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Grade 9 Points of Intersection Investigation

26 Jan 2012

It is a useful skill in mathematics to be able to find where two, or more, lines meet or, intersect. There is more than one way to do this and in this investigation we will be looking at several different techniques for finding the point of intersection. 1. The Graphical Method

If we want to find where two lines meet, perhaps the most obvious way is to draw the lines on a set of coordinate axes and then read off the coordinates from the graph. a. Find where the lines 3x y = 2 and 2 x 3 y = 11 meet by drawing their graphs on the grid below. (Show any necessary working here.)

Therefore, the lines 3x y = 2 and 2 x 3 y = 11 meet at: .

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Task

9 MYP

b.

Drawing graphs on a graphing calculator is quicker and generally more efficient than drawing them by hand. Clearly describe how to use your graphing calculator to find where 3x y = 2 and 2 x 3 y = 11 meet. Then find the coordinates of this point. [Use any one of the 2 methods learnt in class]

c.

Comment on the accuracy of your answer in part a. compared with part b.

d.

Identify at least one advantage and one disadvantage of using technology to solve this problem?

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Task

9 MYP

2.

An Algebraic Method Substitution

If the two equations are solved simultaneously the solution gives the coordinates of the point of intersection. One way to solve a pair of equations simultaneously is described below. To solve a pair of linear equations simultaneously, make x or y the subject of one of the equations, and then substitute what x or y is equal to into the other equation. This gives an equation in one variable, which can then be solved, and then the solution for the pair of equations can be found. This method is often called the SUBSTITUTION method. a. Use the substitution method described above to solve the equations 3x y = 2 and 2 x 3 y = 11 .

b.

Solve the equations 2 x 8 ( y + 2 ) = 6 and x + 7 y = 0 simultaneously by using the substitution method.

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Task

9 MYP

c.

Describe how best to use your calculator to verify your solution to part b. above.

3.

A Chinese Method

This method is an adaptation of a method used in China around the first century BC. Lets say that a problem leads to the two linear equations, 11x + 5 y = 17 and 9 x + 4 y = 15 which we want to solve simultaneously. The Chinese method is shown below. Firstly the value of x is found. (Later the value of y will be found.) Stage 1 11 9 Stage 2 44 45 5 4 20 20 -17 -15 -68 -75

Stage 3

44 -1

20 0

-68 7

Stage 4

44 1

20 0

-68 -7

Stage 5

x = 7

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9 MYP

a.

Describe what is happening at each stage of the solution in the example above. Stage 1:

Stage 2:

Stage 3:

Stage 4:

Stage 5:

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9 MYP

b.

Follow the same method to find the value of y that satisfies the simultaneous equations 11x + 5 y = 17 and 9 x + 4 y = 15 . 11 9 5 4 -17 -15

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

y=

So, the point of intersection of the lines 11x + 5 y = 17 and 9 x + 4 y = 15 is (-7 , c. Use the Chinese method to solve, 4 x + 2 y = 10 and x y = 13 simultaneously.

).

Finding x: Stage 1 4 1 2 -1 10 13 Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5 6|Page

x=
Task 9 MYP

Finding y: Stage 1 4 1 2 -1 10 13 Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

y=

So, the point of intersection of the lines 4 x + 2 y = 10 and x y = 13 is ( d.

).

Verify your solutions by substituting the values of x and y you found above into each of these equations.

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Task

9 MYP

e.

Use the Chinese method to solve, 4 x + 5 y = 9 and 8 x y = 7 simultaneously. Stage 2

Stage 1

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

x=

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

y=

So, the point of intersection of the lines 4 x + 5 y = 9 and 8 x y = 7 is ( f.

).

Verify your solutions by using a different method to solve these equations.

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Task

9 MYP

4.

A General Solution

The standard form for a straight line equation in x and y is often given as,

Ax + By = C , where A, B and C are Integers.


By considering the two lines Ax + By = C and Px + Qy = R , find expressions involving the coefficients, A, B, C, P, Q and R for each of the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines. You may use either the substitution method or the Chinese method to do this.

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Task

9 MYP

5.

Summary and Evaluation

a.

Of all the different ways to find the point of intersection of two lines, which one do you consider to be most effective? Which is the least effective? Are there certain situations which would suggest the use of one method over another? Be sure to fully support your choices with sound mathematical reasoning.

b.

There are many instances in real life where the point of intersection of two lines (or curves) has significant meaning. For example, you will find many in the field of economics or physics. Find or create at least two examples, which give a real life interpretation to the point(s) of intersection of two lines (or curves). Describe each of your examples in detail using appropriate diagrams.

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Task

9 MYP