and silent, to better understand Look for some other adjectives and adverbs in the text. 3.3.2. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate adjectives and adverbs: How to communicate 1. in the Digital Age Technology can be a 2. blessing and a 3. curse. In some 4. ways, it 5. speeds up the communication process, but in other ways, it 5. slows it down. We are 7. inundated with so many communication tools fax, electronic mail, teleconferencing, postal mail, interoffice mail, voice mail, and others that oftentimes we sacrifice face-to-face interaction for expediency. This 8. lack of connectedness can cause 9. communication breakdowns and produce 10. stress. Consult the list: severe, unpleasant, painful, obvious, effectively, tremendous, gentle, irreversibly, hopelessly, continuously.

UNIT TWO MANAGEMENT 1. The manager 1.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: 1. What makes a good manager? 2. What makes good communication at work? 3. What makes teamwork successful? 1.2. Reading Collaborative Team leadership (1) Teams work best when team members share both mutual accountability and leadership responsibilities. The challenge of team leadership, however, even when there is a formally designated team leader, is to collaborate in the leadership process. Since leadership and collaboration are often presented and experienced as opposing dynamics, most people have no frame of reference for collaborative team leadership. However, this shared, interdependent style of taking the lead and then handing it off must be used by team members if they are intent on high performance, productivity and success. Collaborative team leadership is built on three key assumptions: Effective collaboration requires strong, individual leadership. Personal leadership skills are a prerequisite for effective team performance, and people will never be able to work successfully in teams if leaders at all levels do not model collaboration. Mutual accountability depends on individual accountability. Team members cannot meet shared goals if they cant fulfil their own personal responsibilities. A team can maintain control only by sharing control. If team members struggle to distraction and compete against one another to win, they will all lose. To master collaborative leadership, team members must think beyond their past experience and expectations. Collaborative team leadership suggests that in a mutually-accountable, interdependent work environment, a team member must be able to take a calm, clear personal position and use personal influence in precise, focused, yet flexible ways. As leadership roles shift around task requirements, team members must be able both to take the lead and share the lead in a fluid manner. To communicate such reciprocal respect and support, they must also develop a sophisticated awareness of group process and other skill sets, including: Understand values and behaviours required in a collaborative team environment. Recognize and seize opportunities to both lead and to follow. Develop skills to move comfortably and successfully into either role. (Source: http://www.innolectinc.com/ collaborative_team_ leadership.html)

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1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a word derived from the word given at the end of each sentence: 1. This should be a viable ... of good management. 2. All executives involved in the project did their job to the best of their ... . 3. Given the very few clues we have, this is a hardly ... flaw in our business plan. 4. In order to be a ... businesswoman, you have to be acquainted with the main issues of intergender communication. 5. Unfortunately, I cannot attach too much ... to your statistics. 6. Good ... is essential for the success of any kind of business. 7. One shouldnt elude ... when dealing with serious occupational tasks. 8. His greatest ... is that of being a flawless leader. 9. I would ... like to specify that we are behind schedule. 10. The effort which you put into our project will turn out to be an invaluable ... . 11. Acting in ... with present legislation will prevent any problems with the authorities. 12. The ... for this initiative to become fruitful are that all of you should work overtime. 13. At the trade fair last year, our company received an award for ... . 14. ... talent is supposed to be in-born rather than acquired. 15. Thanks to our ... intervention, the company didnt go bankrupt. CHARACTER ABLE IDENTITY SUCCESS CREDIBLE LEAD RESPONSIBLE ACCOMPLISH PARTICULAR INVEST ACCORD REQUIRE EXCEL MANAGE TIME

2. Work relationships 2.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: 1. Would you find it difficult to communicate with your boss? Why? 2. To what extent does age difference count in work relationships?

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2.2. Reading Collaborative Team leadership (2) Collaborative team leadership is best learned and built as a team is chartered and begins its work together. A team needs to develop the capacity to collaborate as leaders while fulfilling their team charter. Progress in developing this capacity will be visible in the effectiveness with which members: Make decisions Manage disagreements and conflict Craft agreements Solve problems Clarify roles and responsibilities Build consensus and coalitions for action As individual leaders in a collaborative environment, for instance, team members must first establish a clear, mutually satisfying identity or purpose. A teams purpose is clarified as members negotiate agreement on their collective vision, mission, and values. This clarity allows them to establish clear, measurable outcomes. Team members must work to align their individual perspectives and positions first with one another, and then with the business priorities and goals of the organization. Once team members are aligned as a group, they can communicate with passion and precision, and are more likely to effectively influence and enrol partners outside the team. During early discussions and throughout its life span, a team is continuously confronted by the challenge of difference, and the differences will be the source of a teams strength and conflict. When team members collaborate as leaders, they use conflict as a productive step by building individual capacities to manage the teams relationship process. To manage differences based on work style, personalities, race, gender, education, technical background and experience -- as well as less visible issues -- all team members must be able to initiate and negotiate at the interpersonal level. Consequently, this type of skill development should be a priority from the beginning of a teams work charter. Often, this is when well-timed, focused consultation and facilitation can give a team a boost toward success. (Source: http://www.innolectinc.com/collaborative_team_leadership. html) 2.3. Vocabulary development 2.3.1. Find words in the text above which mean: contract, agreement, bond (par. 1) skill, dexterity, expertise (par. 2) agreement, accord, harmony (par. 2) mental picture, foresight (par. 3) result, product, conclusion (par. 3) bring into line, line up, make parallel (par. 4) extent, duration, period (par. 5) sexual category (par. 6) subject, matter, topic, concern (par. 6) increase, enhancement, advancement (par. 7) 2.3.2. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 12

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I feel deeply committed ... my employees. We should contribute more ... the development of this business. The board of directors finally decided ... a plan for future restructuring. She should pay more attention ... the way in which she treats her subordinates. There have been no changes ... salary agreements. The influence ... human resources policy is due ... the increased pressure ... the part of international competition. 7. ... what means do you think we could reduce costs? 8. Im afraid that the manager is opposed ... our strategy of concentrating ... cost reduction only. 9. Our cooperation could be conducive ... further success. 10. I would like to ensure ... particular that no change ... the company has taken place ... the absence of careful deliberation. 2.4. Language focus: The tense system: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous 2.4.1. The tense system: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous Compare: Human resources management works in close collaboration with senior executives. (permanent situation) Jane is working for Mr. Jones this week because his secretary is on holiday. (temporary situation) 2.4.2. Find the mistakes in the following sentences and correct them. 1. We work in your office till they finish painting ours. 2. Our firm is usually getting in touch with customers by mail. 3. Their company does not do very well these days. 4. Since we all work in the same office, we are spending most of our time together. 5. They want to know if the price is including VAT. 6. Human resources policy is giving consideration to various internal and external factors. 7. At present our CEOs try to establish the priorities for the further development of the firm. 8. What do you think this job is involving? 9. Are you realising that if we dont apply the new procedure in due course we will suffer great profit losses? 10. Most managers are not able to attend the meeting because they are having flu. 11. I know that the competition is tough this year, but we survive on the market. 12. We sell our shares in the company. Do you want to buy them? 13. While Sarah is on holiday, Tracy handles her work as a secretary. 14. To be honest, I am doubting whether you will be able to succeed in this move. 15. You shouldnt pay any attention to the new manager. He is just sarcastic again.

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3. Multinationals

3.1. Lead-in Consider the following questions: 1. What determined the need for multinational corporations? 2. What factors influence communication in a multinational corporation? 3.2. Reading For telcos with global ambitions, success in the next twenty years will stem from successful joint ventures and alliances. But while it is a simple matter to draw lines across the globe in the manner of the nineteenth century colonial powers and to devise a Concert, an Atlas, or a Unisource, there is no guarantee that such alliances will thrive or even endure. Where once a global company such as Coca Cola simply sold its product or imposed a taste, and multinationals geared the names or colours of identical products to the results of market research, the survival of transnational telcos will depend on flexibility in managing cultural diversity. Primarily, this entails the successful management of a multicultural workforce in a global context. But it also means being able to vary services across cultures: not simple marketing ploys imposed from outside, but an understanding of how culture drives differences from within. A simple example of this is the way in which different cultures use the phone: an American walks into his apartment after a week away and switches on the answer phone; an Italian rings his mother. One requires an add-on device; the other needs single number dialling and favoured-number discounts. These differences may appear trivial, but they are profoundly culture-driven. The development of genuinely transnational business organisations therefore requires managerial approaches and systems which allow for variations which derive from such diversity. This might be national cultural diversity between nations, races or ethnic groups (for example in a two-nation joint venture), intra-national diversity involving the range of cultures within a single nation (for example in the USA), or internal cultural diversity, where managers need to deal with foreign-owned transnational companies in their own country (for example a British telco manager dealing with a Korean manufacturer in the UK). All this is well known, and there is indeed a burgeoning literature on the management of cultural diversity. But the problems go deeper than is often appreciated: it is not simply a matter of minding matters or learning to deal with varying attitudes to punctuality. These are the surface manifestations of much deeper differences in mental structures. [...] No comprehensive solution to the problems of cultural diversity in the context of the telecommunications industry has yet been conceived. Indeed, there has been little specific research. Yet it is clear that preparation for the successful management of such diversity in all its ramifications will be a vital component of long-term success in the global market. (Adapted from Managing Cultural Diversity in a Global World by Edward Burman, http:// www.eurodata.co.uk/body_burman.html)

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3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Match the following words and phrases from the text with their right definitions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. derive from make, create prosper last (in time) adapt something trigger, have something as a consequence a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. discount genuine burgeoning thrive conceive entail trivial stem from ploy devise endure gear sth. to sth.

7. artifice 8. price reduction 9. unimportant 10. authentic 11. prospering 12. make, create

3.3.2. Fill in the blanks with the required dependent preposition: 1. We are sure that the present crisis stems ... our MDs inability to deal ... cultural diversity in our company. 2. I am afraid I cannot find any solution ... our major problem. 3. In order to make it a perfect match you will have to gear the components of this device ... the abilities of the other. 4. Our success is dependent ... your manner ... coping ... this merger. 5. I wouldnt like to impose my way ... you, but you should understand my concern. 6. By allowing ... slight variations ... the original design, you will be able to manage this problem ... your own. 7. Differences ... cultural attitudes have to be taken ... account. 8. What is your attitude ... the Italian way? 9. His approach ... cultural diversity lacks ... careful preparation. 10. You have to possess ample preparation ... management to ensure a successful outcome of this meeting. 3.4. Language focus: The tense system: Past Simple vs. Past Continuous 3.4.1. The tense system: Past Simple vs. Past Continuous Look at the following examples: He was writing the report when I phoned. He was writing the report while I was reading the memo. It was a hectic day: the photocopiers were making a lot of noise, the secretaries were shouting, and the phones were ringing uninterruptedly. What is the difference between the two tenses? 15

3.4.2. Choose the correct tense in the following sentences: 1. When the manager arrived he noticed/was noticing that the secretary had left. 2. I was trying/tried to get in touch with your secretary all day yesterday but I couldnt. 3. He typed/was typing the contract when his boss came/was coming in. 4. What did you do/were you doing yesterday as I tried/was trying to get through to you? 5. At that time he worked/was working in a pharmaceutical company. 6. I realised/was realising that somebody was ringing me up/rang me up as I was going/went into the conference room. 7. My secretary did not understand/was not understanding how the new computer programme was working/worked. 8. It was only later that I found out/was finding out there was somebody who knew/was knowing that she spent/was spending time in prison at the time for tax evasion. 9. As nobody watched/was watching, it was easy for me to conduct the transaction my way. 10. He was going/went on his business trip to France when her plane crashed/was crashing. List of Irregular Verbs Infinitive arise awake be bear beat become begin behold belie bend bet bid bind bite bleed bless blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy cast Past Simple Past Participle arose arisen awoke awoken (US also awaked) was/were been bore borne (US also born) beat beaten (US also beat) became become began begun beheld beheld belied belied bent bent bet, betted bet, betted bid, bade bid, bidden bound bound bit bitten bled bled blessed, blest blessed, blest blew blown broke broken bred bred brought brought broadcast broadcast (US also broadcasted) (US also broadcasted) built built burnt, burned burnt, burned burst burst bought bought cast cast 16

catch caught caught choose chose chosen cling clung clung come came come cost cost, costed cost, costed cut cut cut deal dealt dealt dig dug dug dive dived, (US also dove) dived draw drew drawn dream dreamed, dreamt dreamed, dreamt drink drank drunk drive drove driven dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled eat ate eaten fall fell fallen feed fed fed feel felt felt fight fought fought find found found flee fled fled fly flew flown forbid forbade, forbad forbidden forecast forecasted, forecast forecasted, forecast foresee foresaw foreseen forget forgot forgotten forgive forgave forgiven forsake forsook forsaken freeze froze frozen get got got, (US also gotten) give gave given go went gone grind ground ground grow grew grown hang hung, hanged hung, hanged have had had hear heard heard hide hid hidden hit hit hit hold held held hurt hurt hurt keep kept kept kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled knit knitted, knit knitted, (US also knit) know knew known lead led led learn learned, (UK also learnt) learned, (UK also learnt) leave left left lend lent lent let let let 17

lie light lose make mean meet mislead misspell mistake misunderstand mow overcome overdraw oversee overtake overthrow overwrite partake pay plead preset prove put quit read /rid/ rewrite rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set sew shake shed shine shoe shoot show shrink shut sink sit slay

lay, lied lain, lied lit, lighted lit, lighted lost lost made made mean meant met met misled misled misspelled, misspelled, (UK also misspelt) (UK also misspelt) mistook mistaken misunderstood misunderstood mowed mown, mowed overcame overcome overdrew overdrawn oversaw overseen overtook overtaken overthrew overthrown overwrote overwritten partook partaken paid paid pleaded, (US also pled) pleaded, (US also pled) preset preset proved proved, proven put put quit, quitted quit, quitted read /red/ read /red/ rewrote rewritten rid rid rode ridden rang rung rose risen ran run sawed sawn, (US also sawed) said said saw seen sought sought sold sold sent sent set set sewed sewn, sewed shook shaken shed shed shone shone shod, (US also shoed) shod, (US also shoed) shot shot showed shown shrank shrunk shut shut sank sunk sat sat slew, slayed slain 18

sleep slide smell sneak sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spotlight spring stand steal stick sting stink strike string strive swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread undergo underwrite understand undertake undo unwind uphold upset wake wear weave wed

slept slid smelled, (UK also smelt) sneaked, (US also snuck) sowed spoke sped, speeded spelled, (UK also spelt) spent spilled, (UK also spilt) spun spat, (US also spit) split spoiled, spoilt spotlighted, spotlit sprang stood stole stuck stung stank, (US also stunk) struck strung strove, strived swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought thrived, (US also throve) threw thrust trod (US also treaded) underwent underwrote understood undertook undid unwound upheld upset woke wore wove, weaved wedded, wed 19

slept slid smelled, (UK also smelt) sneaked, (US also anuck) sown, sowed spoken sped, speeded spelled, (UK also spelt) spent spilled, (UK also spilt) spun spat, (US also spit) split spoiled, spoilt spotlighted, spotlit sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk struck (US also stricken) strung striven, strived sworn swept swollen, swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived, (US also thriven) thrown thrust trodden (US also trod) undergone underwritten understood undertaken undone unwound upheld upset woken worn woven, weaved wedded, wed

weep wet win wind withdraw withhold withstand write

wept wet, wetted won wound withdrew withheld withstood wrote

wept wet, wetted won wound withdrawn withheld withstood written

Suggested Bibliography *** Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (London: Collins ELT, Harper Collins Publishers, 2003) Budai, L., Gramatica englez teorie i exerciii (Bucureti: Teora, 2001) Vince, M., Advanced Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT, 2000)

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