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# LABORATORY MANUAL

## MEC 376 Unified Mechanical Engineering III

Table of content SL No 1 2 To perform Balancing of Reciprocating masses. 3 To study Gyroscopic effect of a rotating disc and experimental justification of equation T=I w wp For calculating the gyroscopic couple 4 5 6(a) 7 Calculate Inertia using Simple pendulum, Calculate inertia using Bi-filler Suspension and Compound Pendulum Study force parameters using Lathe machine Dynamo meters To make a trial on two cylinder 4-stroke Diesel Engine to calculate B.H.P., S.F.C. , Break thermal efficiency ,air fuel ratio and to draw characteristics curves and heat Balance Sheet. To study and conduct Morse Test on three-cylinder four-stroke Petrol Engine and to determine: i) Indicated Power of Individual Cylinders ii) Indicated Power of Engine iii)Frictional Power of Engine iv)Mechanical Efficiency To calculate the isothermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and compression ratio of a 2 stage reciprocating air compressor PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF 2 STROKE PETROL ENGINE VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF 4S VERTICAL DIESEL ENGINE 1. Experiment To study the effect of forward curved, backward curved and radial curved vanes. To find out the overall efficiency of the centrifugal blower. To plot the graphs: Efficiency Vs Discharge and Head Vs Discharge.
To study the performance of axial flow compressor at various discharge pressures and speeds.

Page No 3 4 5

6 7 8 to 9 10 11

## 6(b) Study force parameters using milling machine Dynamometers

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9 10 11 12

13 14 15 16 to 18

13 14

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To evaluate the performance of an axial flow fan at various heads and speeds (to 20 to 21 plot the graphs: Efficiency Vs Discharge and Head Vs Discharge). Also, find its overall efficiency. To study the operation of a pelton wheel turbine To study and perform test on a Hydraulic Ram & to find its Rankine & D Aubussion To study and perform test on a Reciprocating pump Study of cut sections of fluid valves 22 to 23 24 25 to 26 27 to 30

15 16 17 18

Experiment no 1 1. Experiment: To perform Balancing of Rotating masses Equipment Required: Rotary Apparatus having different planes, Driving motor, Different masses Material Required: Pins 2. Learning Objectives: To determine the angular position and mass and radius in specified planes of balancing masses calculated to balance a known system of rotating masses. 3. Outline of the Procedure:

a. Arrange the apparatus. b. Connect the motor to shaft. c. Mount the masses on rotating planes on pins d. Balance the masses by rotating the shaft. e. Find the variable and draw them. 4. Scope of the results expected: Student will be able to know the aspect of distribution of mass and related influence on vibration 5. Parameters and Plots: Observe the variables and try to find relation between them. 6. Cautions: 1. Unbalanced dynamic forces are very dangerous. Do not operate without guidance of tutor.

Experiment No 2 1. Experiment: To perform Balancing of Reciprocating masses. Equipment Required: Apparatus having different cylinders, Driving motor, Different masses, oscilloscope Material Required: Marker 2. Learning Objectives: To determine the angular position and mass and radius in specified planes of balancing masses calculated to balance a known system of reciprocating masses. 3. Outline of the Procedure: a. Arrange the apparatus. b. Connect the motor to shaft. c. Mount the masses on reciprocating planes. d. Balance the masses by rotating the shaft. e. Find the variable and draw them. 4. Scope of the results expected: Student will be able to know the aspect of distribution of mass and related influence of unbalance leads to vibration. 5. Parameters and Plots: Observe the variables and try to find relation between them. 6. Cautions: Unbalanced dynamic forces are very dangerous. Do not operate without guidance of tutor.

Experiment No 3 1. Experiment: To study Gyroscopic effect of a rotating disc and experimental justification of equation T=I w wp For calculating the gyroscopic couple

Equipment Required: Rotary Apparatus, Driving motor, Tachometer Material Required: String 2. Learning Objectives: To introduce students to the theoretical basis and practical working of gyroscopic systems 3. Outline of the Procedure:

a. Arrange the apparatus. b. Connect the motor to Gyroscopic appratus. c. Balance the gyroscope d. Measure the frequency/speed. e. Find the variable and table them. 4. Scope of the results expected: Student will be able to know the effect of gyroscopic effect on the free end of apparatus and the GPE(greatest possible error) on various parameters. 5.Parameters and Plots: Observe the variables and try to find relation between them. 6. Cautions: 1. tutor. 2. 5 Unbalanced dynamic forces are very dangerous. Do not operate without guidance of

Experiment No 4 Experiment:-Calculate Inertia using Simple pendulum, Equipment required: String, mass, compound pendulum, stopwatch etc. Learning objectives: Study of this experiment involves investigate the properties of pendulum including the variation of periodic time with length, and inertia of pendulum. Outline of the procedure: Attach the mass to the string and give small oscillation to the mass. Note down the time period for 25 oscillations. Take reading for 4-5 times. Calculate the inertia of pendulum using time period value. Repeat the procedure for bi-filler and compound pendulum. Scope of the results expected: Neat schematic diagram of experimental setup. Observation table. Calculation of inertia Results Cautions Note down the length and mass carefully

Experiment No 5 Experiment:-Calculate inertia using Bi-filler Suspension and Compound Pendulum. Equipment required: Bi-filler pendulum setup, compound pendulum, stopwatch etc. Pendulum including the variation of periodic time with length, and inertia of pendulum. Outline of the procedure: Attach the mass to the string and give small oscillation to the mass. Note down the time period for 25 oscillations. Take reading for 4-5 times. Calculate the inertia of pendulum using time period value. Repeat the procedure for bi-filler and compound pendulum. Scope of the results expected: Neat schematic diagram of experimental setup. Observation table. Calculation of inertia Results Cautions Note down the length and mass carefully

Experiment no 6(a) Title: Study force parameters using Lathe machine Dynamo meters Equipment required: lathe tool, Lathe tool dynamo meter, tachometer, tool holder, etc Learning object: To learn about machining equipment and the metal cutting process. To better understand the relationship between metal cutting parameters that impact cutting force value. To under the influence of tool geometry on the process of metal cutting. Outline of procedure: 1. Prepare the lathe machine tool with workpiece and tool. 2. Install the dynamo meter on a lathe machine tool. 3. Find out the rotational speed (rpm), feed rate (mm/rev), depth of cut (mm) and the working normal rake angle (n). 4. Record the main cutting (tangential) force (Fc) component and the axial (thrust) force (Ft) component. 5. Measure the chip thickness from the chips produced during machining. 6. Repeat the experiment for different rotational speed (rpm), feed rate (mm/rev), depth of cut (mm) and the working normal rake angle (n). Calculations: 1. Draw the Merchant`s Circle using a computer software with all the corresponding parameters according to their values. 2. Calculate the mean shear stress on the shear plane. Note that shear area on the shear plane must be calculated first. 3. Find the material removal rate. 4. Calculate the power consumption during cutting. 5. Calculate the specific cutting energy E in this process.

Cutting condition: Cutting parameters, i.e. cutting speed, cutting depth and feed rate, choose in a way that the measured cutting forces would not exceed the upper limit of the dynamometer working rage. 1. Cutting speed: v= 8

2. 3.

## Feed rate: s= Cutting depth: a=

Scope of the result expected: 1. The effect of feed rate on cutting force: As the feed rate increases we observed that the value of cutting force increases. 2. The effect of depth of cut on cutting force: Depth of cut also changes significantly the cutting force but the dependence now is linear. 3. The effect of cutting speed on cutting force: The cutting speed V does not change significantly the cutting force FC. Increasing the cutting speed slightly reduces the cutting force. The dependence is more complex in the low speed range for materials, which tend to form a built-up edge. Cautions: 1. Keep in mind that machinery capable of cutting metal is inherently dangerous. 2. Keep in mind that rotating equipment stores significant amounts of energy and represents a serious entanglement hazard. 3. Make sure the work piece is adequately clamped in the spindle for the job being performed. 4. Make sure the tool holder and cutting insert are adequately clamped for the job being Performed 5. Always wear safety glasses when around the machine. 6. Long hair should be tied back to avoid being caught in the revolving parts of the machine 7. Loose clothing, rings or watches should not be worn when operating machine tools to avoid having them getting caught in the machine. 8. Use extreme caution with the chips produced during machining.

Experiment no 6(b) Title: Study force parameters using milling machine Dynamometers Equipment required: Milling tool, Dynamometer, tachometer, Multi point cutting tool. Learning object: To learn about machining equipment and the metal cutting process. To better understand the relationship between metal cutting parameters that impact cutting force value in milling. Outline of procedure: 6. Prepare the lathe machine tool with workpiece and tool. 7. Install the dynamometer on a m machine tool. 8. Find out the rotational speed (rpm), feed rate (mm/rev), and depth of cut (mm). 9. Record the main cutting (tangential) force (Fc) component and the axial (thrust) force (Ft) component. 10. Measure the chip thickness from the chips produced during machining. 11. Repeat the experiment for different rotational speed (rpm), feed rate (mm/rev) depth of cut (mm) Cutting condition: Cutting parameters, i.e. cutting speed, cutting depth and feed rate, choose in a way that the measured cutting forces would not exceed the upper limit of the dynamometer working rage. 4. Cutting speed: v= 5. Feed rate: s= 6. Cutting depth: a= Scope of the result expected: 4. Study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting force: 5. Plot the graphs feed rate, cutting speed, depth of cut Vs cutting force Cautions: 8. Keep in mind that machinery capable of cutting metal is inherently dangerous. 9. Keep in mind that rotating equipment stores significant amounts of energy and represents a serious entanglement hazard. 10. Make sure the work piece is adequately clamped in the spindle for the job being performed. 11. Make sure the tool holder and cutting insert are adequately clamped for the job being Performed 12. Always wear safety glasses when around the machine. 13. Long hair should be tied back to avoid being caught in the revolving parts of the machine 14. Loose clothing, rings or watches should not be worn when operating machine tools to avoid having them getting caught in the machine. 8. Use extreme caution with the chips produced during machining.

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Experiment no 7 To make a trial on two cylinder 4-stroke Diesel Engine to calculate B.H.P., S.F.C. , Break thermal efficiency ,air fuel ratio and to draw characteristics curves and heat Balance Sheet. Apparatus: Two cylinder 4-stroke Diesel Engine test rig. Learning objectives: To understand the various parameters of engine performance and learn how to find them experimentally. To do the energy and mass audit of an IC Engine. Engine performance behaviour wrt different parameters. Measurements: Temperatures of intake (ambient), exhaust, cooling water in and out using thermocouples. Flow rate of air (using orificemeter), fuel (using stopwatch and measuring cylinder) and water using rotameter. Torque using dynamometer, angular velocity using tachometer or stroboscope. Analysis: Apply the first law of thermodynamics and estimate the error in heat balance. Judge the causes of error and suggest changes in rig to avoid/minimise these errors. Try to find the optimum angular velocity at which brake thermal efficiency is highest. You can take six readings and fit a curve. Use second law of thermodynamics to estimate the Carnot efficiency and comment upon the irreversibilities in the system. Scope of results:- Plot the various parameters of engine performance and list the optimum condition for lowest fuel consumption and highest power output. Produce first law balance sheets. Cautions: Do not perform in a room with poor ventilation. Do not touch engine parts, specially exhaust. Steam may form in cooling jacket, so hfg must be considered in the SSSF equation. Increase the load on the engine by dynamometer loading unit gradually Ensure cooling water circulation for Eddy current dynamometer, engine and calorimeter. Wait for few minutes till steady state is achieved before recording the measurements.

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Experiment no 8 To study and conduct Morse Test on three-cylinder four-stroke Petrol Engine and to determine: i) Indicated Power of Individual Cylinders ii) Indicated Power of Engine iii)Frictional Power of Engine iv)Mechanical Efficiency Apparatus: Three-cylinder four-stroke petrol engine Morse test rig. Learning objectives:- To be able to do performance measurement of inefficiencies of the engine and understand performance of Morse test. Procedure:- Morse Test is applicable to multi-cylinder engines. The engine is run at desired speed and output is noted. Then one of the cylinders is cut out by short circuiting spark plug. Under this condition other cylinders motor this cut cylinder. The output is measured by keeping speed constant to original value. The difference in output is measure of the indicated power of cut-out cylinder. Thus for each cylinder indicated power is obtained to find out total indicated power. Increase the engine throttle to any desired position and simultaneously load the engine to obtain desired speed for which frictional power is to be calculated. Cut off each cylinder one by one from Morse test panel. Whenever a cylinder is shut, the engine speed shall decrease. Now decrease the load on dynamometer and bring back engine speed to the original. Scope of results:Record the following Indicated Power of first cylinder, Indicated Power of second cylinder, Indicated Power of third cylinder, Calculate the following # Indicated Power of Engine, # Frictional Power of Engine, # Mechanical Efficiency, Cautions: Do not perform in a room with poor ventilation. Do not touch engine parts, specially exhaust. Steam may form in cooling jacket, so hfg must be considered in the SSSF equation. Increase the load on the engine by dynamometer loading unit gradually Ensure cooling water circulation for Eddy current dynamometer, engine and calorimeter. Wait for few minutes till steady state is achieved before recording the measurements.

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Experiment no 9 Experiment :-To calculate the isothermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and compression ratio of a 2 stage reciprocating air compressor Apparatus:- 2 stage reciprocating air compressor. Learning objectives:- To learn the testing and energy audit in positive displacement multistage compressor. Theoretical background:- http://nishant.co.cc/Files/recips.pdf Measurement:7. Temperatures of intake (ambient), 1st stage discharge, second stage discharge cooling fluid in and cooling fluid out using thermocouples. 8. Pressures of intake (ambient), 1st stage discharge and second stage discharge using bourdon gage. 9. Average flow rate of gas being compressed using either damped orificemeter or stopwatch and a weighing scale. 10. Angular velocity of power input shaft using tachometer or stroboscope. 11. Power consumption of motor using wattmeter. 12. Voltage using voltmeter. 13. Current using ammeter. Analysis:Use air properties to calculate the amount of work done, cooling rate of compressor cylinder and gain in internal energy and hence do a first law (of thermodynamics) analysis. Work input can be calculated using the electrical metering devices. Also get the bore, stroke etc. from compressors product information brochure. Hence calculate volumetric and isothermal efficiency. (see the link for theoretical background) Scope of results:- Calculate isothermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and compression ratio of the system. Cautions:Do not touch engine parts, specially exhaust. Do not perform in a room with poor ventilation. If readings of flow rate and pressure fluctuate, use some dampers and take average reading.

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EXPERIMENT: 10

## EXPERIMENT: 10 PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF 2 STROKE PETROL ENGINE

EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: 1. Measuring tape 2. Scale 3. Thread OBJECTIVE To plot the PORT timing diagram using the given cut model of 2S single cylinder petrol engine.

PROCEDURE Rotate the flywheel in proper direction and mark the position of top dead centre(TDC), Bottom Dead Centre(BDC). Then mark the position of the opening and closing of the ports ie: IPO- inlet port opening, IPC- inlet port closing, EPO- Exhaust port opening, EPC- Exhaust port closing, Then measure the arc length along the periphery of the flywheel and calculate the corresponding angle. Then plot the port timing diagram using the details. SCOPE OF RESULTS EXPECTED 1. Period of operation of inlet port 2. Period of operation of exhaust port =..s =..s

PARAMETERS AND PLOT: Mark the opening and closing of the ports on a circle and show the measured angles with respect to TDC and BDC that is taken on the vertical diameter of the circle. CAUTIONS: 1. Ensure that the position of piston is right at TDC just before the start of suction stroke. 2. To ensure the measurement of angles correctly two persons should take the reading simultaneously with one is looking at the port opening and closing and the other one is measuring the corresponding angles.

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## EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. Measuring tape Scale Thread

LEARNING OBJECTIVE To plot the valve timing diagram using the given cut model of 4S single cylinder diesel engine PROCEDURE Rotate the flywheel in proper direction and mark the position of top dead centre(TDC), Bottom Dead Centre(BDC). Then mark the position of the opening and closing of the valves ie: IVO- inlet valve opening, IVC- inlet valve closing, EVOExhaust valve opening, EVC- Exhaust valve closing, FVO- Fuel valve opening, FVCFuel valve closing. Then measure the arc length along the periphery of the flywheel and calculate the corresponding angle. Then plot the valve timing diagram using the details SCOPE OF THE RESULT EXPECTED : Thus the valve timing for the given four stroke engine is found out and is drawn. Inlet valve opens = Inlet valve closes = Exhaust valve opens = Exhaust valve closes = PARAMETERS AND PLOT: Mark the opening and closing of the inlet and exhaust valves on a circle and show the measured angles with respect to TDC and BDC that is taken on the vertical diameter of the circle. CAUTIONS: 3. Ensure that the position of piston is right at TDC just before the start of suction stroke. 4. To ensure the measurement of angles correctly two persons should take the reading simultaneously with one is looking at the valve opening and closing and the other one is measuring the corresponding angles. 5. Since the exhaust valve is not exposed properly hence the proper care should be taken while watching the opening and closing of this valve.

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Experiment No 12 1. Experiment To study the effect of forward curved, backward curved and radial curved vanes. To find out the overall efficiency of the centrifugal blower. To plot the graphs: Efficiency Vs Discharge and Head Vs Discharge. Equipment Required: Centrifugal Blower Test Rig, Backward curved impellers (identified by their red colour), Radial curved impellers (identified by their yellow colour), Forward curved impellers (identified by their black colour).

2. Learning Objectives: To learn the effect of different type of vanes such as forward curved, backward and radial vanes on different parameters such as efficiency, discharge etc. 3. Outline of the Procedure: 4. 16

Starting Procedure Clean the apparatus and make it free from dust. Fill manometer fluid in manometer tube i.e. water. Fix the impeller on the blower desired one (Radial, Backward or Forward curve vane). Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Now switch on the Main Power Supply (220V AC, 50 Hz). Switch on the blower. Fix the RPM of the impeller with the help of DC Drive and RPM indicator, provided on the panel. Measure the pressure difference, static head & dynamic head with the help of manometer. By this procedure, outlet readings can be found. Record the power consumption by means of Energymeter, provided in panel. Again regulate the RPM of impeller, using DC drive and RPM indicator and repeat the experiment for different RPM and so on. When experiment on first particular impeller is over, follow closing procedure and fix second desired impeller on blower. Repeat the experiment for second and so on for third impeller Closing Procedure When experiment is over, switch off the Blower first. Adjust DC drive knob at zero. Switch off Power Supply to Panel. Scope of the results expected: This experiment will give the knowledge of variation of overall efficiency with different types of vanes such as forward, backward and radial curved vanes of a centrifugal blower. 15. Parameters and Plots: d = ID of pipe at outlet = ----------m A = Cross-sectional area of outlet line = ----------m2 g = Acceleration due to gravity = ----------m/s a = Density of Air w = Density of Water = ----------kg/m3 = ----------kg/m3

CPitot (Co-efficient of Discharge for Pitot Tube) = ---------1H.P = 1 Horse Power = ----------Watts EMC = Energy meter constant = ---------- Pulses/kWhr Motor Efficiency = ----------

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P = Nos. of Pulses of Energy meter t = Time taken for r(s) E.M.C = Energy meter constant h1 = Static Head (m) h2 = Dynamic Head (m) R = Manometer reading (m) Cautions: Always keep apparatus free from dust. Keep the butterfly valve provided at suction and delivery closed when apparatus is not in use. Increase the speed of the motor gradually. If blower is not blowing the air, revolution of the DC motor may be reverse. Change the electric connection of motor to change the revolutions. If panel is not showing input, check the fuse and main supply. If field failure (FF) indicates on the control panel and the motor is not moving, check the fuse if burnt, change it. If overload indicates (OL) on the panel and motor stop moving, reduce the load. If rpm indicator is not displaying the rpm, check the distance of proximity switch and adjust it to 5mm.

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Experiment 13:- To study the performance of axial flow compressor at various discharge
pressures and speeds.

## Equipment Required:- Axial flow compressor.

Outline of the Procedure:-

Measurements:Pressure of Air In(ambient) and Air out using bourdon gage Temperature of Air In(ambient) and Air out using bourdon gage Angular velocity of the rotor using tachometer or stroboscope Flow rate of air in, using anemometer.

Analysis.:
Use measured data to plot compression process on T-S curve. Now plot the same curve assuming no entropy loss on the same graph paper. Calculate the amount of entropy loss. What is the ratio of Actual to ideal. This is one of the parameters of performance.

Plot Mass flow rate wrt pressure ratio. Find the point of maximum efficiency and the point of zero efficiency.

Cautions:Do not touch the discharge line of the compressor. Do not put your finger in suction end of compressor. Do not block the airflow while taking the measurement with anemometer.

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Experiment 14 Experiment :- To evaluate the performance of an axial flow fan at various heads and speeds (to plot the graphs: Efficiency Vs Discharge and Head Vs Discharge). Also, find its overall efficiency. Equipment Required: Axial Fan Test Rig

Learning Objectives i) To learn the variation of discharge with the speed of the fan. ii) To learn the variation of discharge with the head of the fan. iii) To learn the variation of efficiency with the discharge of the fan. Outline of the Procedure: i) Fill manometer fluid in manometer tube i.e.water. ii) Ensure that all On/Off switches given on the panel are at OFF position. Now switch on the Main Power Supply (220 V AC, 50 Hz). iii) Switch on the motor. Fix the RPM of the fan with the help of DC drive and RPM indicator, provided on the panel. iv) Measure the pressure difference, static head & dynamic head with the help of manometer. By this procedure, outlet readings can be found. Record the power consumption by means of Energymeter, provided in panel. v) Again regulate the RPM of impeller, using DC drive and RPM indicator and repeat the experiment for different RPM and so on. vi) When experiment is over, switch off the motor first.

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vii) Adjust DC drive knob at zero. viii) Switch off power supply to panel. Scope of the results expected: This experiment will give the knowledge of variation of overall efficiency with head and discharge of an axial fan. Parameters and Plots: d = ID of pipe at outlet = ----------m A = Cross-sectional area of outlet line = ----------m2 g = Acceleration due to gravity = ----------m/s a = Density of Air = ----------kg/m3 w = Density of Water = ----------kg/m3 CPitot = Co-efficient of Discharge for Pitot Tube = ---------1H.P = 1 Horse Power = ----------Watts EMC = Energy meter constant = ---------- Pulses/kWhr Motor Efficiency = ----------

t = Time taken for r(s) E.M.C = Energy meter constant h1 = Static Head (m) h2 = Dynamic Head (m) R = Manometer reading (m) Cautions: Always keep apparatus free from dust. Increase the speed of the motor gradually. If panel is not showing input, check the fuse and main supply. If field failure (FF) indicates on the control panel and the motor is not moving, check the fuse if burnt, change it. If overload indicates (OL) on the panel and motor stop moving, reduce the load. If rpm indicator is not displaying the rpm, check the distance of proximity switch

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Experiment no 15 Experiment To study the operation of a pelton wheel turbine Equipments required :Pelton wheel set up Water supply 3-Phase supply, 440 volt AC Drain Space required: 2.5mx1.5mx3.0m Learning objective :To determine the output power of pelton turbine To determine the efficiency of the pelton turbine To plot the performance characteristics curves Out line of the procedure : Clean the apparatus and make tank free from dust Close the drain valve provided. Fill sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. Fill manometer fluid i.e Hg in manometer Now switch on the main power supply(440V AC,50 Hz) The control valve is close position before starting the pump. Prime the pump and close valve after priming the pump. Switch on the pump with help of the starter Open the air release valve provided on the manometer,slowly to release the air from manometer 10. When there is no air in the manometer,close the air release valve 11. Now regulate the spear position with the help of hand wheel 12. Now turbine is in operation 13. Regulate the discharge by regulating the spear position. 14. Load the turbine with the help of hand wheel attached to the spring balance 15. Note the manometer reading 16. Note the pressure gauge reading 17. Note the RPM of turbine 18. Note the spring balance readings 19. Repeat the same experiment for different load and different discharge Closing procedure: 1. When experiment is over, first remove load on dynamometer 2. Close the ball valves provided on dynamometer 3. Switch off pump with the help of starter 4. Switch off the mail power supply SPECIFICATIONS: Pump type = centrifugal high speed, single suction volute Power required = A.C.15 HP, 3-phase, 440 Volts Head = 10-35 meter Discharge = 39-18 lps 22 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Speed Spring balance Runner diameter Nos.of buckets Rated speed Power output Flow measurement

= = = = = =

2880 rpm 50kg & 5 kg 0.3m = 20 1000 rpm 3.7 kilowatt Pitot tube

OBSERVATION&CALCULATIONS: DATA: d1=64mm a1=0.003629m2 g=9.81 m/s2 =Density of water=9810 kg/m3 =Density of mercury=13550 kg/m3 Db=Diameter of brake drum=0.3 m DR=diameter of rope=0.014m Cd=Co-efficient of discharge of venture meter=0.98 W3=0.5 kg Re=Effective radius=( Db- DR)/2 =0.157 meter Scope of result and parameters :Calculate the output power and efficiency of the pelton turbine To plot the performance characteristics curves CAUTIONS 1. Do not run the pump at low voltage i.e. less than 390 volts 2. Always keep apparatus free from dust 3. To prevent clogging of moving parts, run the pump at least once in a fortnight 4. Frequently grease/oil the rotating parts, once in three months 5. Always use clean water 6. If apparatus will not use for more than half month, drain the apparatus completely and fill pump with cutting oil.

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Experiment No 16 Experiment To study and perform test on a Hydraulic Ram & to find its Rankine & D Aubussion Learning objectives: To determine the efficiency of Hydraulic Ram and to find out the discharge of useful water and waste water. Machines/Equipments/tools to be used: Hydraulic Ram having a cylindrical air vessel, Water supply, Drain, Power supply: Single Phase, 220 Volts, 50 Hz, 5 Amp. With earth. Procedure: 1. Clean all the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust. 2. Close all the drain valves provided. 3. Fill sump tank 3/4th with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. 4. Close all control valves provided. 5. Ensure that all ON/Off switches given on the panel are at off position. 6. Now switch on the main power supply. 7. Switch on the Pump. 8. Fill overhead tank with water. 9. Adjust the ram stroke at minimum. 10. When overhead tank overflows, open control valve of Ram. 11. Now Ram is in operation. 12. Adjust stroke of the ram to vary the Head developed by the Ram. 13. Open slightly the control valve provided at useful water discharge line of Air vessel. 14. Record pressure gauge reading in air vessel. 15. Measure flow rate of useful water and waste water discharged by the ram using Stop watch and measuring tanks. 16. Repeat experiment at different flow rates of useful water discharged by the ram regulating the control valve provided at useful water discharge line of air vessel. Scope of results to be reported: 1. Reading practice and use of hydraulic ram to find out the discharge and efficiency. 2. Recognition and practice for the usage of the equipments. 3. Conclusions if Any. Precautions: 1. Do not run the pump at low voltage i.e. less than 180 Volts. 2. Never fully close the delivery line and By-pass line Valves simultaneously. 3. Always keep apparatus free from dust. 4. To prevent clogging of moving parts, Run pump at least once in a fortnight. 5. Frequently Grease/Oil the rotating parts, once in three months. 6. Always use clean water. 7. If apparatus will not in use for more than one month, drain the water completely.

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Experiment no 17 Experiment :-To study and perform test on a Reciprocating pump Equipment required: Double acting-single cylinder Reciprocating pump, AC motor, pressure gauge, vacuum gauge, sump tank, measuring tank, stop watch etc. Learning objectives: Study of this experiment involves investigate the characteristics of reciprocating pump and to find out total head, pump efficiency, overall efficiency and volumetric efficiency to plot the graph at various speeds, head Vs discharge and pump efficiency Vs Discharge. Outline of the procedure: Clean the apparatus and make all tanks free from dust. Close the drain valves provided. Fill sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign particles are there. Open flow control valve given on the water discharge line and control valve given on suction line. Ensure that all on/off switches given on the panel are at off position. Set the speed of motor/pump with the help of 3 step cone pulley. Now switch ON the main power supply and switch ON the pump. Record the RPM of the motor from RPM indicator. Record discharge pressure by means of pressure gauge, provided on discharge line. Record suction pressure by means of vacuum gauge, provided at suction of the pump. Record the power consumption by means of energy meter, provided in panel with the help of stop watch. Measure the flow of water, discharged by the pump, using stop watch and measuring tank. Repeat the same procedure for different pressure head. Repeat the same procedure for different RPM with the help of step cone pulley.

## Scope of the results expected: Neat schematic diagram of experimental setup.

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Observation table. Calculation of theoretical discharge, actual discharge. Calculation of total head and volumetric efficiency and overall efficiency, pump efficiency. Plot the graph of head vs discharge and pump efficiency vs discharge.

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Experiment 18: Study of cut sections of fluid valves Equipment required: Valves Learning objective: To learn about the various sections of fluid valves Fig.1 Bonnet Globe valve

A globe valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body. Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape with the two halves of the body being separated by an internal baffle. This has an opening that forms a seat onto which a movable plug can be screwed in to close (or shut) the valve. The plug is also called a disc or disk. In globe valves, the plug is connected to a stem which is operated by screw action in manual valves. Typically, automated valves use sliding stems. Automated globe valves have a smooth stem rather than threaded and are opened and closed by an actuator assembly. When a globe valve is manually operated, the stem is turned by a handwheel. Although globe valves in the past had the spherical bodies which gave them their name, many modern globe valves do not have much of a spherical shape. However, the term globe valve is still often used for valves that have such an internal mechanism. In plumbing, valves with such a mechanism are also often called stop valves since they don't have the global appearance, but the term stop valve may refer to valves which are used to stop flow even when they have other mechanisms or designs. Globe valves are used for applications requiring throttling and frequent operation. For example, globe valves or valves with a similar mechanism may be used as sampling valves, which are normally shut except when liquid samples are being taken. Since the baffle restricts flow, they're not recommended where full, unobstructed flow is required. Fig 2 Globe steam horizontal lift check valve

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A lift check valve, illustrated in Figure, is commonly used in piping systems in which globe valves are being used as a flow control valve. They have similar seating arrangements as globe valves. Lift check valves are suitable for installation in horizontal or vertical lines with upward flow. They are recommended for use with steam, air, gas, water, and on vapour lines with high flow velocities. These valves are available in three body patterns: horizontal, angle, and vertical.

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## Fig 5. Spring relief valve

A modern relief valve uses a spring-loaded diaphragm to hold the valve closed. Manufacturers set the spring to push down against its side of the diaphragm with a certain predetermined pressure. On residential systems, this pressure is usually 30 psi, the 29

maximum working pressure of most household boilers. Tall buildings generally need boilers that can operate at higher pressures. We set those relief valves to open at settings higher than 30 psi. Fig. 6. Y type stainer

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