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P11.1.Prepare:We will use conservation of energy to calculate the energy generated by the engine that is

converted entirely to kinetic energy and then use the definition of efficiency to calculate the total energy generated by the engine. Solve:The conservation of energy states that the work done by the car engine is equal to the change in the kinetic energy. Thus,

2 Wout = = 1 2

1 1500 ) (15 /) 2( = = = 1.7 106 0.10 2

That is, the burning of gasoline transfers into the engine 1.7 106 J of energy. Assess:Note that the vast majority of the energy generated by the cars engine is converted to heat. This is typical for engines in cars.

P11.2.Prepare:Use the definition of efficiency in Equation 11.2 where e is given as 60% and the electrical

energy is 600 J. Solve:(a) e= = 0.60

Solve this for chemical energy and plug in the values. 600 = = 1000 0.60 (b) The second device uses twice as much chemical energy, or 2000 J, and generates only half the electric energy, or 300 J. chemical energy = e= 300 = = 0.15 = 15% 2000

Assess:One would expect that requiring twice the chemical energy to generate half the electric energy would mean that the efficiency is down by a factor of four; that is precisely what we see.

e= what you get what you had to pay

In this case the 4.0 103 of electrical energy is what you get as visible light, and the 1.2 101 of light energy is what you had to pay. Solve:The efficiency calculation gives e= 4.0 103 = 0.033 = 3.3% 1.2 101

Assess:Photovoltaic (PV) cells, also known as solar cells, are notoriously inefficient, and this is a typical value for traditional cells. However, advances in technology have been made and efficiencies of up to 20% are available; some researchers are aiming for 40% efficiency.

P11.4.Prepare: e = 0.20

Solve: Each LED provides (1.0W)(0.20) = 0.20W of visible light. We therefore need eight of them to give 1.6 W of visible light power. Since each of them uses 1.0 W then the total power necessary is 8.0 W. Assess:This is a factor of five better than the incandescent bulb.

P11.5.Prepare:This is simply a unit conversion problem. Remember that a food Calorie is 1000 physics

calories. 4.19 6 6 Solve: 1000 Cal = 1000 = 1000000 1 = 4.19 10 4.2 10 Assess:A 1000 Cal burger has a lot of joules of energy! A small burger without the cheese and bacon could have significantly less than this, but still over a million joules.

P11.6.Prepare:As detailed in Table 11.3, the energy per second needed to carry on basic life processes totals to

about 100 W for a 68 kg individual (well assume that is the mass of an average human). That means theyll need 100 J of energy every second. We need to figure out how many seconds in a day and then multiply by 100 J/s to give the total number of joules needed (energy = power time). Then well convert joules to calories and then to kcal (which is the nutritional Cal). Solve: 24 60 60 100 1 1 daily intake = (1 ) 1 1 1 1 4.19 1000 = 2060 2100 Assess:So a person of average weight (mass) needs just over two thousand Calories per day to maintain basic life processes. As the intermediate calculation showed (before the last two factors), thats about 8600 000 joules per day. Active people of the same mass will need more caloric intake. Mass matters too: Larger people need greater daily caloric intake. On the other hand, if you regularly eat more energy than you use in basic life processes and activities then your body will store it as fat.

P11.7.Prepare:Various fuels and the corresponding energy in 1 g of each are listed in Table 11.1. Fats in

foods such as energy bars have an energy content of 38 kJ per gram. Since we have 6 g of fat in our energy bar, we simply need to multiply 6 g by 38 kJ/g. Solve: 38 kJ 6 g = 228 230 1g 1000 J 230 kJ = 230 000 1 kJ 1 cal 228 000 J = 54 000 4.19 1 kcal 54 000 cal = 54 = 54 1000 cal Assess:Comparing with Table 11.2 shows that the fat in the energy bar does not provide as much energy as a fried egg; however, the energy bar may also contain carbohydrates in addition, and fat provides more energy per gram than carbohydrates do, so the total number of food calories in the energy bar might be 150. A 68 kg person needs just over 2000 Cal for basic life processes, so they would need to eat about 15 energy bars per day if that is all they ate. You may have learned in a health or nutrition class that 1 g of fat provides about 9 Cal of energy. Our / calculations above bear this out: 54.4 Cal/6g = 9.0 .

P11.8.Prepare:Various fuels and the corresponding energy in 1 g of each are listed in Table 11.1.

Carbohydrates in foods such as energy bars have an energy content of 17 kJ per gram. Since we have 22 g of carbohydrates in our energy bar, we simply need to multiply 22 g by 17 kJ/g. Solve:Keep one extra digit in intermediate calculations but report the answers to only two significant figures.

17 kJ 22g = 374 370 1g 1000 J 374 kJ = 374 000 370 000 1 kJ 1 cal 374 000 J = 89 300 89 000 4.19 J 1 kcal 89 300 cal = 89.3 = 89.3 89 1000 cal Assess:Comparing with Table 11.2 shows that the carbohydrates in the energy bar do not provide as much energy as a fried egg; however, the energy bar may also contain fat (see Problem 11.6) in addition, and fat provides more energy per gram than carbohydrates do, so the total number of food calories in the energy bar might be 150. A 68 kg person needs just over 2000 Cal for basic life processes, so they would need to eat about 15 energy bars per day if that is all they ate. You may have learned in a health or nutrition class that 1 g of carbohydrates provides about 4 Cal of energy. Our calculations above bear this out: 89.3 Cal/22 g = 4.0 Cal/g.

P11.9.Prepare:Various fuels and the corresponding energy in 1 g of each are listed in Table 11.1.

Carbohydrates in foods such as energy bars have an energy content of 17 kJ per gram. Since we have 22 g of carbohydrates in our energy bar, we simply need to multiply 22 g by 17 kJ/g. Table 11.4 tells us that a 68 kg person needs to expend 380 J/s to walk at a speed of 5 km/hr. Solve:The energy in the carbohydrates in the bar is 17 kJ 1000 5 22 g = 370 1 = 370 000 = 3.7 10 1g The time that the chemical energy will last at the rate of 380 J/s is = 3.7 105 = = 970 = 16 = 0.27 380 = = (5 /)(0.27 ) 1.4 Assess:The answer seems to be in the right ball park; we didnt get an answer of just a few cm nor an answer of many kmeither of which we would be suspicious of given just one energy bar.

And the distance that can be covered during this time at 5 km/hr is

P11.10.Prepare:Table 11.4 tells us that a 68 kg person (well assume this is your mass) needs to expend 480 J/s to

pedal a bicycle at a speed of 15 km/hr. Table 11.1 helps us calculate the chemical energy stored in one gallon of gasoline (which has a mass of 3.2 kg). 1000 Echem = 3.2 1 44 1 1000 8 1 1.4 10

Solve: The time that the chemical energy will last at the rate of 480 J/s is = 1.4 108 = = 2.93 105 = 81 480

And the distance that can be covered during this time at 15 km/hr is = = (15 /)(81 ) 1200 to two significant figures.

Assess:The driving distance from Dallas, Texas to Denver, Colorado is just over 1200 km. This seems far for one gallon of gasoline, but you are going much slower than a car would (which increases your efficiency by decreasing the drag) and you are taking a lot less mass. Also remember that a cars efficiency is probably less than 10% as shown in Integrated Example 11.16, while the efficiency of a human cycling is 20%30%. To put it in units of mpg to compare to your car, you would be able to cycle 760 miles with the energy supplied by that one gallon of gas, which is 30 times better than a car that gets 25 mpg.

P11.11.Prepare:A typical efficiency for climbing stairs is about 25%, so we can assume that 25% of the

chemical energy in the candy bar is transformed to increased potential energy. 1 1000 4.2 = (0.25)(400 ) = 4.2 105 1 1 1 Solve:Since = , the height gained is = = 4.2 105 (60 )(9.8 / )

2

= 710

If we assume that each flight of stairs has a height of 2.7 m (as is done in Example 11.5), this gives Number of flights = 710 260 2.7

Assess:This is more than enough to get to the top of the Empire State Building twiceall fueled by one candy bar! This is a remarkable result.

P11.12.Prepare:In weightlifting, a barbell curl is an exercise in which the barbell is held down at arms

length against the thighs and then raised in semi-circular motion until the forearms touch the biceps. Well assume that the weightlifter expends metabolic energy when he lifts the 30 kg bar, but not as he lowers it. Well also assume 25% efficiency. Table 11.2 tells us that a typical slice of pizza has a metabolic energy content of 300 Cal or 1260 kJ. The weightlifter will use the 1260 kJ (at 25% efficiency) to lift the 30 kg bar, increasing its potential energy. In one repetition hell increase the potential energy by Ug = mg y = mg(0.060 m), and in n repetitions by nmg (0.060 m), where n is what we want to know. Solve: (energy from pizza) (efficiency) = (1.26 106 (0.25) = (30 ) (9.80 / ) (0.60 ) ) Solving for n gives 1790 repetitions, which should be reported to two significant figures as 1800 repetitions. Assess:Thats a lot of curls! Exercising in this way to burn off an extra slice of pizza is almost impossible; people cant do 1800 reps in a row, and there isnt time before the next meal anyway. And n would be four times larger if the weightlifter were 100% efficient!

2

P11.13.Prepare:The work done in one repetition is the force (the weight of the barbell) multiplied by the

distance lifted h, since the two vectors are in the same direction. To figure the energy needed for 20 repetitions we need to multiply the answer from part (a) by 20. However, we also need to take into account that the weightlifter only uses the energy in her food at 25% efficiency. e= what you get what you had to pay

where what you get is the total work done on the barbell in 20 reps, and what you had to pay is the total energy expended (which is what we want to know). Solve:(a) W = = (40 )(9.8 /2 )(0.5 ) = 196 200

= 15680 / 16000 / 25% 0.25 (c) The number of 400 Calorie donuts needed to supply 15680 J is simply 15680 J/(400 Cal/donut). 15680 J/day 1 Cal 1 1 = 0.0094 / 400 Cal/donut 1 kcal 1000 4.19 Assess:Straightforward problems like part (a) help develop our intuition about how big a joule is. 200 J is not a lot of energy compared to the chemical energy consumed in a meal. 16 000 J is still not a large number of joules compared to the 420 000 J of chemical energy in a fried egg. About a hundredth of a donut is enough to provide the energy for 20 reps of a 40 kg bench press.

(196 / )(20 /)

P11.14.Prepare:To get from Kelvin to Celsius subtract 273. To get from Celsius to Fahrenheit multiply by

1.8 and add 32. Solve: 700 = 427 oC = 800 oF K Assess:The range of temperatures on Mercury is staggering. 90 = 183 = 297 K

P11.15.Prepare:Doubling the kinetic energy corresponds to doubling the absolute temperature, so we find

the equivalent on the Kelvin scale. Solve: 20 oC = 293 K Double this to get 586K and subtract 273 to get back to 313oC. Assess:Dont double the Celsius temperature. It seems that 313oC is more than double 20 oC but it works right when converted to the absolute Kelvin scale.

P11.16.Prepare:We must convert the temperature to the Kelvin scale before reducing it by 10%.

20 oC = 293 K. Solve: (293 K)(0.90) 273 = 9.3 Assess:It is important to do these calculations in an absolute temperature scale.

P11.17.Prepare:Solve =

Solve: =

3 for . 2

Assess:We expected the temperature to rise from the added thermal energy.

P11.18.Prepare:Solve =

Solve: =

3 for . 2

Tf = Ti + = 20 9.4 = 11 Assess:We expected the temperature to drop from the removed thermal energy.

Solve:The first law of thermodynamics is Eth = W + Q 200 J = 500 J + Q Q = 700 J The negative sign means a transfer of energy from the system to the environment. Assess:Because W > 0 means a transfer of energy into the system, Q must be less than zero and larger in magnitude than W so that Eth f < Eth i.

P11.20.Prepare:Equation 11.12 gives the thermal energy change = + , and Figure 11.16 helps us

figure out the signs. The 600 J of heat energy transferred to the system will be a positive Q while the 400 J of work that the system does means that W will be negative. Solve: = (400 ) + 600 = 200 Assess:We must remember that when the system does work W is negative.

P11.21.Prepare:Equation 11.12 gives the thermal energy change = + , and Figure 11.16 helps us figure

out the signs. The 300 J of heat energy transferred to the system will be a positive Q, and the is a positive 150 J. Solve: W = = 150 300 = 150 Assess:Since W is negative, it means that the work is done by the system instead of on it.

P11.22.Prepare:Equation 11.12 gives the thermal energy change Eth = W + Q, and Figure 11.16 helps us

figure out the signs. The 10 J of heat removed the system (the gas sample) means Q is negative, while the 20 J of work that the piston does on the system is a positive W. Solve: Eth = 20 J + ( 10 J) = 10 J Since the change in thermal energy is positive, the temperature of the gas increases. Assess:We must remember that when work is done on the system W is positive.

Solve:(a) The work done by the engine per cycle is Wout = = 55 40 = 15 , . (b) During each cycle, the heat transferred into the engine is QH = 55 and the heat exhausted is QC = 40 The thermal efficiency of the heat engine is e = 1

40 = 1 = 0.27 55

)/(55 = 0.27. ) Assess:We could have also gotten the answer to part (b) from part (a), e = / = (15

P11.24.Prepare:We will need to calculate the energy of the hot reservoir to determine the efficiency.

Solve:During each cycle, the work done by the engine is Wout = 20 and the engine exhausts QC = 30 of heat energy. Because Wout = ,

30 = 1 = 0.40 50

Assess:This makes sense, since about half the energy of the engine is lost as heat.

P11.25.Prepare:Assume that the heat engine follows a closed cycle. The efficiency of an engine is given by

Equation 11.13. Solve:The engines efficiency is e=

P11.26.Prepare:We will use Equation 11.13, which defines the efficiency in terms of the work done by the

engine and in terms of the heat energy of the hot and cold reservoirs. Solve:(a) The engine has a thermal efficiency of e = 40% = 0.40 and a work output of 100 J per cycle. The heat input is calculated as follows: e=

(b) Because Wout = , the heat exhausted is QC = = 250 100 = 150 Assess:This makes sense since about half the energy provided by the hot reservoir is used to do work.

P11.27.Prepare:The efficiency of a Carnot engine depends only on the absolute temperatures of the hot and

cold reservoirs. Solve: (a) The efficiency of a Carnot engine is eCarnot = 1

(b) TC = (1 ) = (673 )(0.40) = 269 = 3.8 Assess:A real engine would need a lower temperature than 7C to provide 60% efficiency because no real engine can match the Carnot efficiency.

P11.28.Prepare:The maximum possible efficiency for a heat engine is provided by the Carnot engine.

Solve:The maximum efficiency is emax = = 1

Because the heat engine is running at only 30% of the maximum efficiency, e = ( 0.30 ) = 0.20. The amount of heat that must be extracted is QH =

Assess:This is reasonable, since most of the energy in this engine is lost to the cold reservoir.

. P11.29.Prepare: TC = 20 oC + 273 = 293 The maximum efficiency of a heat engine is emax = 1 Solve for TH . Solve: TH = TC 293 = = 733 = 460 1 1 0.60

Assess:The hot reservoir has to be really quite hot to achieve that efficiency.

P11.30.Prepare:The temperatures must be converted to the Kelvin scale. 650 oC = 923 and K

30 oC = 303 K. Solve: emax = 1

Assess:67% is quite respectable (better than photovoltaic cells) but requires a high TH .

Solve: The coefficient of performance of the refrigerator is K=

50 20 = = = 1.5 20

P11.32.Prepare:The air conditioner is a heat pump whose job is to keep the inside of the building cool.

The temperatures of the hot and cold sides must be expressed in kelvin. In this problem TC = 80= 300 and TH =95 = 308 . Solve:We use Equation 11.15 to compute the maximum coefficient of performance as follows: COPmax = TC 300 K = =37.5 38 TH - TC 308 K - 300 K

Assess:A coefficient of performance of 38 means that we pump 38 J of thermal energy for an energy cost of 1 J. This is clearly much better than the COP of 3.2 given as typical in the problem, reflecting the practical limitations including insulation, etc.

P11.33.Prepare:The COP of a refrigerator is given by the equation just before Equation 11.15.

Solve:(a) The heat extracted from the cold reservoir is calculated as follows: COP =

4.0 = = 200 50

P11.34.Prepare:The heat pumps job is to heat the inside of the house by pumping thermal energy from the

(colder) outside to the (warmer) inside. The temperatures of the hot and cold sides must be expressed in kelvin. In this problem TC = 20 = 253 and TH = 20 = 293 . Solve:We use Equation 11.16 to compute the maximum coefficient of performance as follows:

COPmax =

Assess:The COP describes the ratio of thermal energy pumped to electrical power consumption; therefore a coefficient of performance of 7.3 means that we pump 7.3 J of thermal energy for an energy cost of 1 J. This value is the maximum possible for the given temperatures. In practice a typical heat pump has a COP of about three. An electrical resistance heater has a COP of one. Can you see why?

P11.35.Prepare:The efficiency of a Carnot engine (eCarnot) depends only on the temperatures of the hot and

cold reservoirs. On the other hand, the thermal efficiency (e) of a heat engine depends on the heats QH and QC. Solve:(a) According to the first law of thermodynamics, QH = + . For engine (a), QH = 50 J, QC = 20 J and Wout = 30 J, so the first law of thermodynamics is obeyed. For engine (b), QH = 10 J, QC = 7 J and Wout = 4 J, so the first law is violated. For engine (c) the first law of thermodynamics is obeyed. (b) For the three heat engines, the maximum or Carnot efficiency is eCarnot = 1 Engine (a) has e = 1

30 = = = 0.60 50

This is larger than eCarnot, thus violating the second law of thermodynamics. For engine (b), e=

4 = = 0.40 < 10

so the second law is obeyed. Engine (c) has a thermal efficiency that is e= 10 = 0.33 < 30

so the second law of thermodynamics is obeyed. Assess:The only engine that doesnt violate the first or second law is engine (c).

P11.36.Prepare:For a refrigerator QH = QC + Win, and the coefficient of performance and the Carnot

coefficient of performance are COP =

COPCarnot =

), Solve:Please refer to Figure P11.36. (a) For refrigerator (a) QH = + (60 = 40 + 20 so the first law , of thermodynamics is obeyed. For refrigerator (b) 50 J = 40 + 10 so the first law of thermodynamics is obeyed. For the refrigerator (c) 40 J 30 J + 20 , so the first law of thermodynamics is violated. (b) For the three refrigerators, the maximum coefficient of performance is COPCarnot = For refrigerator (a), COP =

40 = = 2 < 20

40 = = 4 > 10

so the second law of thermodynamics is violated. For refrigerator (c), COP = so the second law is obeyed. 30 = 1.5 < 20

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