Anda di halaman 1dari 78

Addressing & Subnetting

for Exploration-S1

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Addressing

to identify and locate each host. We call it


addressing. Identification: hostname, address (MAC, IP) IP address ? MAC add ? MAC address: local IP address: internetwork An address generally represents the connection to the network

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Addressing

unique address: letter (network address) and number (host address)


3

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

IP Address (IPv4)

IP address is 32-bit long.

It is often writen in dotted decimal format.

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

IP Addressing Structure

IP add has 2 parts: net-id & host-id Two different networks must have different network address (net-id). 2 different hosts in the same network must have different host address (host-id). Hosts in the same network have the same network address. Broadcast domain: one network address Network address= IP address AND Subnet mask

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

IP Addressing Structure

32-bit address is expressed in Dotted decimal Network portion

Host portion

Octet
6

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Subnet Mask

The subnet mask is 32-bit pattern and created by placing a binary 1 in each bit position that represents the network portion and placing a binary 0 in each bit position that represents the host portion. The prefix and the subnet mask are different ways of representing the same thing - the network portion of an address. The number of bits of an address used as the network portion is called the prefix length. In 8-bit pattern, there are: 00000000 = 0 11110000 = 240 10000000 = 128 11111000 = 248 11000000 = 192 11111100 = 252 11100000 = 224 11111110 = 254 11111111 = 255

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Defining the Network and Host Portions

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Defining the Network and Host Portions

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 1:

SM : 255.255.255.0 Net/host id: N.N.N.H Net E1 (Net-ID): 192.168.11.0 Net E2 : 192.168.10.0 Net E3 : 192.168.12.0
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Number of broadcast domain ?

10

Example 2:

SM: 255.255.255.0 Net address: 192.168.10.0 Net/host id: N.N.N.H

H: hhhhhhhh 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 11111110 11111111


11

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 3:

IP address: 192.168.100.1 Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 Net address: 192.168.100.0 Net/Host ID: N.N.N.H

IP address : 11000000.10101000.01100100.00000001 SM : 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 Net address : 11000000.10101000.01100100.00000000

12

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 4:

IP address: 96.168.100.1 Subnet mask: 255.255.224.0 Net address: ?

IP address : 01100000.10101000.01100100.00000001 SM : 11111111.11111111.11100000.00000000 Net address : 01100000.10101000.01100000.00000000

13

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Hierachical addressing scheme

As a hierachical addressing scheme, IP addresses are divided into classes.

14

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Classes of IP Addresses

Class A addresses are assigned to larger networks. Class B addresses are used for medium-sized networks Class C for small networks.

15

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Classes of IP Addresses

First octet order bits: Class A: 00000000 00000001 01111110 01111111

(0) (1) (126) (127)

First octet order bits: Class B: 10000000 10000001 10111110 10111111 First octet order bits: Class D: 11100000 11100001 11101110 11101111

(128) (129) (190) (191)

First octet order bits: Class C: 11000000 11000001 11011110 11011111

(192) (193) (222) (223)

(224) (225) (238) (239)


16

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Classes of IP Addresses

17

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Type of Address in an IPv4 Network

Three types of addresses: Network address - The address by which we refer to the network. All hosts in a network will have the same network bits. Broadcast address - A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network. The broadcast address uses the highest address in the network range. This is the address in which the bits in the host portion are all 1s. This address is also referred to as the directed broadcast. Host addresses - The addresses assigned to the end devices in the network

18

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Network Address

When all host-bits are zeros (0), we have a number that represents network address. This address is reserved, namely it cannot be assigned to any host.

19

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Network Address

20

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Broadcast Address

When host-bits are all one (1), we have a number that represents broadcast address. This address is also reserved, namely it cannot be assigned to any host. Exp: ping 10.0.6.255 Ping 255.255.255.255
21

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Broadcast Address

22

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Extra: Broadcast Address

The router supports the following kinds of broadcast types: Limited broadcast - A packet is sent to a specific network or series of networks. In a limited broadcast packet destined for a local network, the network identifier portion and host identifier portion of the destination address is either all 1s (255.255.255.255) or all 0s (0.0.0.0). Directed broadcast - A packet is sent to a specific destination address where only the host portion of the IP address is either all 1s or all 0s (such as 192.20.255.255 or 190.20.0.0).

23

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Host address

24

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

25

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Calculating Network, Hosts & Broadcast Addresses

Practice 6.2.2

26

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Type of Communication

Three types: Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast

27

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Unicast

Is used for the normal host-to-host communication in both a client/server and a peer-to-peer network. Uses the host address of the destination device as the destination address and can be routed through an internetwork.
28

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Broadcast

The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network Host processes a broadcast address destination packet like unicast address. A directed broadcast is sent to all hosts on a specific network. The limited broadcast is used for communication that is limited to the hosts on the local network.

29

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Multicast

The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts. Multicast transmission is designed to conserve the bandwidth of the IPv4 network. The multicast clients use services initiated by a client program to subscribe to the multicast group.
30

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Reserved IPv4 Address Ranges

31

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Public and Private addresses

32

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Public IP Addresses

Public Addresses: are designed to be used in the hosts that are publicly accessible from the Internet. Public IP addresses are unique. No two machines that connect to a public network can have the same IP address. (X#Y#Z ) Public IP addresses must be obtained from an Internet service provider (ISP) or a registry at some expense. With the rapid growth of the Internet, public IP addresses were beginning to run out (IP address depletion).
33

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Private IP Addresses

Private Addresses: are set aside for use in private networks. Network Address Translation (NAT): is used to translate private addresses to public addresses, be implemented on a device at the edge of the private network.
34

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Private IP Addresses

10.0.0.0 /8 172.16.0.0 /12 192.168.0.0 /16

RFC 1918 sets aside three blocks of IP addresses for private, internal use. These three blocks consist of one Class A, a range of Class B addresses, and a range of Class C addresses. Addresses that fall within these ranges are not routed on the Internet backbone. Internet routers immediately discard private addresses.

35

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Using Private Addresses

When addressing a nonpublic intranet, a test lab, or a home network, we normally use private addresses instead of globally unique addresses. Private addresses can be used to address point-to-point serial links without wasting real IP addresses.

36

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Special IPv4 Addresses



Network Addresses Broadcast Addresses Default Route 0.0.0.0/0 Loopback: 127.0.0.0/8 Link-Local Addresses 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 (169.254.0.0 /16) These addresses can be automatically assigned APIPA ( Automatic Private IP Addressing ) TEST-NET Addresses The address block 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0 /24) is set aside for teaching and learning purposes. These addresses can be used in documentation and network examples. Unlike the experimental addresses, network devices will accept these addresses in their configurations
37

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Extra: Reserved IP Address

all 0s -This host, exp: 0.0.0.0 all 0s.host - Host on this net, exp:0.x.x.x all 1s - Limitted broadcast (local net),exp: 255.255.255.255 Net.all 1s - Directed broadcast for net, exp: 192.168.100.255 Net.all 0s Network address, exp: 192.168.1.0 127.anything (often 1) - Loopback, exp: 127.0.0.1 Exp: ping 0.0.0.0 0.0.6.156 255.255.255.255 10.0.6.255
38

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Legacy IPv4 Addressing

39

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Legacy IPv4 Addressing

Classful addressing: A company or organization was assigned an entire class A, class B, or class C address block. Limits to the Class-based System Classful allocation of address space often wasted many addresses, which exhausted the availability of IPv4 addresses. Classless Addressing Address blocks appropriate to the number of hosts are assigned to companies or organizations without regard to the unicast class.

40

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

IP addressing crisis

Address Depletion Internet Routing Table Explosion


41

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

42

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

43

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

44

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Subnetting

Net 1: 172.16.0.0 Net 2: 172.17.0.0 Net 3: 172.18.0.0 Net 4: 172.19.0.0 Usable hosts per network : 2^16-2= 65534 !!!

IP addresses for poin-to-point link (router router): 2 hosts 2 IP Exp: Net address: 192.168.100.0; SM: 255.255.255.0; usable host addresses: 2^8-2=254 If hosts per network is 60 used: 6 host bits: xxhhhhhh, 2^6-2=62 hosts; unused: 2 host bits xxhhhhhh xx000000 (0) xx000001 xx000010 xx111110 xx111111 (63)
45

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Subnetting

Subnetting is another method of managing IP addresses. This method of dividing full network address classes into smaller pieces has prevented complete IP address exhaustion. The network is no longer limited to the default Class A, B, or C network masks and there is more flexibility in the network design. Subnet addresses include the network (N) portion, plus a subnet (sN) field and a host (H) field. To create a subnet address, a network administrator borrows bits from the host field and designates them as the subnet field.
46

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Subnetting

Host bit must be reassigned as network bit.The starting borrow bit is the leftmost hosting bit. Providing broadcast contentment and low level security.

47

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Subnetting

1 net address: 192.168.10.0; SM: 255.255.255.0; 254 hosts hosts per network: 30; networks: 6 ? Borrows bits: 3 2^3-2= 6 subnets Host bits: 5 2^5-2=30 hosts SM: 255.255.255.224 Subnets: 192.168.10.0 192.168.10.32 192.168.10.64 192.168.10.96 .128 192.168.10.192 192.168.10.224

Exp: xxxhhhhh 000 (0) 001 (32) 010 (64) 011 (96) 100 (128) 101 (160) 110 (192) 111 (224)
48

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Establishing SM address

The number of bits in the subnet will depend on the maximum number of hosts required per subnet. The subnet mask: using binary ones in the host octet(s) (2 power of borrowed bits) 2 = usable subnets (previous !) (2 power of remaining host bits)2= usable hosts

49

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Applying the Subnet Mask

Exp: subnet

192.168.10.32/27 Host Range ???

192.168.10.001hhhhh .00100000 .00100001 (33) .00100010 .00100011 192.168.10.00111110 (62) .00111111


50

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Basic subnetting

51

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Basic subnetting

52

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Basic subnetting

53

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 5:

Primary network 192.168.10.0/24 Number of hosts per network: 60 Number of subnets: 4 Borrows bits ? Subnetwork address ? Subnet Mask ? Host Range ? Broadcast address ?
PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

54

Calculating subnets with VLSM

4 subnets of 62 hosts 4 links of 2 hosts


55

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Calculating subnets with VLSM

172.16.0010hhhh.hhhhhhhh/20

172.16.0010xxxx.xxhhhhhh/26

56

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Calculating subnets with VLSM

4 subnets of 62 hosts: 172.16.32.0/26 172.16.32.64/26 172.16.32.128/26 172.16.32.192/26

4 links of 2 hosts: 172.16.33.0/26 is further subnetted with a prefix of /30.

57

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Calculating subnets with VLSM

172.16.33.0/26 is further subnetted: 172.16.33.00xxxxhh/30 172.16.33.000000hh 172.16.33.0/30 172.16.33.000001hh 172.16.33.4/30 172.16.33.000010hh 172.16.33.8/30 172.16.33.000011hh 172.16.33.12/30

58

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Calculating subnets with VLSM

59

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 2

Your company has been given the network address 172.16.32.0/19. After careful planning, looking at current needs and expansion, you realize you need a maximum of three subnets of 1000 hosts, three subnets of 250 hosts, and several subnets for serial point-to-point links.

60

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 2

172.16.32.0/19 172.16.00100000.00000000 Subnets of 1000 hosts: need 10 host bits 172.16.001xxxhh.hhhhhhhh/22 172.16.001000hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.32.0 172.16.001001hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.36.0 172.16.001010hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.40.0 172.16.001011hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.44.0 172.16.001100hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.48.0 172.16.001101hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.52.0 172.16.001110hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.56.0 172.16.001111hh.hhhhhhhh172.16.60.0

61

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 2

3 subnets of 1000 hosts: 172.16.32.0/22 172.16.36.0/22 172.16.40.0/22 Subnets of 250 hosts: need 8 host bits To sub-subnet the subnet 172.16.44.0/22

62

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 2

172.16.44.0/22 172.16.001011xx.hhhhhhhh/24 172.16.00101100.hhhhhhhh172.16.44.0 172.16.00101101.hhhhhhhh172.16.45.0 172.16.00101110.hhhhhhhh172.16.46.0 172.16.00101111.hhhhhhhh172.16.47.0

63

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 2

3 subnets of 250 hosts: 172.16.44.0/24 172.16.45.0/24 172.16.46.0/24 Links of 2 hosts: need 2 host bits To sub-subnet the subnet 172.16.47.0/24

64

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Example 2

172.16.47.0/24 172.16.47.xxxxxxhh/30 172.16.47.000000hh172.16.47.0/30 172.16.47.000001hh172.16.47.4 172.16.47.000010hh172.16.47.8 172.16.47.000011hh172.16.47.12

65

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

66

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

67

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

68

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

69

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

70

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

71

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

72

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

73

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

74

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

75

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

76

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

77

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com

Other: Subnetting a Subnet

Practice 6.5.4-6

78

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www.pdffactory.com