Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Sociological Foundation of Education Links between Education and Society  Education - (broadest perspective) refers to all efforts to impart

knowledge and shape values (socialization). - (Sociologists perspective) refers to the deliberate process, outside the family, by which societies transmit knowledge, values, and norms to prepare young people for adult roles (and, to lesser extent, prepare adults for new roles). (Clark, 1968). - Education plays a very important role in our society. We cannot think what exactly our society will look like if there is no education. Education, therefore, is a dynamic, it is a non-stop process of giving-taking knowledge (sharing), and as long as there is society, education will always exist.

 Society - refers to a system of social relationship within a group. It includes every kind and degree of relationships shared into by man. - means likeness . (MacIver) - a stable moral union of rational beings for common ends . (Thomas Aquinas) All definitions above directly or indirectly attest one fundamental truth about society that it is a system of social relationships, pure and simple, and not just a human grouping .

The Importance of Society in Education Since the school is established by a society to serve its needs, the content of education (school programs) should deal primarily with the nature, background, and needs of society. (School Administration and Supervision, H. Gregorio, Ph.D.). Note that the school is established by the society, we can say, therefore, that the school cannot exist without the presence of society.

Elements of Society 1. System of Social Relationship

- Society is "a web of social relationship". Social relationship is the basis of Society (MacIver). One good example of this element is the family. Family alone is

said to have many relationships based on age, sex and generation. Outside the family there is no limit to the number of possible relationships. - " Just as life is not a things but a process of living, so society is not a thing but a process of associating" (Reutor). -We can clearly understand the meaning of social relationship if we draw a distinction between physical and social relation. The relationship between pen and ink is physical relationship because these physical objects do not have any reciprocal awareness what so ever. On the other hand, the social relations exist between the mother and the child, the teacher and the thought are determined by reciprocal awareness. Without this awareness, there can be no social relationship, and therefore no society.

2. Likeness - Society means likeness". It exists among the like beings, like-bodied and like-minded". (MacIver) - It is likeness or similarity, which provides for understanding each by the other. An understanding of this sort lies at the root of our friendship, intimacy, association, institution and any such other type of social relationship. People establish similar social relationships in a society on account of similar traditions, folkways, mores etc. Thus, similarity or likeness is the basis of society.

3. Difference - Society also implies difference. If individuals are exactly alike, their social relationship would be very much limited. There would be little reciprocity, little give and take, for example, rests on biological difference of sexes. - People differ from one another in their attitude ability, talent; personality etc. people peruse different activities because of these differences.

4. Interdependence - Inability to exist or survive without each other. - One of the examples of this element is the family. Family is based on the biological interdependence of sexes. One depends upon the other for the satisfaction of one's needs.

5. Co-operation - co-operation is the most elementary process of social life without which society is impossible. (P. Gisbert) - Society is based on co-operation. It is the very basis of social life. Unless people cooperate with each other they cannot lead a happy and comfortable life. No society can be healthy and prosperous without co-operation. For example, family rests on co-operation with one another to live happily.

6. Culture - Refers to the social heritage of man. - Every Society is unique because it has its own culture. Culture is a thing which only human beings possess. It includes our attitude, moral values, beliefs, ideas, ideologies, our institutions, political, legal economic, our sciences and philosophies (non-material part of culture). The member of a society shares a common culture.

7. Society is Abstract - It consists of social relations, customs, laws and mores etc. - Society is an organization marked by division of labour of some kind or other. These social relations are abstract and intangible. It cannot be seen or touched. It can only be realized. In this way, abstractness is an element of society.

Beliefs about the Purpose of Education

- Education is believed to be responsible for the cultivation of a civilized society Imparting education to the citizens enables the development of a responsible and thoughtful society. Education helps in imbedding moral and ethical values in the individuals and their education, in turn, helps in the creation of a healthy society. - To bring about progress in practical fields to enable each educated individual of society to earn a living Education aims at making the individuals of society self-sufficient. Education of the various practical fields produces productive human resources, who can contribute to the creation of society.

- For social development The social development brought about by education is apparent in the abilities of an individual as a part of society. Education helps an individual to thrive in society, to interact with other social person and helps a person attain and maintain a certain degree of social well-being. During the process of education, one is always a part of a group, be it school or college. The process of education thus contributes to one's interpersonal intelligence.

- To teach us how to think, rather than telling us what to think (Bill Beattie) Here, the role of education is to implant every individual a will and facility to learn. Education should produce learning individual and not necessarily learned ones.

Education should aim at creating people who continually ask questions (Bishop Creighton). Education should entertain the inquisitiveness of every individual.

- Education lays the foundation for the fulfillment of a person's dreams and aspirations. Education helps a person meet his/her career objectives and achieve an economic growth. It builds a resourceful individual out of a raw human being and it contribute to the cultivation of a prudent person and earns the person satisfaction of having met his/her goals.

Functions and Roles of Education (Based in theories y Structural Functionalism and Conflict Theory)

Structural Functionalism (Emile Durkhiem) is a sociological theory that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological needs (originally

justice functionalism) focuses on the ways that universal education serves the needs of society Later it came to focus on the ways social institutions meet social needs (structural-functionalism). What is the function of education for society? preparing individual to enter the workforce conveying basic knowledge and skills to the next generation transmission of core values and social control

Conflict Theory (Marxist-based social theory) a social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social classes) within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (the wealthy vs. the poor) and that the more powerful groups use their power in order to exploit groups with less power.

What is the function of education for society? Conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining social inequality and preserving the power of those who dominate society. Conflict theorists see education not as a social benefit or opportunity, but as a powerful means of maintaining power structures and creating a docile work force for capitalism.

Relationship between School and Society Education is the basis of culture and civilization The life of society is safe in the hands of educated individuals It fosters principles of equality and socialism

Purposes of Establishing the Relationship between School and Society 1. To improve the quality of children s learning To accomplish this purpose, it is necessary for the school to know well those conditions surrounding the lives of the children which are important to the educational program. The school should also be familiar with the community resources which may be utilized and supplement the school program.

2. To improve the quality of community living In most democratic country, school should be made a positive agent of social change. School, as social institution, should also aim to improve the quality of life lived by all people within the community. Example; through cooperative work, the school can assist in solving problems such as those of improving home and community sanitation.

3. To develop an understanding and support of the community s program of public education In order that the relationship of school and society be maintained, it is necessary that the citizens be convinced that education is a good investment. It is also necessary that the general public supports the school improvements. Selling the

school to the public and being transparent is one method of gaining support for the public.

Ways of Developing Good Relation between School and Society 1. Provide school-visiting days for parents School should make initial contacts with parents and provide opportunity for the parents to meet all their children s teachers. Opportunities such as allowing the parents to see the teacher and the pupils at work or to see their children as they learn should also be given emphasis.

2. Provide public participation in the study of school and society problems The school (staff, faculty, and administrators) should bear in mind that cooperative school action is perhaps the most effective means of developing good school-community relation. When the school and the society work together on problems of common concerns, a sense of essential kinship and oneness between them is fostered.

3. Make the school the center of community improvement The school should take the leadership in promoting the welfare of the community. This leadership implies that the school should cooperate with other agencies in coordinating the community improvement in order to fulfill its true function to the people of the community. The school cannot function as a detached organization concerned only with the imparting of a certain amount of bookknowledge. Community-directed activities should be undertaken in addition to the regular duties of the school. The school can be made the center of community improvement by adopting the curriculum to the need of the children and adults. Problems pertaining to the community that affect the lives of the people, especially children, should be emphasized.

4. Make the school a democratic social center The school should advocate a wider use of their buildings and ground as a place for a democratic social center like public meetings, social discussions, public debates, literary, national and local celebrations and the like may be held in the school building under proper restrictions.

5. Encourage the society to serve the school The school should stimulate the people of the community to serve the school. This principle will tend to form closer school-community bonds. Citizens who contribute time, effort, talent and materials to the school will have personal interest in that particular school. Example; those community members who have special talents and abilities may offer services when the school needs assistance in music and dance, or we can invite any resource speaker for any forums/discussions with regard to any social problems like drug addiction, moral recovery, PMS, early marriage, etc.

6. Know the community you are serving The school must be familiar with the nature of the community, its characteristics, its resources, its problems, its public improvements and its social development. Without knowing our own community, good perspective will be lacking.

7. Be an active member of any society organization To know the community from the inside, it is important that the school should be members of any social organizations. Membership in community organizations like service clubs, business and professional organizations, church etc. is desirable for any school.

8. Inform your community about the school The school must take the responsibility to inform the people of the community activities and accomplishments of the school. To accomplish this, the school must employ publicity or public relation techniques. Publicity through news/school paper is an effective way of interpreting the school to the community because it reaches the parents and the homes of the students.

9. Know the community standards The school should know the community/society s standards if good relationship is to be maintained. Many standards of the society are imposed on the teaching staff by the force of public opinion even though they are actually formulated in regulations. On important ethical matters, the school must be flexible enough to accept the community standards. Likewise, the customs and traditions of

the community must also be respected if cooperative association between the school and community is desired.

10. Observe democratic group process in dealing with the public If the human relations aspects of the public relations program are well handled by the school, they can vitalize the effectiveness of the entire program of the school-community relations. We, as part of the school, should be functionally conversant with the methods of group discussion, of group leadership and of group work on problem solving. We should observe proper consideration and respect for the opinions, rights, abilities and feelings of others.

11. Establish working relationship with local or national organization Some organized groups have similar objectives as the schools. Many of these organizations supplement the activities carried on in the school. The school should provide leadership to coordinate their efforts to avoid waste of efforts and duplication of functions. Auxiliary agencies like the Boy and Girl Scout of the Philippines, the Junior Red Cross, the Local Health Department, and the ParentTeacher Association, can work cooperatively with the school for the betterment of the society. The linking of the personnel of the local organizations with the school will no doubt contribute to the improvement of school and community relations. 12. Home-visits by the teachers

Visits of the teachers to the homes of their pupils form an essential element of school-home relations. More systematic and frequent home visits by teachers should be made. However, unannounced calls should be avoided as much as possible. Arrangement should be made to permit the teachers at time to fulfill appointments in the home during school hours. Home-visits will promote better understanding between the teacher and parents. Cooperative relationships between the home and the school are essential to the functioning of modern education.

Principles of Good Relation between School and Society 1. The principle of leadership is the keynote to school-society relation Good school-community relations call for democratic leadership which function in a group situation through cooperative action. Democratic leadership belongs to the group but leadership must be placed on those who have already demonstrated leadership ability. The leader must regard himself, not as an expert or

director who works outside the group, but as a member, working within. A democratic leader must understand the subtle interactions of individuals and the groups.

2. The principle of cooperation is basic to the development of good school-society relation Basic to this idea is the development of a greater sense of sharing and cooperation in a given task or project on the part of the school and the people in the community. School-community relations can best developed through cooperative group action.

3. The principle of participation is essential in developing close school-society relations This principle calls for active participation by the school personnel in a variety of community projects. This principle is closely related to the principle of cooperation. To be effective, cooperation must be followed by action or participation.

4. The principle of coordination promotes close school-society relations This principle calls for a unified action of various social groups and independent organizations in the community. Unity can only be accomplished by recognizing each group as equally important in any community projects. Close school-community relations develop best in an atmosphere of cooperation and coordinated actions.

5. The principle of friendliness is a dynamic source of good school-society relations The school personnel should be friendly with the people in the community. Likewise, the people of the community should be friendly too. The cultivation of friendliness should be made one of the objectives of the Parent-Teacher Association.

6. The principle of objectivity is fundamental to the development of close schoolsociety relations The school-community relations program must be objective and tenable. Facts necessary to the development of close school-community relations and improvement of community life should be made known to the teachers. Explaining

the basic facts of the school-community relations should precede and determine all other phases of public relation.

7. The principle of evaluation is in integral part of good school-society relations Evaluation is a process of making judgement that are to be used as a basis of planning. The progress and outcomes of school-community relations should be evaluated in terms of objective research procedure. Evaluation must be done by the groups rather than by one individual. The appreciation of its outcome by the people of community is the true meaning of success.

The Teacher s and Administrator s Responsibility in Promoting Good Relations 1. The school administrator should aid the teacher s in recognizing their importance in this respect and the necessity for their cooperative planning and executing of the society relation program. 2. The school administrator should acquaint his teachers with the different media. 3. The school administrators and teachers must have the philosophy that education should include not only the pupils, but the home and the society as well. 4. The school administrators and teachers must play a vital role in implementing the integration of the school and the society.

Other functions and Roles of Education towards Society Social change and control Reconstruction of experiences Development of social and moral value Providing opportunity or equality To complete the socialization process To transmit the central heritage The formation of social personality Reformation of attitudes For occupational placement and acts as an integrative force

Eric Estrella Silandote Reporter