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Chapter 3 - VLANS

CCNA Exploration 4.0

Objectives

Explain the role of VLANs in a network. Explain the role of trunking VLANs in a network. Troubleshoot the common software or hardware configuration problems associated with VLANs on switches in a network topology.

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Role of VLANS

One of the contributing technologies to


excellent network performance is the separation of large broadcast domains into smaller ones with VLANs. Smaller broadcast domains limit the number of devices participating in broadcasts and allow devices to be separated into functional groupings, such as database services for an accounting department and high-speed data transfer for an engineering department.
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Before VLANS
1 building

no problem !
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Before VLANS

Many building
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Before VLANS

Many building: Problem ? IT department wants to ensure that student computers all share the same security features and bandwidth controls. How can the network accommodate the shared needs of the geographically separated departments? Do you create a large LAN and wire each department together? It would be great to group the people with the resources they use regardless of their geographic location, and it would make it easier to manage their specific security and bandwidth needs.

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VLAN overview

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VLAN overview

A VLAN allows a network administrator


to create groups of logically networked devices that act as if they are on their own independent network These VLANs allow the network administrator to implement access and security policies to particular groups of users.
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VLANS details

A VLAN is a broadcast domain created by one or more switches. The network design above creates three separate broadcast domains.
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Benefit of VLANS

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VLAN ID

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Extra: Extended Range VLANs

Configuring Extended-Range VLANs When the switch is in VTP transparent mode (VTP disabled), you can create extended-range VLANs (in the range 1006 to 4094 for any switch port commands that allow VLAN IDs). Enter the vlan vlan-id global configuration command to access config-vlan mode and to configure extended-range VLANs. The VLAN database configuration mode (that you access by entering the vlan database privileged EXEC command) does not support the extended range. Extended-range VLAN configurations are not stored in the VLAN database. Because VTP mode is transparent, they are stored in the switch running configuration file. You can save the configuration in the startup configuration file by using the copy running-config startup-config privileged EXEC command. Example: Switch(config)# vtp mode transparent Switch(config)# vlan 2000 Switch(config-vlan)# end Switch# copy running-config startup config

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VLAN Tagging

No VLAN Tagging

VLAN Tagging

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VLAN Tagging

802.10

There are two major methods of frame tagging, Cisco proprietary Inter
Switch Link (ISL) and IEEE 802.1Q. ISL used to be the most common, but is now being replaced by 802.1Q frame tagging. Cisco recommends using 802.1Q. VLAN Tagging and Trunking will be discussed in the next chapter.
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Types of VLAN

Data VLAN: A data VLAN is a VLAN that is configured to carry only user-generated traffic.

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Types of VLAN

Default VLAN:
All switch ports become a member of the default VLAN after the initial boot up of the switch. Having all the switch ports participate in the default VLAN makes them all part of the same broadcast domain. This allows any device connected to any switch port to communicate with other devices on other switch ports. The default VLAN for Cisco switches is VLAN 1. VLAN 1 has all the features of any VLAN, except that you cannot rename it and you can not delete it.
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Types of VLAN

Management VLAN:
A management VLAN is any VLAN you configure to access the management capabilities of a switch. VLAN 1 would serve as the management VLAN if you did not proactively define a unique VLAN to serve as the management VLAN. You assign the management VLAN an IP address and subnet mask. A switch can be managed via HTTP, Telnet, SSH, or SNMP.
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Types of VLAN

Native VLAN: A native VLAN is assigned to an 802.1Q trunk port. An 802.1Q trunk port supports traffic coming from many VLANs (tagged traffic) as well as traffic that does not come from a VLAN (untagged traffic). The 802.1Q trunk port places untagged traffic on the native VLAN. In the figure, the native VLAN is VLAN 99.
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Native VLAN

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Types of VLAN
Voice VLAN:
It is easy to appreciate why a separate VLAN is needed to support Voice over IP (VoIP) VoIP traffic requires: Assured bandwidth to ensure voice quality Transmission priority over other types of network traffic Ability to be routed around congested areas on the network Delay of less than 150 milliseconds (ms) across the network

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Voice VLAN

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Types of traffic

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Types of traffic

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Types of traffic

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Types of traffic

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Switch port membership

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Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs

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Without VLANs No Broadcast Control


ARP Request

172.30.1.21 255.255.255.0

Switch 1
172.30.2.12 255.255.255.0

172.30.2.10 255.255.255.0

172.30.1.23 255.255.255.0

No VLANs Same as a single VLAN Two Subnets

Without VLANs, the ARP Request would be seen by all hosts. Again, consuming unnecessary network bandwidth and host processing
cycles.
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With VLANs Broadcast Control


Switch Port: VLAN ID
ARP Request

172.30.1.21 255.255.255.0 VLAN 1

Switch 1
172.30.2.12 255.255.255.0 VLAN 2

172.30.2.10 255.255.255.0 VLAN 2

172.30.1.23 255.255.255.0 VLAN 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 . Port 1 2 1 2 2 1 . VLAN

Two VLANs Two Subnets

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Intra-VLAN Communication

Communicating with a device in the same VLAN is called intra-VLAN communication.

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Inter-VLAN Communication

Communicating with a device in another VLAN is called inter-VLAN communication.

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Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs and Layer 3 Forwarding

SVI (switch virtual interface ) SVI is a logical interface configured for a specific VLAN. You need to configure an SVI for a VLAN if you want to route between VLANs or to provide IP host connectivity to the switch. An SVI is a virtual Layer 3 interface that can be configured for any VLAN that exists on a Layer 3 switch.
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VLAN Trunking

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VLAN Trunk

A trunk is a point-to-point link between one or more Ethernet switch interfaces and another networking device, such as a router or a switch. A VLAN trunk does not belong to a specific VLAN, rather it is a conduit for VLANs between switches and routers.
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VLAN Trunk

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802.1Q tagging

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802.1Q tagging

EtherType field Set to the hexadecimal value of 0x8100. This value is called the tag protocol ID (TPID) value. With the EtherType field set to the TPID value, the switch receiving the frame knows to look for information in the tag control information field.

Tag control information field 3 bits of user priority - Used by the 802.1p standard, which specifies how to provide expedited transmission of Layer 2 frames. A description of the IEEE 802.1p is beyond the scope of this course; however, you learned a little about it earlier in the discussion on voice VLANs. 1 bit of Canonical Format Identifier (CFI) - Enables Token Ring frames to be carried across Ethernet links easily. 12 bits of VLAN ID (VID) - VLAN identification numbers; supports up to 4096 VLAN IDs. FCS field After the switch inserts the EtherType and tag control information fields, it recalculates the FCS values and inserts it into the frame.
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Extra: IEEE 802.1p


IEEE 802.1p is a standard that provides traffic class expediting and
dynamic multicast filtering. Essentially, it provides a mechanism for implementing Quality of Service (QoS) at the MAC (Media Access Control) level. Eight different classes of service are available, expressed through the 3-bit user_priority field in an IEEE 802.1Q header added to the frame. The way traffic is treated when assigned to any particular class is undefined and left to the implementation. The IEEE however has made some broad recommendations. 802.1p is used within the IEEE 802.1D and IEEE 802.1Q standards.

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Extra: ISL Encapsulation Frame

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Native Vlan and 802.1Q

When you configure an 802.1Q trunk port, a default Port VLAN ID


(PVID) is assigned the value of the native VLAN ID.
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Extra: Basics of Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)

Ethernet trunk interfaces support several different trunking modes. Access Dynamic desirable (default mode on Catalyst 2950 and 3550) Dynamic auto Trunk Non-negotiate dotq-tunnel (Not an option on the Catalyst 2950.)
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Trunking mode

The trunking modes available in Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet

(config-if)# switchport mode trunk

switchport mode access switchport mode dynamic desirable

switchport mode dynamic auto


Nonegotiate

switchport nonegotiate
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Extra: Trunking mode


trunkConfigures the port to permanent trunk mode and negotiates
with the connected device on the other side to convert the link to trunk mode. If multiple trunk encapsulations are available, the encapsulation must be chosen before this command will work. accessDisables port trunk mode and negotiates with the connected device to convert the link to nontrunk. This port will belong to only the configured access VLAN. dynamic desirableTriggers the port to negotiate the link from nontrunk to trunk mode. The port negotiates to a trunk port if the connected device is in the trunk, dynamic desirable, or dynamic auto state. Otherwise, the port becomes a nontrunk port. This is the default for IOS switch ports dynamic autoEnables the port to become a trunk only if the connected device has the state set to trunk or dynamic desirable. nonnegotiateConfigures the port to permanent trunk mode. No negotiation takes place with the partner. The other side must be trunk or nonegotiate for the trunk to work. You must also specify the encapsulation before choosing this mode.

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Trunking mode

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Trunking mode

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Creating VLANs

Add a VLAN

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Extra: Creating VLANs

Switch#vlan database Switch(vlan)#vlan {vlan_id} [name {vlan_name}] Switch(vlan)#exit

switch# vlan database % Warning: It is recommended to configure VLAN from config mode, as VLAN database mode is being deprecated. Please consult user documentation for configuring VTP/VLAN in config mode.

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Assign VLAN to port

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Extra: Configuring Ranges of VLANs

vlan 3

SydneySwitch(config)#interface range fastethernet0/8 ? , comma - hyphen (config)#interface range fastethernet0/8 -12 (config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 3 (config-if-range)#exit (config)#interface range fastethernet0/8 , fastethernet0/12 (config-if-range)#switchport access vlan 3 (config-if-range)#exit
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Verify VLAN

show vlan show vlan brief show interface vlan 2 show interface fa0/18 switchport
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Delete Vlan

(config)# no vlan vlan_id # delete flash:vlan.dat

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Configure a Trunk link

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Extra: switchport trunk

Remove VLANs from the current list of the trunking line: (config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan remove vlan-id If a VLAN other than VLAN 1 is to be the Native VLAN, it needs to be identified on the trunk ports: (config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan vlan-id
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Extra: Specify the Trunk Encapsulation

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Verify Trunk Configuration

show interfaces interface-ID switchport

show interface trunk


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Managing a Trunk Configuration

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Common Problems with Trunks

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Native VLAN mismatchs

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Trunk mode mismatch

Solution: (config-if)# switchport mode trunk

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Incorrect VLAN list

Solution:
S1 f0/3: (config-if)# switchport trunk allowed vlan 10, 20, 99

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Mistake of VLAN and IP subnets

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Lab

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Summary

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