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EXERCISE 5: CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BACTERIA

BACTERIA
(bacterium) = relatively simple (Prok.) single-celled; unicellular organisms defined as mcgs considerably smaller than molds (fungi) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1676) -first person to see bacteria while studying (pepper) water infusion -reffered to them as wee animalcules

Wee animalcules: bacteria

Bacteria
Robert Koch - first to grow bacteria on solid culture media (gelatin)

Cultural Characteristics

help a lot in bacterial identification

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Enterobacter sakazakii

Micrococcus luteus

KMBA YDCA TZCA Incubate @28-30; 24-48 hrs then OBSERVE

NA slant

TZCA
unknown

Incubate @ 28-30 24-48 hrs then


OBSERVE

YDCA

KMBA

NA

1: piliform 2: echinulate 3: beaded

4: effuse 5: aboriscent 6: rhizoid

punctiform

granular / spindle

circular rhizoid

filamentous

irregular

Pellicle, turbidity, sedimentation

Pellicle, turbidity, sedimentation

pellicle
sediments uniform control turbidity

Pellicle, turbidity, sedimentation


Pellicle biofilm @ interface bet. air&liquid - polysacch. matrix attached to tube walls containing bacterial cells - community of bacteria - common form of bacterial growth in nature obligate aerobes

Figure 4. The relative growth requirements for oxygen. The medium without bacteria is yellow, while bacterial growth is indicated by the green color. For example, obligate aerobes and anaerobes, grow respectively only at the top (A) and bottom (D) of a tube of liquid medium. Obligate aerobes often form a film (scum) or pellicle, that floats on the top of the liquid. Facultative aerobes have the best of both worlds, as they are able to grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions (C). Microaerophilic bacteria require a little bit of oxygen, but too much is toxic (B).

Pellicle, turbidity, sedimentation


Environmental factors that might alter formation of a pellicle: amount of oxygen enzymes

Pellicle, turbidity, sedimentation


Turbidity -presence of mcgs. = cloudy
- cells scatter light passing through
the suspension

- cells present, light is scattered - cell mass is proportional to cell


number

*motile baceria - also cause turbidity (movement)

Pellicle, turbidity, sedimentation


sedimentation -collection of orgs. (settle @ the bottom) obligate anaerobes - grow away from the surface where O2 cannot penetrate

Pink oxic zone ;Yellow anoxic zone

A B C D

aerobic anaerobic facultative microaerophilic E aerotolerant

KMBA

Pure culture of P.fluorescens on Kings B medium under normal light B: Pure culture of P.fluorescens on Kings B medium under U.V light

KMBA

KMBA

Pseudomonas aeruginosa
FORM MARGIN ELEVATION
Turbidity Sedimentation Pellicle/Ring

irregular entire umbonate


++ +

TZCA

Enterobacter sakazakii
FORM punctiform MARGIN entire ELEVATION convex
Turbidity Sedimentation Pellicle/Ring + + +

YDCA

Micrococcus luteus
FORM MARGIN ELEVATION
Turbidity Sedimentation Pellicle/Ring

circular entire convex


+; uniform +

References
http://www.ispub.com/journal/the-internet-journal-of-veterinary-medicine/volume6-number-1/bio-morphological-characteristics-of-bacterial-species-identifiedfrom-mastitic-milk-samples-of-camel.html http://www.jstor.org/pss/30143814 http://www.aseanfood.info/Articles/11015335.pdf http://bioaliment.ugal.ro/revista/5/Paper%2053.pdf http://www.aseanfood.info/Articles/11015335.pdf http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/pages/Chap4.html Madigan, M.T., J.M. Martinko, D.A. Stahl, D.P.Clark. 2006. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 13th ed. USA: Benjamin Cummings. pp. 133 and 145.