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R. Rajendran, K. Narasimhan'*

Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam 530 027, India

'Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 400 076, India

Abstract

Contact explosion damage prediction of circular steel plates is of interest to the naval architects and

warship designers. During contact explosion, a fraction of the explosive energy goes for plastic deformation

and fracture of the plate. Experiments were conducted on air backed circular high strength low alloy (HSLA)

steel plates to establish this fraction. There was a large amount of plastic deformation preceding fracture in

the contact exploded plates. The deformation contour was found to be spherical showing maximum

absorption of energy for the depth of bulge attained. The radius of penetration of the test plate was obtained

by applying the terminal strain to fracture and the non-uniform strain distribution in the target plate. A case

history is presented where the current predictions are compared with the existing empirical methodology and

experimental data.

Keywords: Contact explosion; Shock energy; Deformation energy

1. Introduction

Research on contact explosion damage studies started way back in 1924 on the discarded

Japanese battle ship Tosa [1]. Imperial Japanese Navy carried out contact underwater explosion

damage on Tosa's hull with di!erent charges at three widely separate parts to obtain necessary

technical back ground to develop the underwater protection systems to their war ships. Tests

carried out by Keil [2] on scaled models ruled out the in#uence of depth of submergence on the

damage potential of contact explosion. Keil described that there is a de"nite relation between the

radius, R, of the hole that is being made by an explosive of quantity, =, during contact explosion

Nomenclature

e

, e

, e

e

'

fracture strain

E energy (J)

E

2,2

energy of the TNT explosive (kcal/kg)

Eq

2,2

TNT equivalent of the explosive

J energy conversion factor in work units (J/kcal)

r instantaneous radius of the circular plate (m)

R radius of the hole that is penetrated (m)

t thickness of the plate (m)

= charge weight (kg)

=

''

critical charge weight

apex bulge depth (m)

coupling factor

`

yield stress (MPa)

Suzx

in input

def deformation

with a plate of thickness t.

R"0.0704

=

t

, (1)

where R and t are in m and =is in kg. This relation holds good only above certain charge quantity

since a minimum quantity of explosive is required for making a hole in the plate of speci"ed

thickness. The critical charge weight =

''

above which Eq. (1) holds good is given by

=

''

"2.72t. (2)

The basis on which the above prediction was obtained is not available in the literature.

Shock loading of circular plates subjected to non-contact underwater explosion loading was

extensively studied by various authors [3}7]. Investigations on the circular plate subjected to

uniformly distributed air blast impulse were reported in literature [8}11]. Response of plates

subjected to high intensity of impulsive loading and undergoing large deformation is determined by

membrane stretching resistance [12]. During membrane deformation, internal energy dissipation

occurs predominantly through the action of membrane forces on middle surface strain, and #exural

work could be neglected.

The empirical relations formulated by Keil [2] are nearly "ve decades old and there has been

immense development in the "eld of materials and ship building technology. Therefore, it is natural

to go for a new basis for the damage prediction of a plate subjected to contact explosion. This

374

Fig. 1. A schematic representation of the spherical deformation of the circular plate.

situation has lead to the conduct of systematic contact explosions on the plane plates. The

deformation energy of the plate was correlated to the input shock energy. Remarkably, there was a

de"nite relation between the input shock energy and the deformation energy. This relation brings

out the available plastic energy as a function of explosive energy. The total energy of deformation is

obtained from this input fractional energy. Deformation of the plate was spherical in nature

suggesting maximum amount of energy absorption for the attained depth of bulge. Membrane theory

was applied since the ratio of the radius of the plate to the thickness of the plate was very large.

2. The methodology

The input shock energy, E

'"

, was obtained by using the energy content of the explosive and is

given by

E

'"

"=E

2,2

Eq

2,2

J, (3)

where E

'"

is in J, = is the charge weight in kg, E

2,2

is the energy content of TNT in kcal/kg

(1060 kcal/kg [2]), J is the energy conversion factor in work units and Eq

2,2

is the TNT equivalent

of the explosive used.

Since large deformation is dominated by membrane stretching [12], the work done due to plastic

bending is neglected. The e!ect of local dimpling is also omitted as an approximation. It is assumed

that the plate undergoes spherical deformation. For a spherical deformation

(2!)"R, (4)

where is the radius of the sphere, is the apex depth of bulge and R is the radius of the plate as

shown in Fig. 1.

From Eq. (4),

"

R

2

#

2

. (5)

It is assumed that the plate material deforms to a negligible amount until the yield point is reached

and subsequently #ows plastically without further increase in stress. In other words, it is assumed

that no strain hardening occurs. For a circular plate stretching like a rigid plastic membrane, the

work done is given by [13]

=

'

"

`

tA, (6)

375

Fig. 2. A schematic representation of the change in area of the circular plate during spherical deformation.

where t is the thickness of the plate,

`

is the static yield stress and A is the increase in area. The

surface area of the sphere A

is given as

A

"2 (7)

as shown in Fig. 2. Subtracting the area of the circle from the area of the sphere,

A". (8)

Substituting Eq. (8) in Eq. (6), the deformation energy E

'

is given as

E

'

"

`

t. (9)

The deformation energy as a function of input shock energy is assumed as

E

'

"E

'"

, (10)

where is the coupling factor which is the fraction of the explosive energy that has been converted

into the deformation energy of the plate. The fraction of the energy that has gone in for tearing of

the plate after su$cient amount of thinning has been neglected for the computation of the energy

consumption of the plate.

During contact explosion, preceding fracture, thinning of the target plate takes place which

absorbs energy in the form of plastic deformation. It can be approximately assumed that the hole

that is being made by the explosive is circular in nature and signi"cant energy goes only for the

hole radius. Therefore, for the given quantity of charge, the radius of penetration of the explosive in

the plate has to be worked out in accordance with these assumptions. Since the depth of bulge is

dependent on the size of the hole being penetrated which in turn depends on the charge weight of

the explosive, a method needs to be evolved relating the strain pattern across the radial line of the

plate, the rupture strain and the radius of the hole.

von-Mises' proposed that yielding would occur when the second invariant of the stress deviator

exceeds some critical value [14]. For a circular plate in plane stress condition, the principal stresses

are equal and the stress distribution is like that of a soap "lm or a stretched membrane. The

principal strains

and

376

Fig. 3. A schematic representation showing the distribution of strains along the radius of the circular plate.

with a radius R and a depth of bulge are [15]

"

R

1!

r

R

. (11)

The strain is zero at the edge and equal to /R at the centre as shown in Fig. 3. The equivalent

plastic strain

is given by

"

2(

)/3

3

, (12)

where

"!(

). (13)

Combining Eqs. (11)}(13),

"2

"2

"!

. (14)

The test plate fractures when its equivalent strain at its centre is equal to the uniaxial fracture strain

'

. Therefore,

"

"

'

2

"

!

R

2

"

2

. (15)

The fracture strain,

'

, is material speci"c and is assessed from the uniaxial tensile test. From

Eq. (11), at the centre of the deforming plate

R

"

'

2

(16)

from which

"R

'

2

. (17)

The deformation energy for a spherical geometry, which is given by Eq. (9) becomes

E

'

"

t

`

R

'

2

. (18)

377

Table 1

Chemical composition and mechanical properties of the high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel

Chemical composition weight (%) Mechanical properties

Element C Mn Ni Cr S Si Cu P yield strength

(MPa)

Ultimate tensile

strength (MPa)

Elongation

(%)

Content

(%)

0.12 0.7 0.9 0.75 0.035 0.65 0.5 0.035 400 560 28

From Eq. (18) the radius of the hole is estimated as

R"

2E

'

t

`

'

. (19)

Substitution of Eq. (10) in Eq. (19) results in

R"

2E

'"

t

`

'

. (20)

Substituting for E

'"

from Eq.(3), Eq. (20) can be rewritten as

R"

2=Eq

2,2

E

2,

Jt

`

'

. (21)

The value of R thus obtained from Eq. (21) predicts the radius of the hole that is being made by an

explosive of known quantity in plate having a thickness t, a static yield stress

`

and the uniaxial

fracture strain

'

. During the actual deformation process, the yield stress of the plate increases due

to the dynamic nature of the load but it is not uniform throughout the plate. The strain rate is

maximum at the centre and almost zero at the edge [5]. The distribution of the strain rate across

the radial line of the plate during contact underwater explosion is not available for consideration in

this methodology.

3. Experimental

The target material was high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel whose chemical composition and

mechanical properties are given in Table 1. A total of ten tensile tests were carried out at a strain

rate of 0.01 s\ (quasi-static regime of testing [14]), "ve in the rolling direction and "ve in the

transverse direction as per ASTM E8M-89 [16]. The average of quasi-static yield stress is 400 MPa

and percentage elongation is 28. The tensile test result of the HSLA steel for a strain rate of 0.01 s\

is shown in Fig. 4.

A drum model target of 290;4 mm as shown in Fig. 5 was used for the study of contact

explosion damage. The plate was supported at its edge by a rigid unyielding ba%e. Experiments

were conducted with charge weights varying from 1 to 10 g.

378

Fig. 4. Stress}strain diagram of the HSLA steel; strain rate 0.01 s\.

Fig. 5. A schematic representation of the drum model target ready for testing.

379

Fig. 6. A photographic view of the measurement of the contour of the deformed plate.

The explosive used was PEK-1 (1.17 TNT equivalent) along with Mk-79 electrical detonator.

The Mk-79 detonator (which is equivalent to one gram of TNT) is 41.2mm in length and 6.2 mm in

diameter. The detonator was placed vertically on the centre of the plate for one gram explosive. For

2 g onwards, the PEK-1 explosive (with a density of 1700 kg/m) was shaped to a sphere and placed

at the end of the detonator with steel grip tape. The explosive was "xed at the centre of the plate

with the detonator perpendicular to it. The whole assembly was submerged in the underwater

shock test tank to a depth of 2 m. After each explosion, plate with assembly was taken out of the

tank , dismantled and observed for cracking. The depth of bulge at the apex of the plate was also

measured. The contour of the deformed plate was measured with a Mututyo height gauge as shown

in Fig. 6.

4. Results and discussion

The deformation contours of the plates subjected to contact underwater explosion are shown in

Fig. 7. The contours closely adhere to the spherical geometry. Dimpling of the plate at its apex is

seen in the deformed contours in Fig. 7. For 1 g charge only plastic deformation took place and no

localised dimple was observed as shown in Fig. 8. For a charge weight of 2 g localised dent was

observed at the centre of the plate along with spherical deformation as shown in Fig. 9. For the

charge weight of 3 g and above there was localised cracking at the centre of the plate along with

380

Fig. 7. Contour of the deformed plate: (a) 1 g of Mk-79 detonator; (b) 2 g of explosive; (c) 3 g of explosive; (d) 4 g of

explosive; (e) 5 g of explosive; (f ) 6 g of explosive; (g) 10 g of explosive.

Fig. 8. A photographic view of the plastic deformation of the plate for Mk-79 detonator explosion: No dimple was

observed.

381

Fig. 9. A photographic view of the plastic deformation of the plate for 2 g explosion: localised dent was observed at the

centre of the plate.

plastic deformation. Fig. 10 shows the photographic view of the cracked plates for 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10 g

of charge weight. There was considerable extension of crack for the explosion of 3}10 g of charge.

After every "ring, during dismantling of the plate, it was observed that the clamping bolts had got

loosened.

The deformation to input energy ratio was 7.26% for 1 g detonator and it increased to 11.76%

for 2 g and 16.07% for 3 g and thereafter it #uctuated around that value. This trend is attributed

to the elongated geometry of the detonator placed perpendicular to the test plate for 1 g charge

and the unsymmetric distribution of the explosive around the detonator for 2 g charge. With

increase in charge weight, the symmetry of the charge improved and hence the energy ratio was

maintained.

The underwater explosion instantly converts the explosive charge into a hot gas of high pressure

of approximately 5000 MPa and high temperature of the order of 30003C [15]. This hot gaseous

ball propagates the shock in spherical direction in the water medium. Therefore the explosive

energy which is not incident on the test plate (around 84}92%) propagates as spherical front in

other directions. A detailed investigation on the energy balance of contact underwater explosion is

out of the scope of this work.

Table 2 shows the summary of the depth of bulge, the deformation energy and the input energy

for the exploded charges. The size of the dimple varied from 4 mm to 13.6 mm. The diameter of the

charge varied from 6.2 mm to 21.6mm. It can be observed from Table 2 that the size of the dimple

was less than the diameter of the charge (the dimple diameter to explosive diameter ratio varying

from 0 to 0.9). Also, the dimple diameter bears a ratio of 0}0.06 to the plate diameter. This justi"es

the assumption that the work done due to the localised dimpling and cracking may be omitted for

analysis. It appears that the dimpling is due to spallation in the plate as a result of the high-velocity

compression of the hot gas ball of the explosive which was in contact with the test plate. Fig. 11

shows the variation of deformation energy as a function of input shock energy. Least-squares "t to

the above data yields as 0.1236.

382

Fig. 10. Plastic deformation of the circular plate with localised dimple and cracking: (a) 3 g of explosive and (b) 4 g of

explosive; (c) 5 g of explosive; (d) 6 g of explosive; (e) 10 g of explosive.

5. Case study

Applying the material parameters for the HSLA steel plate under investigation, and the TNT

equivalent for PEK-1 charge:

"0.1236, Eq

2,2

"1.17, E

2,2

"1060kcal/kg, J"4180kcal/kg,

`

"400 MPa,

383

Table 2

Summary of contact explosion experiment results

Sl no. Weight of

PEK-1

Charge

diameter

Depth of

bulge

Input

energy

Deformation

energy

Coupling

factor

Remarks

(kg) (mm) (mm) (%)

1. 1 6.2 8.00 4430 322 7.26 NoD; NoC

2. 2 10.3 15.00 9613 1131 11.76 DF4 mm;NoC

3. 3 13.1 21.75 14796 2378 16.07 D:C;F7mm

4. 4 15.0 25.50 19973 3269 16.37 D;C;F13.6mm

5. 5 16.5 26.25 25162 3464 13.78 D;C;F7.4mm

6. 6 17.8 28.00 30346 3941 12.99 D;C;F10.4mm

7. 10 21.6 35.50 51058 6334 12.41 D;C;F12.7mm

D: Dimpling; C: Cracking.

Fig. 11. Variation of plate deformation energy as a function of the explosive energy.

'

"ln(1#0.28)"0.2469,

Eq. (21) reduces to

R"0.0643

=

t

. (22)

Eq. (22) is in good comparison with Eq. (1). For a charge weight of 19 g of PEK-1 with 1 g Mk-79

detonator, on a 4 mm HSLA steel plate the radius of the hole that is being made is 0.143 m.

384

Fig. 12. Hole bored into the test plate at its centre by contact explosion (seen like lotus); Charge quantity"19 g of

PEK-1#1 g of Mk-79 detonator; Hole radius"0.120 m; Prediction by present methodology"0.143 m; Prediction by

Keil's method"0.157 m.

Application of Keil's relation gives R as 0.157 m. Experiment was conducted for the above

conditions on a f 290 circular plate and it ruptured at its centre like a lotus as shown in Fig. 12. The

radius of the hole (taken as half of its average diameter) in the plate was 0.120 m. The present

approach thus is 84% in agreement with the experimental result and it is 91% in agreement with

Keil's approach. In addition, the new approach takes into account the salient material properties

like the yield stress and the terminal strain to fracture.

6. Conclusions

Underwater contact explosion damage phenomenon was empirically modelled by Keil relating

the charge quantity to the thickness of the plate. The model lacks explanation for the variation in

the structural material properties. Also, the basis of the empirical model is not known.

A new damage prediction model has been proposed in this investigation relating the input shock

energy, the contour of deformation, the material properties and the thickness of the structural

material. This model assumes rigid plastic membrane stretching and neglects the energy dissipated

in localised dimpling and cracking during the dynamic deformation process.

A case study has been illustrated correlating Keil's empirical model and the present approach.

The results are in good agreement with each other and the experimental observation.

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Rear Admiral S. Mohapatra, Director, Naval Science and Technolo-

gical Laboratory, for his kind permission to publish this article. Acknowledgements are due to Mr.

K.H.B.S. Satyanarayana for the help in experiments, Mr. M. Suryanarayana for explosive handling

and Mr. V. Ramakrishna for hardware support.

385

References

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1956.

[3] Finnie TM. Explosive forming of circular diaphragms. Sheet Met Ind 1962; 391}8.

[4] Remmerswaal JR. The peaceful use of explosives, Sheet Met Ind 1962; 475}86.

[5] Bednarsky T. The dynamic deformation of a circular membrane. Int J Mech Sci 1969;11:949}59.

[6] Johnson W, Kormi K, Travis FW. An investigation into the explosive deep drawing of circular blanks using plug

cushion technique. Int J Mech Sci 1966;6:287}301.

[7] Johnson W, Poyton A, Singh H, Travis FW. Experiments in the underwater explosion stretch forming of clamped

circular blanks. Int J Mech Sci 1966;8:237}70.

[8] Teeling-Smith RG, Nurick GN. The deformation and tearing of thin circular plates subjected to impulsive loads.

Int J Impact Eng 1991;11(1):77}91.

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[10] Nurick GN, Martin JB. Deformation of thin plates subjected to impulsive loading-A review, Part II: Experimental

studies. Int J Impact Eng 1989;8(2):159}70.

[11] Symonds PS, Wierzbiki T. Membrane mode solutions for impulsively loaded circular plates. Trans ASME J Appl

Mech 1979;46:58}63.

[12] Weirzbiki T, Nurick GN. Large deformation of thin plates under localised impulsive loading. Int J Impact Eng

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[13] Cole RH. Underwater explosions. NJ, USA: Princeton University Press, 1948, pp. 1.

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386

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