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# Phy 7A Section CD08/09

## January 22, 2012

Fundamental concepts

## 1.1 Conservation of energy

Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Energy going into/out of a system will be accompanied by an increase/decrease in the energy of a system respectively, a.k.a: Q = Ethermal + Ebond (1)

1.2 Heat
1) Thermal energy in form of heat ows from hotter objects to a colder objects. 2) Heat going in/out a system can be used to increase/decrease Ethermal and/or Ebond depending on the situation.

## 1.3 Thermal equillibrium

If two objects are in thermal equillibrium, it means the temperature of both objects is the same.

## 1.4 Thermally insulated system

No heat goes in or out of a system if it is thermally insulated, i.e. set Q = 0 in equation (1).

## Temperature change of substance without phase change

Ethermal = mcT

Temperature change of a substance is solely related to its thermal energy (2) where m is the mass of the substance, c is the specic heat capacity, T = Tf Ti .

## 2.1 Heat capacity (unit: JK 1 )

C = amount of energy required to change the temperature of a certain object by one degree Kelvin (or Celsius).

## 2.2 Specic heat capacity (unit: JK 1 kg1 )

c = amount of energy required to change the temperatore of one kilogram of a substance by one degree Kelvin.

## 2.3 Molar heat capacity (unit: JK 1 mol1 )

cmol = amount of energy required to change the temperatore of one mole of a substance by one degree

Kelvin.

2.4 Relationship between heat capacity to specic heat capacity and molar heat capacity
C =cm

C = cmol n

## 3.1 Phase changes

1. A *normal substance undergoes phase change when its temperature reaches the phase change temperature( if there is enough energy to do so). 2. During phase change, the temperature of a substance remains at its phase change temperature, its temperature does not change until after the phase change has been completed. 3. To determine if phase change occurs or not, we have to determine if there is enough energy for the phase change to occur.

## 3.2 Heat of vaporation or heat of melting

The energy associated with phase change is related to Ebond . You should know the following fact and the explanation for:
Ebond (solid) < Ebond (liquid) < Ebond (gas)

(5)

Make sure that you get a correct positive / negative sign in calculation of heat of melting / vaporation: Ebond = |H|m(to be picked) (6)
The mass in m can either be the mass substance in initial phase OR the mass of the substance in nal phase. You should know from the phase change if Ebond should go up or down.

Example 1) If we are melting a solid to a liquid, Ebond goes up, we would pick mliquid to be the mass in equation (6) since mliquid is positive and would show that Ebond goes up. Example 2) If you are freezing a liquid to a solid, Ebond goes down, we would pick mliquid to be the mass in equation (6) since mliquid is negative and would show that Ebond goes down.

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