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Cover design: Andrea Meyer, emDASH inc. Copyright 1997 Chapman & Hall Printed in the United States of America For more information, contact: Chapman & Hall 115 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10003 Thomas Nelson Australia 102 Dodds Street South Melbourne, 3205 Victoria, Australia International Thomson Editores Campos Eliseos 385, Piso 7 Col. Polanco 11560 Mexico D.F. Mexico Chapman & Hall 2-6 Boundary Row London SEl 8HN England Chapman & Hall GmbH Postfach 100 263 D-69442 Weinheim Germany International Thomson Publishing Asia 221 Henderson Road #05-10 Henderson Building Singapore 0315

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All rights reserved. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems without the written permission of the publisher. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 XXX Ol OO 99 98 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Marriott, Norman G. Essentials of food sanitation / Norman G. Marriott; consulting editor, Gill Robertson. p. cm.(Food science texts series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-412-08011-7 (alk. paper) 1. Food industry and tradeSanitation. I. Robertson, Gill. II. Title. III. Series. TP373.6.M36 1997 97-4088 664dc21 CIP British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data available To order this or any other Chapman & Hall book, please contact International Thomson Publishing, 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, KY 41042. Phone: (606) 525-6600 or 1-800-842-3636. Fax: (606) 525-7778, e-mail: For a complete listing of Chapman & Hall titles, send your requests to Chapman & Hall, Dept. BC, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003.

To my family, who have supported my professional endeavors and provided an abundance of love


This book is intended for anyone learning about or working in the food industry. It provides essential food sanitation information for everyone involved in food production, food processing, food preparation, and foodservice. The first chapter of the book explains what sanitation means, why it is so important, and how it is regulated. The next three chapters provide background information about basic microbiology, how food becomes contaminated, and the importance of personal hygiene and good work habits. Five chapters cover various aspects of cleaning, sanitation, waste disposal, and pest control. A chapter highlights programs in quality assurance and hazard analysis critical control points. The next several chapters take a step-by-step look at sanitation in different food-processing, food production, and foodservice operations. The final chapter looks at how management affects sanitation. The book includes a comprehensive glossary, and appendices provide a list of resource organizations and agencies, a summary of pathogenic organisms, and charts showing minimal internal cooking temperatures for meats, and maximum storage times for fresh and frozen foods. Each chapter includes learning objectives, study questions, and ideas as to how students and workers can find out more about the topic. Throughout the book, boxes highlight real-life stories and data to help readers apply the information in the text. Poor sanitation is expensive. Victims of foodborne disease have the expenses of medical bills and lost work hours. Food manufacturers or foodservice operators have immediate expenses of food recalls, wasted food, and investigations. But the company also suffers the long-term effects of bad publicity and loss of customers. This book will help students and workers understand why food sanitation is so important in all aspects of the food industry. This understanding will help motivate them to use good sanitation on the job and help ensure the safety of our food supply.


Appreciation is expressed to Gill Robertson for the written contributions that she provided to make this book a more pleasant reading experience.