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K L UNIVERSITY, GUNTUR B.Tech.

III year, Second Semester Academic Year: 2011-12


COURSE HANDOUT Course Name Course Coordinator Course Detail Lecture Hours Team of Instructors I. : : : : : I.C.ENGUNES & GAS TURBINES Dr.G.R.K.Sastry THEORY 45

L-T-P 4-1-2
Date: 10-DEC-2011

Dr.G.R.K.Sastry, K.Srinivasa Rao, V.Ranjit Kumar& L.Venu Gopal

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME OBJECTIVE: Mechanical engineers apply principles of physical science and mathematics to conceive, design, produce and operate the moving parts, components and machinery used in every aspect of modern life. From rockets, robots and automobiles to power plants, engines, air-conditioning equipment and biomechanical parts, mechanical engineers put energy and machines to work, and wherever there is motion, youll find evidence of their innovations. Today, they often use computer-aided design and computer simulation to ensure their products are reliable, efficient and economically sound. The spectrum of professional activity for the mechanical engineer runs from research through design and development to manufacturing and sales.

II.

PROGRAM EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES Upon completion of the mechanical engineering program our mechanical engineering students:
(A) Will possess a sound knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of

mechanical engineering in the general streams of Design, Production, Thermal and Industrial Engineering, necessary to be productive engineers in industry or government, and/or succeed in graduate or other professional schools. Will be able to formulate, analyze, and creatively solve multidisciplinary technical problems through the use of modern engineering tools, be they experimental, analytical or numerical. Will develop and use lifelong learning skills to take advantage of professional development opportunities in their disciplines, develop new knowledge and skills, pursue new areas of expertise or careers, adapt to changing global markets and workforce trends. Will be able to communicate clearly and effectively with fellow engineers, employers, and the general public. Will possess the skills needed to fulfill their professional duties and responsibilities in teamwork, collegiality, ethics, technical leadership, business acumen and lifelong learning. Will understand the economical, societal and environmental impact and ethical and professional responsibilities of a mechanical engineer and Graduates will engage in professional service by

using their engineering background to advance society and to help solve technical and societal problems. Can succeed as entrepreneurs. III. PROGRAM OUTCOMES Upon completion of the mechanical engineering program, our mechanical engineering students will demonstrate the ability to:
(A)

Apply mathematics, engineering and science fundamentals to formulate and solve a Design and/or analyze mechanical systems by integrating knowledge in the four general Use modern engineering tools, including computer visualization, programming and Conceive, plan and safely execute a series of laboratory experiments to obtain design data. Given a set of experimental data, students will demonstrate the ability to calculate and Function individually and as contributing members of interdisciplinary design and Disseminate information related to themselves and their work in oral presentations, written Maintain and improve their skills through self-study and professional development Understand basic business principles, key ethics issues affecting their profession, and an Devise creative solutions to problems and design exercises and consistently show the demonstrate service to campus & community and responsibility to self, profession and

wide variety of real world problems related to mechanical engineering. (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (I) (J)
(K)

streams of engineering viz. design, production, thermal and industrial engineering. design/analysis software.

assign appropriate limits of error to the data. problem-solving teams. reports and Web-based multimedia formats. activities. awareness of important contemporary issues affecting mechanical engineering practice. ability to Think outside of the box society. IV. MAPPING OF PROGRAM EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAM OUTCOMES: Program Outcomes Program Educational Objectives A B C D E F G A X X X B X X X X C X X X D X X X E X X F X X X G X X X X H X X X X I X X X X J X X X X K X X X X L X X X -

V.

H I J K L COURSE DESCRIPTION:

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This course studies the fundamentals of how the design and operation of internal combustion engines affect their performance, operation, fuel requirements, and environmental impact. Topics include fluid flow, thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer and friction phenomena, and fuel properties, with reference to engine power, efficiency, and emissions. Students examine the design features and operating characteristics of different types of internal combustion engines: spark-ignition, diesel, stratified-charge, and mixed-cycle engines. Class includes lab project in the Engine Laboratory.

VI.

COURSE OBJECTIVES: 1.To make students familiar with the design and operating characteristics of modern internal combustion engines 2.To apply analytical techniques to the engineering problems and performance analysis of internal combustion engines 3.To study the thermodynamics, combustion, heat transfer, friction and other factors affecting engine power, efficiency and emissions 4.To introduce students to the environmental and fuel economy challenges facing the internal combustion engine 5.To introduce students to future internal combustion engine technology and market trends

. VII. COURSE OUTCOMES: At the end of the course the student will be able to to do the following. : 1. Differentiate among different internal combustion engine designs 2. Recognize and understand reasons for differences among operating characteristics of different engine types and designs 3. Given an engine design specification, predict performance and fuel economy trends with good accuracy 4. Based on an in-depth analysis of the combustion process, predict concentrations of primary exhaust pollutants 5. Exposure to the engineering systems needed to set-up and run engines in controlled laboratory environments 6. Develop skills to run engine dynamometer experiments

7. Learn to compare and contrast experimental results with theoretical trends, and to attribute observed discrepancies to either measurement error or modeling limitations 8. Develop an understanding of real world engine design issues 9. Develop an ability to optimize future engine designs for specific sets of constraints (fuel economy, performance, emissions) 10. Through the use of both theoretical techniques and experimentation, develop an appreciation for theoretical and practical limits to engine performance and fuel economy

VIII.

RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS: (A) TEXT BOOKS:


1. I.C. Engines 2. I.C. Engines - V.Ganesan - T.M.H., New Delhi. -John.B.Heywood-Mc Graw Hill.

(B) REFERENCE BOOKS:


3. I.C Engines- H.B.Guptha-PHI 4. Fundamentals of I.C. Engines - P.W. Gill, J.H. Smith & Ziurys- IBH & Oxford pub. 5. A Course in I.C. Engines - M.L. Mathur & R.P. Sharma - Dhanpat Rai & Sons - New Delhi. 6. Gas Turbine Theory - Cohen, Rogers and Sarvanamuttu. .SYLLABUS

UNIT-I
I.C.ENGINES: Introduction, Basic engine nomenclature, Review and classification of I.C. Engines, working principles of S.I. and C.I. Engines (both 4 stroke and 2-stroke) - valve and port timing diagrams - Differences between SI & CI and 2 stroke & 4 stroke engines. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS: S.I. Engines- Carburetion, injection system, chemically correct air-fuel ratio, Airfuel mixture requirements, Simple float type carburetor,

UNIT-II
CI ENGINES: Fuel supply and injection systems, Bosch fuel pump, air fuel requirements TESTING OF I.C.ENGINES: Indicator diagram, evaluation of Indicated Power, Brake power, Frictional Power, Fuel consumption, SFC, Mechanical & thermal efficiencies, mean effective pressure, air-fuel ratio, Heat balance, Engine performance curves, Variables affecting engine performance for both S.I. & C.I. Engines.

. UNIT-III
COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE: Normal Combustion and abnormal combustion, importance of flame speed and effect of engine variables, pre-ignition and detonation.

COMBUSTION IN CI ENGINE: Phenomenon of Combustion, delay period and its importance, effect of engine variables, Diesel knock KNOCK RATING OF FUELS: Octane number, Cetane number, antiknock additives

UNIT-IV
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS: Positive Displacement compressors, Roots blower, vane blower, Total pressure CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS: principle of operation, velocity and pressure variation, energy transfer, slip factor, power input factor, pressure coefficient and velocity diagrams (4)

AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS: principle of operation, Velocity diagrams and energy transfer per stage, degree of reaction, isentropic efficiency, polytropic efficiency, Surging, Choking and Stalling, Centrifugal compressor versus axial flow compressor.

UNIT-V
GAS TURBINES: Closed and Open Brayton cycle gas turbines, analysis of closed cycle gas turbine , Compressor and turbine efficiencies, Gas turbine cycles with intercooling, reheat and regeneration JET & ROCKET PROPULSION: Basic principles of Jet propulsion - specific thrust, propulsive efficiency and overall thermal efficiency of a jet engine, Principles of Rocket propulsion, Types of rocket propulsion.

UNIT WISE RATIONALIZATION: UNIT-I

I.C.ENGINES:

There are two main types of IC engines: spark ignition (SI) engines (petrol or gasoline engine) and compression ignition (CI) or diesel engine. Both these engines are further classified as 2-stroke and 4stroke engine. Internal Combustion Engines, more popularly known as IC engines, are the ones in which the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine block itself. After combustion of fuel, much heat energy is generated, this is converted into mechanical energy.

There are two types of IC engines: rotary and reciprocating engines. In rotary engines, a rotor rotates inside the engine to produce power. In the case of the reciprocating engines, a piston reciprocates within a cylinder. The reciprocating motion of the piston is converted into the rotary motion of the vehicle's wheels. In automobiles, reciprocating engines are used. They are the most widely used type of engine.

Reciprocating engines are classified into two types: spark ignition (SI) engines and compression ignition (CI) engines. Since reciprocating engines are the most widely used engines, they have become synonymous with the name IC engines. It is this reason that even the IC engines are broadly classified into two types: SI engines and CI engines. In SI engines the burning of fuel occurs by a spark generated by the spark plug located in the cylinder head of engine. Due to this fact they are called spark ignition engines. In these engines the fuel used is petrol or gasoline, hence SI engines are also known as Petrol or Gasoline Engines

In the case of CI engines, burning of the fuel occurs because of the high pressure exerted on the fuel. The fuel is compressed to high pressures and it starts burning, hence these engines are called compression ignition engines. In CI engines the fuel used is diesel; hence they are also called Diesel engines. The SI and CI engines are either two stroke or four stroke engines. In the case of the two stroke engine, for every two strokes of the piston inside the cylinder the fuel is burnt. This means for every single rotation of the wheel the fuel is burnt. In the case of four-stroke engines, the fuel is burnt for every four strokes of the piston inside the cylinder. That means each time the fuel is burnt there are two rotations of the wheels of the vehicle. The stroke is the distance traveled by the piston inside the cylinder; it is usually equal to the length of the cylinder. Since the 4-stroke engines produce two rotations while 2-stroke engine produces single rotation each time the fuel is burnt, the efficiency of 4-stroke engines is greater than in 2-stroke engines. Ideally the efficiency of 4-stroke engine should be double of 2-stroke engine, but in actuality it is never so.
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Fuel injection is a system for admitting fuel into an internal combustion engine. A fuel injection system is designed and calibrated specifically for the type(s) of fuel it will handle. Most fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications. Carburetors were the predominant method used to meter fuel on gasoline engines before the widespread use of fuel injection. A variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine. UNIT-II
CI ENGINES:

For the compression ignition engine, it is very important to promote a means of injecting fuel into the cylinder at the proper time in the cycle. This is so because the injection system starts and controls the combustion process. The injection system of the compression ignition engine should fulfil the following objectives consistently and precisely: 1. Meter the appropriate quantity of fuel, as demanded by the speed of, and the load on, the engine at the given time. 2. Distribute the metered fuel equally among cylinders in a multi-cylinder engine. 3. Inject the fuel at the correct time (with respect to crank angle) in the cycle. 4. Inject the fuel at the correct rate (per unit time or crank angle degree). 5. Inject the fuel with the correct spray pattern and sufficient atomization as demanded by the design of the combustion chamber, to provide proper penetration also. 6. Begin and end injection sharply without dribbling or after injection.

TESTING OF I.C.ENGINES:

understand the performance parameters in evaluation of IC engine performance, calculate the speed of IC engine, fuel consumption, air consumption, etc., evaluate the exhaust smoke and exhaust emission, and differentiate between the performance of SI engine and CI engines.

UNIT-III COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE:

All internal combustion engines depend on the combustion of a chemical fuel, typically with oxygen from the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide in order to do more of the same thing and gain a power boost). The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide an2d other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry), as well as by the compression and other factors.Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a leadacid battery and an induction coil to provide a high-voltage electric spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery is recharged during operation using an electricitygenerating device such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it to not more than 12.8 bar (1.28 MPa), then use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder. COMBUSTION IN CI ENGINE: Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression level that occurs is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more susceptible to cold-starting issues, although they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Light duty diesel engines with indirect injection in automobiles and light trucks employ glowplugs that pre-heat the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce no-start conditions in cold weather. Most diesels also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories. Most new engines rely on electrical and electronic engine control units (ECU) that also adjust the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.
KNOCK RATING OF FUELS:

The knock tendency in spark ignition engines of binary mixtures of hydrogen, ethane, propane and nbutane is examined in a CFR engine for a range of mixture composition, compression ratio, spark timing, and equivalence ratio. It is shown that changes in the knock characteristics of binary mixtures of hydrogen with methane are sufficiently different from those of the binary mixtures of the other gaseous fuels with methane that renders the use of the methane number of limited utility. However, binary mixtures of nbutane with methane may offer a better alternative. Small changes in the concentration of butane produce almost linearly significant changes in both the values of the knock limited compression ratio for fixed spark timing and the knock limited spark timing for a fixed compression ratio.

UNIT-IV
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS:

Compare reversible adiabatic, reversible isothermal and reversible polytropic processes of compression, determine the work of compression in steady flow and reciprocating machines, define adiabatic and isothermal efficiencies as also volumetric efficiency of reciprocating compressors, evaluate the advantages of multistage compression, and determine the saving in work with inter-cooling.
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS:

The idealized compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise by adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the rotor or impeller. This kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy/static pressure by slowing the flow through a diffuser. Imagine a simple case where flow passes through a straight pipe to enter centrifugal compressor. The simple flow is straight, uniform and has no swirl. As the flow continues to pass into and through the centrifugal impeller, the impeller forces the flow to spin faster and faster. According to a form of Euler's fluid dynamics equation, known as "pump and turbine equation," the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow's local spinning velocity multiplied by the local impeller tangential velocity. In many cases the flow leaving centrifugal impeller is near or above 1000 ft./s or approximately 300 m/s. It is at this point, in the simple case according to Bernoulli's principle, where the flow passes into the stationary diffuser for the purpose of converting this velocity energy into pressure energy
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS:

Axial compressors are rotating, airfoil-based compressors in which the working fluid principally flows parallel to the axis of rotation. This is in contrast with other rotating compressors such as centrifugal, axicentrifugal and mixed-flow compressors where the air may enter axially but will have a significant radial component on exit. Axial flow compressors produce a continuous flow of compressed gas, and have the benefits of high efficiencies and large mass flow capacity, particularly in relation to their cross-section. They do, however, require several rows of airfoils to achieve large pressure rises making them complex and expensive relative to other designs (e.g. centrifugal compressor). Axial compressors are widely used in gas turbines, such as jet engines, high speed ship engines, and small scale power stations. They are also used in industrial applications such as large volume air

separation plants, blast furnace air, fluid catalytic cracking air, and propane dehydrogenation. Axial compressors, known as superchargers, have also been used to boost the power of automotive reciprocating engines by compressing the intake air, though these are very rare. UNIT-V
GAS TURBINES:

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine, and a combustion chamber in-between. Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor, where fuel is mixed with air and ignited. In the high pressure environment of the combustor, combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. There, the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades, spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and, for some turbines, drives their mechanical output. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas. Energy can be extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air or thrust or any combination of these and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, or even tanks.
JET & ROCKET PROPULSION:

A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet to generate thrust by jet propulsion and in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jets. In general, most jet engines are internal combustion engines[1] but non-combusting forms also exist. In common parlance, the term jet engine loosely refers to an internal combustion airbreathing jet engine (a duct engine). These typically consist of an engine with a rotary (rotating) air compressor powered by a turbine ("Brayton cycle"), with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle. These types of jet engines are primarily used by jet aircraft for long distance travel. Early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use high-bypass turbofan engines which give high speeds, as well as (over long distances) fuel efficiency that is about as good as piston and propeller aeroengines A rocket engine, or simply "rocket", is a jet engine[1] that uses only propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines and obtain thrust in accordance with Newton's third law. Since they need no external material to form their jet, rocket engines can be used for

spacecraft propulsion as well as terrestrial uses, such as missiles. Most rocket engines are internal combustion engines, although non combusting forms also exist. Rocket engines as a group have the highest exhaust velocities, are by far the lightest, but are the least propellant efficient of all types of jet engines.

IX.

LESSON PLAN (AT THE END OF THE SESSION LEARNING OBJECTIVE: STUDENT SHOULD )

FACULTY APPROACH

STUDENT APPROACH

Introduction about i.c engine About

Introduction I.C. engines

to

Oral

Facilitates

Listens and participate

Understand

Basic engine nomenclatures Basic engine and nomenclatures classification of and I.C.engines classification of I.C.engines

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Remember

How to work S.I.engine and C.I engine

Working principle of S.I.engine and C.I. engines

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen and Practice

Understand

How to work Working principle of 4 stroke and 2 engines stroke

Working principle of 4 stroke and 2 engines stroke

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen and Practice

Understand and Analyze

OUTCOMELEARNING

METHODOLOGY

CONTENT

SESSION

UNIT

In ley valve and exhaust valve opening and closeing w.r.t crank shaft rotatioin

Valve and port diagrams

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and Analyze

Differences Differences between SI & between SI & CI and 2 CI and 2 stroke & 4 Working of stroke engines.

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and Analyze

Simple Problems on S.I.engine and C.I engines,and 4stroke and 2 engines stroke

problems

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Observe

Explore the mechanism

About air-fuel ratio

S.I. EnginesCarburetion, injection system, chemically correct air-fuel ratio

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Explore the mechanism

Working principle of simple float type carburetor, About CI ENGINES: Fuel supply and injection systems Working principle of Bosch fuel

Air-fuel mixture requirements, Simple float type carburetor,

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Observe

Application

II

10

CI ENGINES: Fuel supply and injection systems

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Observe and comprehend

Application

II

11

Bosch fuel pump, air fuel requirements

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listens and Participate

Understand

pump About TESTING OF I.C.ENGINES: Indicator diagram, evaluation of Indicated Power, Brake power, TESTING OF I.C.ENGINES: Indicator diagram, evaluation of Indicated Power, Brake power,

II

12

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen and Practice

Remember and recall

II

13

About Frictional Power, Fuel consumption, SFC, Mechanical & thermal efficiencies, mean effective

Frictional Power, Fuel consumption, SFC, Mechanical & thermal efficiencies, mean effective

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen and Practice

Remember and recall

II

14

About air-fuel ratio, Heat balance, Engine performance curves,

pressure, air-fuel ratio, Heat balance, Engine performance curves,

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand

II

15

What are the Variables affecting engine performance for both S.I. & C.I. Engines.

Variables affecting engine performance for both S.I. & C.I. Engines.

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

II

16

Problems on S.I.engine and C.I engines,and 4stroke and 2 engines stroke Problems on S.I.engine and

PROBL EMS

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember Understand and

II

17

PROBL EMS

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Observes

C.I engines,and 4stroke and 2 engines stroke How the combustion takes place in the S.I .engines COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE: Normal Combustion and abnormal combustion,

remember

III

18

PPT

Explanation

Listen

Evaluate

III

19

What are the importance of flame speed and effect of engine variables, preignition and detonation.

importance of flame speed and effect of engine variables, preignition and detonation.

PPT

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

III

20

How the COMBUSTION IN CI ENGINE: Phenomenon of Combustion delay period and its importance

COMBUSTION IN CI ENGINE: Phenomenon of Combustion

PPT

Explanation

Listen

Evaluate and apply

III

21

What are the delay period and effect of engine its importance, variables effect of engine variables, Diesel knock

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Evaluate and apply

III

22

About Octane number, Cetane number, antiknock additives In troduction about

KNOCK RATING OF FUELS: Octane number, Cetane number, antiknock additives

PPT

Explanation

Observe

Analyze and apply

IV

23

ROTARY COMPRESSO

ROTARY COMPRESSOR
S:Positive placement

Chalk and talk

facilitates

Observe

Analyze and apply

RS

compressors,

IV

24

How to working the Roots blower, vane blower In troduction about CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR S:

Roots blower, vane blower, Total pressure

PPT

Explanation

Observes

Recall

IV

25

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS : principle of operation,

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

Hoew the energy trans fer

IV

26

velocity and pressure variation, energy transfer

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

IV

27

About slip factor, power slip input factor power factor

factor, input

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

IV

28

About velocity diagrams

pressure coefficient and About velocity diagrams

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

Problems on
IV 29
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR S In troduction about AXIAL FLOW

PROBL EMS

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

IV

30

AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS : principle of

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

COMPRESSOR S: About velocity diagrams

operation

IV

31

Velocity diagrams and energy transfer per stage

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Comprehend

Understand and remember

IV

32

About degree of reaction, isentropic efficiency, polytropic efficiency,

degree reaction, isentropic efficiency, polytropic efficiency,

of

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

About

IV

33

Surging, Choking and Stalling, Surging Centrifugal ,Choking and compressor Stalling, versus axial flow Centrifugal compressor. compressor versus axial flow compressor.

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

Problems on
IV 34
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR S In troduction about GAS TURBINES

PROBLEMS

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

35

GAS TURBINES: Closed and Open Brayton cycle gas turbines

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Understand and remember

analysis of analysis of closed cycle closed cycle gas gas turbine turbine

36

PPT

Explanation

Listen

Remember and pertain

37

How to Compressor and calculate turbine Compressor efficiencies and turbine efficiencies

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

Remember and apply

38

How the efficiencies improve with intercooling, reheat and regeneration in Gas turbines

Gas turbine cycles with intercooling, reheat and regeneration

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

retain information and apply

39

PROBLEMS on GAS
TURBINES

PROBLE MS PROBLE MS
JET & ROCKET PROPULSION: Basic principles of Jet propulsion specific thrust, propulsive efficiency

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Observe

Apply and evaluate Understand remembers and comprehends Synthesis

40

PROBLEMS on GAS
TURBINES introduction About JET and ROCKET PROPULSION How to calculate the propulsive efficiency

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

41

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

42

Chalk and talk

Explanation

Listen

understand

43

How to overall thermal calculate efficiency of a jet overall thermal engine, efficiency of a jet engine,

Chalk and talk

Explanation

listen

Understand

44

Working Principles of

Principles

of

Chalk and talk

Explanation

listen

Understand remembers

Rocket ropulsionp

Rocket ropulsionp

and comprehends

PROBLEMS on JET and


V 45
ROCKET PROPULSION

PROBLEMS
Chalk and talk Explanation listen Understand remembers and comprehends

X.

SELF LEARNING TOPICS:


(i) I.C.ENGINES:

1.web.iitd.ac.in/.../..
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine 3. http://conceptengine.tripod.com/conceptengine/id3.html 1.: http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/46846Fuel- supply-System-In-Internal-Combustion-Engine.aspx

(ii) FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS:

(iii) TESTING OF I.C.ENGINES: 1.www.epa.gov/region07/air/nsr/nsrmemos/icengins.pdf 2.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine (iv) COMBUSTION IN SI ENGINE: ME411N/Comb_SI_and_CI.ppt 1.web.iitd.ac.in/~jpsm/ICE-ME345-

(v) COMBUSTION IN CI ENGIN:1.web.iitd.ac.in/~jpsm/ICE-ME345ME411N/Comb_SI_and_CI.ppt (vi) KNOCK RATING OF FUELS: 1.web.iitd.ac.in/~pmvs/ICengines/paper5.pdf

(vii) RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS:1.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocating_compressor (viii) CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS: 1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centrifugal_compressor (ix) AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS: (x) GAS TURBINES : 1.turbo-aero.com/Documents/Contents2.pdf 1.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_turbine 1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_propulsion 1.

(xi) JET & ROCKET PROPULSION:

2.http://www.braeunig.us/space/propuls.htm 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocket_engine

XI.

EVALUATION SCHEME:

EC No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 QUIZ I TEST I

COMPONENT

DURATION (minutes) 50 50 50 50 60 180 ---

MARK S 20 20 20 20 10 100 10 200

Date & Time

TEST - II QUIZ - II ASSIGNMENT COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION ATTENDANCE

TOTAL

XII.

CHAMBER CONSULTING HOURS: : Informed in the class by the respective instructors.

XIII.

NOTICES: All notices/circulars regarding course matters will be displayed in the notice board and also will
be placed in the web.

COURSE CO ORDINATOR TEAM OF INSTRUCTORS:

H.O.D.

DEAN ACADEMICS