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SAEFUL BAHRI, ST, MT

DASAR SISTEM KONTROL


FILOSOFI SISTEM KONTROL
Program Studi Teknik Elektro
Fakultas Teknik
Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
E&CE 380 Introduction
Course Objectives
To provide a general understanding
of the characteristics of dynamic
systems and feedback control.
To teach classical methods for
analysing control system accuracy,
stability and dynamic performance.
To teach classical control system
design methods.
Control System Concepts
A system is a collection of components
which are co-ordinated together to
perform a function.
Systems interact with their environment
across a separating boundary.
The interaction is defined in terms of
variables.
system inputs
system outputs
environmental disturbances
Systems
Disturbance Inputs
Control Inputs
System Outputs
Engineering systems
Biological systems
Information systems
Subsystem
System Variables
The systems boundary depends upon
the defined objective function of the
system.
The systems function is expressed in
terms of measured output variables.
The systems operation is manipulated
through the control input variables.
The systems operation is also affected
in an uncontrolled manner through the
disturbance input variables.
Car and Driver Example
Objective function: to control the direction
and speed of the car.
Outputs: actual direction and speed of the
car
Control inputs: road markings and speed
signs
Disturbances: road surface and grade, wind,
obstacles.
Possible subsystems: the car alone, power
steering system, braking system, . . .
Antenna Positioning Control System
Original system: the antenna with
electric motor drive systems.
Control objective: to point the
antenna in a desired reference direction.
Control inputs: drive motor voltages.
Outputs: the elevation and azimuth of the
antenna.
Disturbances: wind, rain, snow.
Antenna Control System
Functional Block Diagram
Physical Variables Information Variables
Antenna Motor
Power
amp
Diff.
amp
Ref.
input
Angle
sensor
volts
volts
volts
+
_
power
torque
Angular
position
Antenna System
Wind force
Feedback
Path
Error
Control System Components
System or process (to be controlled)
Actuators (converts the control signal to a power signal)
Sensors (provides measurement of the system output)
Reference input (represents the desired output)
Error detection (forms the control error)
Controller (operates on the control error to form the
control signal, sometimes called compensators)
Feedback System Characteristics
Consider the following speed control system
Load
K
l
Motor
K
m
Amp
K
a
Speed sensor
K
s
Reference
speed
u
+
_
Disturbance
torque
e
o
Open loop system
Feedback Path
e
r
+
+
T
d
T
m
Open Loop System Characteristics
Assume that each component may be represented
by a simple gain, then
The accuracy of the open loop system depends
upon the calibration of the gains and prior
knowledge of the disturbance (choose the control
u to give the desired e
o
).
Problems:
nonlinear or time varying gains
unknown and varying disturbances
d l l m a
d m l o
T K u K K K
T T K
+ =
+ = ) ( e
Closed Loop Characteristics
Now consider the case with feedback.
d
s l m a
l
r
s l m a
l m a
o
d l o s r l m a
d m l o
T
K K K K
K
K K K K
K K K
or
T K K K K K
T T K
+
+
+
=
+ =
+ =
1 1
) (
) (
e e
e e
e
Closed Loop Characteristics
If K
a
is very large such that,
then,
K
s
is the sensor gain in units of volts per rad/s.
The input/output relationship is not very
Sensitive to disturbances or changes in the
system gains
s l m a s l m a
K K K K K K K K ~ + 1
d
s m a
r
s
o
T
K K K K
1 1
+ ~ e e
rad/s volts ~ 0
Closed Loop Characteristics System
Error
The control error is
Again, if the loop gain, K
a
K
m
K
l
K
s
is large,
then the error is small.
d
s l m a
s l
r
s l m a
d
s l m a
s l
r
s l m a
s l m a
o s r
T
K K K K
K K
K K K K
T
K K K K
K K
K K K K
K K K K
K e
+

+
=
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=
1 1
1
1 1
1
) (
e
e
e e
Note: Gain Definitions
forward gain: K
a
K
m
K
l
feedback gain: K
s
loop gain: K
a
K
m
K
l
K
s
closed loop gain: forward gain
1 + loop gain
System Dynamics
Consider a sudden change in the speed
reference, e
r
.
The output speed, e
o
will not respond
instantaneously due to the inertial characteristics
of the motor and load, i.e. their dynamic
characteristics.
The motor and load need to be represented by
dynamic equations rather than simple gains.
The output response will generally lag the input
and may be oscillatory.
System Dynamics
Step Responses
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Step Response, Ka=2
0 2 4 6 8 10
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Step Response, Ka=20
e
o
e
o
e
r
e
r
T
m
T
m
K
a
= 2
K
a
= 20
Assume K
s
= 1.0
Control System Design Objectives
Primary Objectives:
1. Dynamic stability
2. Accuracy
3. Speed of response
Addition Considerations:
4. Robustness (insensitivity to parameter
variation)
5. Cost of control
6. System reliability
Control System Design Steps
Define the control system objectives.
Identify the system boundaries.
define the input, output and disturbance variables
Determine a mathematical model for the
components and subsystems.
Combine the subsystems to form a model for
the whole system.
Control System Design Steps
Apply analysis and design techniques to
determine the control system structure and
parameter values of the control components,
to meet the design objectives.
Test the control design on a computer
simulation of the system.
Implement and test the design on the actual
process or plant.
Skema Sistem Kontrol
Prodi Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UMJ
Target Proses Kontrol
Agar suatu proses itu berjalan sesuai dengan target-target
yang ditentukan, maka proses itu harus dikontrol secara
otomatis. Target-target proses yang tersebut antara lain
adalah:
1. Terjaminnya keselamatan (safety) baik bagi buruh
maupun peralatan yang ada.
2. Terjaganya kualitas produk, misalnya komposisi produk,
warna, dll. pada keadaan yang kontinyu dan dengan
biaya minimum.
3. Proses berlangsung sesuai dengan batasan lingkungan,
maksudnya adalah limbah yang dihasilkan oleh proses
tersebut tidak melebihi ambang batas lingkungan.
Prodi Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UMJ
4. Proses berlangsung sesuai dengan batasan-batasan
operasinya.
Sebagai contoh pada pabrik kimia dimana peralatan
yang digunakan dalam sebuah pabrik kimia memiliki
batasan (constraint) yang inherent untuk operasi peralatan
tersebut. Batasan-batasan itu seharusnya terpenuhi di
seluruh operasi sebuah pabrik.
Misalnya :
pompa harus menjaga net positive suction head
tertentu;
Tangki tidak overflow atau menjadi kering;
kolom distilasi tidak terjadi banjir (flood);
suhu pada sebuah reaktor katalitik tidak melebihi batas
atasnya sehingga katalis menjadi rusak.
Prodi Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UMJ
5. Ekonomis
Operasi sebuah industri harus sesuai dengan kondisi
pasar, yakni ketersediaan bahan baku dan permintaan
produk akhirnya. Oleh karena itu, harus seekonomis
mungkin dalam konsumsi bahan baku, energi, modal, dan
tenaga kerja.
Hal ini membutuhkan pengontrolan kondisi operasi pada
tingkat yang optimum, sehingga terjadi biaya operasi yang
minimum, keuntungan yang maksimum, dan sebagainya.
Prodi Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UMJ
Hal yang perlu disiapkan
Agar studi proses berhasil dengan baik, maka perlu dilakukan
pemodelan (modeling), yakni dengan membuat suatu
persamaan differensial fungsi waktu (dinamik).
Untuk dapat melakukan pemodelan diperlukan penguasaan
akan prinsip-prinsip rekayasa proses (prinsip-prinsip
rangkaian listrik, prinsip-prinsip termodinamika, aliran
fluida, perpindahan panas, proses separasi, proses reaksi,
dll.) dan matematika.
Model yang sudah dibangun selanjutnya dibuat simulasi
menggunakan komputer.
Prodi Teknik Elektro Fakultas Teknik UMJ