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Munitions effects: a schematic overview of munitions and warheads, trends for the future

24th International Symposium on Ballistics New Orleans, LA, September 2226, 2008

Dr. A.M. Diederen andre.diederen@tno.nl

Outline
Types of energy transfer media atoms, electrons and photons Classification scheme of munitions and weapons effects examples for kinetic energy, blast and heat, electric current and electromagnetic radiation Trends adaptive effects and enhanced lethality

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Layers of

protection attack
Passive, reactive and hardkill active armour

Projectiles and warheads


Avoid a hit hit Avoid penetration penetrate Avoid a kill Kill

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Munitions effects: atoms, electrons and photons as energy transfer medium

photons

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Photons as energy transfer medium: wave behaviour

oscillating electromagnetic field

energy per photon: Planck constant x frequency

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Wave aspects: besides photons, also electrons and atoms exhibit diffraction and interference

particles of matter: pressure waves and shock waves could be interpreted as waves of excess density
6 A schematic overview of munitions and warheads A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Atoms, electrons and photons: strength in numbers


Example: energy transfer of 100 KJ

Burning a hole in a metal target: 1024 photons (at typical wavelength) Shortcutting a shaped charge jet (electric armour): 1019 electrons (at typical high voltage) 200 g steel penetrator at 1000 m/s: 1024 atoms

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Classification scheme of munitions and weapons effects


damage maximalisation energy transfer medium
matter solid/liquid-like gaseous deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour electrons I V t spotsize n photons h.v t spotsize

m perforation power lateral effects volume effects

relevant parts

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Classification scheme: particles of matter (projectiles and warheads)


energy transfer medium damage maximalisation solids and liquids
m perforation power surface effects volume effects

gases

how
concentrated matter dispersed matter V deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

what

1-D 2-D 3-D

m: V: : : Ps: Is: t: Q:

relevant mass impact velocity slenderness / shape / geometry density maximum static overpressure impulse of the positive phase of the blast wave duration / time heat flux

parts

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Desired effects determine parameter choices


Example: highly lethal versus non-lethal
m perforation power surface effects volume effects V concentrated matter dispersed matter deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

tungsten spheres M1028

rubber projectiles

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Example: penetrators with enhanced / advanced lateral efficiency (PELE, ALP)


m V

longitudinal section of a typical PELE projectile:

concentrated matter dispersed matter deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

perforation power surface effects volume effects

wall breach after 3 hits of large calibre PELE

(source: ISL/ Diehl/ Rheinmetall)

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Blast (and heat)


m perforation power surface effects volume effects V concentrated matter dispersed matter deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

/ m

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Combination of penetration/ perforation and blast


Example: Modular Explosive Penetrator (RUAG)

m perforation power surface effects volume effects

concentrated matter dispersed matter deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Classification scheme: electrons and photons


energy transfer medium damage maximalisation how
electrons I V t spotsize n photons h.v t spotsize

what

perforation power lateral effects volume effects

I: V: t: spotsize: n: h: v:

relevant parts strength of current voltage duration / time representative conducting cross-section / impact area number of photons Planck constant frequency
A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

electrons I perforation power lateral effects volume effects V t spotsize n

photons h.v t spotsize

Electrons as transfer medium


Electric reactive armour

(figure: ARL)

disturbance of the shaped charge jet due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities

Taser

less lethal: incapacitation by electric current through body

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Photons as energy transfer medium: EM spectrum

laser weapons

radio frequency weapons

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

electrons

photons h.v t spotsize

Photons as transfer medium


Radio frequency weapons

I perforation power lateral effects volume effects

spotsize n

95 GHz Effective beam volume: 1m x 1m x 250m

Silent Guardian (30 KW, left), formerly known as Area Denial System (100 KW, right) (source: Raytheon)
17 A schematic overview of munitions and warheads A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

electrons

photons h.v t spotsize

Photons as transfer medium


Laser weapons

I perforation power lateral effects volume effects

spotsize n

(photo: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) melting, erosive heating or explosive heating of (armour) material

Laser Area Defence System (50 KW), to be mounted alongside the Phalanx guns (source: Raytheon/ Air Force Research Lab.)
18 A schematic overview of munitions and warheads A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Combining photons and electrons as transfer medium: directed lightning


electrons t I perforation power lateral effects volume effects V spotsize n

photons t spotsize

h.v

facilitating

use lasers (or other EM radiation) to ionize the air in the path of the subsequent electric current

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Using the high energy density of energetic materials: E-bomb, electromagnetic pulse
electrons I perforation power lateral effects volume effects V t spotsize n photons h.v t spotsize

future

explosively pumped coaxial flux compression generator

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Using the high energy density of energetic materials: detonation-pumped laser?

SDI: nuclear explosion pumped X-ray laser (5MJ per laser)

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Current and future munitions drivers


Starting conditions: pinpoint accuracy, insensitive energetic materials Escalation dominance (much more desired effects) Adaptive enemies (much more target types) Minimal collateral damage Increasing tempo of conflicts Decreased logistic footprint Shrinking and casualty-adverse forces

adaptive effects

enhanced lethality

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Adaptive and enhanced lethal effects: enhanced blast


Chemical energy released by detonation Kinetic energy of reaction products, surrounding air and liner or casing material
(near field) blast, heat (mid/far field) blast SCJ, FCJ, EFP, (preformed) fragments

can be enhanced by reactions with metals anaerobic HE


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Deformation energy in the target aerobic

enhanced blast

thermobaric

FAE

A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Examples of enhancement by reactions with metals


Dense Inert Metal Explosive / Multi-phase Blast eXplosive
m perforation power surface effects volume effects V concentrated matter dispersed matter deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

(Source: US Air Force Research Laboratory)

reactive fragments
m perforation power surface effects volume effects V concentrated matter dispersed matter deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

(Source: US Office of Naval Research)


24 A schematic overview of munitions and warheads A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Multimode or adaptive effects


m perforation power surface effects volume effects concentrated matter dispersed matter V deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour

graded explosives (US Navy)

LOCAAS

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Ultimate multimode or adaptive effects


matter solid/liquid-like gaseous deformation and Ps Is t Q failure behaviour electrons I V t spotsize n photons h.v t spotsize

m perforation power lateral effects volume effects

photons

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Questions?

If everyone thinks the same, someone isnt thinking

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans

Contact information
Dr. A.M. Diederen andre.diederen@tno.nl TNO Defence, Security and Safety Business Unit Protection, Munitions and Weapons Research Group Explosions, Ballistics and Protection PO Box 45, 2280 AA Rijswijk, The Netherlands Phone +31 15 284 3509 Mobile +31 6 5184 5221 Fax: +31 15 284 3939

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A schematic overview of munitions and warheads

A.M. Diederen, ISB 2008, New Orleans