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Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 52615271

Aircraft emission measurements by remote sensing methodologies at airports


Klaus Sch. fera,*, Carsten Jahna, Peter Sturmb, a Bernhard Lechnerb, Michael Bacherb
Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Atmospheric Environmental Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (IMK-IFU), Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, D-82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany b Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology (TUG-VKM), Inffeldgasse 25, A-8010 Graz, Austria Received 13 December 2002; received in revised form 6 June 2003; accepted 4 September 2003
a

Abstract The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts from measurements taken under operating conditions, to calculate precisely the emission inventories of airports, are not available up to now. To determine these data, measurement campaigns were performed on idling aircraft at major European airports using non-intrusive spectroscopic methods like Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Emission indices for CO and NOx were calculated and compared to the values given in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) database. The emission index for CO for 36 different aircraft engine types and for NOx (24 different engine types) were determined. It was shown that for idling aircraft, CO emissions are underestimated using the ICAO database. The emission indices for NOx determined in this work are lower than given in the ICAO database. In addition, a high variance of emission indices in each aircraft family and from engine to engine of the same engine type was found. During the same measurement campaigns, the emission indices for CO and NO of eight different types of auxilliary power units were investigated. r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Aircraft emission indices; Airport emission inventory; FTIR; Passive FTIR spectrometry; DOAS

1. Introduction Although more than 15,000 aircrafts populate the sky and more than 2200 billions of passenger-kilometres (pkm) are own each year (Airbus Industries, 2001), very little is known about the emission behaviour of aircraft engines during their different ight cycles. The only source available up to now is the database of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) (ICAO, 1993). In this database, emission indices of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2),
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +49-8821-183-192; fax: +498821-73573. E-mail address: klaus.schaefer@imk.fzk.de (K. Sch. fer). a URL: http://www.fzk.de.

unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and particulate matter (smoke number) are provided by the engine manufacturer for engines with a rated output of more than 26.7 kN. The emission indices are given according to the Landing-Take-Off cycle (LTO) which is shown in Table 1. In this cycle, the operations of an aircraft near an airport up to 3000 ft are modelled. Most of the time, the aircraft is taxiing with a thrust of 7% maximum value. This mode was investigated by this ground-based study intensively. There is a very short take-off with 100% maximum thrust, 2.2 min of climb out (85% maximum thrust) and 4 min of approach to the destination airport with an engine thrust of 30% maximum value. However, these emission indices were gained from a very limited number of newly manufactured engines during the certication process. As the life

1352-2310/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.002

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5262 K. Schafer et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 52615271 . Table 1 Denition of LTO cycle in terms of thrust and time period Cycle Take-off Climb out Approach Taxi Percentage of maximum thrust (%) 100 85 30 7 Time (min) 0.7 2.2 4 26

expectancy of an aircraft is in the range of some 30 years, emission of an aircraft engine might vary signicantly over the years. In addition, the emission behaviour of an engine installed on an aircraft might be different from that of an engine operated in an engine test bed. To overcome these limitations of the ICAO database (Huttig et al., 1999), several measurement campaigns . were performed at different European airports:
*

Run-up tests of aircraft engines (London-Heathrow in 1999 and 2000, Frankfurt/Main in 2000, Vienna in 2001), Start-up and idle thrust of the engines after nishing all services at the airport gate or other positions (Frankfurt/Main in 2000, London-Heathrow in 2001), and Extra stop of the aircraft on a taxi way with engine idle thrust (Vienna in 2001).

If there is no airport-site energy available, the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of the aircraft is operated for production of electric energy on-board the aircraft and for production of compressed air to start the main engines. Although the APU may contribute signicantly to the emission of aircraft at airports, no emission indices of APU are available in the ICAO database. In this study, a large number of APU was investigated. Clearly, normal operations of the aircraft at the airport must remain unimpaired during the measurements and the safety of the passengers has to be guaranteed under all circumstances. For this reason it is strictly forbidden to approach an idling aircraft closer than 50 m. Only few non-intrusive measurement devices fulll this very stringent restriction. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) (Goody and Yung, 1989) is very well suited for this kind of measurements. There are two ways of performing measurements using FTIR. In the so-called active mode an infrared source emits infrared radiation which passes the exhaust plume. By analysing the absorption of the radiation, the number and the species of the molecules in the engine exhaust can be determined. As every hot gas emits infrared radiation, this radiation can be used to determine the

species and the concentration of molecules in the exhaust plume using an FTIR spectrometer. This technique is called passive FTIR emission spectrometry. Active FTIR absorption spectrometry is a very old technique and well understood. It provides very low detection limits for carbon monoxide and some kind of hydrocarbons like ethene, ethine and formaldehyde. It is very fast with a measurement velocity of only some seconds. Passive FTIR emission spectrometry for investigation of exhausts has been developed by Heland, Sch. fer et al. a (Heland and Sch. fer, 1997, 1998) in recent years. a Compared to active FTIR absorption spectrometry, it is easier to install because the hot gas just has to be in the eld of view of the telescope of the spectrometer as it can be seen in Fig. 1. However, it provides higher detection limits than active FTIR absorption spectrometry and a measurement velocity in the order of about 1 min. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is subject to very intensive research as it may have a serious impact on the ozone production in the lower and upper atmosphere. Unfortunately, FTIR spectrometry is not very well suited for the detection of NOx because the absorption (or emission) peaks are masked by signatures of water vapour which is omnipresent in the ambient air at high concentration levels. For this reason a third measurement system, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) (Platt, 1994; Opsis, 1997), which operates very much like the active FTIR absorption spectrometer was used. DOAS uses the ultraviolet spectral range (200400 nm) instead of the middle infrared region (5100 mm). It is very well suited for the detection of NOx and aromatics like benzene and toluene, but is somewhat slower than active FTIR. One measurement takes 15 s for each compound. The characterisation of the three measurement systems is summarised in Table 2. Emission of an aircraft engine is described by emission index EI of a molecule which is the relation of the amount of emission of species X in g to the burned kerosene in kg. During certication measurements, the fuel ow is also measured to determine the emission index. Measurement activities at airports described here do not need this information from onboard measurements at aircraft if carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration can be measured. The amount of burned kerosene can be easily related to the amount of CO2 emitted assuming stoichiometric combustion: QCO2 EICO2 Qfuel; 1

where QCO2 and Qfuel are the concentrations (mixing ratios, column densities, etc.) of CO2 and burned fuel, respectively, and EICO2 is not at 3,150 g/kg.

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K. Schafer et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 52615271 . 5263

Fig. 1. Measurement conguration for remote sensing of aircraft exhausts at airports: FTIR emission spectrometry (passive), FTIR absorption spectrometry (on open path) and DOAS.

Table 2 Measurement set-up with measurement volume, measurement principle, measured gases, and detection limit Measurement system FTIR absorption spectrometry with MIDAC spectrometer Measurement volume Measurement principle Behind the aircraft Absorption of radiation at 80 up to 150 m length with IR radiation source Measured gases CO2 CO (ethene, ethine, formaldehyde) NO2 Detection limit 10 ppm 100 ppb (for 100 m path) 2 ppb

DOAS with system from Opsis

Behind the aircraft

Absorption of radiation at 80 up to 150 m length with UV/visible radiation source

NO FTIR emission spectrometry with K300 spectrometer Behind the aircraft engine Emission of IR radiation by hot gases CO2 CO NO

7 ppb (for 100 m path) 0.1% 5 ppm 8 ppm (exhaust diameter 60 cm)

The emission index of a species X is calculated based on the equation EIX EICO2 MX QX ; MCO2 QCO2 2

where M denotes the molecular weight and Q denotes concentrations (mixing ratios, column densities, etc.) of the species. CO2 can be determined by FTIR emission and absorption spectrometry with very low detection limits.

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The emission index of NOx is calculated assuming that NO and NO2 have the same mass. The reason is that most NO is chemically transformed in the exhaust plume and surrounding air into NO2. Therefore, EINOx is calculated by means of the ratio of the molecular mass of NO2 (46 g/mol) and NO (30 g/mol) from EI(NO2) and EI(NO), by EINOx EINO2 EINO 46 : 30 3

2. Measurement set-up and instruments 2.1. Set-up of measurement devices Application of non-intrusive measurement methods at airports is summarised in Fig. 1. Both open paths of 80 up to 150 m length for FTIR absorption spectrometry and DOAS were installed in parallel directly behind the aircraft so that the exhaust gases were blown into the paths. CO2 cannot be measured by DOAS because there are serious interferences to oxygen. But DOAS measurement results can be used also together with the results of CO2 concentration measurements by FTIR absorption spectrometry to determine emission indices of NOx. APU emission measurements were performed by passive FTIR emission spectrometry only. 2.2. DOAS and FTIR FTIR absorption spectrometry and DOAS are based on the physical effect that many trace gases absorb the
G-BIKY
2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 CO [ppm]

radiation in the UV, visible and infrared spectral range. Propagation of monochromatic radiation in the atmosphere is described by the equation of radiative transfer. In the case of homogeneous open-path absorption, where the radiation damping of a light source is used, the incoming radiation in a certain spectral interval is given by the BeerLambert law (Goody and Yung, 1989). That means that in the case of exhaust plumes a multi-layer radiation transfer is investigated. The FTIR absorption measurements were performed using a commercial spectrometer of the company MIDAC with a nominal spectral resolution of 0.5 cm1 (see Table 2). The concentration of CO2 was determined using a peak at 2077 cm1 after subtraction of the inuence of water and carbon monoxide. The CO concentration was calculated in the region between 2164 and 2177 cm1. The minimum detection limit of CO is in the range of 100 ppb for a path length of 100 m. The detection limit of CO2 suffers from the high background concentration 350400 ppm and is approximately 10 ppm. However, there is an additional check of the measurement quality of CO and CO2 as there must be a high correlation between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentration as it is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2 shows as an example the curves of concentrations for CO2 and CO for the RB211-535C engine which powers the B757-236. The registration number of each aircraft is also given. The correlation between the curves is better than 0.9. There is an increase of CO and CO2 in the absorption path of approximately 1 and 150 ppm, respectively, for most of the investigated aircrafts.

RB211-535C
580

G-BIKY G-BIKB G-BIKB G-BIKR

G-BIKZ

CO CO2 530

G-BIKY
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

G-BMRA
430

G-BIKR G-BMRA

380

330

:2 4 12 :51 :2 7 12 :00 :3 9: 14 18 :4 8 14 :03 :5 6 11 :10 :3 6: 11 50 :3 8 11 :58 :4 1 12 :21 :5 1: 13 14 :3 3 13 :37 :3 5 15 :45 :1 9 15 :43 :2 1: 13 55 :3 4 13 :46 :3 6: 15 59 :0 1 15 :50 :0 3: 15 58 :0 6 10 :35 :2 8 10 :58 :3 1 10 :07 :3 3: 16 21 :1 0 16 :02 :1 2: 10

12

G-BIKR
Fig. 2. Curves of measured concentration for CO and CO2 for the RB211-535C engine.

CO2 [ppm]

480

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DOAS measurements were done with a commercial spectrometer of the company Opsis. The detection limits of this instrument at a 100 m open path are 7 ppb for NO and 2 ppb for NO2 (see Table 2). The curves of concentration for NO, NO2 and CO2 are shown in Fig. 3. Aircrafts are identied by the last letter of their registration number as the registration number of the A320 and A321 of the Austrian Airlines Group is of the form OE-LBx where x is an arbitrary number. It can be seen in Fig. 3 that there is a correlation between CO2 and NO2, which is not as good as the correlation between CO2 and CO. This can be easily understood because CO2 and NO2 were measured with different techniques (FTIR absorption spectrometry and DOAS, respectively). So an additional slight error is introduced. There is only a very weak correlation between CO2 and NO. At the engine exit, all NOx is emitted as NO which is measured by FTIR emission spectrometry. The DOAS measurements took place some 50 m behind the engine nozzle. Meanwhile, nearly all NO was transformed to NO2. That is why NO could be detected with passive FTIR emission spectrometry as the concentration was measured directly behind the engine and not with DOAS. The FTIR absorption spectrometer and the DOAS system were installed on the ground using tripods. The spectrometers used a 220 V electric power supply whereas the radiation sources used batteries. The measurement time of all instruments is about 12 mins. 2.3. Passive FTIR In the passive measurement mode (FTIR emission spectrometry), the infrared radiation from hot exhaust

gases is detected (see Table 2). The hot molecules emit infrared radiation at specic wavelengths and show characteristic signatures at the same infrared wavelengths as in the case of absorption. The interpretation of the measured spectra is based on a radiation trans fer simulation with line-by-line calculation of spectra using HITRAN spectroscopic data bank (Haus et al., 1994). The following spectral regions are used for tting simulated and measured spectra: CO2: 2390 cm175 cm1, H2O: 1975 cm175 cm1, CO: 2169 cm1 (low concentration)75 cm1; 2056 cm1 (high concentration)75 cm1, NO: 1900 cm175 cm1. The consecutive detection limits are: CO2 0.1%, CO 5 ppm and NO 8 ppm (exhaust diameter 60 cm, distance about 30 m). NO2 (detection limit 60 ppm) is not detectable normally. Burner experiments with CO and NO calibration gas and simultaneous in situ and FTIR emission spectrometry measurements provided deviations in the order of 710% to 720% (Heland and Sch. fer, 1997). The a quality of the FTIR emission spectrometry results for CO2, CO, and NO in comparison to the averaged intrusive mean values in aero-engine exhausts collected by certied intrusive systems during engine runs on test rigs was investigated as part of the EC funded projects Non-intrusive measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions (AEROJET), contract BRPR-CT96-142 (Sch. fer et al., 2000), and Prototyping a non-intrusive a exhaust gas measurement system for gas turbines (AEROJET 2). The differences for the emission indices of CO2, CO and NO were below 730%. The objective of these projects was the development, demonstration and prototyping of non-intrusive measurement methods

CFM56-5B
180 160

O D N Q D O N E Q

NO2 NO CO2

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CO2 [ppm]

140 120 NOx [ppb] 100 80 60 40 20 0


8: 00 9: 17 40 :3 2: 17 00 :3 3: 17 40 :4 2: 17 10 :4 3: 19 50 :4 3: 19 10 :4 4: 20 50 :0 9: 13 10 :2 0: 13 10 :2 1: 13 50 :3 9: 13 40 :4 1: 14 20 :1 2: 14 30 :2 5: 14 30 :2 7: 16 1 0 :1 5: 16 10 :1 6: 16 50 :1 8: 13 30 :4 5: 13 10 :4 6: 14 50 :3 3: 40 13 :5

Fig. 3. Curves of measured concentration for NO2, NO and CO2 for the A320 and A321 of Austrian Airlines Group. The atmospheric background of CO2 has been subtracted.

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like FTIR absorption and emission spectrometry for determination of composition of turbine exhausts. During measurements at airports, a van was used in which the FTIR spectrometer (K300 of the company Kayser-Threde) with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm1 was installed. The FTIR instrument with telescope (diameter 15 cm, eld-of-view 3 mrad) was aligned towards the engine nozzle exit with a two axis movable entrance mirror, controlled by a separate computer. The position was checked by a digital camera.

3. Measurement campaigns and results Measurement results at the airports Frankfurt/Main, London-Heathrow and Vienna for idle conditions are presented in the following. 3.1. Main engines CO and NOx The list of all measured main engines of nearly 140 different aircrafts is given in Table 3 together with corresponding ICAO values. The CO emission indices determined by FTIR emission and absorption spectrometry are shown. All measurements were performed during summertime (mean air temperature about 20 C). Only the measurements of some B747-236, B747-436, and B777-236 were in March 1999 with temperatures around 11 C. Fig. 4 shows the relative deviation between measurement data (FTIR emission and absorption spectrometry) and emission indices of the ICAO datasheet for CO as given in Table 3. The largest differences between measurement results and ICAO data in the range of some 100% were found for the RB211-524D4 which powers the B747-236. These three aircrafts investigated by FTIR absorption spectrometry were quite old ones. The oldest aircraft with an emission index of 52.9 g/kg was 25 years old, the other two were built in 1987 and 1983. The measured emission indices were somewhat lower than 28.7 and 30.5 g/kg, respectively. Another engine with high differences (190% for FTIR emission spectrometry and 124.5% for FTIR absorption spectrometry) between ICAO and the data of this study is the CFM56-5B3/P of A321-211. There is a very good statistical background for these data, as nine engines of this type were measured by FTIR absorption spectrometry. The CFM56-5B1 powers the A321-111 which is very similar to the A321-211. Ten engines of this type were investigated. Twenty-four CFM56-5B4/2P of the A320-214 were measured, too. Although the ICAO data for CO for these three engine types (CFM56-5B1, CFM56-5B4/2P and CFM56-5B3/P) of the CFM56-5B family differ by a factor of 2, the mean values of the measured emission indices are nearly identical (see Table 3). The emission indices of each engine measure-

ment of these three CFM56-5B engine types (a total of 43 single engines was measured) are given in Fig. 5 together with the ICAO data. The measured data of the CO emission index are very consistent in the range between 40 and 50 g/kg. There are just a few outliers. One measurement tends to be very low with an emission index of 17.1 g/kg. Only one measurement exceeds 60 g/kg. The engine of the B777-236, the huge GE90-85B was investigated seven times by FTIR emission and six times by FTIR absorption spectrometry (see Table 3). The emission index of both systems was twice as high as the emission index provided by ICAO (Fig. 4). The emissions of an A340-211 powered by four CFM56-5C2 engines tend to be much lower than given by ICAO. The measured emission index by FTIR emission spectrometry is just 18% of the ICAO value, while the emission index provided by FTIR absorption spectrometry is somewhat higher (deviation: -44%). The main reason for the relatively high variance of extreme values given as minimum and maximum value of all measured data in Table 3 is engine-to-engine emission variation caused by engine aging and maintenance quality. This can be concluded because the highest variances were found if a high number of different aircrafts was investigated. The differences in the CO emission indices measured by FTIR emission spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectrometry (see Table 3) are caused by a different measurement principle and measurement volume. The FTIR emission spectrometry detects the exhausts of a single engine and the FTIR absorption spectrometry the exhausts of all engines behind the aircraft. The mean differences are 20%, i.e. in the order of measurement accuracy. That means that the measured data by both measurement systems can be used to control and to add each other. Although the DOAS is very sensitive to the measurement of NO with a detection limit of some 7 ppb, no NO could be detected in the exhaust plume behind the aircraft. This is due to the chemical transformation from NO to NO2. So all NOx behind the aircraft were measured as NO2. NO was measured by passive FTIR emission spectrometry at the nozzle exit. The emission index of NOx given from measurements by the passive FTIR emission spectrometry are generally lower than the results determined from DOAS measurements (see Table 4). The reason is that the NOx emission index is determined from NO measurements only because NO2 cannot be detected by the passive FTIR spectrometry at the nozzle exit due to the relatively high detection limit for that compound (Sch. fer et al., 2000). a All measured emission indices of NOx by FTIR emission spectrometry and DOAS are shown in Table 4 and are signicantly below the ICAO values. On the contrary, the measured CO emission indices are generally higher than the ICAO values. The number of

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K. Schafer et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 52615271 . 5267 Table 3 Measured mean CO emission indices (EI) of main engines in g compound per kg fuel at idle thrust of different engine types by FTIR emission spectrometry and by FTIR absorption spectrometry Aircraft A320-211 A320 A320-214 A320-214 A320-231 A321-111 A321-211 A340-211 A340 B737-300 B737-306 B737-382 B737-406 B737-600 B737 B737-800 B737-800 B737-8K2 B747-200 B747-236 B747-436 B757-236 B757-236 B757-236 B757-236 B767-336 B777-236 MD-87 MD-87 Fokker 70 CRJ 100LR CRJ 100LR CRJ 200LR DHC-8-300Q DHC-8-400Q Engine type CFM56-5A1 CFM56-5A3 CFM56-5B4/2 CFM56-5B4/2P V2500-A1 CFM56-5B1 CFM56-5B3/P CFM56-5C2 CFM56-5C4 CFM56-3C1 CFM56-3B1 CFM56-3B2 CFM56-3B2 CFM56-7B22/2 CFM56-7B24 CFM56-7B26 CFM56-7B27 CFM56-7B27 GE CF 6-50E2 RB211-524D4 RB211-524H2 RB211-535C RB211-535C-37 RB211-535E4 RB211-535E4-37 RB211-524H-36 GE90-85B JT8D-217C GE CF6-80C2D1F RR-Tay MK620 GE CF 34-3A GE CF 34-3A1 GE CF 34-3B PW 123B PW 150A No. 1 2 7 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 5 1 2 1 7 1 10 1 2 8 8 5 EI CO (g/kg) FTIR Em. spectr. 15.5 48.8 (30.5 62.3) 50.5 (21.3 72.6) 7.2 (2.5 13.0) 49.9 (23.0 71.9) 55.7 (50.7 63.9) 6.0 29.8 (19.9 37.1) 37.6 27.4 33.7 59.6 (45.9 73.4) 17.6 25.7 (17.3 33.8) 20.3 (8.9 34.5) 32.6 26.0 (21.0 31.2) 12.2 (10.4 18.1) 11.8 (11.7 12.0) 7.5 (3.0 11.0) 6.7 (6.6 13.4) 9.2 (5.5 13.4) 7.3 39.1 (2.7 64.1) 10.3 (9.4 11.2) 23.1 (11.5 46.7) 39.2 (38.0 40.5) 36.7 (31.0 46.6) 38.9 (10.2 57.3) 9.5 (2.2 27.0) 8.3 (3.3 17.0) No. 1 1 1 24 1 10 9 2 1 3 2 1 1 5 3 6 11 4 6 4 1 19 6 5 8 7 EI CO (g/kg) FTIR Abs. spectr. 28.8274.86 33.373.1 53.01716.45 45.8573.8 10.0975.2 42.0974.35 43.175.03 19.0373.82 15.3371.51 38.39710.5 33.8573.05 48.7715.05 45.0716.36 30.5473.71 37.41715.25 19.4876.51 15.4172.00 15.6775.35 43.3576.21 24.46712.45 43.8714.4 32.3373.05 25.87712.1 30.8374.88 18.0073.58 15.8873.2 ICAO (g/kg) 17.6 16.2 37.1 40.1 12.43 28.4 19.2 34.0 30.93 26.8 34.4 30.1 30.1 45.35 22.0 18.8 17.9 17.9 24.04 9.3 11.75 18.79 18.79 15.44 15.44 11.75 13.67 17.89 18.02 24.1 42.6 42.6 42.6

The number of measured different single engines is given (No.). The extrema as minimum and maximum value of all measured data are given in brackets (sometimes several measurements were possible at a single engine). For the FTIR absorption measurements, the 95% condence interval from measurements of the different single engines is given. For comparison, the values of the investigated engines from International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) data sheets are listed.

measured single engines for each engine type can be different in Tables 3 and 4 because not all measurements of the three different measurement systems could be interpreted successfully. 3.2. Aircraft families CO and NOx Table 5 shows the averaged emission index of CO and NOx of the measurements for each aircraft family by each measurement system compared to the averaged

ICAO data of the investigated engines for idle conditions. The emission indices of CO shown in Table 5 are slightly above the corresponding ICAO data for all aircrafts except for the B757, the A340 and the Canadair and Embraer regional jets (CRJ and ERJ). The averaged NOx emission index for the measurements for each aircraft family are signicantly below the corresponding ICAO data for idle conditions. In addition to Table 5, the data in Tables 3 and 4 show that there is a high variance in emission indices

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Fig. 4. Relative deviation of CO measurement results by FTIR emission and absorption spectrometry to ICAO data as given in Table 3.

70

CFM56-5Bx EI(CO)
EI(CO)

60

50

EI(CO) [g/kg]

40

30

20

10

CFM56-5B3/P CFM56-5B3/P
0

CFM56-5B4/2P CFM56-5B4/2P

CFM56-5B1 CFM56-5B1

Fig. 5. Emission indices of CO of 43 investigated CFM56-5Bx engines as vertical bars. The 95% condence interval from the measurements of the different single engines is also given. X indicates either 3/P, 4/2P or 1. The ICAO emission indices of these three engine types are indicated as horizontal bars.

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K. Schafer et al. / Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 52615271 . 5269 Table 4 Measured mean emission indices (EI) of main engines in g compound per kg fuel at idle thrust of different engine types by FTIR emission spectrometry and DOAS for NOx Aircraft A320-211 A320-214 A320-231 A321-111 A321-211 A340-211 B737-300 B737-382 B737-600 B737-800 B747-236 B747-436 B757-236 B757-236 B777-236 MD-87 MD-87 Fokker 70 CRJ 100LR CRJ 100LR CRJ 200LR DHC-8-300Q DHC-8-400Q Engine type CFM56-5A1 CFM56-5B4/2P V2500-A1 CFM56-5B1 CFM56-5B3/P CFM56-5C2 CFM56-3C1 CFM56-3B2 CFM56-7B22/2 CFM56-7B27 RB211-524D4 RB211-524H2 RB211-535C RB211-535E4 GE90-85B JT8D-217C JT8D-219 RR-Tay MK620 GE CF 34 3A GE CF 34-3A1 GE CF 34-3B PW 123B PW 150A No. 1 7 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 7 1 10 1 2 8 8 5 EI NOx (g/kg) FTIR Em. spectr. Bdl 0.9 (bdl 1.2) 1.3 (bdl 3.8) 0.9 (0.7 1.1) 0.7 (bdl 1.0) Bdl 2.1 (1.9 2.3) 0.5 1.4 (1.0 1.8) 1.0 (0.7 1.4) Bdl 0.3 (bdl 3.8) 0.7 0.6 (0.5 0.7) 0.4 (bdl 2.0) Bdl 0.3 (bdl 4.0) 1.0 1.0 (0.8 1.2) 1.0 (0.8 1.4) 1.7 (bdl 14.5) 0.8 (bdl 2.2) No. 1 22 3 10 6 2 1 1 1 5 2 5 10 3 5 4 1 21 6 11 8 3 EI NOx (g/kg) DOAS 1.68 2.170.24 1.5670.41 2.2470.32 1.9770.36 1.6770.47 2.1770.49 1.3970.11 2.0570.11 2.1870.34 2.017 1 1.9970.64 1.5770.23 1.3570.23 1.870.75 1.6870.49 2.66 1.7470.23 1.470.27 1.670.56 1.7870.28 2.1270.94 ICAO (g/kg) 4.0 3.9 5.91 4.6 4.7 4.2 4.3 4.1 3.94 4.8 4.11 4.78 3.44 4.3 6.01 4.05 4.16 2.5 3.82 3.82 3.82

The number of measured different single engines is given (No.) as well as the 95% condence interval for DOAS measurements from measured different single engines. Bdl means below detection limit, i.e. a signature in the measured spectra cannot be inverted. The extrema as minimum and maximum value of all measured data are given in brackets (sometimes several measurements were possible at a single engine). For comparison, the values of the investigated engines from International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) data sheets are listed.

Table 5 Measured mean emission indices (EI) of main engines in g compound per kg fuel at idle thrust of different aircraft families by this study (FTIR emission and absorption spectrometry for CO, FTIR emission spectrometry and DOAS for NOx) Aircraft No. for CO DHC 8Q Fokker 70 RJ MD80 A320 A340 B737 B747 B757 B767 B777 29 20 15 5 50 3 14 9 15 3 6 EI CO (g/kg) FTIR Em. spectr. 8.9 23.1 38.27 10.3 41.7 6.0 31.46 23.6 8.8 7.3 24.6 FTIR Abs. spectr. 17.27 32.33 23.16 28.32 40.72 17.79 36.16 25.45 15.47 25.09 43.34 ICAO None 24.10 42.60 17.84 30.07 32.98 26.95 15.03 17.90 11.75 13.67 No. for NOx 11 24 15 5 40 2 13 7 13 3 5 EI NOx (g/kg) FTIR Em. spectr. 1.25 0.3 1.0 Bdl 0.95 Bdl 1.25 0.3 0.65 0.4 DOAS 3.41 2.08 2.64 2.84 2.76 1.83 2.91 2.93 3.43 3.18 3.44 ICAO None 2.50 3.82 4.18 4.35 4.23 4.48 4.56 3.67 4.09 6.01

The number of measured different single engines is given (No.). For comparison, the mean of the values of the investigated engines from International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) data sheets are listed. Bdl means below detection limit, i.e. a signature in the measured spectra cannot be inverted.

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from engine type to type used to power each aircraft family especially for families with many different aircrafts and main engine types, like B737 and A320. This shows the possibilities for each aircraft type and each aircraft family to reduce emissions by changing the type of main engines. 3.3. Auxiliary power units (APU) The results of about 160 single measurements of emissions of seven different types of APU, measured by passive FTIR emission spectrometry, are summarised in Table 6. A large variance of the measured data is typical and reects the inuence of different energy uses, such as cabin illumination, air conditioning system or start-up of engines. From measurements at maintenance areas, it is concluded that higher energy consumption means less CO emission indices and higher NOx emission indices. During measurements at airports, these information could not be collected simultaneously and hence in Table 6 maximum and minimum values only are given.

4. Conclusions and outlook The integration of passive FTIR emission spectrometry, FTIR absorption spectrometry and DOAS as non-intrusive measurement technique provides the possibility of determining exhaust emissions of CO, NOx and some unburned hydrocarbons as HCOH of aircraft at airports under different conditions because the airport operation remains unimpaired. CO2 concentrations are also measured both at the nozzle exit by passive FTIR emission spectrometry and directly behind the aircraft by FTIR absorption spectrometry. Using these measurement results and assuming total combustion of kerosene, the emission index of all other measured compounds can be determined based on Eq. (2). Comparison of CO emission indices determined

passively by FTIR emission and on open paths across the exhaust plume by FTIR absorption measurements give differences around 720% i.e. in the order of measurement accuracy if several aircrafts were investigated. The data show that APU emissions at airport service buildings cannot be neglected in comparison to the main engine emissions. The emission indices of APUs are in the same order of magnitude as the emission indices of main engines. Although the fuel consumption of APUs are not measured during the campaigns, this conclusion can be drawn because the operation time of APUs is much longer than that of main engines. Measured NOx emission indices are lower by about 50% than those provided by the ICAO from certication measurements. Measured CO emission indices are generally slightly higher than given by the ICAO and could be shown by both measurement methods (FTIR emission and absorption spectrometry). It must be noted that the measured conditions for idling were at roughly 20% N1 (1628% N1), i.e. could be lower than the corresponding thrust value which is the basis for engine characterisation during engine exhaust certication measurements in test beds. N1 is the revolution of turbofan which is the only parameter for monitoring engine power on-board the aircraft. There is no general equivalence for N1 and a certain part of maximum power setting as idle with 7% maximum power setting. The corresponding N1 value for idle thrust differs from engine type to type and depends on ambient air conditions and hence thrust cannot be simply calculated from on-board measured parameters of an aircraft. A general accepted approximated value for idle are 25% N1. Finally, it can be concluded that idling during operational conditions is not equal to the ICAO denition, i.e. idling is performed when reduced thrust is exerted in comparison to the ICAO denition.

Table 6 Measured mean values of emission indices (EI) of CO, NO, and NOx of different types of APU of different aircraft by FTIR emission spectrometry Aircraft A320-200 B737-406 B737-800 B747-236 B747-400 B747-436 B757-236 B777-236 No. 1 1 1 1 3 8 3 3 APU type APS3200 APS2000 GTCP85-98DHF GTCP660-4 PW901A PW901A GTCP331-200/250 GTCP331-500 EI CO (g/kg) 2.9 (2.5 3.1) 2.7 (2.5 3.1) 13.9 (12.4 15.1) 2.2 (1.9 2.4) 11.6 (5.5 18.0) 12.4 (0.5 31.3) 1.1 (0.7 1.7) 1.3 (0.5 2.2) EI NO (g/kg) 0.3 1.7 0.8 0.1 1.1 0.6 2.6 3.0 (bdl 0.8) (1.4 2.2) (0.7 0.8) (bdl 0.3) (0.6 1.8) (bdl 2.7) (1.3 3.6) (bdl 4.5) EI NOx (g/kg) 0.4 2.5 1.2 0.2 1.7 1.0 3.9 4.6 (bdl 1.3) (2.3 3.3) (1.0 1.3) (bdl 0.4) (0.8 2.7) (bdl 4.2) (2.1 5.5) (bdl 6.9)

The number of measured single APUs is given (No.). Bdl means below detection limit, i.e. a signature in the measured spectra cannot be inverted. The extrema as minimum and maximum value of all measured data are given in brackets. The given NOx emission indices are determined from measured NO concentrations and corresponding NO emission indices EI NO with EI NOx equal EI NO 46/30.

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In addition, a high variance of emission indices in each aircraft family and this is due to different types of engine used and from engine to engine of the same engine type was found. In this investigation, the focus was put on idling conditions. Further investigations need to take into account high load situations because rst investigations not described here showed clearly the high dependency of NOx emissions on engine load. However, this will require a much greater effort especially for the airlines providing the aircraft, e.g. at maintenance areas and for the airport authorities to allow measurements during take-off and approach of aircraft.

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Acknowledgements Measurement at airports Frankfurt/Main, LondonHeathrow and Vienna were undertaken within the frame of the EC funded projects Prototyping a non-intrusive exhaust gas measurement system for gas turbines (AEROJET 2) (BRPR CT-98-0618) and Assessment of Road Transport Emission Models and Inventory Systems (ARTEMIS) (1999-RD.10429, http:// www.trl.co.uk/artemis). A fruitful co-operation with Deutsche Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, British Airways, and the airport authorities supported this work. The authors would like to thank the staff of the airports Frankfurt/Main (esp. Mr. Markus Sommerfeld), London-Heathrow (esp. Mrs. Jane Kite) and Vienna (Mr. Meder and Mr. Hartmann) for supporting the investigations at the airport and providing the necessary infrastructure. Special thanks are due to Austrian Airlines Group (AUA, Mr. Simunek, Mr. Kobylik; Lauda Air, Mrs. Noe-Nordberg; Tyrolean Airlines, Mr. Graf), British Airlines (Mr. Kevin Morris), and Deutsche Lufthansa (Dr. Frank Walle and Mr. Stefan Schaffrath). Without the fruitful co-operation of the airports and airlines no reliable investigations would have been possible.