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Chapter 5: Human Body Knowledge of anatomy helps to communicate better. Gives more professional appearance.

Superficial landmark: Guide to structures that lie beneath them Coronal plane: front/back Transverse (axial) plane: top/bottom Sagittal (lateral) plane: Directional terms: Anterior (ventral) front Prosterial (dorsal): back Right, left (from patients view) Superior (closest to the head Inferior closes to the feet Medial: middle Lateral: side Movement terms: Flexion: bending of a joint Extension: extending a joint Abbduction: moving torward Abduction: moving away Other terms: Bilateral: Appear on both sides of the midline Abdomen broken into quadrents, RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ Positions: Prone: On stomach Supine: On back Fowler: Knees bent, waist is at 90 degree angle. Shock: Legs up, supine with feet of ground Recovery: On side, head on arm Skeletal system: Gives us form, protects organs. Contains: Bones Ligaments Tendons Cartilage Skull: Head made of 2 bones. Fused from 20 bones.

Spinal collum: Comprised of 33 vertebre. Divided into 5 sections. Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx Thorax is the chest cavity. Largest cavity in the body. Formed by the 12 pairs of ribs. Contains heart, lungs, esophagus, great vessels. Appendicular skeleton: Upper extremity: Extends from shoulder griddle. Three bones come together . Humerus Scapula Collar bone Arm: Humerous is supporting bone of arm. Forearm comprises of ulna and radius. Wrist and hand: bell and socket joint. Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges. Does not matter to much. We treat symptoms, not the real, underlying issue. Lower extremities: Made of leg, thigh, foot. Upper leg: Femur, thigh bone. Strongest bone in the body. Result of severe injury. Knee connects upper and lower leg.. Kneecap (patella). Lower leg: tibia Ankle: Hinge joint. Allows flexation of the foot Foot: contains 12 bones. Toes are phalanges. Joints: Where two bones come together. Hinge- Allows one way directional movement Ball and socket Allows for circular motion Skeletal system physiology: Gives body shape, protects organs, stores calcium, creates blood cells. Musculoskeletal system provides form, upright posture, movement. More than 600 muscle attachments. All muscles in this system are voluntary, controllable by yourself. Smooth muscle: Allows partial control Cardiac muscle: Uncontrollable by brain

Muscles generate heat when moving.

Respiratory system: Causes respiration/breathing. Upper airway includes: Go back to book Epiglottis: prevents going down the wrong tube Lyranx divides upper and lower airway Lungs held in position trachea, arteries and veins, avolois. Diaphragm: Controls the breathing. Intercostal, abdominal, pectoral muscles help in emergencies. Inhale takes in air. Ventilation and respiration are different. Independent of each other. Respiration is the actual breathing. Brain stem controls breathing. Hypoxic drive is backup system - when body shuts down, it is trying to heal itself. Medulla starts ventilation. Ventilation is air movement OUT of the lungs. Normal breathing: Normal rate and depth tidal volume. Regular rhythm or pattern if inhalation and ventilation. Good audible breath sounds on both sides of the chest. Osculate listening. Regular on BOTH sides of the chest. Bilateral chest extension. Movement of abdomen, mostly in the elderly (late adults). Inadequate breathing: Labored breathingMuscle retractions Pale, cyonotic, cool damp skin. Signal tat not enough O2 through blood. Tripod position, bending forward Agonal respiration: gasping for breath, not real breathing. Just sucking in air. Circulatory system: Complex arrangements of connected tubes. Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins. Two circuits. One for body one for lungs. Heart: hollow, muscular organ. Cardiac muscle. Two paired pumps. Septum divides right and left. Heart pushes blood into aorta. Red = oxygen. Blue/purple = oxygen poor. Arteries red. Blood to lungs is o2 poor. Heart has own o2 supply. Resting HR = 60-100 for adults. 100+ = tachy. Stroke volume amount of blood moved by a beat. Cardiac output blood pumped in one minute. Electrical conduction network causes smooth, coordinated contractions.