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Alfa college Diploma in early childwood education Basic approach and early childwood education Ece1221 Ms.

ester leong



Saraswathy rajoo



FOUNDER Dr.Maria Montessori MD was born in Anacona,Italy on August 31 in 1870. She was an Italian physician, educationalist, philosopher and a humanitarian. She was also best known for her philosophy in Montessori Method of education of children from birth to adolescence. Her educational method widely used today in various public and private schools throughout world. Maria Montessori was also the first woman philosopher in mans world at her time.She was in many ways ahead of her time. At the age of 13,she attended an all boy technical school in her preparation of becoming an engineer but later changed her mind and she graduated from university of Rome in1896 as Halys first female doctor. She was nominated three times for the Nobel Prize (1949,1950 and 1951).She past away in Holland on 6 May 1952.

PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY Maria Montessori while working at the University of Rome psychiatric clinic, developed an interest in the treatment of childrens capacity for learning. Later at age of 28 she became director of the school for mentally disable children. After two years under her care and guidance these children whom considered lack of education also participated in school examination with normal students and passed successfully .Thus she was later appointed as Minister of Education in Rom to run a school for difficult from the schools of Rome and mentally disable children from Rome asylums.

She utilized the scientific method in order to develop the means for teaching these children. She begin observing the characteristic of the children and begin taking down notes, analyzing and creating materials for her classroom. She went back to school to study anthropology and later in 1907 was asked to take charge of fifty children from the dirty desolated streets of San Lorenz quarters in the city of Rome called Casa Dei Bambini(children house).She discovered her path in this environment and she made use of it wisely. PHILOSOPHY OF MONTESSORI Follow the Child I have studied the child I have taken what the child has given me and expressed it and that is what is called the Montessori method She based her study on the words of Jean Hard and Edward Sequin ,the pioneers in special education for mentally deficient. The Montessori approach offers a broad vision of education as an aid to life. It is designed to help children their task of inner construction as they grow from childhood to maturity. It succeeds because it draws its principles from the natural development of the child. Its flexibility provides a matrix within which each individual child inner directives freely guide the child toward wholesome growth. Montessori discovered the children inner power for learning worked best when they turned hands on learning environment. y Children put into groups with other children with small range in ages (3-6 , 6-9) and they would not only work together but also help to teach each other. y Children are respected for their unique individuality,it is a process to help children learn in their own way at their own space. y That learning materials should be interesting ,reality oriented , and designed to facilitate self correcting and the refinement of sensory perception.

CONCEPTS Many of the concepts invented by Maria Montessori are now common place in early childhood education At every age a minimum of 3 hour work period a day The most important and sensitive period of life is from birth to the age of six as this is the time when brain development of 70 percent occurs (intelligence is being formed) Spontaneous activity freely chosen and not structured or directed. Early stimulation is very important for success in later learning. Ephasis is on congnitive and social development. Multi age grouping, it encourage children to teach and help each other. Child discovers own concepts from self teaching materials. Multi sensory materials for physical exploration. Children learn from an active hands-on approach that draws on all five senses.

MATERIALS Sensorial The sensorial materials provide a range of activities and exercises for children to experience the natural order of the physical environment, including such attributes as size, color, shape and dimension. Pink Tower, knob silinders, broderstairs, color tablets, long rods, sandpaper, shapes, golden beads,flashcards, phonic sounds.

Practical life Specific materials provide opportunities for self help dressing activities, Eg. buttoning, zipping, bow tying, pouring, scooping, and sorting activities, as well as washing a table and food

preparation. Other practical life activities include lessons in polite manners, such as folding hands, sitting in a chair, walking in line. As the child ages into an elementary program, practical life activities take on a practical purpose, such as cooking and vacuuming.

The Prepared Environment : It is the role of the teacher to prepare the environment, to link the child to it through well thought out lessons, and to facilitate the childs exploration and creativity. The environment is arranged according to subject area, and children are always free to move around the room, and to continue to work with no time limit.

Observation ; Scientific observations of the childs development are carried out and recorded by teacher on the level of concentraton of each child, the social development, physical health, etc. Based on these observation the teacher guide and determines when a child is ready for a new challenge.

Teaching Method: No text books. Children learn directly from the environment,the variety of work that is going on around them during the day, and from other children-rather than from the teacher. The teacher is to guide a childs research and exploration, capitalizing on excitement about a subject.

Assessment ; No grades, neither reward nor punishment. Asseessment is by portfolio and the teachers observation and record keeping. Learning Styles; All intelligences and styles of learning-musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, intuitive, natural, and the traditional linguistic and logical mathematical-are nurtured and respected.

THREE PERIODS LESSON A three-step process, described originally by Seguin, is used in the Montessori method for showing the relationship between objects and name, This is called the three-period lesson 1. Period 1 consists of providing the child with the name of the material. 2. Period 2 is to help the child to recognize the different objects. Most of the time with the threeperiod lesson is in period 2. 3. Period 3 involves checking to see if the child not only recognizes the name of the material, but is able to tell you what it is. Others Lessons ; 1.Music Education 2.Character Education 3.Sensorial Materials 4.Mathematics 5.Language 6.Cultural subjects 7.Practical life or Motor Education

PROS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kids learn so much and more independent Able to think logically Transition for Montessori School to regular school is easy. Classroom setup cluster free Respect children as an individual Allow children to work on their own space at their own interest Provide children with a great deal of activity and movement Children has freedom to make decision and learns self-discipline

CONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. More expensive than a regular preschool Most Montessori school do not use imaginative play Too much emphasis on academic Lack of parental involvement Parents unable to reinforce learning at home without apparatus

LEARNING OUTCOME Children learn from basic to abstract Individual interest and learning space is cultivate . Children learn fast, not bored and learn living skills

CHALLENGES There are no grades ,or other forms of rewards or punishment. Assessment is by portfolio and the teacher s observation and record keeping Real test lies on the accomplishment and behavior of the children, their happiness, maturity, kindness, and love of learning, concentration and work.

TEACHER/PARENTS ROLE A Montessori teachers educational efforts are practical and constructive-enough to exhaust all her time, strength and ingenuity. Safeguard her pupils from loss of interest or real fatigue by watching carefully for the first signs of weariness and stopping the work promptly on their appearance. Parents can play their role by assisting the teachers

APPLICATION Observation y y carried out by the teacher sometime include experimental interaction with children Indirect preparation child is learning something that is indirectly prepared for him to learn

environment is arranged according to subject area.

CENTRES IN MALAYSIA. y y y y y y y Peter & Jane Childrens House Becon House Sri Garden Kindergarten Tadika Diyana Small Wonder Childrens House Tulip Montessori Nursery and Play School {Bangsar}