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Improve Newton's second law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force on the body and is in the same direction as the resultant force.

Thus, it also implies that when the resultant force on a body is zero, the rate of change of momentum is zero, and if it concerns a body of constant mass, the acceleration is zero. This is Newton's first law, which states that 'any body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless a resultant force acts on it to cause it to accelerate'.

How does newtons first law relate to newtons second law?

To recap, Newton's first law states that an object in motion will stay in motion with constant velocity given that there are no net forces acting upon it. For example, if a ball was pushed with zero net forces acting on it besides the first force push, it will go on forever until a force decides to act on it, such as friction or gravity. Contrary to Newton's first law, Newton's second law implies that if an object is acted upon with existing net force, the object will accelerate with the same direction.

The equation Force (F) = mass (m) x acceleration (a) derives from the second law. Similarly to the first law, any net force on a body is conserved, implying the rule of conservation of momentum. In the first law, a force acted on a body will cause the body to move with the same magnitude of force in the same direction if there is zero net force. In the second law, a net force on a body causes the body to accelerate with the same direction as the net force.


Improve If you think about the first law(law of inertia), it says that an object at rest wants to stay at rest and an object in motion wants to stay in motion. Ex: if a skinny guy gets pushed a big guy compared to a big guy pushing a small guy one would think that the big guy would be more likely to stay in one spot while the skinny guy woul be more likely to move. So basicly, the bigger the mass and the more the acceleration, the more force that will come from it, and vice versa. Which is basically the second law. The relatinonship between force and its two vectors(determining factors), force and acceleration

Newtons first law is that a force is required to move an object. His second Law defines the magnitude of that force relative to the object to be moved.


Improve By newton s second law, F=ma;

now suppose that net force acting on the body is zero , so that F=0; so, 0=ma; so either m=0 or a=0.As mass m can never be zero. so acceleration a=0; i.e if F=0, then a=0. This is Newton s first law of motion , if net force acting on a body is zero, it continues in its state of rest or uniform motion (which means that its acceleration

is zero)


Improve Force = mass x acceleration; acceleration = force / mass. If force is zero, then obviously, acceleration will also be zero.

Newton's First Law of Motion

Newton's 1 st law is also known as the Principle of Interia. Its first known formulation dates back to Galileo, with a modification by Renee Descartes before arriving with Isaac Newton. Its straightforward meaning is that an object, free to move unencumbered by any kind of outside interference (like gravity or friction), will continue on forever in its current state of motion - even if that is being motionless. In this context, state of motion means moving at a given speed in a specific straight line direction. (Descartes' contribution to the principle of inertia is the idea of straight line motion, by the way.) This concept of continuous, unchanged motion is referred to as an object's inertia. The degree, or extent, of an object's inertia is measured through the property called mass.


A number of scientists have viewed the first law as being included in Newton's second

law, discussed below, as a special case - that of motion with zero outside force. However, it can be viewed as important in its own right because it defines the observable property, unchanging motion due to inertia, that lets us relate the individual perspectives where Newton's second law holds true.

You see, everyone has their own unique and personal view of how things happen in the universe based on their own perspective and point of view - called a reference frame in the appropriate mathematics. But, to be able to communicate meaningfully with others, we all need to understand innately how to relate what we see (observations in our reference frame) to what others see (their observations in their reference frame). The principle of inertia permits us to establish a concept of relativity: the mechanical workings of the universe are the same in nature for me as they are for you. This Galilean postulate of relativity is valid for any pair of individuals in inertial reference frames, that is, reference frames where the principle of inertia is true. [Albert Einstein proposed an extension to Galileo's postulate of relativity in that all physical workings of the universe are the same in nature for everyone in inertial reference frames. He extended from mechanical workings of material objects to those that do not include ordinary material objects, like light. This became part of his Special Theory of Relativity.] Since Newton's 1 st law sets the stage, so to speak, for the other two, it can be understood as necessary on its own!

Continue to Newton's Second Law.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

Newton's 2nd law is really a mathematical statement of how "force" relates to the change in an object's motion. In part, it acts as a defining statement for the properties termed "force" and "mass."

We already know that mass is a measure of the degree of inertia an object possesses, and we intuitively understand what force is - but we don't really have independent definitions of them or procedures for measuring them. The second law relates them to each other, and in so doing, acts as a joint operational definition of them.

Mathematically, Newton's 2nd law says F = Δpt. In words, we might say that force, F, is equal to the change in momentum, Δp, with the corresponding change in time, Δt. This brief mathematical statement contains quite a bit of information.

First, what is momentum?

By definition, p = mv, where p is the property called momentum, m is the object's mass, and v is its velocity. [In this equation, and above, you see that some of the letters in the equation are in bold-italic while others are just italic. The items designated in bold- italic are called vectors; they have mathematical properties of size and direction. The items in italic are scalars - regular numbers denoting size only. So mass, m, is a scalar defined only by its size while velocity, v, is a vector designating the size of an object's speed and which direction it is traveling in.]

Newton recognized that the change in an object's motion with an applied force depended also on its mass (degree of inertia). This is a common sense idea to us; if we

push with a certain amount of force on a toy car and with the same amount of force on a real car, the toy car will have a much greater change in its motion. Momentum incorporates inertia (mass) with an object's motion (speed) to produce a composite that relates to force.

motion (speed) to produce a composite that relates to force. Accelerate Decelerate Sideways The relationship

The relationship with force is to the rate at which momentum changes over time! [The Δ symbol in the equation means "change in."] So, force F produces a change in an object's momentum p over time, where the size of the force defines the rate of change and the direction of the force defines the direction of the change. If the force's direction lines up with the object's original direction of travel, the object's speed will increase (force in the same direction as the object's velocity) or decrease (force in the opposite direction to the object's velocity). But if the force points in some other direction, it will cause the object to change course as well.

As long as the mass part of the momentum does not change, the change in momentum can be expressed as Δp = Δ(mv) = mv). Because we define acceleration, a, as the change in velocity with time a = Δvt, Newton's second law can also be written as F = ma. This is a more familiar expression to anyone who had a physics course before. [It is interesting to note that since the acceleration a relates to Δv, and Δv is not zero if the direction of v changes even when its size stays the same, an object accelerates if its direction of travel changes while it is moving at constant speed.]

Newtons 2 nd law can also be understood to describe the action of many forces acting on a single object, or many forces acting on many objects. Under these circumstances, the force F is understood to represent the overall, or net, force and the momentum change Δp to be the overall, or net change - over all of the objects involved.

Continue to Newton's Third Law.

Newton's Third Law of Motion

The 3 rd law tells us that all forces come in pairs; for every force that one object experiences, there is another object that is subject to a force of equal strength that is in exactly the opposite direction. For example, consider the forces between a pair of objects that are touching each other. Whatever force the first one exerts on the second, the second exerts a force of the same size in the opposite direction! Otherwise, Newton's 2 nd law would tell us that the pair of objects, taken together, would be accelerating in some fashion due to their contact.

As another example, consider the downward force of gravity that the Earth exerts on you (also called your weight). In turn, you exert an exactly equal upward force on the Earth. Together, those two forces form an action-reaction force pair.

As an aside, if the action-reaction force pair is the Earth's gravity pulling on you and your gravity pulling on the Earth, why don't we all fall into the center of the Earth (and simultaneously the Earth falls up towards us)? If there were no other forces acting on us, we would do exactly that. But, there is an upward electric repulsion between the atoms at the bottom of our feet (and shoes) and the ground we are standing on. This force must exactly balance the downward force of gravity to keep us from sinking into the ground. After all, according to the second law we need to have opposing, balancing forces acting on us to keep us from accelerating. The "reaction" force of your gravity pulling on the Earth does just that, it acts on the Earth and not on you.

What practical consequences does the third law have for us?

Remember that the 2 nd law can be applied to groups of objects, considered together. When we do that, all the individual forces acting on all the objects get added together (with their directions taken into account). The third law tells us that forces acting between objects within the group always come in action-reaction pairs, i.e. there are two forces of equal size opposing each other and canceling out. So, the net force acting on a grouping of objects is always due to forces that act on the group from outside the group. It is known as the net, external force.