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BIOGRAPHY OF SIR ISAAC NEWTON & HIS CONTRIBUTIONS

Isaac Newton was born on 4 January 1643 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. His father was a prosperous farmer, who died three months before Newton was born. His mother remarried and Newton was left in the care of his grandparents. In 1661, he went to Cambridge University where he became interested in mathematics, optics, physics and astronomy. In October 1665, a plague epidemic forced the university to close and Newton returned to Woolsthorpe. The two years he spent there were an extremely fruitful time during which he began to think about gravity. He also devoted time to optics and mathematics, working out his ideas about 'fluxions' (calculus). In 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge, where he became a fellow of Trinity College. Two years later he was appointed second Lucasian professor of mathematics. It was Newton's reflecting telescope, made in 1668, that finally brought him to the attention of the scientific community and in 1672 he was made a fellow of the Royal Society. From the mid1660s, Newton conducted a series of experiments on the composition of light, discovering that white light is composed of the same system of colours that can be seen in a rainbow and establishing the modern study of optics (or the behaviour of light). In 1704, Newton published 'The Opticks' which dealt with light and colour. He also studied and published works on history, theology and alchemy. In 1687, with the support of his friend the astronomer Edmond Halley, Newton published his single greatest work, the 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy'). This showed how a universal force, gravity, applied to all objects in all parts of the universe. In 1689, Newton was elected member of parliament for Cambridge University (1689 - 1690 and 1701 - 1702). In 1696,Newton was appointed warden of the Royal Mint, settling in London. He took his duties at the Mint very seriously and campaigned against corruption

and inefficiency within the organisation. In 1703, he was elected president of the Royal Society, an office he held until his death. He was knighted in 1705. Newton was a difficult man, prone to depression and often involved in bitter arguments with other scientists, but by the early 1700s he was the dominant figure in British and European science. He died on 31 March 1727 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. CONTRIBUTIONS IN MATHEMATICS In mathematics too, early brilliance appeared in Newton's student notes. He may have learnt geometry at school, though he always spoke of himself as self-taught; certainly he advanced through studying the writings of his compatriots William Oughtred and John Wallis, and of Descartes and the Dutch school. Newton made contributions to all branches of mathematics then studied, but is especially famous for his solutions to the contemporary problems in analytical geometry of drawing tangents to curves (differentiation) and defining areas bounded by curves (integration). Not only did Newton discover that these problems were inverse to each other, but he discovered general methods of resolving problems of curvature, embraced in his "method of fluxions" and "inverse method of fluxions", respectively equivalent to Leibniz's later differential and integral calculus. Newton used the term "fluxion" (from Latin meaning "flow") because he imagined a quantity "flowing" from one magnitude to another. Fluxions were expressed algebraically, as Leibniz's differentials were, but Newton made extensive use also (especially in the Principia) of analogous geometrical arguments. Late in life, Newton expressed regret for the algebraic style of recent mathematical progress, preferring the geometrical method of the Classical Greeks, which he regarded as clearer and more rigorous. Newton's work on pure mathematics was virtually hidden from all but his correspondents until 1704, when he published, with Opticks, a tract on the quadrature of curves (integration) and another on the classification of the cubic curves. His Cambridge lectures, delivered from about 1673 to 1683, were published in 1707.

LESSONS The famous three laws of motion (stated in modernised form): Newton's First Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force. The meaning of this law is the existence of reference frames (called inertial frames) where objects not acted upon by forces move in uniform motion (in particular, they may be at rest). Newton's Second Law states that an applied force, , on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, , with time. Mathematically, this is expressed as

If applied to an object with constant mass (dm/dt = 0), the first term vanishes, and by substitution using the definition of acceleration, the equation can be written in the iconic form

The first and second laws represent a break with the physics of Aristotle, in which it was believed that a force was necessary in order to maintain motion. They state that a force is only needed in order to change an object's state of motion. The SI unit of force is the newton, named in Newton's honour. Newton's Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the first object. A common example is of two ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Another example is the recoil of a firearm, in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass, the resulting acceleration of the two objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil). Unlike Aristotle's, Newton's physics is meant to be universal. For example, the second law applies both to a planet and to a falling stone. The vector nature of the second law addresses the geometrical relationship between the direction of the force and the manner in which the object's momentum changes. Before Newton, it had typically been assumed that a planet orbiting the Sun would need a forward force to keep it moving. Newton showed instead that all that was needed was an inward attraction from the Sun. Even many decades after the publication of the Principia, this counterintuitive idea was not universally accepted, and many scientists preferred Descartes' theory of vortices.

DISEASES & TREATMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous Breakdown


A nervous breakdown can be described as an acute emotional or psychological collapse. The term nervous breakdown is not a medical term, but rather a colloquial term used by the general public to refer to and characterize a wide range of mental illnesses. It generally occurs when a person is unable to function in social roles anymore, experiencing severe depression or feelings of being out of touch with reality. This often occurs after a long period of stress which has not been adequately dealt with. This inability to function can occur in both work and personal arenas, resulting in difficulty in fulfilling obligations. It also causes the individual to develop physical, mental and emotional symptoms. A person experiencing symptoms of a nervous breakdown may feel

extreme tiredness, weakness, episodes of uncontrollable crying, confusion, disorientation and feelings of worthlessness. There may also be a loss of self-esteem and confidence, extreme weight loss or weight gain, disrupted sleep patterns and feelings of guilt and despair. In severe cases, an inability to move, called catatonic posturing, may result. This is a serious psychiatric condition and should not be taken lightly. Other Disorders Associated with a Nervous Breakdown Depression Panic disorder Panic attacks Anxiety disorder Generalized anxiety disorder Acute stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Trauma disorders Schizophrenia Psychotic disorders Mood (affective) disorders Bipolar disorder

Causes a Nervous Breakdown There is always a trigger or catalyst that sparks a nervous breakdown. Breakdowns usually stem from a change in a major life event such as a broken relationship, death of a loved one, a demanding job or financial difficulties. Factors that may contribute to a breakdown include:

Stress Depression Alcohol and drug abuse, particularly cocaine Genetics (family history) Coexisting medical conditions, such as vitamin deficiencies, thyroid disorders, movement disorders, skin and limb problems, etc. Anxiety surrounding major life changes or disorders, such as pregnancy/after birth/labor, menopause, etc. Schizophrenia Extreme guilt or emotional problems

Symptoms of a Nervous Breakdown & Early Warning Signs 1. Physical symptoms

Sleep disruption - much longer periods of sleep or insomnia Diarrhea Constipation Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Breathing problems Migraine headaches Low libido Memory loss Disrupted menstrual cycle Extreme exhaustion/fatigue Feelings of persistent anxiety or panic attacks Significant changes in appetite, such as eating too little or too much (comfort eating) Visual/eye disturbances Anxiety Depression Agitation and restlessness Indecision Loss of confidence and self-esteem Inability to stop crying Feelings of guilt, poor judgment Disinterest in social life and work or alienation from previously close friends and family Hearing voices Inability to pursue a normal life, normal activities or normal relationships Increasing dependence on alcohol or drugs Paranoid thoughts, such as the thought people are trying to harm you Seeing people who are not there Thoughts of dying or wish to die Thoughts of grandeur or invincibility Having flashbacks to a prior traumatic event Hearing voices Mood swings Strange behavior such as odd body movements or undressing in public Exhibiting strong or violent anger

1. Emotional symptoms

1. Behavioral symptoms

In more extreme cases, psychosis can occur where the person will experience complete loss of contact with reality. The symptoms may include hallucinations or visions, feelings of victimization or persecution, strange speech patterns and behaviors as well as extreme guilt or grandiosity.

Treatment of Nervous Breakdown The most difficult part in treating nervous breakdown is getting the individual to visit the doctor. People who have suffered silently for years find themselves getting better after speaking to psychotherapists. Depression is generally the main symptoms of a nervous breakdown. People tend to think the sufferer is either tired or exhausted due to work or some other stress. But, it is very important to recognize the nervous breakdown symptoms. The person begins to alienate her/himself. They will call in sick for days together from work, start missing their social appointments, will not be able to carry out their daily tasks like eating properly, sleeplessness and even fail to maintain hygiene. Thus, if you suspect someone you know suffering from such symptoms, better seek medical help. To treat a nervous breakdown, psychotropic medications, psychotherapy and counselling is used. Antidepressants and tranquilizers may also be advised by the doctor. There is no standard cure, but these measures are effective enough in treating majority of the people and getting them back on the normal track. One can always prevent nervous breakdown by recognizing the signs of breakdown and seeking professional psychological help at the earliest. When stress levels increase and mood dips are frequent, it is the time to be on a high alert. One can take a vacation and spend more time in various recreational activities with family and friends. Exercise, meditation, maintaining proper sleep hours and a healthy diet will help you to stay away from breakdown. Also, cutting down on smoking, alcohol and drugs will decrease the chances of a nervous breakdown. Aromatherapy is also an effective method to curb nervous breakdown. Aromatherapy is soothing and relaxing, thus helps the person unwind their nerves. Though nervous breakdown is inevitable in certain situations, you can always make sure that you stay healthy to cope with the ups and downs of life. One can overcome nervous breakdown with the help and support of their loved ones, family, friends as well as medical help. Do not wait till you reach the point of total breakdown. If you find your moods drop too quickly and refuse to rise again, seek medical help. It is better to take a break once in a while from work and go on a short vacation or pursue a hobby. Try yoga to calm your nerves and eat healthy. There should be more time for laughs to keep stress levels as low as possible. Make sure you spot the signs as early as possible, before you are trapped with a nervous breakdown.

DISEASES AND TREATMENT OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM TERM DEFINTION CAUSE EFFECT/SYMPTOMS

1.Asthma

Bronchial Asthma is the condition of subjects with widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways, which changes in severity over short periods of time (either spontaneously or under treatment) and leads to cough, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing.

May be precipitated by exposure to one or more of a wide range of stimuli, including allergens, drugs (such as aspirin and other NSAIDs and beta blockers), exertion, emotion, infections, and air pollution.The onset of asthma is usually early in life and in atopic subjects may be accompanied by other manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as hayfever and dermatitis; however the onset may be delayed into adulthood or even middle or old age.

Treatment: is with bronchodilators, with or without corticosteroids, usually administered via aerosol or dyrpowder inhalers, or if the condition is more severe via a nebulizer. Oral corticosteroids are reserved for patients who fail to respond adequately to these measures. Severe asthmatic attacks may need large doses of corticosteroids.Avoidan ce of known allergens, especially the house dust mite, allergens arising from domestic pets, and food additives, will help to reduce the frequency of attacks, as will the discouragement of smoking.

Cardiac Asthma occurs in left ventricular heart failure and must be distinguished from bronchial asthma, as the treatment is quite different. 2.Bronchitis Acute Bronchitis: Is caused by viruses or bacteria. Coughing The production of mucpurulent sputum. Narrowing of the bronchi due to spasmodic

contraction. Chronic Bronchitis: Is not primarily an inflammatory condition, although it is frequently complicated by acute infections. The disease is particularly prevalent in Britain in association with cigarette smoking, air pollution, and emphysema. The patient coughs up excessive mucus secreted by enlarged bronchial mucus glands. The bronchospasm cannot always be relieved by bronchodilator drugs. Severe emphysema causes breathlessness/severe breathing difficulty, which is made worse by infections.

3.Emphysema Pulmonary Normal lung tissue contains: emphysema: The air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs are enlarged and Over-expansion of aveloar damaged, which reduces sacs leads to: the surface Loss of elasticity area for the exchange of Loss of surface area oxygen and carbon Loss of lung capacity dioxide. Insufficient take-up of oxygen It is particularly common in men in Britain and is associated with chronic bronchitis, smoking, and advancing age. Surgical emphysema: Air may escape into the tissues of the chest and neck from leaks in the lungs and oesophagus; occasionally air escapes into other tissues during surgery, and bacteria may form gas in soft tissues. The presence of gas or air gives the affected tissues a characteristic crackling feeling to the touch, and it may be visible on X-rays. It is easily

The presence of gas or air gives the affected tissues a characteristic crackling feeling to the touch.

absorbed once the leak or production is stopped. 4.Hay Fever A form of allergy due to the pollen of grasses, trees, and other plants, characterized by inflammation of the lining of the nose and sometimes of the conjunctiva. Inflammation of the pleura. Pollens of grasses, trees, and other plants. The symptoms of sneezing, running or blocked nose, and watering eyes are due to histamine release and often respond to treatment with antihistamines.If the allergen is identified it may be possible to undertake desensitization.

5.Pleurisy

Often due to pneumonia in the underlying lung. The normally shiny and slippery pleural surfaces lose their sheen and become slightly sticky, so that there is pain on deep breathing. Pleurisy is always associated with some other disease in the lung, chest wall, diaphragm, or abdomen. Bacteria

Pain on deep breathing. A characteristic rub can be heard through a stethoscope.

6.Pneumonia

Inflammation of the lung caused by bacteria, in which the air sacs (alveoli) become filled with inflammatory cells and the lung becomes solid.

Symptoms include those of any infection: Fever, Malaise, Headaches etc., together with Cough and chest pain. Treatment: Appropriate antibiotic therapy, based on the clinical situation and on microbiological studies, results in complete recovery in the majority of patients.

Pneumonias may be classified in different ways: According to X-ray appearance, According to the infecting organism, According to the clinical environmental circumstances under which the infection is acquired (e.g. community-acquired pneumonia, hospitalacquired (nosocomial)

pneumonia). 7.Rhinitis Inflammation It may be caused by: of the mucous Virus infection (acute membrane of rhinitis), the nose. An allergic reaction (allergic rhinitis). In atrophic rhinitis the mucous membrane becomes thinned and fragile. In perennial (or vasomotor) rhinitis there is overgrowth of, and increased secretion by, the membrane. Symptoms of the active disease include fever, night sweats, weight loss, and the spitting of blood. In some cases the bacilli spread from the lungs to the bloodstream, setting up millions of tiny tubercles throughout the body (military tuberculosis), or migrate to the meninges to cause tuberculous meningitis. Treatment:Tuberculosis is curable by various combinations of antibiotics. Preventative measures in the UK include the detection of cases by X-ray screening of vunerable populations and inoculation with BCG vaccine of those with no immunity to the disease.

8.Tuberculosis An infectious s disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacteriu m tuberculosis and characterized by the formation of nodular lesions (tubercles) in the tissues.

Bacillus inhaled into the lungs: In pulmonary tuberculosis formerly known as consumption and pthisis (wasting the bacillus is inhaled into the lungs where it sets up a primary tubercle and spreads to the nearest lymph nodes (the primary complex). Natural immune defences may heal it at this stage; alternatively the disease may smoulder for months or years and fluctuate with the patients resistance. Many people become infected but show no symptoms. Others develop a chronic infection and can transmit the bacillus by coughing and sneezing. Bacillus entering by mouth (usually in infected cows milk): Set up a primary complex in the abdominal lymph nodes, leading to peritonitis, and sometimes spread to other organs, joints, and bones.

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PRAYER

Father in heaven. You made me, Your child and called me to walk in the Light of Christ. Free me from darkness and keep me in the Light of Your Truth. The Light of Jesus has scattered the darkness of hatred and sin. Called to that Light, I ask for Your guidance. Form my life in Your Truth, my heart in Your Love. Through the Holy Eucharist, give me the power of Your Grace that I may walk in the Light of Jesus and serve Him faithfully. AMEN