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Submitted by:

Bangay, Marjorie Edquid, Allyn A. San Juan, Chrishela Mae Villanueva, Quenie Rose Clariza, FebCariza Sibug, Reggie

1. STANDARD ORGANIZATIONS FOR DATA COMMUNICATIONS a. International Standards Organization b. International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunications Sector c. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers d. American National Standards Institute e. Electronics Industry Association f. Telecommunications Industry Association g. Internet Architecture Board h. Internet Engineering Task Force i. Internet Research Task Force j. Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and Telephony k. Post, Telegraph and Telephone Administration l. National Bureau of Standards m. European Computer Manufacturers Association n. National Institute of Science and Technology


3. BASIC ELECTRICITY a. Basic Terms and Concept i. Voltage ii. Current iii. Resistance iv. Power v. Electrical Units vi. Circuits b. Ohms Law


a. International Standards Organization Widely known as ISO, is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. This organization focused heavily on mechanical engineering. It was disbanded in 1942 during the second World War but was re-organized under the current name, ISO, in 1946. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized standard authorities, each one representing one country. The bulk of the work of ISO is done by the 2700 technical committees, subcommittees and working groups. Each committee and subcommittee is headed by a Secretariat from one of the member organizations.

b. International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunications Sector The International Telecommunication Union is the specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for information and communication technologies. ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and establishes worldwide standards. ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and nextgeneration networks. ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group and its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 Sector Members and Associates. Telecommunications Sector Radiocommunication (ITU-R)

Managing the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources is at the heart of the work of the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). Standardization (ITU-T) ITU's standards-making efforts are its best-known and oldest activity; known prior to 1992 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT (from its French name "Comit consultatif international tlphonique et tlgraphique") Development (ITU-D) Established to help spread equitable, sustainable and affordable access to information and communication technologies (ICT). ITU TELECOM ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. ITU Telecom World 2011 is ITU Telecom's 40th Anniversary with the first event in 1971.

c. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Popular name for International Organization For Standardization (IOS), a voluntary, non-treaty federation of standards setting bodies of some 130 countries. Founded in 1946-47 in Geneva as a UN agency, it promotes development of standardization and related activities to facilitate international trade in goods and services, and cooperation on economic, intellectual, scientific, and technological aspects. ISO covers standardization in all fields including computers and data communications, but excluding electrical and electronic engineering (governed by the International Electrotechnical Commission or IEC) and telecommunications (governed by International Telecommunications Union's Telecommunications Standards Sector or ITU-TSS).

d. American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. For example, standards ensure that people who own cameras can find the film they need for that camera anywhere around the globe. NSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of standards developing organizations, government agencies, consumer groups, companies, and others. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the

same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards

e. Electronics Industry Association

Short for Electronic Industries Association, EIA is a group that defines electronic standards in the United States. The Electronics Industries Association of the Philippines, Inc. (EIAPI), a voluntary, non-stock corporation, was formed in 1986 by companies engaged in domestic manufacture of electronic products in order to promote the growth of the Philippine electronics industry.

f. Telecommunications Industry Association

The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of ICT products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies. TIA's Standards and Technology Department operates twelve engineering committees, which develop guidelines for private radio equipment, cellular towers, data terminals, satellites, telephone terminal equipment, accessibility, VoIP devices, structured cabling, data centers, mobile device communications, multimedia multicast, vehicular telematics, healthcare ICT, machine-tomachine communications, and smart utility networks.

g. Internet Architecture Board

The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) is the committee charged with oversight of the technical and engineering development of the Internet by the Internet Society (ISOC). It oversees a number of Task Forces, of which the most important are the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). The body which eventually became the IAB was created originally by the United States Department of Defense's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency with the name Internet Configuration Control Board during 1979; it eventually became the Internet Advisory Board during September, 1984, and then the Internet Activities Board during

May, 1986 (the name was changed, while keeping the same acronym). It finally became the Internet Architecture Board, under ISOC, during January, 1992, as part of the Internet's transition from a U.S.-government entity to an international, public entity.

h. Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standards bodies and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors; for instance, the current chairperson is funded by VeriSign and the U.S. government's National Security Agency.

i. Internet Research Task Force

The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) focuses on longer term research issues related to the Internet while the parallel organization, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), focuses on the shorter term issues of engineering and standards making. The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) promotes research of importance to the evolution of the Internet by creating focused, long-term research groups working on topics related to Internet protocols, applications, architecture and technology. The IRTF is a composed of a number of focused and long-term research groups. These groups work on topics related to Internet protocols, applications, architecture and technology. Research groups have the stable long term membership needed to promote the development of research collaboration and teamwork in exploring research issues. Participation is by individual contributors, rather than by representatives of organizations.

j. Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and Telephony

The CCITT is part of the ITU (International Telegraph Union), which has a history that stretches back to 1865. In that year, 20 countries agreed to standardize telegraph networks. The ITU was set up as part of the agreement to work on subsequent amendments. In subsequent years, the ITU got involved with telephony regulation, wireless radio communications, and sound broadcasting.

In 1927, the union was involved in allocating frequency bands for radio services, including fixed radio, mobile radio (maritime and aeronautical), broadcasting, and amateur/experimental radio. In 1934, the union changed its name to the International Telecommunication Union to more properly define its role in all forms of communication, including wire, radio, optical, and electromagnetic systems.

k. Post, Telegraph and Telephone Administration

Post, Telephone and Telegraph administration - (PTT) One of the many national bodies responsible for providing communications services in a particular country. Traditionally, PTTs had monopolies in their respective countries. This monopoly was first broken in the USA, with the UK joining somewhat later. Currently the markets are being deregulated in Europe as well as other parts of the world.

l. National Bureau of Standards

m. European Computer Manufacturers Association

Ecma International is an international, private (membership-based) non-profit standards organization for information and communication systems. It acquired its name in 1994, when the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA) changed its name to reflect the organization's global reach and activities. As a consequence, the name is no longer considered an acronym and no longer uses full capitalization. T he organization was originally founded in 1961 to standardize computer systems in Europe. Membership is open to large and small companies worldwide that produce, market or develop computer or communication systems, and have interest and experience in the areas addressed by the group's technical bodies. It is located in Geneva.

n. National Institute of Science and Technology

The National Institute of Science and Technology (abbrv NIST) is an engineering college in Palur Hills, Orissa, India. It was started in 1996 by a few NRIs, some of who belonged to Orissa. This institute was set up and is managed by the SM Charitable Educational Trust with the aim of promoting higher technical education. This was the first engineering college under Berhampur University, which is now affiliated to BPUT. Orissa used to account for a mere 3 percent of the engineers graduating each year in the nation when this college was set up in 1996. Now it has completed 10 years of its existence and has become a hub of educational institute in Orissa.



y y

Current - is a flow of charge. This is far too small to be any use, so we consider electricity to flow in packets called coulombs. Potential Difference (Voltage) - Potential difference is often referred to as voltage. There are several ways of defining voltage; the correct physics definition is energy per unit charge, in other words, how big a job of work each lump of charge can do.


Power in a circuit can be worked out using the simple relationship:

Power (W) = Voltage (V) Current (A) y

Resistance - is the opposition to the flow of an electric current.

Resistance (;) =Potential difference(V) Current (A)