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The Particle Entity Notation (PEN) scheme (version 22 April 2010)

Michel Goossens CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland

Abstract The Particle Entity Notation (PEN) scheme, presented here, defines markup for all known elementary particles. It thus allows for the automatic extraction of information about these particles by recognition of their entity names. An implementation with L A T E X is available, which also ensures the typographic correctness of the printed symbols.

Keywords: Text-processing; L A T E X; elementary particles; PEN.

1 Typographical rules for scientific texts

In scientific texts the printed form of a symbol often implies a meaning which is not easily captured by generic markup. Therefore authors using some form of generic coding (like L A T E X or XML) need to know about typographical conventions. The following is a brief summary of the most important rules for composing scientific texts [1–4].

The most important rule is consistency: a symbol should always be the same, whether it appears in a formula or in the text, on the main line or as a superscript or subscript.

Generally speaking, symbols for quantities and variables (i.e., those that do not have a fixed value) are typeset in italic, whereas symbols for units or descriptive terms (e.g., names of elements, particles) are in roman.

Therefore in scientific texts quite a few symbols must be set in roman (upright) characters 1 . This is the case for the following families of symbols:

– units, such as g, cm, s, keV. Note that physical constants are usually in italics, so units involving constants are mixed roman-italics, e.g., GeV/c (where the c is italic because it is a variable which symbolizes the speed of light, which is a measured quantity);

– elements and particles, e.g., Al, Si, H, p, e, q. For elementary particles the PEN (Particle Entity Notation) scheme is proposed (see Section 2);

– mathematical constants, functions, and operators, e.g., sin, det, cos, tan, Re, Im, (use the built-in L A T E X functions for these, e.g., \sin, \ln); e for the base of the natural logarithms; the ’d’ in integrands (e.g., dx/dt).

– numbers;

– waves or states (p-wave), couplings (A, for axial, V, for vector), monopoles (E, for electric, M, for magnetic);

– abbreviations that are initials of bits of words, e.g., exp, for experimental; min, for minimum; T, for transverse; L, for longitudinal;

In all cases, following these rules will help the reader understand at first glance what you are talking about. Some instances in which it is important to use the correct symbol, in the correct type, are shown in Table 1.

Let your word processor do as much work as it can. Do not try to change your system’s defaults too much; this will decrease the portability and maintainability of your documents. L A T E X implements part of the rules mentioned above by default in math mode.

1 With L A T E X roman type in math mode can be achieved by the \mathrm command.

Table 1: Importance of using the correct type

roman type

italic type

A

ampere (electric unit)

A

atomic number (variable)

e

electron (particle name)

e

electron charge (constant)

g

gluon (particle name)

g

gravitational constant

l

litre (volume unit)

l

length (variable)

m

metre (length unit)

m

mass (variable)

p

proton (particle name)

p

momentum (variable)

q

quark (particle name)

q

electric charge (variable)

s

second (time unit)

s

c.m.

energy squared (variable)

t

tonne (weight unit)

t

time (variable)

V

volt (electric unit)

V

volume (variable)

Z

Z boson (particle name)

Z

atomic charge (variable)

Do not add blanks at random to make formulae look ‘nicer’, and restrain from using specific page layout commands (like \newline or \newpage with L A T E X). You will forget that you put them in your text and later wonder why some text is badly adjusted or starts a new line or page.

2 Entity definitions for elementary particles

In texts on high energy physics frequently re-occurring strings are the names of elementary particles. For example, the Z 0 particle can be coded in various different ways with L A T E X: Z$^0$, $\mbox{Z}^0$, and $\mathrm{Z^0}$ all achieve the same typographical effect, a roman Z with a superscript 0. In the interest of standardization and typing convenience, we propose below an ‘entity’ naming scheme, which will not only relieve the user from having to worry about the correctness of what he types, but also will allow an automatic extraction of the particle names from the input file, so that it will be easy to enter data about an article using this convention into a database of abstracts.

The naming scheme uses a notation which takes the following constraints into consideration:

1. The notation should be able to describe all particles in the particle data summary tables from the ‘Review of Particle Properties’ [5] and any future extension to these.

2. Common particles such as protons and electrons should have short and simple names.

3. Items that are indicated by superscripts are indicated before items that are indicated by subscripts.

The mass or other discriminating characteristic of a particle is not added to the entity name, which means that an entity on its own does in general not unambiguously identify a particle, e.g., Υ(1S) and Υ(10860) are both referred to as PGU. This ambiguity is eleminated adding a letter ’P’ (for ‘parameter’) to the end of the entity name and specifying the mass or other characteristic of the particle as a mandatory argument parameter. Thus the above two particles are marked up as \PGUP{1S}, and \PGUP{10860}, respectively. The PEN scheme is independent of any text processing system. A L A T E X impementation is available (heppennames2.sty) which allows one to use the PEN names in both mathematics and text mode.

The present scheme differs quite substantially from the original 1994 version in that a more rig- orous approach was taken to make it more open-ended. This was achieved by transferring all mass and spectroscopic information into an attribute (parameter argument in the L A T E X implementation). The file will be updated regularly to take into account the most recent version of the Review of Particle Properties publication.

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Table 2: Codes for Greek characters

Greek name

code Greek name

code Greek name

code Greek name

code

α

alpha

a

A

Alpha

A

β

beta

b

B

Beta

B

γ

gamma

g

Γ

Gamma

G

δ

delta

d

Delta

D

ε

epsilon

e

E

Epsilon

E

ζ

zeta

z

Z

Zeta

Z

η

eta

h

H

Eta

H

θ

theta

q

Θ

Theta

Q

ι

iota

i

I

Iota

I

κ

kappa

k

K

Kappa

K

λ

lambda

l

Λ

Lambda

L

µ

mu

m

M

Mu

M

ν

nu

n

N

Nu

N

ξ

xi

x

Ξ

Xi

X

o

omicron

o

O

Omicron

O

π

pi

p

Π

Pi

P

ρ

rho

r

R

Rho

R

σ

sigma

s

Σ

Sigma

S

τ

tau

t

T

Tau

T

υ

upsilon

u

Υ

Upsilon

U

φ

phi

f

Φ

Phi

F

χ

chi

c

X

Chi

C

ψ

psi

y

Ψ

Psi

Y

ω

omega

w

Omega

W

2.1 Principles of the Particle Entity Notation (PEN)

Starting at the left, a name is built from the following characters:

1. Start the entity with a recognized string (in the following this was chosen as uppercase P). This is necessary to uniquely identify entities as following the PEN convention.

2. The following letters act as an escape to signal a special interpretation of the string. Present escape sequences are:

A for anti particle (normally visually represented with a bar over the particle’s name);

G for indicating the subsequent letter is Greek. The correspondence between Latin and Greek letters is based on the notation for mathematical Greek characters used by the AAP mathe- matical formula application [6] and is shown in Table 2.

Q for quark particle;

S for supersymmetric particle;

XX for particle not strictly following naming scheme, e.g., \PXXA for axion.

The precedence (from highest to lowest) is A, S, Q, G and XX.

3. The one-letter name of the particle.

4. Optionally followed by other information, reading from top (superscript(s)) to bottom (subscript(s)), and from left to right.

superscripts: z for zero, m for minus, p for plus, pm for plus/minus, mp for minus/plus, pr for prime, st for star (asterisk);

subscripts: D for digit, followed by a one-letter code representing the digit, as follows: z (zero), o (one), t (two), T (three), f (four), F (five), s (six), S (seven), e (eight), n (nine);

subscripts (cont.: b for bottom, c for charmed, d for down, s for strange, t for top, u for up;

subscripts (cont.: other one-letter codes, such as J for unknown spin L for left or long, R for right, S for short.

5. P for Parenthesis. In this case an obligatory argument specifies characteristics of the resonance, such as its mass or quantum numbers, which will be typeset between parentheses.

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2.2

Particle encodings according to the PEN Scheme

In Table 3 we show how to encode the particles from the summary tables of particle properties in the ‘Review of Particle Properties’ [5] using the PEN convention. In the rightmost column we give the computer name of the particle.

The L A T E X implementation is available as a style file heppennames2.sty. To obtain the symbol required, prefix the PEN name by a backslash (‘\’).

References

[1] International Union of pure and applied Physics. Symbols, Units, Nomenclature and fundamental Constants in Physics. Physica, 146A:1–67, 1987. [2] D.E. Lowe. A Guide to international recommendations on names and symbols for quantities and on units of measurements. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1975. [3] I.M. Mills and W.V. Metanomski, Interdivisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols. On the use of italic and roman fonts for symbols in scientific text. IUPAC, December 1999.

(http://old.iupac.org/standing/idcns/italic-roman_may07.pdf).

[4] National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SI Unit rules and style conventions (http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/checklist.html) Typefaces for Symbols in Scientific Manuscripts (http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/pdf/typefaces.pdf). [5] K. Nakamura et al.: (Particle Data Group) 2010 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 37 075021 (electronically available from the URL http://pdg.lbl.gov). [6] American National Standards Institute. Electronic Manuscript Preparation and Markup ANSI/NISO/ISO 12083-1995 (R2002).

Presents four document type definitions and additional facilities conforming to ISO 8879. Intended to provide document architectures for the creation and interchange of books, articles and serial publications. Specifies the SGML declaration defining the syntax used by the document type definitions and document instances; the document type definitions for the document classes books, articles, serials; a document type definition for Mathematics which may be embedded in other SGML applications.

The URL http://cern.ch/XML/pennames/heppennames2.sty contains the file with the definitions for the particle names with L A T E X. The URL http://cern.ch/XML/pennames/heppennames2.pdf corresponds to the printable version of the present document.

Please send comments or suggestions to michel.goossens@cern.ch.

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tau, tau-, tau+, tau+-

mu, mu-, mu+ , mu+-

tau’, tau’-, tau’+

beta, beta-, beta+

q(t’), q-bar(t’)

q(b’), q-bar(b’)

e, e-, e+, e+-

q(d), q-bar(d)

q(u), q-bar(u)

q(t), q-bar(t)

q(b), q-bar(b)

q(s), q-bar(s)

q(c), q-bar(c)

Computer name

Table 3: PEN names for elementary particles in PDG list

l-, l+, l+-

l(R), L(R)-

t’, t’-bar

b’, b’-bar

c, c-bar

s, s-barPQs,

L, L-bar

t, t-bar

u, u-bar

d, d-bar

q, q-bar

b, b-bar

l, l-bar

Leptons

Quarks

Representation

µ, µ , µ + , µ ±

l, l l , l + , l ± l R , l R e, e , e + , e ±

τ, τ , τ + , τ ±

β, β , β +

τ, τ , τ +

u, u q u q, u

q, q d, d q d q, d

L, L

s, s

PGm, PGmm, PGmp, PGmpm

PGt, PGtm, PGtp, PGtpm

PGtpr, PGtprm, PGprtp

Pe, Pem, Pep, Pepm

PGb, PGbm, PGbp

PQqtpr, PAQqtpr

PQqbpr, PAQqbpr

Plm, Plp, Plpm

PQtpr, PAQtpr

PQbpr, PAQbpr

PQqd, PAqQd

PQqu, PAQqu

PQqb, PAQqb

PQqc, PAQqc

PQqs, PAQqs

PQqt, PAQqt

PEN name

PQq, PAQq

PlR, PlmR

PQu, PAQu

PQd, PAQd

PQb, PAQb

PQc, PAQc

PAQs

PQt, PAQt

PL, PAL

Pl, PAl

PQd, PAQd PQb, PAQb PQc, PAQc PAQs PQt, PAQt PL, PAL Pl, PAl q s ,
q s , q s c, c q c q, c b, b q b
q s , q s
c, c
q c q, c
b, b
q b , q b
t, t
q t , q t
b b,
q b , q b
t , t
q t , q t

5

W’, W(2), W(2)’ W(L), W(R) Z’, Z”, Z* Z(2)0, Z(3)0 Z(L), Z(R), Z(LR) Z(chi), Z(eta), Z(psi)

nu(tau’), nu-bar(tau’)

nu(tau), nu-bar(tau)

nu(mu), nu-bar(mu)

L-, L+, L+- nu, nu-bar nu(l), nu-bar(l) nu(e), nu-bar(e)

pi, pi+-, pi-+ pi-, pi+, pi0

Computer name

b(1)(1235)0,+

a(1)(1260)0,+

a(0)(980)0,+

rho(770)0,+

pi(1300)0,+

g (gluon) gamma W W-, W+, W+- Z, Z0 H, H0

Gauge and Higgs Bosons (Standard Model)

Light I=1 mesons (S = C = B = 0)

Bosons (outside Standard Model)

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

ρ(770), ρ + (770), ρ 0 (770) a 0 (980), a 0 + (980), a 0 0 (980) b 1 (1235), b 1 + (1235), b 1 0 (1235) a 1 (1260), a 1 + (1260), a 1 0 (1260) π(1300), π + (1300), π 0 (1300)

Representation L , L + , L ±

W W , W + , W ± Z, Z 0 H, H 0

W , W 2 , W 2 + W L , W R Z , Z , Z

Z L , Z R , Z LR Z χ , Z η , Z ψ

π, π ± , π π , π + , π 0

Z 2 0 , Z 3 0

ν µ , ν µ

ν, ν ν l , ν l ν e , ν e

ν τ ν, τ

ν τ , ν τ

g

γ

PGp, PGppm, PGpmp PGpm, PGpp, PGpz PGrP{770}, PGrpP{770}, PGrzP{770} PaDzP{980}, PapDzP{980}, PazDzP{980} PbDoP{1235}, PbpDoP{1235}, PbzDoP{1235} PaDoP{1260}, PapDoP{1260}, PazDoP{1260} PGpP{1300}, PGppP{1300}, PGpzP{1300}

PWpr, PWDt, PWpDt PWL, PWR PZpr, PZprpr, PZst PZzDt, PZzDT PZL, PZR, PZLR PZGc, PZGe, PZGy

PGnGtpr, PAGnGtpr

PLm, PLp, PLpm PGn, PAGn PGnl, PAGnl PGne, PAGne

Pg PGg PW PWm, PWp, PWpm PZ, PZz PH, PHz

PGnGm, PAGnGm

PGnGt, PAGnGt

PEN name

PLpm PGn, PAGn PGnl, PAGnl PGne, PAGne Pg PGg PW PWm, PWp, PWpm PZ, PZz PH,

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rho(5)(2350)0,+

rho(3)(2250)0,+

rho(3)(1990)0,+

rho(3)(1690)0,+

pi(2)(1670)0,+

a(1)1(1640)0,+

pi(1)(1600)0,+

pi(1)(1400)0,+

Computer name

a(6)(2450)0,+

a(4)(2040)0,+

a(2)(1700)0,=

a(0)(1450)0,+

a(2)(1320)0,+

rho(2150)0,+

rho(1900)0,+

rho(1700)0,+

rho(1450)0,+

pi(2100)0,+

pi(1800)0,+

omega(782)0

h(1)(1170)0

f(1)(1285)0

f(2)(1270)0

f(0)(980)0

eta(1295)0

eta’(958)0

phi(1020)0

eta, eta’

f0(600)0

Light I=0 mesons (S = C = B = 0)

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Representation a 2 (1320), a 2 + (1320), a 2 0 (1320) π 1 (1400), π 1 + (1400), π 1 0 (1400) a 0 (1450), a 0 + (1450), a 0 0 (1450) ρ(1450), ρ + (1450), ρ 0 (1450) π 1 (1600), π 1 + (1600), π 1 0 (1600) a 1 (1640), a 1 + (1640), a 1 0 (1640) π 2 (1670), π 2 + (1670), π 2 0 (1670) ρ 3 (1690), ρ 3 + (1690), ρ 3 0 (1690) ρ(1700), ρ + (1700), ρ 0 (1700) a 2 (1700), a 2 + (1700), a 2 0 (1700) π(1800), π + (1800), π 0 (1800) ρ(1900), ρ + (1900), ρ 0 (1900) ρ 3 (1990), ρ 3 + (1990), ρ 3 0 (1990) a 4 (2040), a 4 + (2040), a 4 0 (2040) π(2100), π + (2100), π 0 (2100) ρ(2150), ρ + (2150), ρ 0 (2150) ρ 3 (2250), ρ 3 + (2250), ρ 3 0 (2250) ρ 5 (2350), ρ 5 + (2350), ρ 5 0 (2350) a 6 (2450), a 6 + (2450), a 6 0 (2450)

h 1 (1170) f 2 (1270) f 1 (1285)

η(1295)

φ(1020)

η (958) f 0 (980)

f 0 (600)

ω(782)

η, η

PaDtP{1320}, PapDtP{1320}, PazDtP{1320} PGpDoP{1400}, PGppDoP{1400}, PGpzDoP{1400} PaDzP{1450}, PapDzP{1450}, PazDzP{1450} PGrP{1450}, PGrpP{1450}, PGrzP{1450} PGpDoP{1600}, PGppDoP{1600}, PGpzDoP{1600} PaDoP{1640}, PapDoP{1640}, PazDoP{1640} PGpDtP{1670}, PGppDtP{1670}, PGpzDtP{1670} PGrDTP{1690}, PGrpDTP{1690}, PGrzDTP{1690} PGrP{1700}, PGrpP{1700}, PGrzP{1700} PaDtP{1700}, PapDtP{1700}, PazDtP{1700} PGpP{1800}, PGppP{1800}, PGpzP{1800} PGrP{1900}, PGrpP{1900}, PGrzP{1900} PGrDTP{1990}, PGrpDTP{1990}, PGrzDTP{1990} PaDfP{2040}, PapDfP{2040}, PazDfP{2040} PGpP{2100}, PGppP{2100}, PGpzP{2100} PGrP{2150}, PGrpP{2150}, PGrzP{2150} PGrDTP{2250}, PGrpDTP{2250}, PGrzDTP{2250} PGrDFP{2350}, PGrpDFP{2350}, PGrzDFP{2350} PaDsP{2450}, PapDsP{2450}, PazDsP{2450}

PfDoP{1285}

PfDtP{1270}

PhDoP{1170}

PGhprP{958}

PGh, PGhpr

PfDzP{600}

PGfP{1020}

PfDzP{980}

PGhP{1295}

PEN name

PGoP{782}

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omega(3)(1670)0

Computer name

eta(2)(1645)0

eta(2)(1870)0

phi(3)(1850)0

f(2)(1950) 0

omega(1650)0

omega(1420)0

f(2)’(1525)0

h(1)(1595)0

h(1)(1380)0

f(0)(2020)0

f(2)(1910)0

f(2)(2150)0

f(2)(1640)0

f(2)(2010)0

f(2)(1810)0

f(0)(2200)0

f(2)(1430)0

f(0)(1500)0

f(1)(1510)0

f(1)(1420)0

f(0)(1370)0

f(2)(1565)0

f(0)(2100)0

f(0)(1710)0

f(4)(2050)0

rho(1450)0

eta(1760)0

eta(1405)0

phi(1680)0

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Representation f 0 (1370) h 1 (1380)

ω 3 (1670)

f 0 (1500) f 1 (1510) f 2 (1525) f 2 (1565) h 1 (1595) f 2 (1640) η 2 (1645)

f 2 (1810) φ 3 (1850) η 2 (1870) f 2 (1910) f 2 (1950) f 2 (2010) f 0 (2020) f 4 (2050) f 0 (2100) f 2 (2150) f 0 (2200)

f 0 (1710)

f 1 (1420)

f 2 (1430)

ω(1420)

ω(1650)

η(1760)

η(1405)

ρ(1450)

φ(1680)

PfprDtP{1525}

PGhDtP{1870}

PGhDtP{1645}

PGoDTP{1670}

PGfDTP{1850}

PfDzP{2200}

PfDzP{1710}

PfDtP{2010}

PfDzP{2100}

PfDtP{1950}

PfDtP{1910}

PfDtP{1810}

PfDtP{1430}

PfDtP{1640}

PfDzP{1500}

PfDfP{2050}

PfDoP{1420}

PfDoP{1510}

PfDzP{1370}

PfDzP{2020}

PfDtP{2150}

PhDoP{1380}

PfDtP{1565}

PhDoP{1595}

PGrP{1450}

PGoP{1650}

PGfP{1680}

PGhP{1760}

PGhP{1405}

PGoP{1420}

PEN name

8

K, K+-, K-+, K-, K+ K(L), K(S), K* K-bar, K(*)-bar, K0-bar K0, K(L)0, K(S)0

K(2)*(1980)0,+

K(4)*(2045)0,+

K(0)*(1950)0,+

K(3)*(1780)0,+

K(2)*(1430)0,+

K(0)*(1430)0,+

Computer name

K(2)(1770)0,+

K(2)(1820)0,+

K(1)(1270)0,+

K(2)(1580)0,+

K(1)(1400)0,+

K(1)(1650)0,+

K*(1680)0,+

K*(1410)0,+

f(J)(2220)0

f(2)(2340)0

f(2)(2300)0

f(6)(2510)0

f(4)(2300)0

K*(892)0,+

K(1460)0,+

K(1630)0,+

K(1830)0,+

eta(2225)0

K*(800)0

Strange mesons (S = ±1, C = B = 0)

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

K, K ± , K , K , K + K L , K S , K

Representation f J (2220)

K 0 , K L 0 , K S 0

K, KPAK, , K 0

K 1 (1650) K (1680) K 2 (1770) K 3 (1780) K 2 (1820)

K 0 (1950) K 2 (1980) K 4 (2045)

K 0 (800) K (892) K 1 (1270) K 1 (1400) K (1410) K 0 (1430) K 2 (1430)

K 2 (1580)

f 2 (2300) f 4 (2300) f 2 (2340) f 6 (2510)

K(1460)

K(1830)

K(1630)

η(2225)

PK, PKpm, PKmp, PKm, PKp PKL, PKS, PKst

PAKst, PAKz

PKz, PKzL, PKzS

PKstDfP{2045}

PKstDTP{1780}

PKstDzP{1950}

PKstDtP{1430}

PKstDzP{1430}

PKstDtP{1980}

PKstDzP{800}

PKDoP{1400}

PKstP{1680}

PKDoP{1270}

PKDtP{1580}

PKDtP{1770}

PKstP{1410}

PKDoP{1650}

PKDtP{1820}

PfDsP{2510}

PfDtP{2300}

PfDtP{2340}

PfDfP{2300}

PfJP{2220}

PKstP{892}

PGhP{2225}

PEN name

PKP{1630}

PKP{1830}

PKP{1460}

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D, D-bar, D0, D-bar0 D+-, D-, D+ D*, D*+-, D*-, D*+ D(q), D(q)-bar, D(q)0, D(q)0-bar

B(d), B(d)-bar, B(d)0, B(d)0-bar

B, B-bar, B0, B-bar0 B+-, B-, B+ B(q), B(q)-bar, B(q)0, B(q)0-bar

D(s), D(s)+-, D(s)-, D(s)+ D(s)*+-, D(s)*-, D(s)*+

D(sJ)*(2317)-,+

D(sJ)(2460)-,+

D(s2)(2573)-,+

D(s1)(2536)-,+

D(2)*(2460)-,+

K(5)*(2380)0,+

Computer name

D(1)(2420)-,+

K(3)(2320)0,+

K(4)(2500)0,+

K(2)(2250)0,+

D(2)*(2460)0

D*(2640)-,+

D*(2010)-,+

D(1)(2420)0

K(3100)0,+

D*(2007)0

Charmed, strange mesons (C = S = ±1)

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Charmed mesons (C = ±1) D, D, D 0 , D 0 D ± , D , D + D , D ± , D , D + D q D, q , D q 0 , D q 0 D (2007) 0 D (2010) , D (2010) + D 1 (2420) 0 D 1 (2420) , D 1 (2420) + D 2 (2460) 0 D 2 (2460) , D 2 (2460) + D (2640) , D (2640) +

D s2 (2573) , D s2 (2573) + Bottom mesons (B = ±1) B, B, B 0 , B 0 B ± , B , B +

D sJ (2460) , D sJ (2460) + D s1 (2536) , D s1 (2536) +

(2317) +

(2317) , D sJ

D s , D s ± , D s , D s +

Representation K 2 (2250) K 3 (2320) K 5 (2380) K 4 (2500)

D s ± , D s , D s +

B d , B d , B d 0 , B d 0

B q , B q , B q 0 , B q 0

K(3100)

D sJ

PDs, PDpms, PDms, PDps PDstpms, PDstms, PDstps PDstmsJP{2317}, PDstpsJP{2317} PDmsJP{2460}, PDpsJP{2460} PDmsDoP{2536}, PDpsDoP{2536} PDmsDtP{2573}, PDpsDtP{2573}

PDstmDtP{2460}, PDstpDtP{2460}

PD, PAD, PDz, PADz PDpm, PDm, PDp PDst, PDstpm, PDstm, PDstp PDq, PADq, PDzq, PADzq

PDmDoP{2420}, PDpDoP{2420}

PDstmP{2640}, PDstpP{2640}

PDstmP{2010}, PDstpP{2010}

PB, PAB, PBz, PABz PBpm, PBm, PBp PBq, PABq, PBzq, PABzq

PBd, PABd, PBzd, PABzd

PDstzDtP{2460}

PKstDFP{2380}

PDstzP{2007}

PDzDoP{2420}

PKDtP{2250}

PKDTP{2320}

PKDfP{2500}

PEN name

PKP{3100}

10

B(s), B(s)-bar, B(s)0, B(s)0-bar B(s)*, B(s)*0 B(s0)*, B(s0)*0 B(s1)*, B(s1)*0 B(s1)(L), B(s1)(L)0 B(s1)(H), B(s1)(H)0 B(s2)*, B(s2)*0 B(s)*(5850), B(s)*(5850)0

B(u), B(u)-bar, B(u)0, B(u)0-bar B*, B*+, B*0 B(0)*, B(0)*+, B(0)*0 B(1)*, B(1)*+, B(1)*0 B(1)(L), B(1)(L)+, B(1)(L)0 B(1)(H), B(1)(H)+, B(1)(H)0 B(2)*, B(2)*+, B(2)*0 B(J)*(5732), B(J)*(5732)+,0

J/psi, J/psi(1S) chi, chi(c), chi(c0)(1P)

B(c), B(c)-, B(c)+ B(c)*, B(c)*+ B(c0)*, B(c0)*+ B(c1)*, B(c1)*+ B(c1)(L), B(c1)(L)+ B(c1)(H), B(c1)(H)+ B(c2)*, B(c2)*+

eta(c), eta(c)(1S)

Computer name

Bottom, charmed mesons (B = ±1, C = ±1)

Bottom, strange mesons (B = ±1, S = ±1)

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

B J (5732), B J (5732) + , B J (5732) 0

c/c mesons

B 1 (L), B 1 (L) + , B 1 (L) 0 B 1 (H), B 1 (H) + , B 1 (H) 0

B sJ (5850), B sJ (5850) 0

B c1 (H), B c1 (H) +

B c1 (L), B c1 (L) +

B s1 (L), B s1 (L) 0 B s1 (H), B s1 (H) 0

Representation B u , B u , B u 0 , B u 0 B , B + , B 0

B s , B s , B s 0 , B s 0

J/ψ, J/ψ(1S) χ, χ c , χ c0 (1P)

B 2 , B 2 + , B 2 0

B 1 , B 1 + , B 1 0

B 0 , B 0 + , B 0 0

B c , B c , B c +

η c , η c (1S)

+

+

+

B s2 , B s2 0

0

0

, B c0

, B c2

, B c1

B s0 , B s0

B c , B c +

, B s1

B s , B s 0

B c0

B c2

B c1

B s1

PBu, PABu, PBzu, PABzu PBst, PBstp, PBstz PBstDz, PBstpDz, PBstzDz PBstDo, PBstpDo, PBstzDo PBDoP{L}, PBpDoP{L}, PBzDoP{L} PBDoP{H}, PBpDoP{H}, PBzDoP{H} PBstDt, PBstpDt, PBstzDt PBstJP{5732}, PBstpJP{5732}, PBstzJP{5732}

PBs, PABs, PBzs, PABzs PBsts, PBstzs PBstsDz, PBstzsDz PBstsDo, PBstzsDo PBsDoP{L}, PBzsDoP{L} PBsDoP{H}, PBzsDoP{H} PBstsDt, PBstzsDt PBstsJP{5850}, PBstssJP{5850}

PBc, PBmc, , PBmpc, PBpc PBstc, PBstpc PBstcDz, PBstpcDz PBstcDo, PBstpcDo PBcDoP{L}, PBpcDoP{L} PBcDoP{H}, PBpcDoP{H} PBstcDt, PBstpcDt

PJGy, PJGyP{1S} PGc, PGcc, PGccDzP{1P}

PGhc, PGhcP{1S}

PEN name

11

Upsilon, Upsilon(1S) Upsilon’, Upsilon”, Upsilon”’, Upsilon””

n, p, n-bar, p-bar alpha (He ++ nucleus)

eta(b), eta(b)(1S)

X mesons, X(3872)

h(c), h(c)(1P)

Upsilon(11020)

Upsilon(10860)

Computer name

psi, psi(2S)

chi(c2)(1P)

chi(b1)(1P)

chi(b0)(2P)

chi(c1)(1P)

chi(b1)(2P)

chi(b2)(1P)

chi(b2)(2P)

chi(b0)(1P)

Upsilon(2S)

Upsilon(3S)

Upsilon(4S)

eta(c)(2S)

psi(4040)

psi(3770)

psi(4415)

psi(4160)

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Light baryons

b/b mesons

N baryons

Representation χ c1 (1P) h c , h c (1P) χ c2 (1P) η c (2S)

Υ , Υ , Υ , Υ

X, X(3872)

η b , η b (1S)

Υ(11020)

Υ(10860)

n, p, n, p

ψ, ψ(2S)

Υ, Υ(1S)

ψ(4415)

ψ(4160)

ψ(3770)

ψ(4040)

χ b0 (1P) χ b1 (1P) χ b2 (1P)

χ b0 (2P) χ b1 (2P) χ b2 (2P)

Υ(3S)

Υ(4S)

Υ(2S)

α

PGU, PGUP{1S} PGUpr, PGUprpr, PGUprprpr, PGUprprprpr

Pn, Pp, PAn, PAp PGa

PGhb, PGhbP{1S}

Phc, PhcP{1P}

PX, PXP{3872}

PGy, PGyP{2S}

PGcbDzP{2P}

PGccDoP{1P}

PGccDtP{1P}

PGUP{10860}

PGcbDoP{1P}

PGcbDtP{1P}

PGcbDzP{1P}

PGcbDoP{2P}

PGUP{11020}

PGcbDtP{2P}

PGyP{4040}

PGyP{4160}

PGyP{4415}

PGyP{3770}

PEN name

PGhcP{2S}

PGUP{4S}

PGUP{3S}

PGUP{2S}

12

Delta(1900)-,0,+,++

Delta(1700)-,0,+,++

Delta(1750)-,0,+,++

Delta(1620)-,0,+,++

Delta(1600)-,0,+,++

Delta(1232)-,0,+,++

Delta resonances

Computer name

N resonances

N(1900)0,+

N(1535)0,+

N(1680)0,+

N(1720)0,+

N(1700)0,+

N(1710)0,+

N(1650)0,+

N(1440)0,+

N(1675)0,+

N(1520)0,+

N(2080)0,+

N(2000)0,+

N(1990)0,+

N(2100)0,+

N(2190)0,+

N(2600)0,+

N(2250)0,+

N(2220)0,+

N(2200)0,+

N(2700)0,+

N(2090)0,+

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

baryons

Representation N, N + , N 0

, , , ,

N(2250)

N(1440)

N(1710)

N(1700)

N(1675)

N(1720)

N(2000)

N(2700)

N(1680)

N(2090)

N(1900)

N(1520)

N(2220)

N(2190)

N(2100)

N(2600)

N(1650)

N(2080)

N(1535)

N(1990)

N(2200)

1600

1700

1620

1900

1750

1232

PGD, PGDpp, PGDp, PGDz, PGDm

PN, PNp, PNz

PEN name

PGD{1232}

PNP{2000}

PNP{1535}

PNP{2190}

PNP{2100}

PNP{1650}

PNP{1990}

PNP{1440}

PNP{2090}

PNP{1900}

PNP{1680}

PNP{2250}

PNP{1520}

PNP{1710}

PNP{1720}

PNP{1675}

PNP{1700}

PGD{1900}

PNP{2700}

PNP{2600}

PGD{1620}

PNP{2200}

PNP{2220}

PGD{1600}

PGD{1700}

PNP{2080}

PGD{1750}

13

Delta(1920)-,0,+,++

Delta(2400)-,0,+,++

Delta(2390)-,0,+,++

Delta(2420)-,0,+,++

Delta(2750)-,0,+,++

Delta(2950)-,0,+,++

Delta(2000)-,0,+,++

Delta(1930)-,0,+,++

Delta(1910)-,0,+,++

Delta(1950)-,0,+,++

Delta(1905)-,0,+,++

Delta(2300)-,0,+,++

Delta(2200)-,0,+,++

Delta(2150)-,0,+,++

Delta(1940)-,0,+,++

Delta(2350)-,0,+,++

Lambda, Lambda-bar

Computer name

Lambda(1830)0

Lambda(2020)0

Lambda(1820)0

Lambda(1800)0

Lambda(1810)0

Lambda(1890)0

Lambda(1670)0

Lambda(1520)0

Lambda(1600)0

Lambda(1405)0

Lambda(2000)0

Lambda(1690)0

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Λ strange baryons

Representation

Λ(2000)

Λ(1820)

Λ(1690)

Λ(1810)

Λ(1405)

Λ(1670)

Λ(2020)

Λ(1830)

Λ(1800)

Λ(1600)

Λ(1890)

Λ(1520)

2390

1910

2300

1940

2000

1920

2420

2350

2150

2750

1950

1930

2950

2200

2400

1905

Λ, Λ

PGLP{1670}

PGLP{1800}

PGLP{1520}

PGLP{1890}

PGLP{1600}

PGLP{1810}

PGLP{1820}

PGLP{2020}

PGLP{1690}

PGLP{1830}

PGLP{2000}

PGLP{1405}

PEN name

PGL, PAGL

PGD{2300}

PGD{2390}

PGD{2750}

PGD{2000}

PGD{1950}

PGD{1930}

PGD{2150}

PGD{1905}

PGD{1940}

PGD{1920}

PGD{2950}

PGD{2350}

PGD{2200}

PGD{1910}

PGD{2420}

PGD{2400}

14

Sigma, Sigma-bar

Sigma(1660)-,0,+

Sigma(1580)-,0,+

Sigma(1770)-,0,+

Sigma(1385)-,0,+

Sigma(1560)-,0,+

Sigma(1620)-,0,+

Sigma(2080)-,0,+

Sigma(2030)-,0,+

Sigma(1915)-,0,+

Sigma(1670)-,0,+

Sigma(1750)-,0,+

Sigma(1840)-,0,+

Sigma(2070)-,0,+

Sigma(1775)-,0,+

Sigma(1690)-,0,+

Sigma(1940)-,0,+

Sigma(1480)-,0,+

Sigma(1880)-,0,+

Sigma(2000)-,0,+

Sigma resonances

Computer name

Lambda(2350)0

Lambda(2100)0

Lambda(2110)0

Lambda(2325)0

Lambda(2585)0

Sigma-,+,0,+-

Sigma*-,+, z

Sigma(

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Σ strange baryons

.) 0

.) + ,

Representation

Σ, Σ Σ , Σ + , Σ 0 , Σ ±

Σ , Σ + , Σ 0

.) .) ,

Λ(2110)

Λ(2100)

Λ(2350)

Λ(2585)

Λ(2325)

Σ(1580)

Σ(1620)

Σ(1660)

Σ(1775)

Σ(2000)

Σ(1670)

Σ(1915)

Σ(1840)

Σ(2080)

Σ(1880)

Σ(1560)

Σ(1480)

Σ(1750)

Σ(1385)

Σ(2070)

Σ(1940)

Σ(1770)

Σ(2030)

Σ(1690)

PGSzP{

PGS, PAGS PGSm, PGSp, PGSz, PGSpm PGSstm, PGSstp, PGSstz PGSP{

PGSpP{

PGLP{2110}

PGLP{2325}

PGLP{2100}

PGLP{2585}

PGLP{2350}

PGSP{1560}

PGSP{2000}

PGSP{1775}

PGSP{1670}

PGSP{1940}

PGSP{1690}

PGSP{2070}

PGSP{1750}

PGSP{1660}

PGSP{1480}

PGSP{1880}

PGSP{2030}

PGSP{1620}

PGSP{1385}

PGSP{1770}

PGSP{1580}

PGSP{1840}

PGSP{2080}

PGSP{1915}

PEN name

PGSmP{

}

)-,0,+

}

},

},

15

Omega, Omega-bar, Omega- Omega(2250), Omega(2250)-

Lambda(c), Lambda(c)+

Xi, Xi-bar Xi-, Xi0, Xi*-, Xi*0

Lambda(c)(2625)+

Lambda(c)(2765)+

Lambda(c)(2593)+

Sigma(3000)-,0,+

Sigma(3170)-,0,+

Sigma(2620)-,0,+

Sigma(2250)-,0,+

Sigma(2455)-,0,+

Sigma(2100)-,0,+

Computer name

Xi(1530),-,0

Omega(2380)-

Omega(2470)-

Xi(2120)-,0

Xi(1820)-,0

Xi(1950)-,0

Xi(1690)-,0

Xi(2370)-,0

Xi(2500)-,0

Xi(1620)-,0

Xi(2250)-,0

Xi(2030)-,0

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

Λ c charmed baryons

strange baryons

Ξ strange baryons

Ξ(1530), Ξ(1530) , Ξ(1530) 0

(2250), (2250)

Ξ , Ξ 0 , Ξ , Ξ 0

Representation

Λ c (2593) + Λ c (2625) + Λ c (2765) +

, ,

(2470)

(2380)

Ξ(2120)

Ξ(1620)

Ξ(2250)

Ξ(1690)

Ξ(2500)

Ξ(2030)

Ξ(1950)

Ξ(2370)

Ξ(1820)

Σ(2100)

Σ(2620)

Σ(3000)

Σ(2250)

Σ(3170)

Σ(2455)

Λ c , Λ c +

Ξ, Ξ

PGX, PAGX PGXm, PGXz, PGXstm, PGXstz PGXP{1530}, PGXmP{1530}, PGXzP{1530}

PGO, PAGO, PGOm PGOP{2250}, PGOmP{2250}

PGLpcP{2593}

PGLpcP{2625}

PGLpcP{2765}

PGLc, PGLpc

PGOP{2380}

PGOP{2470}

PGSP{2100}

PGSP{2620}

PGSP{3000}

PGSP{2250}

PGSP{3170}

PGSP{2455}

PGXP{1950}

PGXP{1690}

PGXP{2250}

PGXP{2120}

PGXP{1620}

PGXP{2370}

PGXP{2030}

PGXP{2500}

PGXP{1820}

PEN name

16

Xi(cc), Xi(cc)+, Xi(cc)++ Xi(cc)*, Xi(cc)*+, Xi(cc)*++

Omega(ccc), Omega(ccc)++

Xi(c)’, Xi(c)’+, Xi(c)’0 Xi(c)*, Xi(c)*+, Xi(c)*0

Omega(cc), Omega(cc)+ Omega(cc), Omega(cc)*+

Xi(c), Xi(c)+, Xi(c)0 Xi(c) resonances

Omega(c), Omega(c)0 Omega(c)*, Omega(c)*0

Sigma(c)(2455)++,+,0

Sigma(c)(2520)++,+,0

Sigma(c), Sigma*(c)

Sigma(c)* resonances

Sigma(c) resonances

Lambda(c)(2880)+

Sigma(c)*++,+,0

Xi(c)(2645)+,0

Sigma(c)++,+,0

Xi(c)(2790)+,0

Xi(c)(2815)+,0

Computer name

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

cc double charm baryons

Ξ cc double charm baryons

ccc triple charm baryons

c charmed baryons

Ξ c charmed baryons

Σ c charmed baryons

Λ b bottom baryons

PGSstcP{ }, PGSstppcP{ }, PGSstpcP{ }, PGSstzcP{ }Σ c ( ), Σ c ( ) ++ , Σ c ( ) + , Σ c ( ) 0

Σ c ( ), Σ c ( ) ++ , Σ c ( ) + , Σ c ( ) 0 Σ c (2455) Σ c (2520)

Σ c ( ), Σ c ( ) + , Σ c ( ) 0 Ξ c (2645) Ξ c (2790) Ξ c (2815)

Σ c ++ , Σ c + , Σ c 0

Representation Λ c (2880) +

++

+ , Ξ cc

++

Ξ c , Ξ c + , Ξ c 0

+ , Ξ cc

Σ c ++ , Σ c + , Σ c 0

Ξ c , Ξ c + , Ξ c 0

Ξ c , Ξ c + , Ξ c 0

ccc ,ccc ++

+ , Ξ cc

+

Ξ cc , Ξ cc

,cc

cc ,cc +

c ,c 0

Σ c , Σ c

c ,c 0

cc

Ξ cc

PGSc, PGSstc PGSppc, PGSpc, PGSzc PGScP{ }, PGSppcP{ }, PGSpcP{ }, PGSzcP{ }

PGXc, PGXpc, PGXzc PGXcP{ } PGSpcP{ }, PGSzcP{ }

PGXcc, PGXpcc, PGXppcc PGXstcc, PGXstpcc, PGXstppcc

PGSstppc, PGSstpc, PGSstzc

PGXprc, PGXprpc, PGXprzc PGXstc, PGXstpc, PGXstzc

PGOstcc, PGOstpcc

PGOccc, PGOppccc

PGOstc, PGOstzc

PGOcc, PGOpcc

PGLpcP{2880}

PGScP{2455}

PGXcP{2645}

PGXcP{2815}

PGScP{2520}

PGXcP{2790}

PGOc, PGOzc

PEN name

17

Xi(bc), Xi(bc)+, Xi(bc)0 Xi(bc)’, Xi(bc)’+, Xi(bc)’0 Xi(bc)*, Xi(bc)*+, Xi(bc)*0

Xi(bb), Xi(bb)-, Xi(bb)0 Xi(bb)*, Xi(bb)*-, Xi(bb)*0

Omega(bcc), Omega(bcc)+ Omega(bcc), Omega(bcc)*+

Xi(b), Xi(b)-, Xi(b)0 Xi(b)’, Xi(b)’-, Xi(b)’0 Xi(b)*, Xi(b)*-, Xi(b)*0

Omega(bc), Omega(bc)0 Omega(bc)’, Omega(bc)’0 Omega(bc)*, Omega(bc)*0

Omega(bb), Omega(bb)- Omega(bb)*, Omega(bb)*-

Lambda(b), Lambda(b)0

Omega(b), Omega(b)- Omega(b)*, Omega(b)*-

Sigma(b), Sigma*(b)

Sigma(b)*+,0,-

Computer name

Sigma(b)+,0,-

bcc bottom–double charm baryons

bc bottom–charm charm baryons

Ξ bc bottom–charm charm baryons

Table 3: PEN names (continued)

bb double bottom baryons

Ξ bb double bottom baryons

Σ b charmed baryons

b bottom baryons

Ξ b botom baryons

Representation

, Ξ bb

0

Σ b + , Σ b 0 , Σ b

+ , Ξ bc

Ξ bb , Ξ bb , Ξ bb 0

0

+ , Ξ bc

Ξ bc , Ξ bc + , Ξ bc 0

0

Ξ b , Ξ b , Ξ b 0

Ξ b , Ξ b , Ξ b 0

Ξ b , Ξ b , Ξ b 0

Σ b + , Σ b 0 , Σ b

bcc ,bcc + +

,bcc

bb ,bb

, Ξ bb

,bb

, Ξ bc

, Ξ bc

,bc

,bc

bc ,bc 0 0

0

b ,b

b ,b

Λ b , Λ b 0

Σ b , Σ b

bcc

bb

bc

bc

Ξ bb

Ξ bc Ξ bc

PGXbb, PGXmbb, PGXzbb PGXstbb, PGXstmbb, PGXstzbb

PGXbc, PGXpbc, PGXzbc PGXprbc, PGXprpbc, PGXprzbc PGXstbc, PGXstpbc, PGXstzbc

PGSb, PGSstb PGSpb, PGSzb, PGSmb PGSstpb, PGSstzb, PGSstmb

PGXb, PGXmb, PGXzb PGXprb, PGXprmb, PGXprzb PGXstb, PGXstmb, PGXstzb

PGObcc, PGOpbcc PGOstbcc, PGOstpbcc

PGOstbb, PGOstmbb

PGOstbc, PGOstzbc

PGOprbc, PGOprzbc

PGOstb, PGOstmb

PGObb, PGOmbb

PGObc, PGOzbc

PGOb, PGOmb

PGLb, PGLzb

PEN name

18

d(L), d-bar(L), d(R), d-bar(R) u, u-bar u(L), u-bar(L), u(R), u-bar(R) s, s-bar s(L), s-bar(L), s(R), s-bar(R) c, c-bar c(L), c-bar(L), c(R), c-bar(R)

q, q-bar q(L), q-bar(L), q(R), q-bar(R)

b(L), b-bar(L), b(R), b-bar(R)

t(L), t-bar(L), t(R), t-bar(R)

Omega(bbc), Omega(bbc)0 Omega(bbc)*, Omega(bbc)*0

Omega(bbb), Omega(bbb)-

H-, H+, H+- H++,– H(1)0, H(2)0, H(3)0

Computer name

t1, t1-bar

t2, t2-bar

b2, b2-bar

b1, b1-bar

b, b-bar

d,