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Compressibility from Core


Phil McCurdy and Colin McPhee

and from logs too

Why is compressibility important???


Hydrocarbon recovery
Reservoir depletion causes increase in effective stress Pore volume compacts and adds energy to reservoir Pore volume compressibility used in material balance calculations

Porosity and permeability reduction


Reduction in porosity and permeability with increasing effective stress on depletion Productivity reduction in depleting reservoirs Compaction can lead to casing and tubular failures Compaction can lead to surface subsidence Compaction linked to compressibility
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In-Situ

1.05 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Inferred Reservoir Pressure, psi Permeability Multiplier

Compaction and subsidence (weak sands & HPHT)

Compressibility terms and calculations


Compressibility units
10-6psi-1 referred to as microsips

Grain compressibility, Cma or Cg


Cg ~ 0.16 0.20 microsips

Cup for a microsip

Bulk Modulus, K
related to rock stiffness inverse of compressibility

E K = 3(1 2 )

Cb =

1 K

Bulk Compressibility, Cb
Cbc constant pore pressure and changing confining pressure
Cbc = 1 Vb Vb Pc Pp
Vb = bulk volume Pc= confining pressure Pp = pore pressure

Cbp - under constant confining pressure and changing pore pressure (depletion) 1 Vb
Cbp = Vb Pp Pc
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Compressibility terms and calculations


Bulk and Grain Compressibility

Cbp = Cbc Cg
As Cg is small in comparison, Cbc Cbp

Pore Volume Compressibility, Cf (Dake) or Cp


Cpc - isostatic pore volume compressibility under constant pore pressure and changing confining pressure

Cpc =

1 Vp Vp Pc Pp

Cbc Cg Cpc =

i.e. pore volume compressibility is 3 to 5 times higher than bulk compressibility

Cpp isostatic pore volume compressibility under constant confining pressure and changing pore pressure (depletion)

Cpp =

1 Vp Vp Pp Pc

Cpp = Cpc Cg
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As Cg is small in comparison, Cpp Cpc

Measurement Conditions
v = z

Reservoir (Triaxial)
three principal stresses uniaxial loading hmin = y hmax = x
Axial Radial

SCAL Labs
isostatic loading radial stress = axial stress

Rock Mechanics Labs


biaxial loading radial stress < axial stress

Compressibility terms and calculations


Isostatic and Uniaxial Compressibility, Cpu
uniaxial loading assumes reservoir formations behave elastically and are boundary constrained in horizontal direction
assumes strain is entirely vertical assumes no tectonic strain during burial loading
Reservoir has stiff lateral restraints

Cpu defined as uniaxial pore volume compressibility under producing conditions (from Teeuw)

(1 + ) Cpu = Cpp 3(1 )


For example, Biot factor () = 1 and = 0.3 then Cpu = 0.62*Cpp
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Typical Lab Presentation


(1 + ) Cpu = Cpp 3(1 )
Note neither nor are measured!

Core Test Methods


Direct
Measure change in pore volume as a function of increasing effective stress

'iso = iso p p
Effective stress method SCAL labs
Increase to increase

Simulated depletion method SCAL labs


Reduce Pp to increase

Uniaxial (K0) Test Rock Mechanics labs


Reduce pp to increase Instrument core to determine strains

Indirect
From E and from triaxial tests
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Direct Measurements SCAL Lab

Effective Stress Method


SCAL lab method (porosity/FF at overburden) pore pressure constant, radial pressure increased effective stress increased by increasing confinement 1 Vp 1 Vp pore volume by squeeze-out = Cpc =
Vp Pc Pp Vp '

Simulated Depletion Method


raise stresses and pore pressure to reservoir values total stress (Pc) constant Pp reduced 1 Vp 1 Vp depletion Cpp = = Vp Pp Pc Vp ' isostatic pore volume compressibility (SCAL)
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Uniaxial Ko Test
Sample instrumented with axial and radial strain gauges Core Compaction Sample loaded to same total vertical (axial) and total horizontal (radial) stresses as in reservoir Pore pressure increased to reservoir value Pore pressure reduction h vertical stress stays the same horizontal stress adjusted to maintain h = 0 zero radial strain rock mechanics labs only uniaxial pore volume compressibility (K0) pp 1 Vp

Cpu =

Vp Pp radial =0

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Example PV calculation SCAL data

14.20

14.00

13.80 Pore Volume (ml)

cf ( hyd ) =

1 (Vpi Vpd ) Vp i ( 'i 'd )

13.60

Data Model

13.40 Initial Reservoir Pressure Depleted Reservoir Pressure 13.20

13.00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Effective Hydrostatic Pressure (psi)

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Stress Hysteresis
Effective Stress Method initial loading cycle microcracks in plug close higher pore volume reduction OK for stress correction Simulated Depletion Method extended loading cycle load to initial conditions (cracks close) depletion stage (Cp from matrix pore volume compaction)
GAUGE

ROSETTE

more reliable pore volume compressibility data

Uniaxial KO Method potentially most reliable data closest representation of stresses/pressures during depletion
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Stress Hysteresis Example

50.0

45.0

40.0 Pore Volume Compressibility (x10-6psi-1)

35.0

30.0

25.0

20.0

Suffix A: Effective Stress Method Suffix D: Simulated Stress Mrthod

15.0

10.0

1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D

5.0

0.0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Effective Overburden Stress (psi)

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Indirect Method Triaxial data


Determine E and over equivalent deviatoric stress range associated with depletion

Cbc Cg Cpc =

1 Cbc = K

K =

E 3(1 2 )
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Compressibility from Logs


DSI Logs
DTS (ts), DTCO (tc)

Obtain dynamic (elastic) moduli


Poissons Ratio,

1 (t s / tc )2 1 2 (t s / tc )2 1

Shear Modulus, G (psi)

1.34 x1010

b
t s2

b in g/cc t in secs/ft

Youngs Modulus, E (psi)

2G (1 + )
K=
-1

Bulk Modulus, Kb (psi)

Bulk Compressibility, Cbc (psi )

1 Kb
-1

E 3(1 2 )

Pore Volume Compressibility, Cpc (psi )

Cbc Cg Cpc =
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Scaling Dynamic and Static Moduli


Dynamic
elastic and perfectly reversible

Static (core)
large strains irreversible

Scaling
static < dynamic Esta = 0.15 - 0.5 Edyn sta = 0.8 - 1.2 dyn

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Compaction and Subsidence


Compaction
change in reservoir thickness (Hres) as a result of depletion (Geertsma)
H = C m H res ( Pi Pfinal )
Mud Line Subsidence

Compaction coefficient
1 1 + (1 )Cb Cm = 3 1

Depth, D

Cg = Cb

Compaction

Casing compressive strain


c = 0.5(1 + cos 2 )Cm p

Thickness, H H

Reservoir Radius, R

Subsidence (Bruno)

S = 2C m (1 ) H res (R 2 + ( D + H res ) 2 ) + ( R 2 + D 2 ) 0.5 p


0 .5

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Conclusions
Common techniques for measuring compressibility and situations that they are most suited to

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