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INTRODUCTION TO NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION

OUTLINE

MATERIAL TESTING OVERVIEW OF FOUR NDE METHODS


Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiography Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

APPLICATION OF NDE

Material Testing

Material testing is the technology of assessing the soundness and acceptability of an actual component with or without affecting the functional properties of either test specimen or actual job.
MATERIAL TESTING

Destructive
Tensile testing Compression testing Impact testing

Non-destructive
Radiography testing Ultrasonic testing Magnetic particle testing

Fatigue testing
Creep testing

Liquid penetrant testing


Eddy current testing

Bend testing
Micro/Macro testing Chemical testing etc

Acoustic emission testing


Neutron radiography testing Thermography etc

Material Testing
MATERIAL TESTING

Destructive

Non-destructive

Measure accurate or specific Monitoring and maintaining characteristics of materials by material quality, components destroying the specimen reliability & systems safety without destroying actual job. UTS Proof stress % Elongation % Reduction area Youngs modulus Surface & Subsurface flaws Coating & plating thickness Sorting Velocity & thickness monitor Structure and assembly evaluation

Fatigue strength Creep strength


Fatigue properties etc

Reliable life assessment etc..

Material Testing
DEFINITION OF N.D.E.: NDE is a tool, which uses inspection technology to determine soundness & measurement of characteristics of the raw material, components, structure & equipments etc. without causing harm to them.

Material Testing

TYPE OF INDICATION:

False Indication: Indication, that occurs due to incorrect processing or incorrect procedure. Non-relevant Indication: It is an indication, which has no relation to the discontinuity. i.e. Code has given various sizes of indications which are not be considered as relevant indication. Relevant Indication: It is the indication that needs to be evaluated for serviceability and can either be determined as discontinuity or defect. i.e. A indication that may or may not be acceptable by reference code section.

Material Testing

DISCONTINUITY & DEFECT:

Discontinuity: It is any local variation in material continuity which may not interfere to its intended service life. E.g. Change in geometry, presence of holes, cavities or inclusions. Defect: When any discontinuity, single or multiple, is of such size, shape, type and location, that it can create a substantial failure of material in its intended service, is known as DEFECT.

Remember: Every discontinuity is not a defect, Every defect is a discontinuity.

Methods of N.D.E.

Visual Inspection (VT) Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiographic Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Eddy Current Testing (ET) Leak Testing (LT) Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) Infrared Thermal Testing (IRT) Remote Field Testing (RFT) Nuclear Radiographic Testing (NRT)

Common Methods used in N.D.E.


Visual Testing (VT) Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiographic Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


OUTLINE

Introduction & Working principle Basic operation procedure of PT Materials used in PT Classification of PT Application of PT Types of defects detected by PT Advantages & Limitations of PT Code Acceptance criteria PT in Boiler

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

INTRODUCTION:

PT is a common method used to detect surface breaking flaws. Flaws are detected by bleed-out of a colored or fluorescent dye from it. The technique is based on ability of a liquid to be drawn into a clean surface breaking flaw by capillary action. After a period of time called the dwell, excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. This acts as a blotter. Visible color contrast penetrants require day-light or hand bulb. Fluorescent penetrants need to be used in darkened area with an ultraviolet "black light".

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

INTRODUCTION (CONT.):

PT produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier than flaw for the eye to detect. PT produces a flaw indication with a high level of contrast between the indication and the background also helping to make the indication more easily seen.

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


WORKING PRINCIPLE:

VISIBLE PT

FLUORESCENT PT

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT:

Surface preparation (Pre-cleaning): The surface must be free of oil, grease, dust, rust and other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. Sometimes, test surface may also require machining, sand or grit blasting, grinding, buffing etc.

SOLVENT CLEANING

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT (CONT.)

Penetrant application: Penetrant can be applied by spraying, brushing, wiping, or dipping the part in a penetrant bath.

DYE APPLICATION BY BRUSHING

DYE APPLICATION BY SPRAYING

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT (CONT.)

Penetrant dwell time (PDT): The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow penetrant to be drawn into a defect. PDT are as recommended by manufacturers or as per written procedure being followed. Excess penetrant removal: This step is most delicate. Depending upon type of penetrant used, step may involve cleaning by emulsifier, rinsing with water, solvent remover.

EXCESS PENETRANT REMOVAL BY SOLVENT

EXCESS PENETRANT REMOVED

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT(CONT.)

Developer application: A thin & uniform layer of developer is applied to drag out penetrant trapped in the flaw. Developer may be applied by Spraying, dusting, or dipping.

DEVELOPER APPLICATION BY SPRAYING

Slide 17

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT (CONT.)

Developer dwell time (DDT): The developer is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow it to extract the penetrant out from the discontinuity. It is usually 10 mins as recommended by the manufacturer or written procedure. Interpretation/Evaluation: After passing developing dwell time inspection is performed under required lighting conditions.

EVALUATION

Post-cleaning: Last step of the inspection process is to clean the residual penetrant material from the test surface.

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS USED IN PT:


Cleaner (Solvent remover) Penetrant (Dye) Developer Lint free cotton cloth Emulsifier (Lipophilic or Hydrophilic)* Black light (UV light) Lux meter & UV meter Thermometer

*Use of Emulsifier depends upon the type of method chosen for PT

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)

A.

CLASSIFICATION OF PT: Based on type of examination technique


Visible color contrast method b) Fluorescent method
a)

B.

Based on type of Penetrant removal process


a)
b) c) d)

Solvent removable technique Water washable technique Post emulsifiable technique (Lipophilic) Post emulsifiable technique (Hydrophilic)

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


APPLICATION OF PT: Materials that can be examined with PT:

PT can be applied on all non-porous materials. e.g. Metal, Plastic, Glass, Ceramics etc.

TYPES OF DEFETCS CAN BE DETECTED WITH PT: Flaws that can be detected by PT:

Only surface flaws can be detected.


Cracks Porosity Laps Seams Lamination Cold shuts

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


Good PT performance practice!!! Pre-cleaning: The surface to be examined along with adjacent areas of 25mm (1 inch.) must be free of oil, grease, lint, dirt, rust, spatter, welding flux, scale etc. If required, grinding or buffing needs to be done other than solvent remover. Temperature: The temperature of surface to be examined & penetrant material should be within 5 to 52 C inclusive. Lighting requirement: The visible day light shall be 1000 lux minimum at the surface to be examined. If there is a insufficient light condition to perform examination, than use 60W bulb from 9 inch distance or 100W bulb from 12 inch distance as a thumb rule. In case, where fluorescent PT is applied, The visible ambient light shall not be more than 20 lux in the darkened area. The UV light used shall have 1000 W/cm2 intensity.

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


ADVANTAGES: Highly sensitive to small surface discontinuities. Can be applied to all metallic and nonmetallic, magnetic and nonmagnetic, and conductive and nonconductive materials can be inspected. Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost. Complex geometric parts are routinely inspected. Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable. Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively less costlier.

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


LIMITATIONS: Only surface breaking defects can be detected. Only materials with a relatively nonporous surface can be inspected. Pre cleaning is critical since contaminants can mask defects. Metal smearing from machining, grinding, and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior to PT. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required. Chemical handling and proper disposal is required.

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I, A-270) Evaluation of indications
Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1.5 mm shall be considered as relevant. Any doubtful indication shall be re-examined to confirm whether they are relevant or not. Linear indication = l>3w Rounded indication = l3w Where, l = Length of indication and w = width of indication

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I, A-270) (CONT.) Acceptance criteria

All surfaces to be examined shall be free of: Any relevant linear indication Rounded indication more than 5mm dia. Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1.5mm or less distance (edge to edge)

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


PT IN BOILER: HEADER

Gas cutting/Machining of nozzle hole Fit up lug removal Circumferential welds Nozzle edge preparation Nozzle welding End plate welding Attachment welding Orifice welding Stub to tube welding All welding after PWHT

LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)


PT IN BOILER: COIL

Tube bending areas for Squeezing, Swaging (20%) [FOI] Tube to tube welding (25%) Attachment welding

PANEL

Tube to tube welding 10% on MPM welding

INTRODUCTION TO MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


OUTLINE

Introduction & Working principle Basic operation procedure Equipments used in MT Direction of Magnetic field Application of MT Types of defect detected with MT Pros & Cons of MT Code Acceptance criteria MT in Boiler

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


INTRODUCTION: MT is relatively fast & easy to apply, part surface preparation is also not essential parameter for this method. MT helps determining the flaws lying near surface also. MT uses magnetic fields & finely milled iron particles to detect flaws only in ferromagnetic test specimen. If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet, the iron particles will be attracted to end of poles as well as at the edges of the crack and form a cluster to make the flaw visible. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspection.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


WORKING PRINCIPLE:

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF MT:

Pre-cleaning: It is essential for the particles to have an unimpeded path for migration to both strong and weak leakage fields alike. The parts surface should be clean and dry before inspection. Test surface shall be free of external particles like oil, grease, dirt, rust etc. Checking field adequacy: Pie shaped field indicator, flaw shims or tangential field probe (Gauss meter) shall be used to check proper set up of the equipment. Magnetizing the component: First step is to magnetize the component to be inspected. This can be accomplished by Prods, Yokes, Coil and conductive cables or Stationary MT machine. MT can be done with various currents like AC, DC or HWDC. Application of Iron particles: After magnetizing the component, the iron particles are spread on the surface to be examined. This can be accomplished either by Dry particle application or in Wet suspended form. The particle will attracted and form a cluster at the flux leakage areas to make a visible indication. Interpretation/Evaluation: Evaluation of indication as per applicable code, or standard. Demagnetization: Demagnetize the specimen after completing the inspection, if required.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)

BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF MT:

Pre-cleaning: It is essential for the particles to have an unimpeded path for migration to both strong and weak leakage fields alike. The parts surface should be clean and dry before inspection. Test surface shall be free of external particles like oil, grease, dirt, rust etc. Checking field adequacy: Pie shaped field indicator, flaw shims or tangential field probe (Gauss meter) shall be used to check proper set up of the equipment. Magnetizing the component: First step is to magnetize the component to be inspected. This can be accomplished by Prods, Yokes, Coil and conductive cables or Stationary MT machine. MT can be done with various currents like AC, DC or HWDC. Application of Iron particles: After magnetizing the component, the iron particles are spread on the surface to be examined. This can be accomplished either by Dry particle application or in Wet suspended form. The particle will attracted and form a cluster at the flux leakage areas to make a visible indication. Interpretation/Evaluation: Evaluation of indication as per applicable code, or standard. Demagnetization: Demagnetize the specimen after completing the inspection, if required.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


EQUIPMENTS USED IN MT:

Prods Yoke Magnetizing coil & conductive cables Power source Stationary MT unit Black light Lux meter UV light meter Dry magnetic particles Wet magnetic particles Field indicator (Pie gage) Flaw shims Gauss meter (Tangential field probe)

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


Equipments used in MT: Portable Equipments

Stationary Equipment

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


Magnetizing current used in MT:

FOR SKIN EFFECT & PARTICLE AGITATION

TO DETECT DEFECTS LYING NEAR SURFACE

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


Magnetic particles: Magnetic particles are mixture of rounded & slandered particles with the size of 10 to 200 . It is also available in different colors to enhance visibility, depending upon metallic background or the applied contrast. Classification based on visibility. Visible (Non-Fluorescent) particles Fluorescent particles Classification based on carrier Dry particle Wet particle

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


Magnetic particles:
Dry Magnetic particles Air as Carrier

Bath concentration checking

Liquid as Carrier Wet Magnetic particles (Visible) Wet Magnetic particles (Fluorescent)

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


Light Meters:
Intensity of the light to be checked before start of examination, to verify adequacy of light.

Lux meter (White light)

UV Light meter (Black light)

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


Field adequacy in MT:

Pie shaped magnetic field indicator

Tangential field probe

Artificial flaw shims

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD & ORIENTATION OF DEFECTS:

To properly inspect a part for defects, it is important to become familiar with the different types of magnetic field. One of the primary requirements for detecting a defect in a ferromagnetic material is that the magnetic field induced in the part must intercept the defect at a 45 to 90 angle. Flaws that are at 90 to the magnetic field will produce the strongest indications because they disrupt more of the magnet flux. Therefore, for proper inspection of a component, it is important to be able to establish a magnetic field in at least two directions.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD: Two types of magnetic field A) Circular Magnetic field A circular magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run circumferentially around the perimeter of a part. Accomplished by passing the current through the solid bar/component. Also can be produced by passing current through central conductor in hollow pipe.

HEAD SHOT FOR CIRCULAR MAG. FIELD

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD: Two types of magnetic field (Cont.)
B) Longitudinal Magnetic field Usually established by placing the part near the inside or a coils annulus. This produces magnetic lines of force that are parallel to the long axis of the test part.
LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD (COIL SHOT)

Portable coil

Conductive cable

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD:
Longitudinal Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment (YOKE)
An electromagnetic yoke is a very common piece of equipment that is used to establish a magnetic field. It is basically made by wrapping an electrical coil around a piece of soft ferromagnetic steel. They can be powered with alternating current (AC) from a wall socket or by direct current (DC) from a battery pack. This type of magnet generates a very strong magnetic field in a local area where the poles of the magnet touch the part being inspected.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD:
Circular Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment (PROD)
The current passing between the prods creates a circular magnetic field around the prods that can be used in magnetic particle inspection. Prods are typically made from copper and have an insulated handle. If proper contact is not maintained between the prods and the component surface, electrical arcing can occur and cause damage to the component.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


APPLICATION OF PT:

Materials that can be examined with MT:


MT can be applied on all ferromagnetic materials. e.g. Ferrite, Steel, Nickel, Cobalt alloys etc.

TYPES OF DEFETCS CAN BE DETECTED WITH MT:

Flaws that can be detected by MT:

Surface & near surface flaws can be detected only in ferromagnetic material. Surface & near surface cracks Undercuts Lap Seam Lamination

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


ADVANTAGES

Can detect both surface and near surface defects. Can inspect parts with irregular shapes easily. Pre-cleaning of components is not as critical as it is for some other inspection methods. Most contaminants within a flaw will not hinder flaw detectability. Fast method of inspection and indications are visible directly on the specimen surface. Considered low cost compared to many other NDT methods. Is a very portable inspection method especially when used with battery powered equipment.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


LIMITATIONS

Cannot inspect non-ferrous materials such as aluminum, magnesium or most stainless steels. Inspection of large parts may require use of equipment with special power requirements. Some parts may require removal of coating or plating to achieve desired inspection sensitivity. Limited near surface discontinuity detection capabilities. Maximum depth sensitivity is approximately 0.6 (under ideal conditions). Post cleaning, and post demagnetization is often necessary. Alignment between magnetic flux and defect is important.

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I, A-260) Evaluation of indications

Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1.5 mm shall be considered as relevant. Any doubtful indication shall be re-examined to confirm whether they are relevant or not. Linear indication = l > 3w Rounded indication = l 3w Where, l = Length of indication and w = width of indication

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I, A-260) (CONT.) Acceptance criteria

All surfaces to be examined shall be free of: Any relevant linear indication Rounded indication more than 5mm dia. Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1.5mm or less distance (edge to edge)

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


MT IN BOILER: HEADER

Gas cutting/Machining of nozzle hole Fit up lug removal Circumferential welds Nozzle edge preparation Nozzle welding End plate welding Attachment welding Orifice welding Stub to tube welding All welding after PWHT

MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT)


MT IN BOILER: COIL

Attachment welding

PANEL

10% on MPM welding. (Being implemented)

INTRODUCTION TO RADIOGRAPHY TESTING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


OUTLINE

Working principle Radiation sources Nature of X-rays & Gamma rays Gamma radiography X-ray radiography Film radiography Radiographic sensitivity Image Quality Indicators (IQI) or Penetrameters Examples of welding discontinuities in RT Radiographic acceptance standards Safety in radiation Application of RT Defects can be detected in RT Advantages & Limitations of RT

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


WORKING PRINCIPLE

The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The part will absorb some of the radiation. Thicker and more dense area will absorb more of the radiation. The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIATION SOURCES

Two of the most commonly used sources of radiation in industrial radiography are x-ray generators and gamma ray sources. Industrial radiography is often subdivided into X-ray Radiography or Gamma Radiography, depending on the source of radiation used.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


NATURE OF X-RAYS & GAMMA RAYS.

They are form of Electromagnetic radiation They are extremely short in wavelength, about 1/10,000 of light, or even less. This feature makes rays able to penetrate in material that absorb or reflect ordinary light. The only difference in X-ray & Gamma-ray is that, X-rays are emitted from X-ray generator and Gamma rays are emitted from activated radioisotope.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


NATURE OF X-RAYS & GAMMA RAYS (CONT.)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY

Gamma rays are produced by a radioisotope. A radioisotope has an unstable nuclei that does not have enough binding energy to hold the nucleus together. The spontaneous breakdown of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter is known as radioactive decay.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.)

Most of the radioactive material used in industrial radiography is artificially produced. This is done by subjecting stable material to a source of neutrons in a special nuclear reactor. This process is called activation.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) Unlike X-rays, which are produced by a machine, gamma rays cannot be turned off. Radioisotopes used for gamma radiography are encapsulated to prevent leakage of the material. The radioactive capsule is attached to a cable to form what is often called a pigtail. The pigtail has a special connector at the other end that attaches to a drive cable.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) A device called a camera is used to store, transport and expose the pigtail containing the radioactive material. The camera contains shielding material which reduces the radiographers exposure to radiation during use.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) A hose-like device called a guide tube is connected to a threaded hole called an exit port in the camera. The radioactive material will leave and return to the camera through this opening when performing an exposure.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) A drive cable is connected to the other end of the camera. This cable, controlled by the radiographer, is used to force the radioactive material out into the guide tube where the gamma rays will pass through the specimen and expose the recording device.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY Unlike gamma rays, x-rays are produced by an X-ray generator system. These systems typically include an X-ray tube head, a high voltage generator, and a control console.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) X-rays are produced by establishing a very high voltage between two electrodes, called the anode and cathode. To prevent arcing, the anode and cathode are located inside a vacuum tube, which is protected by a metal housing.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) The cathode contains a small filament much the same as in a light bulb. Current is passed through the filament which heats it. The heat causes electrons to be stripped off. The high voltage causes these free electrons to be pulled toward a target material (usually made of tungsten) located in the anode. The electrons impact against the target. This impact causes an energy exchange which causes x-rays to be created.
High Electrical Potential

Electrons + -

X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation

Radiation Penetrate the Sample


Exposure Recording Device

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIATION INTERACTION WITH MATTER: Radiation absorption or scattering occurs depending upon energy of beam.

Compton scattering

Photoelectric absorption

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


FILM RADIOGRAPHY One of the most widely used and oldest imaging mediums in industrial radiography is radiographic film. Film contains microscopic material called silver bromide. Once exposed to radiation and developed in a darkroom, silver bromide turns to black metallic silver which forms the image.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


FILM RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) Film must be protected from visible light. Light, just like x-rays and gamma rays, can expose film. Film is loaded in a light proof cassette in a darkroom. This cassette is then placed on the specimen opposite the source of radiation. Film is often placed between screens to intensify radiation.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


FILM RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) In order for the image to be viewed, the film must be developed in a darkroom. The process is very similar to photographic film development. Film processing can either be performed manually in open tanks or in an automatic processor.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


FILM RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) Once developed, the film is typically referred to as a radiograph.

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING POROSITIES IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING TECHNIQUES: Single wall single image (SWSI)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING TECHNIQUES: Double wall single image (DWSI)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING TECHNIQUES: Double wall double image (DWDI)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIOGRAPHIC SENSITIVITY It is the ability of a technique to determine smallest discontinuity. It is a combination of Radiographic contrast & Radiographic definition.

Radiographic contrast is the density difference between two adjacent areas of the radiograph and is the net effect due to

Film contrast & Subject contrast

Radiographic definition refers to the sharpness of the radiographic image. The causes of radiographic un-sharpness:

Geometric un-sharpness (Ug) Movement un-sharpness (Um) Inherent or film un-sharpness (Ui) Scatter and screen un-sharpness (Us)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS (IQI) OR PENETRAMETERS It is used to judge quality of a radiograph and is measured in terms of radiographic sensitivity. The penetrameter is available in various designs.

e.g. Step type penetrameter Hole-step penetrameter Plate type penetrameter Wire type penetrameter Hole type penetrameter

IQIs should be placed on the source side of radiation, if in case, it is not possible to put it at source side it should be placed film side of radiation, in such case, letter F should be placed on the film. Wire type IQI should be placed across the weld. Hole type IQI should be placed parallel to the weld & 3mm apart from the weld edge.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETERS WIRE TYPE PENETRAMETERS

FILM IDENTIFICATION LEAD LETTERS

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

LOCATION MARKER:

Location markers are put to ensure total coverage of weld volume and for future traceability. Location marker shall always be put on job permanently and shall be visible on radiograph.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


EXAMPLES OF WELDING DISCONTINUITIES IN RT

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING LACK OF PENETRATION IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING LACK OF FUSION IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING UNDER CUT IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING MIS-MATCH IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING CRACKS IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING TUNGSTEN INCLUSION IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING SLAG INCLUSION IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING CLUSTER POROSITY IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING SUCK BACK IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING BURN THROUGH IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING UNDERFILL IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS

RADIOGRAPH SHOWING EXCESS REINFORCEMENT IN WELDING

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIOGRAPHY ACCEPTANCE STANDARD (ASME SECTION-I, PW-51) Crack, Lack of Fusion & Lack of Penetration are not acceptable. Any other elongated indication on the radiograph

6mm for thickness (t) up to 19mm is acceptable. 1/3 t for thickness (t) 19mm to 57mm is acceptable. 19mm for thickness (t) over 57mm is acceptable.

Total length of aligned indication greater than thk. of weld, in a length of radiograph, which is 12 times in length of thickness of weld is not acceptable. If, distance between successive indication exceeds 6L is acceptable. Where, L is the length of longest discontinuity in the group. Rounded indication acceptance standard as per A-250.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIOGRAPHY ACCEPTANCE STANDARD (ASME SECTION-I, PW-51)
APPENDIX A-250 / TABLE A 250.3.2

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIATION SAFETY Use of radiation sources in industrial radiography is heavily regulated by state and federal organizations due to potential public and personal risks.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIATION SAFETY There are many sources of radiation. In general, a person receives roughly 100 mrem/year from natural sources and roughly 100 mrem/year from manmade sources.

RADIATION SAFETY X-rays and gamma rays are forms of ionizing radiation, which means that they have the ability to form ions in the material that is penetrated. All living organisms are sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation (radiation burns, x-ray food pasteurization, etc.)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

X-rays and gamma rays have enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms and damage the molecular structure of cells. This can cause radiation burns or cancer.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

RADIATION SAFETY Technicians who work with radiation must wear monitoring devices that keep track of their total absorption, and alert them when they are in a high radiation area.

Survey Meter

Pocket Dosimeter

Radiation Alarm

Radiation Badge

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RADIATION SAFETY There are three means of protection to help reduce exposure to radiation:

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


Advance Technology in RT:

Real Time Radiography

Real-time radiography (RTR), or real-time radioscopy, is a nondestructive examination (NDE) method whereby an image is produced electronically rather than on film so that very little lag time occurs between the item being exposed to radiation and the resulting image. In most instances, the electronic image that is viewed, results from the radiation passing through the object being inspected and interacting with a screen of material that fluoresces or gives off light when the interaction occurs.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


Advance Technology in RT:

Weld images from Real Time Radiography

RTR image showing Crack in welding

RTR image showing Voids in welding

APPLICATION OF RT Can be applied to all materials. E.g. Ferrous & Non-ferrous, metallic & non-metallic and all composites. Sensitive for all volumetric type of defects. DEFECTS CAN BE DETECTED BY RT: All type of cracks Lack of fusion (LoF) Lack of Penetration (LoP) Mismatch Inclusions (Tungsten, Slag & Oxides) Excess reinforcement Excess penetration (EP) Underfill Undercut Oxide Suck back Burn through

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


ADVANTAGES

Permanent record & track of each and every welding is possible through film storage and joint identification. Technique is not limited by material type or density. Can inspect assembled components. Minimum surface preparation required. Sensitive to changes in thickness, corrosion, voids, cracks, and material density changes. Detects both surface and subsurface defects. Provides a permanent record of the inspection.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


LIMITATIONS

Many safety precautions for the use of high intensity radiation. Many hours of technician training prior to use. Access to both sides of sample required. Orientation of equipment and flaw can be critical. Determining flaw depth is impossible without additional angled exposures. Expensive initial equipment cost.

RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)


RT IN BOILER: HEADER

Circumferential welds Orifice welds Tube to tube welding

COIL

PANEL

Tube to tube welding

INTRODUCTION TO ULTRASONIC TESTING

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


OUTLINE

Working principle Types of sound waves & their propagation Type waves & particle motion Wavelength & frequency Attenuation of sound wave Acoustic impedance & its important Reflection & transmission Refraction UT equipments Data Presentation Calibration block DAC Curve UT of welding Advance technologies in UT Advantages & Limitations of UT Code acceptance criteria

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


WORKING PRINCIPLE: In Ultrasonic Testing the High frequency sound waves (Ultrasonic Energy) are sent into the object. The sound waves travel through the material and the waves are reflected at interfaces. The probe picks up the reflected wave and an analysis of this signal is done.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


SOUND WAVE PROPAGATION:

At atomic level when vibration takes place in particle, It generates sound wave. Sound wave propagation depends on particle vibration direction.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


WAVE TYPES IN SOLIDS PARTICLE VIBRATIONS

Longitudinal

Parallel to wave direction

Transverse (Shear)

Perpendicular to wave direction

Surface - Rayleigh

Elliptical orbit symmetrical mode

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY:

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE Sound travels through materials under the influence of sound pressure. Because molecules or atoms of a solid are bound elastically to one another, the excess pressure results in a wave propagating through the solid. The acoustic impedance (Z) of a material is defined as the product of its density (p) and acoustic velocity (V). It is resistance of material to passage of the sound beam through material. Z = pV Acoustic impedance is important in the determination of acoustic transmission and reflection at the boundary of two materials having different acoustic impedances. Reflection is directly proportional to impedance ratio of two material. Air to any solid material impedance ratio is highest. So, UT is always sensitive for planer defects. assessing absorption of sound in a medium.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION:

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


REFRACTION When an ultrasonic wave passes through an interface between two materials at an oblique angle, and the materials have different indices of refraction, both reflected and refracted waves are produced.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


ATTENUATION OF SOUND WAVE: Ultrasonic attenuation is the decay rate of the wave as it propagates through material. When sound travels through a medium, its intensity diminishes with distance due to Scattering and Absorption. Scattering is the reflection of the sound in directions other than its original direction of propagation. Absorption is the conversion of the sound energy to other forms of energy. The combined effect of scattering and absorption is called attenuation.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


BASIC SET UP OF UT: Transducer (1) Cable (2) Ultrasonic Flaw Detector (3) Couplant (4)
3
2

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


TRANSDUCERS (PROBE)

Principle : Converts Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy and vice-versa(Pie)

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL

Case-1 - Mechanical Energy converts into Electrical energy

Case-2 - Electrical Energy converts into Mechanical Energy

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


PROBE (TRANSDUCER) TYPES: Contact Transducers Used for direct contact inspections. Coupling materials of water, grease, oils, or commercial materials are used to remove the air gap between the transducer and the component being inspected. Immersion Transducers Do not contact the component. Specially designed to operate in a liquid environment.

Transducers are available with a planer, cylindrically focused or spherically focused lens.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) PROBE (TRANSDUCER) TYPES (CONT.):


0 (Normal) beam Transducers Single Crystal Probe: Single crystal element is used both for transmitting and receiving. Dual Crystal Probe: Contain two independently operated elements in a single housing. One of the elements transmits and the other receives the ultrasonic signal. Applicable for the inspection of course grained material. Well suited for making measurements in applications where reflectors are very near the transducer. Angle beam probe Used to introduce a refracted shear wave into the test material. Available in a variety of fixed angles or in adjustable versions where the user determines the angles of incidence and refraction. Probe angles 45, 60 and 70 are being used widely.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


WAVE INTERFERENCE

The sound that emanates from an ultrasonic transducer does not originate from a single point, but instead originates from many points along the surface of the piezoelectric element This results in a sound field with many waves interacting or interfering with each other. When waves interact, they superimpose on each other, and the amplitude of the sound pressure or particle displacement at any point of interaction is the sum of the amplitudes of the two individual waves.
Single Point Dual Point Multi Point

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


NEAR FIELD AND FAR FIELD: Near Field: Wave interference leads to extensive fluctuations in the sound intensity near the source and is known as the near field. Far Field: The area just beyond the near field is where the sound wave is well behaved and at its maximum strength. Therefore, optimal detection results will be obtained when flaws occur in this area.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


DEAD ZONE: It is the interval following the surface of a test object to the nearest inspectable depth. Any interval following a reflected signal where no direct echoes from discontinuities cannot be detected, due to characteristics of the equipment.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


PULSER /RECEIVER OR ULTRASONIC FLAW DETECTOR (UFD): The pulser section of the instrument generates short, large amplitude electric pulses of controlled energy, which are converted into short ultrasonic pulses when applied to an ultrasonic transducer. In the receiver section the voltage signals produced by the transducer, which represent the received ultrasonic pulses, are amplified. The amplified radio frequency (RF) signal is available as an output for display or capture for signal processing.

Analog

Digital

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


COAXIAL CABLE A: outer plastic sheath B: woven copper shield C: inner dielectric insulator D: copper-plated core

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)

COUPLANT:
Couplant is used to nullify air gap between probe and specimen surface. Couplant medias are Water Oil Grease Cellulose paste

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


DATA REPRESENTATION: A-Scan B-Scan C-Scan

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


A-SCAN

The A-scan presentation displays the amount of received ultrasonic energy as a function of time. The relative amount of received energy is plotted along the vertical axis and the elapsed time (which may be related to the sound energy travel time within the material) is displayed along the horizontal axis.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


A-SCAN UT VISUALIZATION (NORMAL PROBE)

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


A-SCAN UT VISUALIZATION (ANGLE PROBE)

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


B-SCAN

The B-scan presentations is a profile (cross-sectional) view of the test specimen. In the B-scan, the time-of-flight (travel time) of the sound energy is displayed along the vertical axis and the linear position of the transducer is displayed along the horizontal axis. In the B-scan, the depth of the reflector and its approximate linear dimensions in the scan direction can be determined.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


C-SCAN

The C-scan presentation provides a plan-type view of the location and size of test specimen features. The plane of the image is parallel to the scan pattern of the transducer. C-scan presentations are produced with an automated data acquisition system, such as a computer controlled immersion scanning system.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


CALIBRATION

Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and accuracy of measurement equipment.

REFERENCE STANDARDS :

To establish a general level of consistency in measurements and to help interpret and quantify the information contained in the received signal. To validate that the equipment and the setup provide similar results from one day to the next and that similar results are produced by different systems. Help the inspector to estimate the size of flaws. Signal strength depends on both the size of the flaw and the distance between the flaw and the transducer. The inspector can use a reference standard with an artificially induced flaw of known size and at approximately the same distance away for the transducer to produce a signal By comparing the signal from the reference standard to that received from the actual flaw, the inspector can estimate the flaw size.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


Calibration Blocks

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


DISTANCE AMPLITUDE CORRECTION (DAC): Acoustic signals from the same reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distances from the transducer. Acoustic signals from the same reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distances from the transducer.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)

UFD

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


UT OF WELDED JOINTS:

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


SCANNING PATTERN AND DIRECTION: Maximum reflection can be achieved when flaw is lying perpendicular to beam direction. Probe angle selection should be such that beam shall hit perpendicular to the side wall of weld groove. The best practice is to scan from two different direction and with two different angle beam probes. Mainly three types of scanning patterns are used to get reflection from defects lying at any orientation.
Longitudinal scanning Transverse scanning Orbital scanning

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


ADVANCED UT (PHASED ARRAY) Phased arrays use an array of elements, all individually wired, pulsed and time-shifted. These elements can be a linear array, a 2D matrix array, a circular array or some more complex form.

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)

All arrays are operated individually, It will give us various types of wave configuration. Ultrasonic phased arrays use a multiple element probe whereby the output pulse from each element is time delayed in such a way so as produce constructive interference at a specific angle and a specific depth. These time delays can be incremented over a range of angles to sweep the beam over the desired angular range.

Focused Normal beam

Focused Shear wave

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


DATA PRESENTATION:

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


TIME OF FLIGHT DEFRACTION:

The TOFD technique is based on diffraction of ultrasonic waves on tips of discontinuities, instead of geometrical reflection on the interface of the discontinuities When ultrasound is incident at linear discontinuity such as crack, diffraction takes place at its extremities. Usually TOFD technique uses a pair of probes. One Acts as an emitter of ultrasound, the other as a receiver. The longitudinal sound beam can encounter obstacles on its path, which cause reflected and diffracted signals. When the probes are moved parallel along the weld, the resultant waveforms are digitized, stored on hard disk and displayed on the screen. Using this advanced technique gas and binding defects, slag inclusions and cracks can be detected independent of defect orientation with very accurate sizing of the defects (0.5-1.0 mm).

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


TOFD SIGNALS:

Transmitter Lateral wave

Receiver

Upper tip Lower tip Back-wall reflection

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


DATA PRESENTATION:

1 2

The crack blocks the Lateral Wave And the lower tip appears on the A-scan

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


APPLICATION OF UT: Can be applied to all materials. E.g. Ferrous & Non-ferrous, metallic & non-metallic and all composites. Practically there is no any thickness limitation to perform UT. DEFECTS CAN BE DETECTED BY UT: All type of cracks Lack of fusion (LoF) Lack of Penetration (LoP) Inclusions (Tungsten, Slag & Oxides) Excess penetration (EP) Undercut

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


ADVANTAGES OF UT: It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities. The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods. Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used. It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape. Minimal part preparation is required. Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results. Detailed images can be produced with automated systems. It has other uses, such as thickness measurement, in addition to flaw detection.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


LIMITATIONS OF UT: Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound. Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods. It normally requires a coupling medium to promote the transfer of sound energy into the test specimen. Materials that are rough, irregular in shape, very small, exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect. Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise. Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected. Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration and the characterization of flaws.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AS PER ASME SECTION-1 PW -52:

Technique and standards for ultrasonic examination are given in ASME Section V, Article 4 & 5. Imperfections that cause an indication greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the ultrasonic examination personnel can determine their shape, identity, and location, and evaluate them in terms of PW-52.3.1 and PW-52.3.2. Cracks, lack of fusion, or incomplete penetration are not acceptable regardless of length. Other imperfections are unacceptable if the indication exceeds the reference level and their length exceeds the following: 6 mm for t up to 19 mm 13t for t from 19 mm to 57 mm 19 mm for t over 57 mm Notes :- where t is the thickness of the weld being examined. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thickness.

ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)


UT IN BOILER:

Header
T-piece branch connection Manifold support bolts Depth confirmation (If repair found in Cir. Seams) Above 48mm thk

APPLICATION OF N.D.E.
FLAW TYPE MATERIAL
Ferrous forgings Ferrous raw material Ferrous tube & pipe Ferrous welds Steel castings Iron castings Non-Fe materials Fe finished materials Non-Fe finished materials Surface flaw M.T. M.T. M.T. E.T. M.T. U.T. M.T. M.T. P.T. E.T. M.T. P.T. E.T. Sub-surface flaw M.T. U.T. M.T. U.T. M.T. U.T. U.T. Internal flaw R.T. U.T. U.T. U.T. R.T. U.T. Lack of fusion ----U.T. R.T. U.T. ----U.T. U.T. --Inclusions e.g. slag, T.I. R.T. U.T. M.T. U.T. M.T. U.T. R.T. U.T. Material quality ----------U.T. ------Lamination & thickness measurement U.T. U.T. U.T. U.T. U.T. U.T. U.T. U.T. U.T.

M.T. U.T.
U.T. E.T. --U.T. E.T. U.T. E.T.

R.T. U.T.
U.T. R.T. U.T. R.T. U.T. R.T. U.T.

R.T. U.T.
R.T. U.T. P.T. U.T. M.T. U.T. U.T. E.T.

APPLICATION OF N.D.E.
N.D.E. IN BOILER INDUSTRY:

Boiler testing for welding defects both during manufacturing and in service. Boiler piping thickness measurement and turbine component testing.

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