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MIL-HDBK-217F

BEF? 1991
SUPERSEDING

MIL-HDBK-217E, 2 J8nwry 1990

NotIce 1

MILITARY

HANDBOOK .

RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

AMSC N/A DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.

MIL-HDBK-217F

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WASHINGTON DC 20301

RELIABILllY

PREDICTION

OF ELECTRONIC

EQUIPMENT

1. This standardization handbook was developed by the Department of Deferw federal agencies, and industry. with the assistance of the military dep~ments, 2. Every effort has been made to reflect the latest information on reliability prediction procedures. It is the intent to review this handbook periodically to ensure its completeness and currency. 3. Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data which may be of use in improving this dooument should be addressed to: Commander, Rome Laboratory, AFSC, AlTN: ERSS, Griffiss Ak Force Base, New York 13441-5700, by using the self-addressed Standardization Document Improvement Proposal (DD Form 1426) appearing at the end of this document or by letter.

....

MIL-I+DBK-217F

CONTENTS
SECTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1: SCOPE Purpose .... .. .... ..... .. .. ... ... ....0...... .... .... .... . .... ....... ........ .. . ...... . .. .. .... .... ... ..... .. ... .... .... Application .. ...... ...... .... ...*.. ......... .... .... ...... . ,, *........ ..........*. .....*...... .... ........ ..... .. ...... @rnputefized RdiabWty Predktbn .. .... .. .... ...... .. ....... .. .... .. .. .... .. .. ...... ... .. .... ..... ... .....
q q q

11 1-1 1-1 21

SECTION
SECTION 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 SEHION

2:

REFERENCE

DOCUMENTS

... ... ....... .... .. ................... .. .. ... ... ... .... ... .... ... .....

3: INTRODUCTION Reliability Engineering . ........ .. The Role of Reliability Predktbn ...**.*.*..... ......... ................ ......... ................. ............. Limitations of Reliability Predictions ..... *..*.*... Part Stress Analysis Prediction ..... ........ ........ ...... . .. .... .. ..... ...... ... ... . ...0.. .... ... ... .... ....0
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q

3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 4-1 5-1 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-17 5-18 5-20

4:

RELIABILIN

ANALYSIS

EVALUATION

.....................*..*... .......................
q

SECTION
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 SECTION 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15

5: MICROCIRCUJTS, INTRODUCTION .......**...**.....................0..... ................. C3ate/Lo@cArrays and Microprocessors ...... ..................................*... .....*..... .............
Memorfes ... ..... .... .... .... .... ...... .. . ...... .... .. .. .... ........ ...... ... .......... .... .. .... .... .. ..... .. .. ........ VHSICNHSIC Like ... ........ ....... ........... ... ...... ........ .... ....... ....... .... .................... .......... GaAs MMIC and D@ai Devioes . ........ .... .............. ... ...... ........ ..... ... ..... .. .... .. .... .. .. ....... Hybrids . .. .. ............ .... ...... .... ... ...... .. ........ ........ .... ....... .......... .... ...... ........ ... .. .. ... ... .... SAW Devices .... .......... .. .... .... .. ...... ... .... .... ..... . ... .... ...... ... .... .. ...... .... .. .. ... ...... .......... Magnetic Bubble Memories ........ ............ .... .. ... .... .......... .... ...... ... .. ... ..... .. ...... .. .. .. ..... XT Table for All .......... ............ ...... ...... ............ ...... ................... ........ ...... ............ .......
q

C2 Table for AIl . ....... .... .... ........ .... ....... .. ...... .. .... .............. ... .. .... ... ..... .. .......... ...........
%EsXL and fiQ Tabk= for ~i ..... ........ .... .... .... ... .. .. ........ ...... ... ....... ....... ........ .. .. ...... ... TJ Determination, (All Except Hybrids) ...................................*... ............* .................. TJ Determination, (For Hybriis) ........... ......... ........................................... ....... .........
q

Examples .... ........ ........ .. .. ................... .. ........ .... .. .... ..... .... .......... ...... .... .... ... ...... .... .. 6: DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS Discrete Semiconductors, Introduction ....... ........... ....... ......... .... .. ... ..... .. ... .... ... ..... ... Diodes, Low F~ency ..... ........ .... .. .......... . .. .. ........ ...... ....... High Frequency (Microwave, RF) .... .......... .... .. ........ ..... ........ .... ....... .. ..... ...... Transistors, LOW Frequency, Bifx)lar ... .... .... ....... ... .... ..... .... ...... .... .. .... ..... ........ ... ... ... Transistor, Low Frequency, Si FET ..... ............... ............................................... ...*.. Transistors, Unijmction ..........00....................... .............. ....... ........ .......... ........... ... ... Transistors, Low Noise, High Frequency, Bipolar . ..... ..... .... ...... ... ... ... .... .. ..... .. .. ........ . Transistors, High Power, High Frequency, Bipolar .....................* ..........* .............. ... ... Transistors, High Frequency, GaAs FET .. .. ..... .............0.... .. .... .... ... ... .... ....... .. ........... Transistors, Hgh Frequency, Si FET ....... ....* ... .. ..... ... ... ...... .... ...... .. .... . .... ...... .... .... ... ~ end SCRS . ... .... ........ ........ .... .. ........... .... ...... ........ . ... .. .... .. .... .. .... ...... .. . .... Optoelectronics, Detectors, Isolators, Emitters ........ ........ .. ... .. .......... .. .... .... ... .. .... ..... Optoeiectmnios, Alphanumeric Displays ... .... .. .... ................. .. .... ...... .... ... .... ... ..... .. ... OploekWonios, Laser Diode ................. ......* ...... .. ............ .... .... ... ...... .. ..*...... . .... ... .. TJ Determination ..... .. .... .... .... ............ ... .... .... ...... .. ...... .. .... ..... .... ...... .... .... ..... .. .... ....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dbdes, q

6-1 6-2 6-4 6-6 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-12 6-14 6-16 6-17 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-23 6-25

Example . ..... .... .. ........ ... .... ......... ............... .... ...... .. .................... .. .... ....... .. .... .. .........

HI

...

MIL-HDBK-217F

7: TUBES All Types Except TM/T and Magnetron ........ ....................................................... ....... Traveli~ Wave . ....... .... ...... .... ........... ...... .. ...... .. ........ .... ......... .............. .. ...... ........... Magnetron .. .. .......... .... .... .. ........ ... .......... .. .... ...*..... ...... .......... .. .... .......... ..... .........0.. LASERS 0: Introduction ... .................... ..... .... .. .... ...... .. ...... .... ......... .......... .. .. ............. .... ...... .. .... Helium and Argon . .......... ... .......... .... ..... .... ... ..... .. ...........** . ... .... .... .... .... ...............* . .. Catin Dmxide, Sealed . .... .. ............ .. ....... ... ... .... ...... .. ...... .. .. ... ........ ...... .. ...... ....... .. Carbon Dioxide, Fbwing .... .. ...... .... ........ .... ... .... .. .... ...... .... ....... ........ ...... ........ ......... SoIii State, ND:YAG and Ruby Rod .... .... .... .... ... ............ .. ............ .. .. .. ..... .... ...... .... ... RESISTORS 9: Introduction .... ... ... ....... ............ ... .. ........ .... ... ... ................... .. .. ........ .... ......... ...... .. .. .. Fixed, Composition (RCR, RC) ................................. ............................... ................. I%@, Fitm (RLR, RL, RN (R.C, or N). RN) . ............................ . ....... .... .................... .... Fixed, Fltrn, Power (fWI) ........ ........ ...... ........ ... .. .. .......... .. ................... ............ ........... Network, Fixed, Film (RZ) .. ........... ............. ............. .............. .................... ................ Fixed, Wirewound (RBR, RB) ... ......... ................... ............................ .................. ...... Fixed, Wkewound, Power (RWR, RW) ......... ...... .... .. .... ... .......... .. ........ .. ........... ...... ... Fixed, Wirewound, Power, Chassis Mounted (RER, RE) ............................................ Thermistor (RTH) .......... ..... ........ .... ..... .... ...... .. .. .... .... ..... .... .... ........ .. ............ ... .. .. .... Variable, Wirewound (RTR, RT) ......... ................................................................. ...... Variable, Wkewound, Precision (RR) ......... ....... ... ....... .......... .... .... ..... ................. ...... Variable, W/rewound, Semiprecision (RA, RK) . .... ................ ....... ................... ..... ..... . Variable, Wkewound, Power (RP) . .......... .. ...... .. .. ..... .......... .... .... ....... .... ........ ..... ...... Variable, Nonwirewund (RJ, RJR) ................................ ........................................... Variable, Composttlon (RV) ...................*.. ........ ................................ ...... .. ................ Variabte, NOnwmwu nd, FitmwKI Prectsion (RQ, RVC) ... .... ........ ....... .. .... ................ Cakulation of Stress Rat& for Potent&meters . .... ........ .... .... ..... .... .... .. .. .... ..... ........ ... Example . .. ..... .. ...... ....... ...... .... ..... ...... .... ... .. .. ............. .... .... ... .... .. ................... .........

CONTENTS SECTION
7.1 7.2 7.3 SECTION 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 SECTION 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 SECTION

7-1 7-3 7-4

8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5

9-1 9-2 9-3 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-8 9-1o 9-12 913 9-15 9-17 9-19 9-21 9-23 9-25 9-27 9-29

10.1
10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20

10: CAPACITORS Fixed, Paper, By-Pass (CP, CA) .. .... .... ...... ...... .. .. ... .... .... .......... ....... .............. ........ ... Fixed, Feed-Through (CZR, CZ) . ........ ...... ........ .. ....... ...... .... .... ......... .. ...... .... .... .... ... Fixed, Paper and Plastic Fitrn (CPV, CQR and CQ) ..................................................... Fixed, Metallized Pqw, Paper-Plastic and Plastic (CH, CAR) .. ...... .. .... ... ............... .... . F&ed, Plastic and Metallized Plastic .............................................. ............................ Fixed, Super-Metallized Plastic (CRH) ........ ....... ..................... .... ........ ....... ...... .... ..... F&ed, MICA (CM, CMR) ........ .. .. .... .............. ... .. .. .. .. ...... ........ ............. ...... .. ...... .... ..... Fixed, MICA, Button (CB) ..... .. ....* . .... .......... .. ... .... .... .... .......... ..... .. ..... ..... .... .... .... .. ... Fued, GJass (CY, CYR) ......... ........ ............. ....... ... ...... ............ ..... .. .. .... .... .. .. .... .... ..... Fixed, Ceramic, General Purpose (CK, CKR) ............................................................. . and Chip (CCR and CC, CDR) . ...... ........ . Fixed, Cerarnk, Tenpemtum ~ Fixed, Electrolytic, Tantalum, Solid (CSR) ........ .... .... .... .... ............. .... ....... .. .. ........ .. ... Fixed, Electrolytic, Tantalum, Non-Solid (CL, CLR) ... .... .... .... ..... ........ ... ......... ..... .... ... Fbd, Ektrotytic, Aluminum (CUR and CU) .... .. ...... .... .. .... ... .... .... .. .. .. .. ..... .... ...... .... . Fixed, Electrolytic (Dfy), Aluminum (CE) ...................................... .............................. Variable, Ceramic (CV) .. .......... ............ ............. ........................ ................................ Variable, Pkton Type (PC) ........ ......... ......... ......... ......... ................... ........................ Varitie. ArTfimmr (C~ ............. ...... ........ .. ........... ...... ...... ....... ... ..... .... ........ ...... ... Variable and Rxd. Gasor V.um(CG) .. .... .. ..... ......... ... ...... ........ .... ... .... ......... ...... .. Example ... ..... ........ .. ............ ... ........... .. .. ..... .... .. ..... .... .... ........... .... ..... .... ........ ..... .. ..

1o-1 10-3 10-5 10-7 10-9 10-11 10-12 10-14 10-16 10-18 10-20 10-21 10-22 10-24 10-26 10-27 10-28 10-29 10-30 10-32

iv

MIL-HDBK-217F

CONTENTS SECTION 11.1 11.2 11.3

DEVICES INDUCTIVE 11: Transformers ........... .... .... .......... .. .... ..... .... .... ... ... ...... .... ....... .... .. .. .... ...... .. ..... .... .... .. cob .... .....*.. .............................................................................*...... ..................... Determination of Hot Spot Temperature ............................................................0...0.. ROTATING DEVICES 12: Motors . . .... ........ .... .....* .. ........ .. .......... ......... .... ...... .. .. .... .............. ..... ........ ............. Synchros and Resolvers .............. .... ........ ..... .. ...... .... .... ........... ... ....... .. ............ ... .... EIapsed Time Meters . .. .. .... ............*.. .. ........ .... ... ..... .... .... ............ ....... .. .. .... ........ ... .. Example ... ...... .. ... .. .. ..... ........ ......... ........... .. .... .. ..... .... ........... ...... .. .. ... .. .......... ..... ....
q

11-1 11-3 11-5

SECTION
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 I

12-1 12-3 124 12-5

I
(

SECTION 13.1 13.2 SECTION


14.1 34.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 SECTION 15.1 15.2 15.3 SECTION 16.1 SECTION 17.1 SECTION 18.1 SECTION 19.1 SECTION 20.1 SECTION

RELAYS 13: Mechanbl ......................................0.. ......................... ...................................0..... Solid State and Time Delay
q q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...*..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..0......

13-1

13-3
14-1 14-2 14-3 14-4 14-5

14:

SWITCHES

Toggle or Pushbutton ............ ..... ...... ...... ........ .... .............. .......... .. ... ... ............ ........ Basic sensitive .. .... ...... .. .. .......... .. .. ... ...... .... .. .... ...... .... .... ....... ............ ........ .. .. ... .... .. Rotary .. ... .......... ...... ... .... ...... .. .......... .... ...... ... ...... .. .... ........ .... .... .. ..... ....... ... .... .... ... Thumbwheel ... .. ....... ....... ...... ....... .... ........ .... ........ .. .... ........... ...... ...... ....... ... ..... .... .. Circuit Breakers . ........ ........ .... .... ...... ........... .... .. ... ....... .... ....... .... .. .. .... .... ........ ..... .... 15: CONNECTORS General (Except Printed Cir@t Board) .......... .... .... ...... ... .. ...... .... ... ..... ... .... .... .... ....... Printed Circuit Board . ... ........ .... .... ...... .... ... .... .... .. .. .. .. ........... ...... .. ...... ...... .. .. ....... .... Integrated CituJlt Sockets .. ...... .......... ...... .. ... .......... .... .... .. ...... ... .. .. .............. .... .... ...

15-1 15-4 15-6

lNTERCONNECTtON ASSEMBLIES 16: lntemomectkm Assenb+ies with Ptated Through t-totes . .. ....... ....... ... .... .... ........ ....... . 17: CONNECTIONS Connections ..........................................................................................................
METERS 18: Meters, Panel .... ...... .. .... .. .. ................... .... ...... .... ...... .... ... .... ........ ........ .... .... ... .... .... 19:

16-1

17-1

18-1

QUARTZ CRYSTALS Quartz Crystals.......................................................................................................


LAMPS .. ... .. .. .... ...... .... . ...... ...... .... ........ .. .... .. ....... ... ... .... .... .... .... .. .. . .. .... ........ .. .. .......

19-1

20: hmp

20-1

21.1 SECTION 22.1 SECTION 23.1


APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX

ELECTRONIC FILTERS 21: ................................................................................ Eiectmrtb Fitters, NorwTunabte FUSES 22: Fuses . . . ....0.... .. .. ....... ........ .... .......... .... ............ ... .. .... .. .. .... .... ....... .. ..... ... .. .. .. .........
q

21-1

22-1

23: MISCELLANEOUS PARTS Miscellaneous Patis ....... ..... ......... .. .... ... .... .... .... .......... ....... .... ........ .. .... ........ .. ....... .. A: B: C: PARTS COUNT RELIABILITY AND VLSI PREDICTION CMOS . ...... .... .. ..... . ..... . .. .. .. .. ... ... .. . MODEL) ... .. .. ... ... .

23-1

A-1
B-1 c-1

VHSIC/VtiSIC-LIKE BIBLIOGRAPHY

(DETAILED

. ......... .... .......... .... ... ...... .... .... .. .... ....... ...... ........ ............ ... ..

MIL-HDBK-217F

CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES
Table Table Table Table Table 3-1: 3-2: 4-1: &l: S2: Parts with Multi-Level Quality Spedfications .............................. .......................... Environmental Symbol and Desdptiin .............................................................. Reliability Analysis Cbckfist ...... ............... ... .. .......... .... ........ ..... ........ .. .......... .... Default Case Temperatures for All Environments (~) ..... .. .... ....... ................. ....... Approximate Thermal Resistance for SernbncWtor Devices in Various Package Sizes ..... .... ..... ............. .... ........ .... ........ ... ............ .... ...... ... . 3-3 3-4 . 6:2; 6-24

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 5-1: Figure 8-1: Figure 9-1: Cross Sectbnal Vk!w of a Hybrid with a Single Multi-Layered Substmte ......... ... .. .. Examples of Active O@cal Surfaces ....... ........ ...... ... .... .... ... ..... .. ............. .... .... ... MIL-R-39008 Deratinfj cum ... .. ............. ........................... ... ................. ... .. ... .. . 5-18 8-1 9-1

vi

MIL-HDBK-217F

FOREWORD
This revision to MIL-HDBK-217 provides the following changes based upon recently completed studies (see Ref. 30 and 32 listed in Appendix C): 1. New failure rate prediction microcircuits:
q

models are prov-kled for the following nine major classes of

MonoliihE B~lar

Dqital and Linear Gate/lm@c Array Devioes Gate/Logic Amy Devfces

Monolithic MOS Digital and Lmar

Monolithic B@olar and MOS Digital Microprocessor Devkes (Including Controllers) Monolithic Blpotar and MOS Memory Devices Monolithk (W@ Di@tal Devices

Monolithic GaAs MMIC Devices Hybrid Microcircuits Magnetic Bubble Memories Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

This revision provides new prediction models for bipolar and MOS microcircuits with gate counts up to 60,000, linear microcircuits with up to 3000 transistors, bipolar and MOS digital microprocessor and coup to 32 bits, memory devices with up to 1 nlftion bits, GaAs monolithic microwave integrated The

processor

circuits (MMICS) with up to 1,000 active elements, and GaAs digital ICS with up to 10,000 transistors. Cl factors have been extensively revised to reflect new technology devices with improved the activation energies representing the temperature MOS devices and for memories.

reliability,and

sensitivity of the dice (nT) have been changed for

The C2 factor remains unchanged fmm the previous Handbook version,

but includes pin grfd arrays and surface mount packages using the same model as hermetic, solder-sealed dual in-line packages. and the environmental New values have been included for the quality factor (~), factor (@. the learning factor (~),

The rrwfel for hybrid microcircuits has been revised to be simpler to of the seal and interconnect failure rate contributions, and to temperatures. Like) and Very Large

use, to delete the terrperature

dependence

provide a method of oakulating ohp jundon 2.

A new model for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (V1-fSIC/VHSIC Scale Integration (VLSI) devices (gate counts above 60,000). The reformatting of the entire handbook to make H easier to use. A reduction in the number of environmental fado~ A revised failure rate model for Network Resistors. (~E) from 27 to 14.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Revised models for Ms and Ktystrons based on data supplied by the Electronic Industries Association Microwave Tube DiWon.

vii

-- . ...=--------

----

--u.

I --

-u

MIL-HDBK-217F

1.0

SCOPE

Purpoee ti.~

- The purpose of thfs MruboOk

is to establish and maintain consistent and uniform

for estimating the hhemnt rek&Slity (i.e., the reUabflityof a mature design) of rnilbry @edron& predictionsckhg aoquis&bn progmms ~~~ systems. It provides a common basfs for ~ for military ebctrcmc systems and equipment. h atso establishes a common basis for oomparfng and evafuatlng reliability predictions of rdated or competitive destgns. The handbook is intended to be used as a tool to increase the reliabil~ of the equ@merx being designed. 1.2 Appllcatlon - This handtmok oontains two methods of reMWiJity pmdiotbn - Part Stress Analysis In Sectfons 5 through 23 amf 7%rts Count- in Appendix IL These methods vary in degree of informatbn needed to apply them. lhe Part Stress Anafysii Method recpires a greater amount of detailed
In&mtfon and ts appfkabfe mrfng the later design phase when actual hardware and c&wits are being designed. The Parts Count Method raquires less infonnatbn, generally part quantities, qmtity level, and the applkatbn environmen& This method Is appfioable cMng the early de@ase and du~ pmpo@

formulation. In general, the Parts Count Metfwd wffl usually result in a more conservative estknate (i.e., ~f*mte)ofsystem r@taMtythanthe Parts Stress Method. 1.3 Computerfzad Rellablllty PmcffctlOn - Rome Laborato~ - ORACLE is a computer program Based on developed to aid in appfying the part stress analysis procedure of MIL-HDBK-217. environmental use chamcteristks, piece part oount, thermal and electrical stresses, subsystem repair rates and system configuration, the program calculates piece part, assemMy and subassembly failure rates. It also flags overstressed parts, afbws the user to perform tradeoff analyses and provides system meantime-to-failure and availability. The ORACLE computer program software (available in both VAX and IBM co~atible PC versbns) is available at replacement tape/disc cost to all DoD organizations, and to contractors for applbcatbn on spedfk DoD contraots as government furnished property (GFP). A statement of terms and conditions may be obtained upon written request to: Rome Laborato~/ERSR, Grtffiss AFB, NY 13441-5700.

f-l

,.. -, ..-, .-

..

MIL-tiDBK-217F

2.0

REFE!?ENCE

DOCUMENTS

~s~cites somespecificatbns which have beencanoslle dofwhiohdescrb ectevicesthatam nottobeused fornewdes@n. lWiinfomatti&s Wms$arytmcxames omeofthesed evicasarusecfin soalfed %ff-th~ eqdpment which the Depwtment of Defense purchases. The documents cited m this section are for @dance and information.
SPECIFICATION MIL-C-5 MIL%l 1 MlL-R-l 9 MIL-G20 MIL-R-22 MIL-C-25 MIL-R-26 MIL-T-27 ML-(X2 MIL-G81 MIL-92 MIL-R-93 MIL-R-94 MIL-V-9S W-L-1 11 W= W-F-1726 w-f-i814 MfL-G3098 MIL-G3807 MIL-G3643 MlL4N8so
SECTION #

10.7 9.1 9.11

Ca@&s,
~,

FMed,Mii-Dieisctric, General Specifii


F&a composition (Insufated) General $pecuii

for

for

Resiekx. Variab&gWirewound (Low Operating Tmpwatum) General Spo&@atbn for ~) @Pw@%=d~ ~ v@fw=Estdfkhed and Nonestabiished Reliability, General Specifiiion
Rask!or, Wuewow for

10.11
9.12 10.1 9.6 11.1
10.15

Power Type, General Spa&cation for

~. fiti p~r~~~ Dire Cwrent (Hermetically Sealed in Metal Case@, General Specification for
Resistor, Fued, Wkewound (Power Type), Genarai Specifhbn

for

Tmnsfonner and fndwtor (Audio, Power, High Power, High Power Pulse). General Sfxdiibn for

Pdar&ed), 10.16

~r.

Fiu~ ~fo~~ (DG fgruminum.W Gened spadkamn

E~@,

Capacitor, Variable, Ceramic Dielectric (Trimmer). General Specification

for

10.18
9.5 9.14 23.1 20.1 14.5 22.1 22.1 19.1 15.1

Ctpcitor,

Variable, Air Dielectric (Trimmer), General Specificaii for

for

Resistor, Fwed, Wkewound (Aocura!e), General Spdfkdon


Resistor, Variable, Composition, General Specifiin

for

Vior,
-.

Interrupter and Self -RectifyingO General Specification for hadaant Miniature, Tungaran Fikment

Ckauit Br@der, MOidOdC&m, BrarmflcfrcuRand~ Fuse, Q@ridge, CJassH (Thii mvem renewable and mrwnebie) Fuse, Camidge, High Interrupting Cqmcity

Unk ~
for

~~end Spcifiw&m for

, SpdMlOns

Connector, oax&~Radii Frequency, Series Pulse, Gene@ C

15.1

Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series NH, Associated Ftiings,


~neral s~ for

15.1

Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series LC

Luw

MIL-HDBK-217F
. 2.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

SPECFKATJON . Mt4X655

SECTION #

15.1
15.1

conneotor, P&q and Ramptda, _(Jl=SeriasTwin)and Associated Fitlmgs, General SpuM@mn . ~. SpacMiion S*. ~bn =. =b~~~ fq ~ for ~ (po~* B&~ TYP@ -~~

ML-C-3767

MIL-S-3786

14.3

Rotary (Circxit Selector, Low-Current (Capady)), for Toggle, Envlmnmantally sealed, General

General

MfL-G3950

14.1 10.13

Speckatbn

for

MIL-G3965 MIL+5015

Elti~

(No-lkf

Electrolyte), Tantalum, General

15.1

~, Eledrkal, Spedflcation for

Circular Threaded, AN Type, General

MIL-F-5372 MIL-R-5757 MIL-R-6106 MIL-L-6363 MIL-S-8805 MIL-S-8834 MlL-M-l 0304 MlL-R-l 0509 MIL-C-1095O MIL-C-1101S
M!L-GI 1272

22.1 13.1

I%aa, Currati Limiter Type, Amaft Relay. Electrbl (For Electronic and Communkation General Specifbaticm for

Type Equipment),

13.1

Relay, Electromagnetic (Including Established Reliability(ER) Typs),

~-~s~
20.1 14.1, 14.2

for Incandemt,
Aviation Service, General Raquirament for

bnp,

SwhcheS and Switch Assemblies, Swxdtivo and Push, (SW for General Sfx@in
Switches, Toggle, Positive Brealq General Specification for Meter, Electkal Indicating, Panel Type, Ruggedzed, Spedficatbn for General

Action)

14.1 18.1

9.2 10.8

Resistor, f%cad IWm (High Stability). General Speoikatbn

for

-Or,
for ~, ~bn Capadtor,

Fud,

Mii

Dielectric, Button Style, General Specifiiion


(General Pupae), Ganeral

10.10

FU~, Ceramic Dtiric for

10.9 10.2

Fixed, Glass Dlelectrb, General Spcfkatbn

for

MlL-C-l 1693

Capadtor, Feed Through. Radio Interference Reduction AC . Sdedh Metal Casos)Eatabkhed and No~ for MaMfiio General Spdicatbn l!!!! Resistor, Freed, Film (Power Type), General Specifiin

andDC,
hed

MlL-R-l 1804 MIL-G12889

9.3

for

10.1

Cap&or, By-Pa&: Radio - Interfermce Reduction, Paper Dielectdc, AC d DC, (Hermetbally Sealed in Metallk Casas), Ganeral Spectficatbn for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Preasion, General Specification for

MIL-R-12934

9.10

2-2

r- . . .

nv

-1

[1-/!1

, ---

--

.uu

l--

,-- --------

. .

ba

MIL-HDBK-217F

2.0

REFERENCE

DOCUMENTS

sPEcfFlcATloN

SECTKMJ #

ML-C-141S7

10s

~, -d: a (papcurrent (Hermabd lySeabdin @J-~ ~n

for

PI-tic) or mastic Dweot* Direct Refkwty, Matal Cases) amMshed

MIL-G14409 MIL-F-15160 MK-C-IS305 MfL-F-15733 UL-GW312

10.17

~. vSpac#ioatbn for
Fuse, Instmnem

(Pii

TyP, Tlar

Trimmer), GWWraI

22.1 11.2 21.1 10.4

Poww amf Telephone Radio Frequency, General Specifiibn General SpecMin for for

Coil, Fixed and Vari*, FBtler,Rack ~. Dbbdrk, ~ibn Imarkmrux,

-, Metzdl&ed (Paper, Paper Plastic or Plastic Film) Dkocl Cummt (Herrneticaliy sealed in Metal Cases), Gemral for

ML-F-13327 MIL-R-16546
MIN-19500 MIL-R-19523 ML-R-19M8 ML-C-19978

21.1

Pass, Band Pass, Band Suppression and Dual Filter, High Pass, k Funcknkg, General Specdfiition for

9.7

Redstor, Freed, WWewound(Power Type, Chassis Mounted), General


Specificatbn for SomkOnductor Oevice, Geneml Specification for Relay, Contmi, Naval Ship&oard Roley, Tree, Delay, lherm~ General Specifiition for

6.0 13.1 13.1 10.3

~or, Fmecf Plastic (or Paper-Plastic) Dielectric (Hermetically Sealed m Metal, Cemmc or Glass Cases), EstafXished and Noneatabiiahed ReGabilii, General Specifiicatbn for

MIL-T-21036 MUA-21097

11.1 15.2

Transformer, Pulse, Low Power, General Specikatiin Spedfbatbn for

for

Connector, Electrical, Printed WInng Board, General Purpose, General

MIL-FM2097

9.13

Rasistor, VarMMe, Nonwirewound (AdjustmentTypes), General

Spedfbatbn for
MIL-R-Z?664 MIL-S-2271O 9.2 14.4 Resistor, F&d, S*. -nerd Mary ~* Film, lnsdated, General Specifiiion for

(Printed Circuit), (Tlwmbwheel.

In-1ine and Pushbutton),

ML-S-22665 MIL-C-22W2

14.1 1s.1 10.19

Switches, Pushbutton, Illuminated, General Specification for Connector, Cyfinddcal, Heavy Outy, General Specification for = ~~ ofi,v*. V=xum MI-* General Specifiibn

ML+163 M&GZ3269 MIL-FW3265

10.9

em. Fi~. GSpeclkatbn for Reaiir,

Diekrik

Estiiiihed

Reliabllky, General

9.1s

Variable, Nonwirewound, General Specificationfor

2-3

..

MIL-HDBK-217F

2.0

REFERENCE

DOCUMENTS

SPECfFICATlON

sEcTKm

# Fuse, bstrumont

MIL-F-23419 MIL-T-23648 MfL-G24308 MIL-G25516 MfL&+6482

22.1
9.8

Type, Gonad

~km

for

Thormistw, (Tharmafly Sensitive Resistor), Insulated, Generaf Spadfioatbn for Connec40r, EPanel. Genoraf Cortnector, ~ -~~fof Rectangular, Miniature Polatizad Shell, Rack and

15.1

Spodcatbn for
, Miniature, ~ Environment Resistant Type.

15.1

15.1

Cormoctor, Efoctr&f (Circular. Minirdure, QuH kamnoc& Environment Rl&ting) ReU@ac& and Plugs, General Spocik@ion for Resistor, VariaM, Speciftiion for WKewound, (Lead Screw Actiied) General

MN-R-27208 MIL-C-2f1748 MIL-R-28750 MfL-G288tM MIL-C-2884O MIL-hR851 O MIL-H-38S34 MIL-I-38535 MIL-C-38999

9.9

15.1

Con-or, Ebct~ Rectangular, Ra& and Panel, solder Type and Crimp Type Contads, General Spacifiition for Relay, Solid State, Ganeral Specification for Connector. E&ctric Rectangular, High Density, PoMzed Cantral Ja&euww, Genoraf Spedficstion for, Inactive for New Designs Conrmdor, ~ cimUlar Threaded, High Denaity, High Shock Shipboard, Class D, General Spechation for M&oc5rcuits, Generaf Specificatii for

13.2 15.1

15.1

5.0 5.0 5.0

Hybrid Microcircuits, General Specification for Integrated Circuits (Microcircuits) Manufacturing, General Speclfiiion for Qxvwc#or, E~ Chcular, Miniature, Hgh Density, Quick Disconnect, (Bayonet, Threadad, and Breech Coupiing) Environment Resistant Remowble Crimp and Hermetic Solder Cmtacts, General Specifiiion for qor. ~~, Mh Specification for

15.1

MfL-C-39001
MIL-R-39002

10.7

Dkktk

Estabkhed ReliaMfity, Generat

9.11

Raa&stor, Variable, Wkewound, Sem&Precision, General Spa&icstion for - a_~&*ewg T-lJm* (Aaamte) EstaMshed Fteflabllity, General

MfLG39003

10.12

MIL-R~

9.5

Raslatcx, Fixed, ~nd, Specification for -N. ~~. -I& EstalMshed Relilii, Resistor, Fixed, W~ General Speckition

MtL+39006

10.13

(NortsoMf Ek%rolyte) Tantalum for General SpadkMon nd (Power Type) EstaMished Reliability. .

MfL-Raoo7

9.6

for

- -

.-. .

..

..

..

MIL-HDBK-217F

2.0

REFERENCE

DOCUMENTS

SPEOFICATR3N
MIL-R~

SECTION # 9.1

Redstor, Fixed, Campoah n, (Insutated) Established Reliability,


Genefal S@fio@hfor

9.7

R@!sMcw, m ~nd (Power Type, chassis Mounted) EstaMished R@aMfity, General SpecMcMion for Cd, Fbrti Spec#iibn Radio Frequency, Molded. Established Ratiiity, for

MLC-3901O

11.2

General

MIL-CX9012 UL-C39014

15.1 10.10

Connector, Coaxial, Racfb Frequency, General Spdfii~

for

~. ~ Carandc Dielectric (General purpose) EsMMbhd R8iiabili!y, Gmeral SpeoWation for WkewOund (Lead screw Actuated) Emabfished Rdetor, V*, Reliability, General Spdfkatbn for Relay, Electromagnetic, Established ReIiabilii,
for Resietor, Freed, Fh General Specifiition

MK-C49015

9.9

MIL-R39016

13.1

MtL-R-39017

9.2

(insulated), Estabkhed Reliabitky, General

Specifiikm
MIL-G39018 10.14

for

Capacitor. f%ed, Ebctmlytio (Aluminum Oxide) Established Reliabil.~ and Nonestablished ReKaMIity, General SpecdfbNion for
Cfrcutt Breakera, Magn@iq Low Power, Sealed, Trip%ee, ~bn for General

MIL-C-39019

14.5

MIL-G39022

10.4

~r, ~d. Mettiized Paper, Paper-Plastic Film, or Plastic Film Dielectric, Direct and Alternating Current (Hermetically Sealed m Metal Caaas) Estabfbhed Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Varkble, Nonwirewound, Precision, General Specification for

MIL-R-39023 MIL-R-39035

9.15 9.13

Resistor, Variable,Nonwhwound, (Adjustment Type) Established Reliability, General Spedkttbn for

MiL-G49142 MIL-P-5511O MIL-R-65W2 MIL-G55235 MIL-G55302 MILG65339 MIL-G65514

15.1 152 9.2 15.1 15.2 15.1 10.5

Conne@or, Triaxial, RF, General Specification for

Printed Wdng Boards


Resbtor,F~~EstddWd Reliabilii, General Specification for

Connector. Coaxial, RF, General Specif=tion for

Connector, Printed Circuit, Subassembly and Accessories Adapter, CoaJC~ RF, General SpeMc8tbn for qor. ~~, ,~k (CW M@tdfizd Plastic) Dielectric, Direct Current In Non-Metal Cases, General Spedfiibn for
Circuit Breaker, Magnetic, Unsealed, Trip-Free, General Specification for Transformer, Intormdiato Ftewemx, Radio Frequency, and Discriminator, General Specific&lonfor . -

MIL-C-5S629

14.5

MIL-T-S5631

11.1

MIL-HDBK-2 17F

2.0

REFERENCE

DOCUMENTS

SPECIFICATION ML-C-55681

SECTION#
10.11

~r, Rewility,

Chip. M@t@le bayer, Freed, Ceramic Diekct~ General Sp&iGatm for

Established

MlL~1511

15.1

Conne, Ekc&icaf, Circular, High Demity, Quiok Dmnect, Envhonment Resisting, and Acc=swies, General SpecHMh Circ@i6reaker, Remote ~ntrol, Thermaf, TripFree. General SpecMiion for Resbtor Notwodq Fixu!, Fti. Ganwal Spdkabn for

for

MIL-(X3383

14.5

MtL-R-S3401 MiL-G83421

9.4 10.6

~r, f%cf Supennetallizodf%stb f% DiskcMc(DC, ACor DC Soalecf in Metal Cases, ~bhed Refiabiiity, and AC) Hmwtb#y ud~~ Cwmecbr, EkcZrical, Rectangular, Mbrominiaturo, Garbefal Specification for
Polarized Shell.

MIL-C-83513

15.1

ML-C-83723
MIL-R=72s MIL-R-63726

15.1

Connedor, Ebctricd (Circular Environment Resisting), Receptacles and Plugs, GeneraJ Speclficatbn for Relay, Vacuum, GoneraI Specification for Relay, lime Delay, Elec!ric and Electronic, General Specifiiion for

13.1 13.1, 13.2, 13.3 14.1 15.1

MILoS-83nl
MN-C-83733

Switch, Toggle, Unsealed and Sealed Toggle, Ganeral Specifiin Conmw%x, Ebc!dc@, Miniature, Rectangular Type, Rack to Panel,

for

EnvironmentResisting,200 Degraas C Tcxal ContinuousOpOfa@J


Temperature, General Spedcatbn for for

MIL-S43734 STANDARD
MIL-STD-756
MIL-STD-883

15.3

socket

Pl@n

Electronic Components, General Specifiikm

Rehbility

Modeling and Prec&tbn

Test Mathods and Prmxdures for Microelectronics NASA Star#ad E&trid.

Mk4TD-975 MIL=WD-1!547 MtL-SlD-1~

Efactronicnd EbctmmachanbalPartsLkt a TechnioaI

Pmt8, Matwials qnd Procasses fof Spaco Launch Veh&k8, Requirements for ~ Requtrwnents ?orHyMd Mcrockufl FacflltWJand Unes

copies of specImat&ns and Stmdads required by contractors in comectbn with spcific acquisition functbns should be oMlnad fmrn the contracting activityor as directed by the a)ntracting offiir. ~ngle c _ - ako available(without haru8)uponwrfttenrequest to: I

StandwdizatbnDocument rderDesk O
700 Robins Ave. Building 4, Seotion D
Philadelphia, A 19111-5094 P (216) 697-2867

2-6

------

-----

- ~_

v.,

~.-y..,-..--

,.

. . -----

MIL-HDBK-217F

I I

3.0

INTRODUCTION

Rellablllty Englneerlng - Reliability k currently recognized as an essential need in miIitary 3.1 ebctronic systems. It is looked upon as a means for -cing costs fmm the factory, where rework of debotive cxmpcments adds a mn-proddve overhead expense, to the field, where repak costs Inotude not onty pa~ and labor but also transportation and storage. More knportantly, reliabilitydirectly inpacts force effectiveness, measured In terms of availability or sortie rates, and determines the stze of the bgistics w inhibitingforce utilization. The achievement of reliability is the fumtbn of refiabifity engineering. Every aspect of an eleotrodc system, from the purtty of matertals used in fts oomponent devices to the operatots Inteflaoe, has an impact on reliability. RelMWty engineering must, therefore, be appbd throughout the systems development in a dillgent and timely fashion, and integmted wfth other engbewhg disoi@nes. A variety of reliability engineedng tools have been developed. supportinga basic tool, reliabilitypredctbn. 3.2 This handbook provides the models

The Role of Reflablllty Prediction - Reliability predictbn provides the quantitative baseline needed to assess progress in reliabWty engineering. A prediction made of a proposed design may be

used in several ways.


of Computer Aided Design is the ability to rapidly generate alternative solutions to a particular problem. Reliability pmdiibns for each design alternative provide one measure of relative worth which, mrWned with other considerations, will aid in selecting the best of the available options. Once a design is selected, the reliabilii predktii nwiybe used as a @de to Iwpmvement by showing the hphest contdbutorsto faifure. If the pwt stress analysis method is used, it may also rewaf other Wtful areas for change (e.g., over stressed parts). The Impact of proposed design changes on reliabilityoan be detemnktedonly by comparfng the reliatMty predictions of the existing and proposed designs. The ablltty of the design to maintain an accepable reliability level under environmental extremes may be the need for The predctkms may be used to evafuate assessed through reHaMty pmdictbns.

A characteristic

erwtronmental control systems.


The effects of complexity on the probability of mission success can be evaluated through reliability predictions. The need for redundant or baok-up systems may be determined with the aid of reliability predictions. A tradeoff of redundancy against other reliability enhancing techniques (e.g.: more oooling, higher part quality, etc.) must be based on reliability predictions coupled wfth other pertinent considerations such as cost, spaoe limitations, eto. The predbtbn will also he~ evahwte the s@fficance of reportscf fallume. For exa@e, if emmml falkrres of one type or oo~nent occur In a system the predkted faliure rate can be used to determine whether

the number of failures Is commensurate with the number of components used in the system, or, that it
indicates a pmbbm area. Finally, reliability predictbns are useful to varbus other engineering analyses. As examples, the location of txdtt-h-test circuitry 6houfd be influenced by the predicted failure rates of the chwltry monftored, and

malntenanoe strategy plannem can make use of the relative pmbabifhy of a failures location, based on predictions, to minimize downtime. Reliability predbtbrts are also used to evaluate the probabilities of fajlure events described in a failure modes, effeots and criticalityanalysis (FMECAS).

3-1

----

-e

--

e-m~+

__.. ____.=---... ... .

MIL-HDBK-217F
3.0 INTRODUCTION

3.3

Limitations of Rellabiltty Prodktions - This handbook provides a common basis for reliability predictbns, based on anatysis of the best available data at the the of Issue. It Is interded to make reliability prediction as good a tool as possble. However, like any tool, reliabilii predktbn rrust be

used htefiigently,withdue oonskferat)onof its MnWions.


The first limitation is that the failure rate models are point estimates which are based on available data. Hence, they are valii for the condltbns under which the data was obtained, and for the devkes oovered. Some extrapolation during model development is possible, but the inherently empirical nature of the models can be severely restrictive. For exanple, none of the models m this handbook predict nuclear suMvability or the effects of bnizing radiatbri. Even when used in similar environmetis, the differences between system appliiions can be significant. Pmdkted and aohleved rWaMlty have atways been doaer for ground electronic systems than for avbnk systems, because the environmental stresses vary fess from system to system on the ground and hence

the field cor@tbns are In general cbser to the environment under which the data was oo#e@edfor the
prediction model. However, failure rates are also impacted by operational scenartos, operator characteristics, maintenance -s, measummmt ~es and dtlfe~~s In deftnftbn of falfure. Hence, a rellablflty predktlon should never be assumed to represent the expected field reliability as Mean-Tirne-Between-Removak, etc.). measured by the user (i.e., Mean-The-Between-Maintenance, This does not negate its value as a reliability engineering tool; note that none of the applications discussed above requires the predicted reliability to match the field measurement. Electronic technology is noted for its dynamk nature. New types of devices and new processes are oontjnually introduced, compounding the difficultiesof predkting reliability. Evolutbnary changes may be handled by extmpolatbn from the existing models; revolutionarychanges may defy analysis. Another Ilrnitatbn of retiablltty predktbns is the mechanks method re@res a signlfkant afmmt of design detail. mk of the process. The part stress analysis naturalty knposes a time and cost permtty.

More signiiioantly, many of the detatts are not avaitab+ein the earty des~

stages. For thts reason rn!s

handbook contains both the part stress anatysts method (Sectbns 5 through 23) and a simpler parts count method (Appendix A) which oan be used in early design and bid formulatbn stages. Finally, a basic limitation of reliability prediction is its dependence on correct application by the user. Those who correctly apply the models and use the information in a conscientious reliability program will find the predktbn a useful tool. Those who V&Wthe prediction only as a number whkh must exceed a specifiedvalue can usualty find a way to achievetheir ~at without any ion the system.

3.4 3.4.1

Part

Stress

Analysls

Predlctlon

Appltcabllfty - Th&s method is applicable when most of the design is completed and a detailed pads list incbding part stresses Is available. ft can also be used during later design phases for rel&bility trade-offs vs. patl selection and stresses. Sections 5 through 23 contain failure rate models for a broad variety d parts used in ekmtrmb equipment. The parts we grouped by major categories and, where appropriate, are subgrouped within oategorfes. For mechanical and electromechanical pats not covered by this Handbook, refer to Bibfbgraphy ftems 20 and 36 (Appendix C).

The failure rates presented appty to equipment under normal operating conditbns, Le., with power on and performingIts intended functbns in Its ~ended environment. Extrapolationof any of the base faihn rate models beyond the tabulated vahJessuch as high or subzero temperature, electrical stress values above 1.0, or extrapolation of any associated model modifiers is oompletety invalid. Base failure rates can be
interpolated between electrical stress values from O to 1 using the underlying equations. The general procedure for determining a board level (or system level) failure rate is to sum individually calculated failure rates for each oomponent. This summation is then added to a failure rate for the citcuit board (which includes the effects of solderfng parts to tt) using Section 16, Interconnection Assemblies.

3-2

MIL-HDBK-217F

3.0

INTRODUCTION

For parts or wires soldered together (e.g., a jumper wire between two parts), the connections model appearing in Section 17 is used. Finaliy, the effects of connecting circuit boards together is accounted for by adding in a faiiure rate for each connector (Section 15, Connectors). The wire between connectors is assumed to have a zem failure rate. For various sewice use profiles, duty cycles and redundandes the procedures described in MIL-STD-756, Reliability Modeling and Prediction, should be used to determine an effective system ievel faiiure rate.

3.4.2

Part Qualtty - rne~~of apmh~am effti~ti pm fdhmratea~~mlntb part models as a factor, *Q. Many parts am covered by spedfbations that have several quaffty levels,
hence, the part models have vaiues of XQ that am keyed to these qu~~ leve~= Such Pafis w~h their

quality designetora are shown h Table 3-1. The detdled requirements for these levels are ciearty defhed

in the applicable specffkation, except for mkrockcuits.


of MIL-STD-683

Mkmimfis

have qualhY levels which are


they are subjected.

depenckht on the ~mber

screens (or equivalent) to whii

TatNe 3-1:
w was

Parts With Multl-Level


E

Qua!lty Speclflcatlons
Uvumwa 7 UWw.
r.q. . . . . . -

Microcimuits Discrete Semiconductors Capacitors, Established Reiiabiiii (ER) Resistors, Established Reliablllty (ER) Coils, Molded, R. F., ReiiabUty (ER) Relays, Established Reliabiiily (ER)

S, B, B-1, Othec ~aliiy Screening Level

Judged by

JANTXV, JANTX, JAN D, C, S, R, B, P, M, L

S, R, P, M

S, R, P, M

R, P, M, L

Some Mrts are covered by older specifications, usualty referred to as Nonestablished that & not have rnutti-levels of qu~i. These part rn&fels generally have two qualfty MIL-SPEC.-, and Lower. If the part is procured in complete accordance specification, the ZQ value for MIL-SPEC should be used. If any requirements commercial part is procured, the XQ value for Lower should be used.

Reliability (Non-ER), levels d&i@ated & with the applicable are waived, or if a

The foregoing discussion involves the as procured part quality. Poor equipment design, production, and testing facilities can degrade pad quality. The use of the higher quality parts requires a total

W?U@M~ de$~ ~ W~ COtid process co-~rate with the high part quality. it wouid make iiile sense to procure high quality parts on!y to have the equqmentproduction procedures damage the paftS or introduce latent defects. Total equipment program descriptions as they might vary with different part quality mixes is beyond the scope of this Handbook. Reliability management and quality control
procedures are described in other DoD standards and publications. Nevertheless, when a proposed equipment development is pushing the state-of-the-art and has a high reliability requirement necessitating high quality pans, the ~ equipment program should be given careful scrutiny and not just

3-3

I
I

MIL-HDBK-217F
3.0 INTRODUCTION the parts quafhy. Otherwise, the bw failure rates as predicted by the models for hgh quality parts will not

be realized.

3.4.3

models h@lJde the Uee Environment - N Dart reliabm through the environmental factor,- %Er except ~orthe effects of bn~

effeots

of envkorlmental Streeses @~~. The dem~b~ of

these envhunentsareshownin TaMe3-2. The~fac!or isqxmtfWdwithfn eachpartfaiUre rat8rnod8l. These environments encorrpass the major areas of equprnent use. Some eqJ@ent wlfl experience h such a case, the more than one environrrwnt during its normal use, e.g., equipment in spacecraft. reliabitii analysis should be segmented, namely, missile launch (ML) conditions during boost into and

returnfromo~

and space flight(SF) while


Table 3-2:

in orbft.

Envhomnental

Symbol

and Deacrlptlon

EqtJhratBnt
Environment Ground, Bengn ~ Symbol GB MIL-HDBK-217E, Notice 1 ~ symbol GB %S D-ription Nonmobile, temperature and humidity controlled environments readily accessitde to maintenance; includes laboratory instruments and test equipment, medical electronic equipment, businass and scientifc computer mmplexes, and missiles and support equipment in ground sibs.

Ground, Fixed

GF

Moderately amtrolied environments such as installation in permanent racks with adequate oooling air and possible installation m unheated buildings; includes permanent tnstattatton of air traffic control radar and communications facilities.

Ground, MoMle

GM

GM Mp

Equipment installed on wheeled or tradwd vehicles and equipment manually transported; includes ttiicai missile ground support equipment, mobile communication equipment, tactical fire direction systems, handheld =mmunications equipment, laser designations and range finders.

Naval, Shelterad

NS

NS SB

Includes shehered or bebw deck conditions on surface ships and equipmant installed in submarines.

Naval, Unsheltered

Nu

% NW NH

Unprotected surface ahipborne equipment exposed to weather conditions and equipment immersed in salt water. Includes sonar $@pment and equipment installed on hydrofoil vessels.

3-4

I
.4-..-. . . . .,

,.,

,.,

.,

..,..

. .. . . . .

. . .

!.

...

..,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

3.0

INTRODUCTION

Tabto 3-2:

Environmental

Symbol

and Deecrtptlon

(CXMWd)

E@valont
Environment
%E

Description symbol AK

Airborne, Inhabitsd,

tc
Am *IB

Typical conditbns in cargo compartments whbhcan beoaX@adby arlahcraw. Envlronmont axhmes d ~~U~, ~u~,sand vibration W. minimal.

thac130,c5, B!52andc141.

Examplas Inctuda bng mission akcraftsuchas

Thisoatagory aboappueata ~edaroasinbwu performance smaller aircraft such as the T38.

Airborne, Inhabited, Fighter

IF

IF IA

Same as NC but installed on high performance aircraft such as fighters and interceptors. Examples include the F15, F16, F1 11, F/A 18

and Al O aircraft.

Airborne, Uninhabited,

%C

Am +
%JB

Environmentally uncontdbd areas which oannot be rnhdited by an aircrww during flight. Environmental extrernos of pressure, tefnperature and shock maybe severe. Examples include uninhabited araas of bng

missiin ahwaft such as the C130, C5, B52 and


C141. This category aiso appJiis to uninhabited area of bwer performance smaller aircraft such as the T38.

Airborne, Uninhabited, Fighter

AUF

Same as NC but installed on high performanem aircraft such as f~htem and interceptors. Exarnplesincludethe F15, F16, F111 and AlO
aircraft.

Airborne, Rotary w-

ARvv

%/

Equipment installed on helicopters. Ap@h to mounted both internally and externally squipmentsuch as laser designators, fire mntrol systems, and communications squpment.

Space, Flight

SF

---

cmditions. Vehicle neither underpowered flight nor in atmosphorio reentry; includes satellites and shuttles.

APP=J

~mw9~~~

3-5

MIL-HDBK-217F
3.0 INTRODUCTION

Table

3-2:

Environmental

Symbol

and

Descrfptlon

(centd)

Environment
~E Symbol Missile, Flight

Equivabnt MIL+fDBK-217E, Mice 1 ~ Symbol

Description

% 4A

Conditions r.lated to poweredflightof air breathing missibs, cruise missiles, and missiles in unpowered free flight.

Miiile,

Launch

\ u=

Severe amditions relatwi to missile launch (air, ground and Sea), space Vshiob boost into orbit, and vehicle re+n~ and landing by par~e. Also applies to soI&l roclwt motor ww~bn POWW@ fhght, and torpedo and missile launch from submarines.

Cannon, Launch

CL

CL

Extremely severe conditions related to cannon launching of 155 mm. and 5 inch guided projectiles. Conditions apply to the projectile trom launch to target impact.

3.4.4 Part Failure Rate Models - Part failure rate models for microelectronic parts are significantly different fmm those for other parts and are presented entirely in Section 5.0. A ~pical example of the type of model used for most other part types is the folbwing one for discrete semiconductors:

~=~fiTfiA~R~S~C~Q~E

is the patt failure rate, is the base failure rate usually expressed by a model relating the influence of electrical and

temperature stresses on the part, and the other n factors modify the base failure rate for the category eppkath amf other parameters that affectthe paft reKMity. of environmental

me ZE and XQfaotors are used in most ali models and other x factom app~ only to SWC~~ ~dels.
applicability of z factors is Identified in each sectbn. The base failure rate (~) models are presented

The

in each part section along with identification of the

applicable model factors. Tables of calculated ~ values are also provided for use in manual

calculations.

The model equations can, of course, be incmporated into computer programs for machine processing. The tabulated values of ~ are cut off at the part ratings with regard to temperature and stress, hence, use of parts beyond these cut off points will

overstress tk pan. The use of the lb models in a ~mPuter

3-6

MIL-HDBK-217F .
3.0 INTRODUCTION

pmgrarn should take the part rating limits into account.

The ~

equations are

mathematically continuous

beyond the part ratings but such faiiure rate vaiues are invalii in the overstressed regions. and permanent drift failures (e.g., a resistor permanently falling out of rated tolerance bounds) and are based upon a constant failure rate, except for motors whch show an increasing failure rate overtime. FaiJures associated with connection of parts into circuit asserrbiies are not imluded within the part faiiure rate models. Information on cxmnection reliabilii is provided in Sections 16 and 17.

Aii the part modeis imiude faiiure data from both cahstmphic

- The use of this prediction method requires the determinatbn of the 3.4.5 Thermal Aspects temperatures to which the parts are subjected. Sinoe parts reliability is sensftive to temperature, the thermal anatysis of any design shouid fairty accurately provide the ambient temperatures needed in using the part models. Of course, bwer temperatures produce better reliihty but aiso can pmc&ce hcreased penatties in terms of added toads on the environmental oontrol system, unless achkved through improved thenmal design of the equipment. The thermal analysis shouid be part of the design process and included in ail the trade-off studies covering equipment performance, reliability, weight, volume, environmental control systems, etc. References 17 and 34 listed in Appendix C may be used as guides in determining component temperatures.

3-7

[ ,,.,... . . I
I

,., ,.

,..

...

.,. ...! ,.. . .

MIL -HDBK-217F

4.0

RELIABILITY

ANALYSIS

EVALUATION

for evaluating a reliability predii report. Tabie 4-1 provides a ~ For completeness, the cttecfdist includes categories for refiabiiity modeling and albcatbn, which are sometimes deiivered as part of a predctibn report. it should be noted that the scope of any reliability analysis depends on the specific requirements called out in a statement-of-work (SOW) or system k not intended to change the soope of these requirements. speckatbn. The inclusion of this ckkiist
Tabl. Malor --- COncarns - ---. -- 4-1: Reliablllty
m

Anatysls

Checkltet
Commonts . . . ..-

MODELS Are allfunctional elements included in the raliabiihybbdc diagram /model? Are all modes of operation considered in the
nlti modd? Do the math model results show that the design achieves the reliabiiii requirement?

System design drawingddiagrarna must be rwiewed to be sure that the relkbilii modekfkgram qreoa with tho hardwn.
~ @OS, an~ae paths, degraded conditbns and redundant units must bedefinedandmodeted. Unit failure rates and redundancy aquations are used from the detailed paft predictions in the system math model (See MIL-STD-756, Reliability Predictbn and Modeiing).

ALLOCATION Are system reliability requirements allocated (suMivided) to useful levels?

Useful Ievets are defined as: equipment for sulxxmtractors, assemblies for sub-subcontractors, arouit boards for designers. Conservative values are needed to prevent reallocation at every desgn change.

Does the allocation process consider ;am~:;?ty, design flexibility, and safety m PREDICTION Does the sum of the parts equal the value of the module or unit?

Many predictbns neglect to include all the parts producing optimistic results (check for solder connections, connectors, circuit boards). Optimistic quality levels and favorable environmental cxmditions are often assumed causing optimistic resutts. Temperature is the biggest driver of part failure rates; bw temperature assumptions will cause optimistic results. Idontifioation is needed so that corrective actions for reliabitii improvement can be considered. Use of alternate failure rates, if deemed necessary, require submission of backup data to provide credence in the values. Each component type should be sampled and failure rates completely reconstructed for accuracy. Prediction methods for advanced technobgy parts should be oarefully evaluated for imp-on the module and system. I I

Are environmental ccmditmnsand part quality representative of the requirements? Are the circuit and part temperatures defined and do they represent the design?

Are equ~ment, assembly, subassembly and part reliability drivers identified? Are alternate (Non MIL-HDBK-217) failure rates highlighted along with the rationale for their use?

Is the level of detail for the part failure rate models sufficient to reconstruct the result? Aro critical components such as VHSIC, Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) or Hybrids highlighted?

4-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.0

MICROCIRCUITS,

INTRODUCTION

This section presents failure rate prediction models for the following ten mapr classes of microelectronic devices:

Swis2rl
5.1 5.1 Monolithic Bipolar Digital and Linear Gate/LogicArray Devices Monolithic MOS Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Devices Monolithic Bipolar and MOS Digiial Microprocessor Devices Monolithic B~lar

5.1
5.2 5.3

and MOSMemoryDevices
and VLSI) CMOS Devioes (> 60K

Very High Speed Integrated Chcuit (VHSIC/VHSIC-Like Gates)


Monolithic GaAs Digital Devices

5.4 5.4

Monolithic GaAs MMIC Hybrid Microcircuits


Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

5.5
5.6

5.7

Magnetic Bubble Memories ASITL, DTL, ECL, CML,

In the title description of each monolithic device type, Bipolar represents all llL,

ALSITL, HTTL, Fl_ll, F, L~L, SITL, BiCMOS, LSITL, IIL, 13L and ISL devices, MOS represents all metal-oxide microcimuits, which includes NMOS, PMOS, CMOS and MNOS fabricated on various substrates such as sapphire, poiycrystaftine or single crystai siiicon. The hybrid model is structured to accommodate aii of the monolithic chip device types and various complex~ Ieveis. Monolithic memory complexity factors are expressed in the number of bits in accordance with JEDEC STD 21A. This standard, which is used by ail government and industry agencies that deal with microcircuit memories, states that memories of 1024 bits and greater shall be expressed as K bts, where 1K = 1024 bits. For example, a 16K memory has 16,364 bits, a 64K memory has 65,536 bits and a 1M merno~ has 1,048,576 bits. Exact nurrbers of bits are not used for memories of 1024 bits and greater. For devices having both linear and digital functions not covered by MIL-M-3651 O or MIL4-38535, use the iinear modei. Line drivers and iine receivers are considered iinear devices. For iinear devices not covered by MIL-M-3851 O or MiL-i-38535, use the transistor count from the schematic diagram of the devioe to determine circuit complexity. For digitai devices not covered by MIL-M-3851 O or MIL-I-38535, use the gate count as determined from the logic diagram. A J-K or R-S flip fbp is equivalent to 6 gates when used as part of an LSi circuit. For the putpose of this Handbook, a Oate is constierecf to be any one of the following functions; AND, OR, exciusive OR, NAND, NOR and inverter. When a bgic diagram is unavailable, use dev.ke transistor count to determine gate count using the folbwing expressions:

Bipolar CMOS Al! other MOS except CMOS

No. Gates = No. Transistors/3.0 No. Gafes = No. Transistors/4.O No. Gates = No. Transistors/3.O

5-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.0

MICROCIRCUKS,

INTRODUCTION

A detailed form of the Section 5.3 VHSIC/VHSIGLikemodel is inoluded as Appendix B to allow more detailed WleWfs to be performed. Reference 30 should be consulted for more information about this
model. Reference 32 should be consulted for more Informatbn about the models appeartngin Sections5.1,5.2, 5.4,5.5. and 5.6. Reference 13 should be consulted for additional information on Section s.7.

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.1

MICROCIRCUITS,

GATE/LOGJC

ARRAYS

AND

MICROPROCESSORS

DESCRIPTION 1. Bipolar Devices, Digital arxf Linear Gate/Logic Arrays 2. MOS Devices, Di@tal and Linear Gate/Logio Arrays ArTay (~) am 3. F*H PmgranwwMe Lx Programmable Array Logic (PAL) 4. Microprwessors

~=

(ClZT + C2Y@ ~

Fdlures/106 t+ours

Hgml,ar Di@al and Linear GafeA@c DighJ No. Gates 1 to 101 to 1,001 to 3,001 to 10,001 to 30,001 to 100 1,000 3,000 10,000 30,000 60,000 I [ c. .0025 .0050 .010 .020 .040 .080

Amy Die Cm@exity

Failure Rate-Cl PLA/PAL No. Gates c, .010 .021 .042

Linear No. Transkws 1 301 1,001 to to to 100 300 1,000 10,000

c.

.010
.020 .040 .060 201 1,001

up to 200

101 to

to 1,000 to 5,000

~ DQital No. Gates 1 101 1,001 3,001 10,001 30,001 to to to to to 100 1,000 3,000 10,000 30,000

D@al and Linear Gate/Logic Army Die CorqSexlty Failure Rate - Cl

c, .010 .020 .040 .080 .16 .29

Linear No. Transistors


ltol

c, .010 .020 .040 .060

PLNPAL No. Gates up to 500 501 to 1,000 2,001 to 5,000 5,001 to 20,000

c,

101 to
301

.00085
.0017 .0034 .0068

1,001

to to

3 1,0

10,0

to 60,000

q NOTE:

For CMOS gate counts above 60,000 use the V1-iSIC/VHSIC-Like

model in Section 5.3

Die Complexity Failure Rate - Cl


Bipolar No. Bits MOS

All Other Model Parameters Parameter Refer to

c,

c, .~4 .28

Section 5.8
Section 5.9 Section 5.10

Up to 8 Upto 16 up to 32

II

.060

.12

.24

.56

5-3

..

MIL-HDBK-217F
.
q

5.2

MICROCIRCUITS,

MEMORIES DESCFilPTION 1. Red ~ Memories (ROM) 2. ~armable Read Only Memorns (PROM) 3. lJ~ mPROMS (UVEPROM) 4. Flash; MNOS and Floating Gate ElectdcaBy bOkJdf3S both Erasable PROMS (EEPROM). fbating gate tunnel oxide (FLOTOX) and textured polysiliin type EEPROMS 5. Static Rancbm Access Mermles (SRAM) 6. ~ R~ /@cess Mwnories (DRAM) ~= (C1 %T + C2 %E + ~ ~ ~ FailumsH06 HOtJm

Die Complexity Faih.JmRate -Cl M PROM, uvEPROM, Memory Size, B (Bits) up to 16K 16K<Bs64K 64K<Bs256K 256K<Bs1M ROM .00065 .0013 .0026 .0052 z= .00085 .0017 .0034 .0068 DRAM .0013 .0025 .0050 .010 > SRAM
(MOS & BiMOS)

lar ROM, PROM .0094 .019 .038 .075

SRAM .0052 .011 .021 .042

.0078 .016 .031 .062

Al Factor for ~c Total No. of Programming Cycles Over EEPROM Life, C up to 100 100< CS2OO 200< C<500 500< CS1K 1K<CS3K 3K<CS7K 7K<CS15K 15K < CS20K 2oK<csi30K 30K < CS lOOK 100K < CS200K 200K<CS400K 400K < C s 500K 1. 2. Al =6.817

Cablatbn Textured-

Factor for kc I

Calculation Textured-Poly I o 1.1 2.3 A2

Flotox .00070 .0014 .0034 .0068 .020 .049 .10 .14 .20 .68 1.3 2.7 3.4 x10+(C)

Polp .0097 .014 .023 .033 .061 .14 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30

I Total No. of Programming Cycles Over EEPROM Ltfe. C Up to 300K 300K < C s 400K 400K < C s 500K AJl Other Mc Parameter XT C* fiE,
~c ~Qt XL

IelParametem
Refer to Section 5.8 Section 5.9 Section 5.10 Page 5-5

(EEPROMS only)

No underlying equation for TexturedPoly. ~c

= O

For all other devices

5-4

..

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.2

MICROCIRCUITS,

MEMORIES

w,

All Memory Devices Except Fbtox and Textured-Poly EEPROMS Fbtox and Textured Poty EEPROMS ~[ c= Al

~=o A*B* ~

61 +

1
5-6

ECC

Al B, A2 02 %Q Error Correction Code (ECC) Optkms: 1. No On-Chip ECC 2. On-ChP Hamming Code 3. Two-Needs-One Redundant Cell Approach

P-54 Page 5-6 A2=o ~=o Sectbn 5.10

P* Page 54 Page 5-6 Page 5-5 P* Seotion 5.10

~ECC

= 1.0

%ECC = ~.0 %ECC = .72 ~ECC = .66

~ECC = .72 ~ECC = .68

NOTES:

1.

See Reference 24 for modeling off-chip error detecton and correction schemes at the memory system level. If EEPROM type is unknown, assume Fbtox.

2. 3.

Error Correctbn Cde Optbns: Some EEPROM manufacturers have incorporated on-chip error correction chxwitry into their EEPROM devioes. This is represented by the on-chip hamming code entry. Other manufacturers have taken a redundant cell -~ which immporates an extra storage transistor in every memory ceil. mis is represented by the two-needs-cm redndant cell entry.

4.

The Al and

factors shown in Section 5.2 were devebped

based on an assumed

system life of 10,000 operating hours. For EEPROMS used h systems whh significantly bnger or shorter expected lifetimes the Al and ~ factors should be multiplied by: 10,000 System Lifetime Operating Hours

5-5

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.2 MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES t ~ Fa 1

co

x *

8 m

%6

===1

.. ,

,,

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.3

MICROCIRCUITS,

VHSICNHSIGLIKE

AND

VLSI

CMOS

DESCRIPTION CMOS greater than 60,000 gates ~ %@MFGfiPCD


+ ~pzEx@p~ + ~~~

Failurest106 HOUrS ANOther Model Parameters

Ok Base Falture Rate - ~D


I Part Type Logic and Custom me Army 60 0.16 0.24 *

Parameter %T %E~~ Package Type I Hefmetc

Refer to Section 5.8 Se@on 5.90 - Xm

Correction Factor

Paokage Type Manufaotwing QML or QPL Non QML or Non QPL Process

PT Nm&mettc

%FG .55 2.0

II
[ I I

DIP Pn Grid Amy CMp Carrier (Surface Mount


T@chnnlnnv\

1.0
2.2 4.7

1.3
2.9 6.1

Dle Complexity Correction Factor - ~D I Feature S&e (Mkmns) .80 1.00 1.25 i As.4 8.0 5.2 .4< As.7 14 8.9
A =

I
I [v

Die Ama (Cr#) .7< AsI.O 1.0< As2.O 19 38 I 1 13 25 I I I I 82

1 2.0< i I I A s 3.0 58 37

Total Scrbed Chip Die Area in cm2 58 :-asw;:bns)s)

-f+)

:i+-M

Die Area Conversion: cm2 = MIL2 + 1S5,000 Package Base FaUure Rate - ~p Ekctrical Overstress Faiture Rate - l~h~ BP VTH (ESD %SC@bility o1000 (VOttS))* EOS

Number of Pins 24 28 40 44 48 52 64 84 120 124 144 220 ksp NP = = .0022+ Nu~r ((1 .72X 10-5)

.0026 .0027 .0029


.0030 .0030 .0031 .0033 .0036 .0043 .0043 .0047 .0060 (NP))

.065
.053 .044 .029 .0027
/.00876

>1000-2000 >2000-4000 >400016000 > 16000


~OS - (-In (1 -.00057 exp(- .0002 Vw))

TH
q

= ESD Susceptibility (volts)

of Package Pins

Voltage ranges which will cause the pad to fail. If unknown, use O -1000 vofts.

UJCU7_n

Al

Q!

,.,

.-.

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.4

MICROCIRCUITS,

GaAs

MMIC

AND DIG~AL

DEVICES

DESCRIPTION Ga)iiim Arsenide Microwave Monolithic Integrated Citwit (GaIW MMIC) amt GaAs Digitai hltegrated Ci-ixhsUshg MESF~ Transistorsand Gold Based MetaJliion

Die Complexity FaiWe Rates - Cl complexity Elements)

.. Application MMIC Devices Low Noise & Low Power (S 100 mVV) Drtvar& High Rnuer(> 100 mw) Unknown %A

(No. f o

c,
4.5 7.2

1 to 100 101 to 1000 1. Cl

accounts for the following active transistors, diodes.

1.0 3.0 3.0

elements:

Digttal Devices All Digital Applications -: Die CompkIXRy Failure Rates - Cl Complexity (No. of Elements) 1 to 1000 1,001 to 10,000 1. Cl c, All Other Model Parameter XT C* nE, XL,
~Q

1.0 <

Parametem
Refer to Sectbn 5.8

25 51

aocounts tor the following aotive transistors, diodes.

Section 5.9 Section 5.10

elements:

5-8

I ?

.,.

....

...

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.5 DESCRIPTION Hybf@ MicrociruJits

MICROCIRCUITS,

HYBRIDS

~=[~Nc~l(l
Nc kc = =

+.2 XE)ICF~Iy

FaMureM06Hours

Number of Each Particular Conpnent Failure Rate of Each Particular Corqmnent

The general pmcechme for developing an overall hybrid faikJm rate )s to oalculde an individual failure fate for each component type used in the hybrid and then sum them. This summatbn is then modfied to axoun for the ovendl hybrid fumtiin (x#, suwning level (~), and matudty (~. ~ ~ ~ failure rate is a function of the active mmponent faiture modified by the environmental factor (i.e., (1 + .2 ~E) ). Ow th ~~ne~ ~ w~ in th fob~~ t8bk ar8 rnns~~ to ~nf~e 8@Wb~& ~

the overall failure rate of most hybrids. AU other cxxnponent types (e.g., m@stor& inductag et@ are considered to contribute lnslgnffkanttyto the overalt hybridfailure rate, and are assumed to have a failure
rate of zero. This simplification is valid for most hybrids; however, if the hybrid consists of mostiy passive components then a failure rate should be calculated for these devices. tf factorirm in othi?r comQonenf . types, assume ZQ = 1, ~ =1 and TA = Hybrid Case Temperature for these calculat b~s.
Determination

of& Mak~ These Asswptions L C2=0, XQ=l ,1= When Determining

Determine ~ for These co mponent Types Microcircuits

Handbook

Section

1, TJ as Determined from
= O (for VHSIC). from Section 6.14,

Section 5.12, ~P Discrete Semiconductors

= 1, TJ as Detemined

%E=l.

Capacitors

10

~=1,

TA

= Hybrid Case Temperature,

~E=l. NOTE: If maximum rated stress for a die is unknown, assume the same as for a discretely pdie of the same type. If the same dw has several ratings based on the discrete ~ type, assume the bwest rating. Power rating used sh6uld be based on case terrper~ure for discrete semiconductors. Chcuit Function Factor Circuit Type Digital
Vii, 10MHz<f<l f >1 G1-lz GHz
F

All Other Hybrfd Model Parameters I 1.0 1.2 2.6 5.0 21 1 ~LI ~Q, ~E

Refer to Section 5.10 I

Microwave,

Linear, f <10

MHz

Power

5-9

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.6

MICROCIRCUITS,

SAW DEVICES
DESCRIPTION Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

$ = 2.1
Quaiity Factor - ~ Screening Level
. XQ

IQ %E Fai)ures/106 Hours

Environmental

Factor - xc L %E .5 2.0 4.0 I 4.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 8.0 .50 5.0 12 220

Environment %3 %

10TerTpf&mre Cycleal to (+5%


+125C) with end point electrical tests at temperature extremes.
None beyond bestcwmmwkat practices.

.10 II

% 1.0 his Nu AC IF %c UF RW SF MF ML CL

5-1o

1 I

El

.-

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.7

MICROCIRCUITS,

MAGNETIC

BUBBLE

MEMORIES

The magnetic bubble memory device in its present form is a noMwnWic folbwing two mapr structural segments: 1.

assembty consisting of the

A basic bubble chip or die consisting of memory or a storage area (e.g., an array of minor hops), and required control and detection elements (e.g., generators, various gates and detectors).
A magnetic structure to provide controlled magnetic fields consisting of permanent coils, and a housing. . magnets,

2.

These two structural segments of the device are intemcmnected by a mechanical substrate and lead frame. The interconnect substrate in the present technology is normally a printed cirwit bead. tt shoukf be noted that this model does not inohde external suppmt microelectronic devices reqJired for magnetk bubble memory operation. The model is based on Reference 33. The general form of the fakwe rate model is: ~= where: k, = Failure Rate of the Control and Detection Structure ~1 + ~ FaiJurest106 Hours

~ = Failure Rate of the Memory Storage Area

ctips per Package - NR Nc = Number of Bubble Chips per Packaged Device

Device Complexity Failure Rates for Control and Detectbn Stmcture - Cl, and C,l

c,, =
C2, N, =

.00095( N1)40 .0001 (N1)226 Number of Dissipative Elements on a Chip (gates, detectors, generators, etc.), N, $1000

Temperature -Ea
X

Factor - XT 1 1

~T=(.l)@xp [ 8.63 Use: % Ea TJ = = =

10-5

TJ +273-=

)1

.8 to Caloulate ?tTl .55 to Calotdate *T2 Junction Temperature 25 STJS175 (C),

TJ

TCASE + IOC

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.7

MICROCIRCUIT,

MAGNETIC

BUBBLE

MEMORIES

Write Duty Cycle Factor - ~

Device Complexity Failure Rates for Memory Storage Sttucture -Cl ~ and C99

%2
Zw =

.00007(h@3
.00001 (N2)3 Number of Bits, N2s 9 x 106

1 Avg. Device Data Rate Mfg. Max. Rated Data Rate ~, C22 N2
s=

D= R/w=

No. of Reads

per Write

NOTE: For seed-bubble generators, divide ~ by 4, or use 1, whkhever is greater.

AJlOther Model Parameters Parameter Section

C5

5.9 5.10

D=

Avg. Device Data Rate Mfg. Max. Rated Data Rate

~,

5-12

I &

MIL+IDBK-217F
S.8 MICROCIRCUITS, TABLE FOR ALL

XT

-18

-1!! .

1
I

5-13

_z...

.,. f

,!

.-.

..!-..

MIL-HDBK-217F
I

I
I

5.9

MICROCIRCUITS,

C2 TABLE

FOR

ALL -

Package Failure Rate for all Mhocircuits


. ~. Fbnnetb . w% w/Solder or Weld S@ Pin Grid Array (PGA)l, SMT (Leaded and Nonkmded) .00092 .0013 .0019 .0026 .0034 .0041 .0048 .0056 .0064 .0079 .0087 .010 .013 .015 .025 .032 .053 .076 .097 .00047 .00073 .0013 .0021 .0029 .0038 .0048 .0059 .0071 .0096 .011 .014 .020 .024 .048 .
xp

C2

Number of Functmnal Pins, Np

Dlf% ti Sea?

Gtass .

Fk@adcs wtth Axiaf Leads on 50 Mil Centers3

Cans4

Nonhermetic: DIPs, m SMT (Leaded and Nonleaded)5

3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 22 24 28 36 40 :: 128 180 224

.00022 .00037 .00078 .0013 .0020 .0028 .0037 .0047 .0058 .0083 .0098

.00027 .00049 .0011 .0020 .0031 .0044 .0060 .0079

.0012 .0016 .0025 .0034 .0043 .0053 .0062 .0072 .0082 .010 .011 .013 .017 .019 .032 .041 .068 .098 .12

1.
3.

c2=2.8
C2 = 3.0

x 10+

(f$J .m
.= 1.08

2.
4.

c~ = 9.0 x 10-5 (N&151


C2 = 3.0 x 10-5 (N~2.01

x 10-5 (N~l

5.

C2 = 3.6

X 10+

(I$J

NOTES: 1. 2.

SMT:
DIP:

Surface Mount Technology Dual In-Line Package

3. 4.

If DIP Seal type is unknown, assume glass The package failure rate (C2) aocounts for failures associated only with the package itsetf. Failures associated with mounting the package Section 16, Interconnection Assemblies.
to a circuit board are accounted for in

5-14

..=

MIL-HDBK-217F
I

5.1O Envinmment Factor - ~

MICFIOCJRCUITS,

%E,~L

ANDxO

TABLES

FOR

ALL

Quality Faotors - ~
%E

Environment % % % NS N AC %F
Uc *UF ARW

Descrf@on s~ 1:
. .

.50 2.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 8.0 .50 5.0 12 220 Learning Factor - XL 2. 7CI 2.0 1.8 1.5 3. 1. Procured in full accordance with MIL-M-3851 O,class B requirements. Procured m fut!accordance with MIL-I-38535, (Class Q).
Hybrids: Procured to Class B requirements (QualityLevel

Procured in fufl accordance with MIL-M-38!H O,Ciass S

requirements. 2. Procuraf in full accordance with MlL-+=3853smd ~a B lherwo (Cfaae u). Hybrids: (Procured m Cfaaa s requirements (Qualily L@vOl K) of MIL-H~. .25

3.

SF
MF

ML c1

1.0

Years in Production, Y s .1 .5 1.0 1.5

1-f) f MIL-H-3$534. o
*

1.2
Fully compliant with all requirements of paragraph 1.2.1 d MIL-STD-883 and procured to a MIL drmving, DESC drawing or dher government approved documentation. (Does not include hybrids). For hybrids use custom screening section below.

XL=

.01 e)(p(s.ss - .35Y)

Y = Years generic cfevice type has been in production

2.0

5-15

T**

& --

b--h

-a--s

-d.-

..1

4 ---

.,.
5.10 Group 1

.,.

,, ..+....

.. . .

MIL-HDBK-217F

MICROCIRCUITS,

%E, %L AND XQ

TABLES

FOR

ALL

CdcUlation for Custom Screening Programs Poinf Va)uatkm MlL-STD-& Scmermeat (Note 3) TM 10IO(Ternperature Cycle, Cond BMinirmsm)and TM 2001 (Constant Acceleratbn, Cord B Minimum) and W 5004 (or 5008
for Hybrids) (Finaf Electrkals @Te~E%trenws) and TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond ~ B, or C) and TM 2009 (External Visual) TM 1O1O (Terrqmature Cycle, Cond B Minimum) or TM 2001 (Constant Acceleration, Cond B Minimum) TM 5004 (or 5008 for Hytxlds) (Fhal EkOtca& @ Terrp Extremes) and TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond A, B, orC) and TM 2009 (External visual) Pre-Bum in Electrkals TM 1015 (Bum-in B-LeveVS-Level) and TM 5004 (or 5008 for (Post Burn-in ElectdcaJs @ Te ~ Extremes)
Th42020Pirld(PaRi0fe TM 5004 fmpaothJ0ie0 ~)

Quality Factors (centcf): ~

50

2*

37

30 36
11 11

(B Level) (S Level)

4* 5

(or 5008 for Hybrids)

(Final Electricats @ Te~rature

(Note 1)

Extremes) 6 7* 8 TM 2010/17 (internal Visual) 7 7 (Note 2)

TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond A, B, or C) TM 2012

(Radiography)

7 7
1
1

9
10 11
ZQ =2+

TM2009 (ExternalVisual)
TM 5007/5013 TM 2023 (GaAs) (Wafer Acceptance)
Bond Pull)

(Note 2)

(Non-Destructive 87

Z Point

Valuations PARTS.

q NOT APPROPRIATE
NOTES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

FOR PIJWTIC

Point valuation only assigned if used independent of Grwps 1, 2 or 3. Point valuatbn onty assigned if used independent of Groups 1 or 2. Sequencing of tests within groups 1, 2 and 3 must be followed. TM refers to the MIL-STD-883 Test Method. Nonhermetk pafis should be used onty in controlled environments (i.e., GB and other temperaturelhumldtty controlled environments).

EXAMPLES: 1.
7 -. Mfg. performs Mfg. performs

Group 1 test and Class B bum-in:


infernal visual test,

~Q

2 +_

87

= 3.1
~Q =

seal test and final electrical test:

2+~ 10

87

= 5.5

Other Commercial or Unknown Screening Levels

fiQ=

5-16

.___ .

., .,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.11

h81CROClRCU?TS, 7.s DETERMINATION,

(ALL

EXCEPT

HYBRIDS]

Ideally, device case temperatures should be determined from a detailed thermal analysis of the wmm. NV* @wtion temperature is then calculated with the fofbwing relationship:
.. Tc +

TJ .

OKP

TJ Tc

= =

Worst Case Ju~ion

Tempemture

~C). w the Wlowing default tatlb.

Case Temperature (oC). If not avaiM#e,

Default Case Tempemture

(T~

for all Environments

TC (C)

35

45

50

60

60

75

75

60

I 35

50

60

45

(3JC =

Junction-toese

thermal resistance (CAwtt) for a device soldered into a printed circuit

board. If OK is not available, use a Vabe contained in a specification for the closest
equivalentdevke or use the following tabJe.

Die Area >14,400 Package Type (ceramic only)


Dual-in-Lm

m~

ew

Die Areas

14,400 rni?

(w

8JC (~

11

28 22 20 20 70

Flat Package Chip Carner


Pin Grid Array

10
10

10

Can

The maximum power dmtion

realized in a systemappficatiin. If the applied power is not available, use the maxknum power dissipationfrom the specificationfor the closest equivalent device.

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.12

MICROCIRCUITS,

T-l

DETERMINATION,

(FOR

HYBRIDS)

This sectbn descrfbes a method for estimating junction temperature

(TJ) for integrated circuit dke

mounted inahybrkfpackage.

A~k~~mti~timormrew-e~-tiW consists of active and passive chips with thick orthin


in turn may have multiple layers of metallization and view of a hybrid with a single multi-layered materials with different thermal

within a sealed package. Each substrate assetity film metallization mounted on the substrate, whii
dielectric on the surface. substrate. The

Figure 5-1 is a cross-sectional

layers within the hybrid are made The table folbwlng

up of various

characteristics.

Figure 5-1 provkles a llst of commonly used hybrid materials with

typical thicknesses and comesponding thermal conductivtties (K). If the hybrid internal structure cannot be determined, use the following default values for the temperature 1Oc; transistors, 25%;
diodes, 20W.

rise from case to junction: miomdrculs,

kalJrm

are at Tc.

CHIP (A) LID CHIP ATJACH (B) . \~ I

INSULATING LAYER (C) m SUBSTRATE (D) MATERIAL THICKNESS, L i EPOXY (E) CASE (F)

PACKAGE LEAD

Figure 5-1:

Cross-sectional

View

of a Hybrtd with a Single

Multl-Layered

Substrate

5-18

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.12

MICROCIRCUITS, Tvkal

T-l

DETERMINATION,

(FOR

HYBRIDS)

Hvbrid Characterktii Conductivity, Ki W/in* . () Win 2.20 .76 6.9 1.3 .0060 .15 .66
.64

Material

Typical U!wge

Typkal Thickness, + (in.) 0.010 0.0070 0.0001

Feature From Figure 5-1 A A B B/E BIE B c


D

IL Ki ()()

( in2 oC/W .0045 .0092 .000014 .0023 .58 .023 .0045


.039

Silicon

Chip Device chip Devbe

Au Eutectic Solder Epoxy (Dielectric) Epoxy (Conductive) Thck Film Dielectric


Alumina

Chip Attach Chip/Substrate Chip/Substrate Chii Attach Gl= Insubthg


MHP Layer

Attach Attach

0.0030 0.0035 0.0035 0.0030


0.025

Substrate,

Beryllium Oxide Kovar


AJuminum Copper NOTE: MHP:

Substrate, Case, MHP


Case, Case, MHP PHP

PHP

0.025 0.020
0.020 0.020

D F
F F

6.6
.42 4.6 9.9

.0038
.048 .0043 .0020

Muftichip Hybrid Package, PHP: Power Hybrid Package

(Pwc > 2W, TypicaUy)

;1(*)(i)
em= =
A

n Ki Li A

= z = =

Number of Material Layefs Thermal Conductivity of ith Material Thiiness W/in* ~ () (User Provided or Fmm Table)

of im Material (in) (User Provided or From Table)

Die Area (inz). If Die Area cannot be readity determined, estimate as follows: A = [ .00278 (No. of DB Active Wire Terminals) + .041#

Estimate TJ

as Folk)ws:
TJ = Tc + .9 (e~ (p~

Tc eJ~ Pf)

Hybrid

Case

Temperature

(C). If unknown, use the Tc Defautt Table shown in Section 5.11.

= Junction-to-Case =

Thermal Resistance (C/W) (As determined above)

Die Power Dissipation (W)

5-19

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.13

MICROCIRC CMOS

UIT&

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Given:

Dlgftal Gate Array

A CMOS digitaltiming~ (4048) in an ahborne inhabitedcargo applkxdbn, case temperature 4YC, 75mW power deefpatim The device is pmwrad with normal marndacturetsscreening consisting of terrperature oycflng, oomtant aooeleratbn, electrical testing, seal test and external visual Owpectkm, in the seqMnce given. The oorrponent manufacturer also performs a B-1evel bum-in folbwed by electrical testing. AU screens and tests are performed to the applicable MILSTD-883 screening method. The package is a 24 pin oeramic DIP with a glass seal. The device has been manufactured for severaf years and has 1000 transistors.

Section 5.1

c1 XT

= =

.020 .29

1000 Transistor

-250

Gates, MOS Cl Table, Digital Column

Determ\ne TJ from Sectbn 5.11 TJ = 48W + (28@W)(.075w) = 50W Determine ~T from Section 5.8, Digital MOS Column.

c~
?tE

=
= =

.011
4.0 3.1

Section 5.9 Section 5.10

7CQ

Seotion 5.10 Group 1 Tests Group 3 Tests (Blevel)


TOTAL

50 Points 80 Points

XL

Section 5.10 ~= [ (.020)(.29) + (.011) (4)] (3.1)(1)= .15 Failure/106 l-lows

Example Given:

2:

EEPROM Flotox EEPROM that is expected to have a TJ of 80C and experience 10,000

A 128K

readhmite cycles over the life of the system. The part is procured to all requirements of Paragraph 1.2.1, MIL-STD-883, Class B screenin level requirements and has been in in a 26 pin D7 P with a glass seal and will be used In an productbn for three years. tt b packagd airborne uninhabited oargo application. ~=(ClXT+C2YCE+~)nnL Sectbn 5.2

c1 XT C2

= = =

.0034 3.8 .014

Section 5.2 Section 5.8 Section 5.9

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.13
~E
ICQ

MICROCIRCUITS,

EXAMPLES

=
=

5.0 2.0 1.0 .38

Section 5.10 Section 5.10 Section 5.10 Section 5.2: A2B* %[ ~ ~ 81 .3.8 =AIB1+~~~ = f32 = O for Fiotox s15KEntry (Use Equation 1 at bottom of B1 and ~ Tabie)

XL b c=

No ECC, %ECC = 1

A,=.l,7Ksc
(

~~

= 1 B, = (-1)(3.8) = .38

I I

~=

[ (.0034)(3.8)

+ (.014)(5.0)+

.38] (2.0)(1)=

.93 Failures/106

Hours

Example 3:
Given:

GaAs MMIC

A MA4GM212

Single Pole Double Throw Switch, DC -12 GHz, 4 transistors, 4 inductors, 8 resistors, maximum Input PD = 30 ~, 16 pin hermetio flatpack, maxirrum TCH = 14WC m a

ground benign environment. rne part has been manufactured for 1 year and is screened to Paragraph 1.2.1 of MIL-STD-883, Class B equivalent soreen. Seotion 5.4

c1

4.5 .061 3.0


.0047

Section 5.4, MMIC Table, 4 Active Elements (See Footnote to Tabie) Section 5.8, TJ = TCH = 145C
Section 5.4, UrhOwn Application

Section 5.9 Section 5.10 Section 5.10 Section 5.10

%E XL

= =

.50 1.5 2.0

7FQ

~=

[(4.5)( .061) (3.o) + (.0047)(.5)]

(1.5)(2.0)

= 2.5 Failures/106

Hours

NOTE:

The passive elements are assumed to contribute negligibly to the overall device failure rate. Hybrid

Example 4: Given:

A linear muttichip hybrid driver in a hermetically sealed Kovar package. The substrate is aiumina there are two thi@ film dielectric layers. The die and substrate attach materials are conductive epoxy and soider, respectively. The application environment is navai unsheltered, 65C case temperature and the device has been in production for over two years. The device is
and

5-21

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.13

MICROCJRCUJTS,

EXAMPLES
with Table Vlll, Class B requirements.

screened to MIL-STD-883, Method 5008, in accmkwxe The hybrid contahw the followhg components:
Active Components: 112222 17 -

LMl 06 Bipolar Co~rator-er Die (13 Transistors) LM741A Bipolar Operational Arnpliir Die (24 Transistor)

S NPN Transistor Si PNP Tmnsistor


Si General Purpose Diodes Cerwlb c~ Capacitors Thick FItm Resistors + -~E) %F ~ ~ Sectbn 5.5

Passive Components:

1.

Estimate Active Device Junction Terrperatures If limited informationis available on the specific hybtid materials and construction characteristics the defautt case-to-junction temperature rises shown in the introduction to Section 5.12 can be used. When detailed information becmmes available the following Section 5.12 procedure shoukf be used to determine the junction-to-case (tlJc) thermal resistance and TJ vatues for each component.

,,c

w
A Layer

(Equatbn

1)

Fgure 5-1 Feature

~ ()()
Ki .0045 .023 (2)(.0045) = .009 .039 .0023

Li

in2 OC/W Silicon Chip Conductive Epoxy A B c D E F

Two Dielectric Layers Alumina Substrate Solder Substrate Attachment Kovar Case

Die Area= [ .00278 (No. Die Active Wire Terminals) + .0417J2 Tc + OJC D (Equation 3)

(Equation 2)

TJ =

5-22

MIL-HDBK-217F

5.13

MICROCIRCUITS,

EXAMPLES

LM 106 No. of Pins I Power Dissipation, pD (W) Area of Chpjin.2) e~ (w .33 .0041 30.8 8 I

LM741A 14 I .35 .0065 19.4

Si NPN 3 .6 .0025 50.3

s
3

PNP

lSi 2

Diode

Source Vendor Spec. Sheet CircaJitAnalysis Ey. 2 Above

.6

.0025
50.3 95

II
56.3 89

.42

.0022

Equ. 1 Above Ew. 3 Above

J (~)

75

72

95

2.

Calculate Failure Rates for Each Corrqmnent: A) LM106 DM, 13 Transistors (from Vendor Spec. Sheet)

~=[c,q+c~Yc~l~Qq
Because P = = B) C2 = O; Cl XT
~Q XL

Section 5.1

~T:

s-h

5.8;

~Q,

ZL

Default tO 1.0

(.01)(3.8)(1)(1)

= .038 Failures/106

Hours

LM741 Die, 23 Transistors. =

Use Same Procedure as Above. = .031 Failures/106 Hours = .6,

Cl XT Z* XL = (.01)(3.1)(1)(1)

c) Silicon NPhl Transistor, Rated Power= 5W (From Vendor Spec. Sheet), Vc#VCEO
Linear Application ~ = = = D)
%PAR%KQE

s8CtiOn 6.3; ZQ, ~E Defautt to 1.0

(.00074)(3.9)(1

.5)(1 .8)(.29) (l)(1)

.0023 Failures/l 06 Hours

Silicon PNP Transistor, Same as C. .0023 Failures/106 Hours Vottage Stress= 60%, Metallurgically Bonded

E)

Silicon General Purpose Diode (Anabg), Construction. %T%~nQ% (.0038)(6.3)(.29)(1)(1)(1)

Section 6.1; nQ, XE Default to 1.0

.0069 Failures/l 06 Hours

5-23

,.

.. . .

MIL-HDBK-217F
[

5.13

MICROCIRCUITS,

EXAMPLES

F) Ceramic ChipCapacitor, Voltage Stress= 50%., A CASE for the Hybrid, 1340 pF, 125C Rated
I

Tenp Section 10.1 1; xQ, fiE Default to 1.0

= = =

%%V%)E (.0028)(1.4)(1)(1) .0039 Faitures/106 Hours

G)

Thiok Film Resistors, per kwtructbns in Section 5.5, the contribution of these devices is considered insiinifiint relative to the overall hybrid failure rate and they maybe ignored.

[XbJc~c](l+2@ItF~q
6.0 5.8 1
1 [ (1)(.038)+ + (2)(.0069) 1.3 Failures/l (1)(.031)+ + (2)(.0039) 06 Hours

Section 5.10 Section 5.5 Section 5.10


Section (2) (.0023)+ 5.10

(2) (.0023) (5.8) (1)(1)

](1 + .2(6.0))

5-24

f ... .

. . . . . ..

. .

...

. .

.. .. .-

..!.

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.0

DISCRETE

SEMICONDUCTORS,

INTRODUCTION

The semiconductor tmnsistor, dbde and opto-electronic devke sections present the faWe rates on cmstwtbn. An mafytbd -I of the talbre rate is also presented for each the basis ofdevketypeand devkes require different failure rate devke category. The various types of dkcrete semkmductor models that vary to some degree. The models apply to single devices unless otherwise noted. For mh**v-rn as@k_t~~ti h~ti5.5*Mb Md. The applicable MIL specification for transistors, and optoelectronk quality levels (JAN, JANTX, JANTXV) are as defined in MIL-S-19500. The t~p9mtWt3 faCtOr (%T) is based on the devke jumtbn devices is MIL-S-19500. The

temperature.

Junctbn

temperature

should be oomputed based on worse case power (or maxhmm power c!ksipatbn) and the device junction to ease thermal resktanoe. Determinatbn of junction temperatures is explained in Section 6.14. I
I

Refererwe section.

28 should be consulted for further detailed information on the mode!s appearing

in this

6-1

MIL-HDBK-217F
I

6.1

DIODES,

LOW

FREQUENCY DESCRIPTION @ Frecpxmqr D-s: General Putpse Analog, Switch~ Fast Rewvery, f%wer RecWer, Tmsient S~r, Current Regulator, Vol@e Regulator, Voltage Reference

SPECIFICATION MlL-S-l 9500

Lp =

&##czQzE

Failures/l

OG

Hours
Factor - q

Base Failure Rate - & Diode Type/Appiicatbn General PuqxM Analog switching Power Redfiir, Fast Recovery Power Rectifier/Schottky Power Diode Power Rectifier with HigiI Voltage Stacks Transient Suppressor/Vanstor Current Reguiator Voltage Regulator and Voltage Reference (Avaianche and Zener) Terrperature Factor - XT (General Purpose Analog, Switching, Fast Recovery, Poul r Rectifier, TI dent Su-pgm isor) XT TJ ~C) XT TJ (C) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.7 6.4 7.2 8.0 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 9.0 10 11 12 14 15 16 18 20 21 23 25 28 30 32 ~ .0038 .0010 .069 .0030 .0050/ Junction .0013 .0034 .0020
I i

Temperature

(VOitag. Regulator, Voitqo Rdormce, h cunUWRncddYW) .- ---- . ... . -~---. # %T TJ (C) J (=) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.7 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7

%T =

exp

-1925 ((

1 TJ +273-=

1 ))

TJ

JunctionTemperature (oC)

XT =

exp -3091

((

1 1 TJ + 273 -Z& ))

TJ -

JunctionTemperature (C)

6-2

+.

.,

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.1

DIODES,

LOW

FREQUENCY

Electrical Stress Factor - ZS Stress Transient Suppressor, Voltage Regulator, Voltage Reference, Current Regulator I 7CS Quality JANTXV JANTX 1.0 JAN All Others: v~ s .30 .3 c v~ s .40 .4< Vs s .50 .5<v#60 .6< Vs s .70 .7< V~ s .80 .8< V~ s .90 .9<v#. oo Lower 0.054 0.11 0.19 0.29 0.42 0.58 0.77 1.0 Plastic

Quality Factor - X(
tcQ

0.7 1.0 2.4 5.5 8.0

Environment Factor - ZE Environment GB GF 7tE 1.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 19 13 29 20 43 24 .50 14 32 320

For All Except Transient Suppressor, Voltage Regulator, Voltage Reference, or Current Regulator 7CS= .054 (Vs s .3) 1)

% N~ Nu Ic IF *UC UF RW SF MF ML

~s = v~2.43

(.3 < v+

Voltage Applied ~~ = Voltage Stress Ratio = Voltage Rated Voltage is Diode Reverse Voltage

Contact Construction Factor - xc Contact Construction Metallurgically Bonded I Non-Metallurgically Bonded and Spring Loaded Contacts CL I I@ 1.O

2.0

6-3

MIL-I+DBK-217F

6.2

DIODES,

HIGH FREQUENCY

(MICROWAVE,

RF)

SPECIFICATION MlL-S-l 9500

DESCRIPTION Si IMPA7T; Buk Effect, Gunn; Tunnel, Back; Mixer, Detector, PIN, Schottky; Varactor, Step Recovery

Failures/l 06 Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ Dbde Type Si lMPAIT (s 35 GHz) Gunn/Bulk Effect Tunnel and Bd (including Mixers, Detectors) PIN Schottky Barrier (including Detectors) and Point Contact (200 MHzs Frequenqs 35 GHz) Vamctor and Step Recovery h
TJ

Tenqxmtum

Factor- %T

~)
1.0 1.3 1.8 2.3 3.0 3.9 5.0 6.4 8.1
10 13 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 42 50

.22 .18 .0023 .0081 .027 .0025

Temperature Factor - q TJ (C) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60


65 70

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 z 100

16 19
24 29 35

(All Types XT 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.9


2.1 2.3

Excq)t

IMPA7T) TJ (oC) 105 110 115 120 125 130 135


140 145

84 99 120 140 160 180 210 250 280 320 370

4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7


7.1 7.6

T TJ

= =

exp -5260

((

1 ))

TJ + 273 -Zz

JunctionTemperature (C)

75 80
85 90 1:

2.5 2.8 3.0


3.3 3.5 3.8

150 155 160


165 170 175

8.0 8.5
9.0 9.5 10 11

Application Diodes Application

Factor - fiA I ~A .50 2.5 1.0

4.1

Varactor, Voltage Control Varactor, Mu?tip!ier

XT =

exp -2100 ((

1 TJ +273-~

1 ))

All Other Diodes

TJ =

JunctionTemperature (C)

6-4

.- .-.

,,.

,.

MI-HDBK-217F

6.2

DIODES,

HIGH

FREQUENCY

(MICROWAVE,

RF)

Power

Rating Factor - XR Quaiity

Rated Power, Pr (Watts)


PIN Diodes

Quality Factor - ~ (Scha ky)


%

p~ < 10 10 < Pr s IOO<Pr 1000 <Pr

.50

JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower

.50 1.0

100
S3000

1.3 2.0 2.4

Sl~

1.8
2.5

All Other Diodes

1.0

Plastic

Pthl Diodes
All Other Diodes

Iqq = .326 k(Pr) -.25 XR = 1 .0

For high frequency part classes notspecified to

MlL-S-l 9500 equipmentqualityclasses are defined ae devices meeting ths Same requirementsas MlL-S-l 9500.

Quaiity Factor - nQ
(All Ty pas Except Scl

Environment Factor - z= Environment GB .50


1.0
~E

Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic

1.0
2.0 5.0
4.0 11

t
I

GF % Ns Nu Ac IF *UC

5.0 25 50

4.0 5.0
7.0

For high frequency part classes not spedfied to Ml L-S-l 9500 equipmentqualhyclassesare defined as devbes meeting the same raqulrementsas MlL-S-l 9500.

UF RW .. SF MF ML CL

12 16 .50 9.0 24 250

6-5

MIL-HDBK-217F
q  

6.3

TRANSISTORS,

LOW

FREQUENCY,

BIPOLAR DESCRIPTION NPN (Frequency< PNP (Frequency<

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

200 MHz) 200 MHz)

Ap =
Base Failure Rate - ~

%?

AXR%ZQXE

Failures/l

06 I-loufs Application Factor - %A

Type NPN and PNP

h .00074

Application Linear Ampliiicatiorl Switching

%A 1.5 .70

TJ

(*)

XT

T J (C) 105 110 115 120 125

%T

Power Rating Factor - ZR. . Rated Power (Pr, W~S) Pr~ .1 Pr = .5 Pr =1.0
Pr = 5.0 Pr = 10.0

?tR

25 30 35 40 45 50

1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7

4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 5.9

.43 .77 1.0 1.8 2.3 4.3 5.5

55 60 % 75 80 E 95 100

;:: 5:: 2.8 3.0 ::: 3.9 4.2

130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

6.3 6.8 7.2 7.7 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.7 10 11

Pr = 50.0 P~ = 100.0 Pr -500.0

10 I

XT =

exp -2114 ((

1 1 TJ + 273 -=

))

TJ =

Junclbn Temperature (C)

%-. * ~ - (Pr).37

Rated Powers .lW Rated Power >.1 W

6-6

.l@

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.3

TRANSISTORS,

LOW

FREQUENCY,

BIPOLAR

Voltage Applied vCE/Rabd o<v .3<v~s.4 .4<v .5c .6< .7<v .8< .9< @.5 V~S.6 V#.7 @.0 V#.9 v~ s 1.0 #.3

Stress Factor - YCS VCEO ~~ .11 .16 .21 .29 .39 .54 .73 1.0 ~~

Erwironment Factor - ~F Environment GB GF % Ns N AC IF AM %E 1.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 19 13 29 20 43 24 .50 14 32 320

% v~

,045 exp (3.1(vS))

(o<v#l.o)

UF RW

Applied VCE / Rated VGEO Voltage, Collector to Emitter Voltage, Colleotor to Emitter, Base Open

SF MF ML CL

VCE
CEO

=
-

Quality Factor - ZQ Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic I 7c~ .70 1.0
2.4

5.5 8.0

6-7

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.4

TRANSISTORS,

LOW

FREQUENCY,

SI

FET

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTl ON N-Channel and P-Channel Si FET (Frequencys

400 MHz)

Ap = kb7cT7cA7tQ7cE Failures/l 06 Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~


q

Application Factor - ~A % Application (Pr, Rated Output Power) Linear Amplifkxtion (Pr < W) small S@rlal Switching .70

Transistor Type

MOSFET JFET

I :::5 I
Temperature Factor - n~ *T 1.0
1.1 1.2

T ~ (C) 25
E 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 * nT = exp (( TJ =

TJ (C) 105
110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 A 1 TJ + 273 1 -izii )) Temperature (C)

XT

Power FETs (Non-linear, Pr z 2< Pr<5W

2W)

1.4
1.5 1.6 ;:: 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 u 3.4 3.7

::; 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6,0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7

2.0 4.0 8.0 10

5<Pr<~W 50 s Pr < 250W Pr > 25OW

Environment Factor - x=

Environment GB GF

xc 1.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 19 13 29 20 43


24

- 1925

GM NS 1 Nu Alc

Junction

Quality Factor - ~ Ouality


JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic

7CQ
.70 1.0 2.4 5.5 8.0

IF *UC *UF *RW


SF

.50
14

MF ML CL

32 320

b-U

1=-IO

=1

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.5 SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

TRANSISTORS,

UNLIUNCTION

DESCRIPTION Unijunction Transistors

Failures/l Lp = kb7cT7TQ7cE Base Failure Rate - ~

OG Hours Quality Factor - ~ Quality


%Q

All Unijuntilon I

.0083 I

JANTXV JANTX JAN

.70 1.0 2.4 5.5 8.0

Temperature Factor - XT
T ~ (C) ~T TJ (C) XT

Lower Plastic

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95

100

1.0 1,1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.4 4.9 5.3

105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

5.8 6.4 6.9 7.5 8.1 8.8 9.5 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 16

Environment Factor - XE Environment GB GF

%E

1.0 6.0 9.0 9.0

%/l
Nu AC IF

19 13 29 20 43 24 .50
I

nT

exp

-2483 ((

1 TJ + 273

1 -m ))

Uc *UF *RW

TJ

Junction

Temperature

(C)

SF MF ML CL L 32

6-9

<1

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.6

TRANSISTORS,

LOW

NOISE,

HIGH

FREQUENCY,

BIPOLAR

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTION Bipolar, Micmvave RF Transistor (F~ency >200 MHz, Power< lW)

kp =

b~z#&QKE

Failures/l 06 Hours

I
1

Applkatlon Note: The model applies to a single die (for multiple die use the hybrid model). The model does apply to ganged transistors on a single die. Power Rating Factor - Xn. . Base Failure Rate - & R~6d ~ (Pr, W~S) %R

I
All Types I I ,18 I

Temperature Factor - q TJ (C)


25

XT
1.0

TJ W)
105

XT
4.5

Pr < .1 .l<Pr 5.2 .2< PrS.3 .3< Pr $.4 .4< PrS.5 .5< Pr~.6 .6< PrS.7 .7< PrS.8 .8< Pr <.9 7KR..43 ~ = (Pr )37 P~ S.lw Pr >.lW

.43 .55 .64 .71 .77 .83 .88 .92 .96

30 35
40 45 50 55

1.1 1.3
;:; 1.7

110
115 120 125 130

4.8
5.2 5.6 5.9 6.3 6.8

60 65 70
75 80 85 E 100

;:: 2.3 2.5


2.8 3.0 3.3 3.6 3.9 4.2

:Z 145 150
155 160 165 170 175

7.2 7.7
0.1 8.6 9.1 9.7 10 11

Voltage Applied VCE/R~ed o<v


.3 <V=s .4<v .5< V#.6 V8S.7 VSS .8

Stress Factor - x~ VCEO % .11


.16 .21 .29 .39 .54

#.3
.4 #.5

XT =

exp -2114
((

1 TJ +273-=

1 ))

.6< .7<

TJ =

JunctionTemperature (oC)

.8<v~s.9 .9< % v~ v= CEO v~ s 1.0 = .045 exp (3.1(vS))

.73 1.0 (o< v~ s 1.0)

Applied VCE / Rated VC~ Vottage, Collector to Emitter Voltage, Collector to Emitter, Base Open

,,

. ..

!.,

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.6

TRANSISTORS,

LOW

NOISE,

HIGH

FREQUENCY,

BIPOLAR

Quality Factor - ~ Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower 7tQ .50 1.0

Environment Factor - ~F Environment GB GF GM 2.0 5.0 Ns Nu Alc %F Uc UF RW SF MF ML CL ~E 1.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 19 4.0 5.0 7.0 12 16 .50 9.0 24 250

NOTE: For these devices, JANIXV quatii class must inciude IR Scan for die attach and scraan for barrier
layer pinhotes on gold metallized devices.

6-11

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.7

TRANSISTORS,

HIGH

POWER,

HIGH

FREQUENCY,

BIPOLAR

SPECIFICATION M! L-S-19500

DESCRIPTION Power, Mkrowave, RF Bipolar Transistors (Average Power 21 W) %= %%XAXM%ZE ailres/loOs

.
I

Base Failure Rate - ~


Frequency

(GHz)
s 0.5 ; 3 4 5

1.0
.038 .046 .065 .093 .13 .19

5.0 .039 .047 .067 .095 .14 ,19

10 .040 .048 .069 .098 .14 .20

Output Power (Watts) 50 100 .050 .067 .060 .080 .086 .11 .12 .16 .17 .23 .25 F= Frequency (GHz)

200 .12 .14 .20 .28

300 .20 .24 .35

400 .36 .42

500 .62 .74

600 1.1 1.3

lb

.032 exp(.354(F) + .00558(P))

OUtp@POwer W)

NOTE: Output power refers to the power level for the overall packaged device and not to indwidual transistors within the package (if more than one transistor is ganged together). The output power represents the power output from the active device and should not account for any duty cycle in pulsed applications. Duty cycle iS accounted for when determining A.

Temperature Factor - XT
(Gnlri Mdalli7atinn\ \ -Vs (VCE/BVCE@
!.. . . . . . . . ... . . . .

Temperature
/Aliiminllm ,,,
,, ,?, .F, ., . ..--.,,--

Factor - nT
Matalli7atinn\
., W..

Vs (VCE/BVCES) .55 .40 .49 .59 .71 .85 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 TJ (~) Sloo 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 XT = .38exp )) s .40 .38 .57 .84 1.2 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.4 ?:; .45 .75 1.1 1.7 2.4 3.4 4.7 6.5 8.8 12 15 .50 1.1 1.7 2.5 3.6 5.1 7.1 9.7 13 18 23 30 1 = )) 1 1 TJ + 273 - ~ )) .55 1.5 2.3 3.3 4.8 6.8 9.5 13 18 $: 40

TJ (C) sl 00 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

s .40 .10 .12 ,15 .18 .21 .25 .29 .34 .40 .45 .52

.45 .20 .25 .30 .36 .43 .50 .59 .68 .79 .91 1.0

.50 .30 .37 .45 .54 .64 .75 .88 1.0

1.2 1.4
1.6

T = .1 exp -2903 (( (VS < .40)

1 TJ +273

1 =

-5794

1 TJ +273

(( (VS s .40) nT = ?.55 (VS - .35) exp )) v= -5794

- z (VS - .35) eXP -2903


(( (.4 < v~ s .55) v~ VCE BVCES = . =

TJ ~ 273

1 -m

(( (.4 < Vs s .55) = = VCE / BVCES Operating Voltage (Votts) Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage with Base Shorted to Emitter (Votts)

VCE / BVCES VCE Operating Voftage (volts) Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voftage with Base Shorted to Emitter (Volts) Peak Junction Temperature (C) BVCES

TJ

Peak Junction Temperature (C)

TJ

6-12

I -+

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.7

TRANSISTORS,

HIGH

POWER,

HIGH

FREQUENCY,

BIPOLAR

Application Factor - ~A
Application

Quality Factor - ~ Quality JANTXV ZQ .50 1.0 2.0 5.0

Duty Factor
N/A

Pulsed

s 1%

.46

5!% 1 0%+40 15% 20% 25% 2 30% =


=

.70 1.0 1.3 1.6


1.9

JANTX JAN Lower

2.2
N07E: For these devices, JANTXV qualityclass must IncludeIR Scan for die attach and screenfor barrier layer pinholes on gold metaltized devices.

7tA

7.6, CW .06 (Duty Factor


0/0) +

n~

.40,

Pulsed

Environment

Factor - zc b ~E

Matching Matching

Network

Factor - fiM ~M 1.0 2.0 4.0

Environment

GB GF

1.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 11 4.0 5.0 7.0


12 16 .50

Input and Output Input None

GM Ns Nu Ic IF *UC UF
*RW SF

MF ML CL

9.0 24 250

6-13

m-a

-l....

_._.

--

--

--

--

AAM

.-

.-.

MIL4-IDBK-217F
. 6.8 TRANSISTORS, HIGH FREQUENCY, GaA, FET DESCRIPTION Galls Low Noke, Driver and Power FETs (2 lGHz)

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

Base FaihJre Rate - ~ Average Output Power (Watts) 1 .5 .&6 .10 .16 .24 .37 :: .084
.13 .20 .30 .47 .72 1.1

<.1 1
4 5 6 7 0 9 10 .052 .052 .052 .052 .052 .052 .052 .052

.1 .054
.083 .13 .20 .30 .46 .71

2 --

4 -.
.36 .56 .85 ;::

.14 .21 .32 .50 .76 1.2 1.8

.96 1.5 2.3 3.5

%
%= F-

.052
.0093 exp(.429(F) Frequency (GHz) + .486(P))

1< F<1o, 4sFs1o, p.

P<.1 .ls Ps6

Average Output Power (Watts)

The average output power represents the power output from the active device and should not account for any duty cycle in pulsed applications.

Temperature Factor - m

Application Factor - XA
%T

Tc (=)
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 7s 80 85 90 95 100 1.0 1.3

TC (C)

Application (Ps 6W) All Low Power and Pulsed

~A 1 4

1.6 2.1 $:; 4.0 4.9


5.9 7.2 8.7 10 12 15 ;7

115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

24 28 33 38 44 50 58 66 E 97

P = Average Output Power (Watts)

110 120 140 150

Xp 4485

((

&3-L

298 ))

TC =

Channel Temperature (C)

U-14

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.8

TRANSISTORS,

HIGH

FREQUENCY,

GaAs

FET

Matching Matching

Network

Factor

- ~M ~M 1.0 2.0 4.0

Environment Factor - xc L Environment %3 [ ~E 1.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 11 4.0 5.0 7.0 12 16 .50 7.5 24 250

Input and Output

GF % NS N %c

Input Only None

Qualiiy Factor- ICQ Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower


~Q

% *UC *UF RW 1.0 2.0 5.0 SF


MF

.50

ML CL

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.9

TRANSISTORS,

HIGH

FREQUENCY,

Si

FET DESCRIPTION Si FETs (Avg. Power< 300 mW, Freq. >400 MHz)

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500 ~ = &Tz@E

Failures/l OGHours

Base Failure Rate - ~ Transistor Type A~ .060 I JFET Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Temperature Factor - m
TJ (C) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100
XT 7tT

Quality Factor - ~

I I

MOSFET

.50 1.0 2.0 5.0

I
1.0 1.1
1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.7 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

.023

Lower

3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7

Environment

Factor - ~=
L

Environment GB GF GM N~ N AIC
IF

xc 1.0 2.0 5.0 4.0 11 4.0 5.0 7.0 12 16 .50 9.0


24 250

T TJ

= =

exp

((

- 1925

1 TJ + 273

1 -E ))

Uc
*UF

Junction Temperature (C)

RW SF
MF ML

CL

6-16

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.10 SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500 DESCRIPTION Thyristors SCRS, Triacs

THYRISTORS

AND

SCRS

Failures/l 06 Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ I Device Type All Types
I

Current Lb .0022 I .05 ,10 .50 1.0 5.0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 I

Rating

Factor

- ~R

Rated Forward Current ffms (Amps) .30 .40 .76 1.0 1.9 2.5 3.3 3.9 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 7,9

Temperature Factor - q TJ (%) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95


100

TJ(%) 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 :::
4.4

8.9 9.9 11 12 13 15 16 la 19 21 23 25 27 30 32

5.0 5.7 6.4 7.2 8.0

105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

~T

exp

((

-3082

1 TJ + 273

1 -m ))

m
+rms

=
=

($rmJ40
RMS Rated ForwardCurrent (Amps)

TJ

Junction Temperature (C)

6-17

MIL-HDBK-217F
. 6.10 . . AND SCRS

THYRISTOf?S

Voltage Stress Factor - XC w V~ (Blocking Voltage Applied/ BlockingVottage Rated) v~ s .3<v .4<v .5< .6< .7< .8< .30 #.4 #.5 V#.6 V#.7 V@.8 V~S.9 Xs .10 .18 .27 .38 .51 .65 .82 1.0

Environment Factor - XC
L

Environment % GF % NS NU Alc IF Uc UF

%E 1.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 19 13 29 20 43 24 .50 14 32 320

.9 < v~ s 1.0

7CSD.1O ~s = (Vs)
1.9

(VS s 0.3)

%J SF

(VS> 0.3)

MF ML cL

Quality Factor - ZQ Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic ! ZQ 0.7 1.0 2.4 5.5 8.0

6-18

. .

MIL-HD6K-217F

6.11 SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

OPTOELECTRONICS,

DETECTORS,

ISOLATORS,

EMITTERS

DESCRIPTION Photodetectors,

Opto-isolators,

Emitters

Failures/l 06 Hours
Base Faiture Rate - & Quality Factor - ZQ

OptoelectfonkType
Photodetectors Photo-Transistor Photo-Diode Opto-isolators Photodbde Output, Si@e Device

%
.0055 .0040

Quality JAW JANTX JAN

YCQ .70 1.0


2.4

.0025 .013 ,013 .0064 .0033 .017 .017 .0086

Photot:aosistor Output, Single Device Photodarlington Output, Single Device Light Sensitive Resistor, Single Devioe Photodiode Output, Dual Device Phototransistor Output, Dual Device Photodarlington Output, Dual Device Lght Sensitive Resistor, Dual Device Emitters Infrared Light Emitting Diode (IRLD)

Lower Plastic

5.5 8.0

Environment Factor - n Environment GB


~E

1.0 2.0 8.0 5.0

.0013 .00023

GF

LightEmittingDiode (LED) Temperature Factor - ~T TJ (C) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 XT 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.4 TJ (C) 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115

GM
Ns
N
I

12 4.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 17 .50 9,0 24 450 ;


I <

XT Ic 3.8 4.3 4.8 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.3 8.0 8.8 IF Uc UF RW SF MF ML

ttT =
TJ =

exp

-2790 ((

1
TJ +273-~

1
))

c1

Junction Temperature (C)

6-19

MIL-HDBK-217F
I

6.12

OPTOELECTRONICS,

ALPHANUMERIC

DISPLAYS .

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTION ~numedc Display

% Base FaihJre Rate - &


Number d %

&TQzE

Failures/l 06 Hours
Tenqwature TJ (C) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 ~T 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.4 Factor - q TJ (%) 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 %T 3.8 4.3 4.8 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.3 8.0 8.8

+)
.00026
.00030 X)0043 .00047 .00060 .00064 .00077 .00081 .00094 .0011 .0013 .0015 .0016 .0018 .0020 .0021 .0023 .0025 .0026

Charactws 1 1 whgk
2 2
W/b@C

.00043
Chip .00047 .00066

Chip

.00090
.0013 .0013 .0017 .0018 .0022 .0026 .0030 .0034 .0039 .0043 .0047 .0052 .0056 .0060 .0065 ~C,

3 3 Wlhxjo chip 4 4 w/Logic Chip 5 6 7 8 9 10 :; 13 14 15 ~ - .00043(C)+ ~. c= %.00009+

%T =

exp

((

-2790

1 -ZE ))

TJ + 273

TJ

Junction Temperature ~C)

Environment Factor - xc
for Segment Displays ~C, Diode Array Displays

Environment 1.0 2.0 %


Ns Nu

.00017(C)+

Number of CharaAers .000043 for Displays with a Logic Chip 0.0 for Displays without Imgic Chip

8.0 5.0 12 4.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 17

NOTE: The numbar of characters in a display is the number of characters mntained in a _ sealed package. For example, a 4 character display comprising 4 separately packaged single characters mounted together would be tine character dispiays,

AC IF %c *UF

not 1-four character display. Quality Factor - ~ I Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic
lcQ

.50 0.7 1.0 2.4 5.5 8.0 ML Ci 24 450 MF 9.0

6-20

----

------

--------

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.13 SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

OPTOELECTRONICS,

LASER

DIODE

DESCRIPTION laser Diodes with Optical Flux Densities <3 MW/cr# amt Fofward Cufrmt <25 ~

Failures/l 06 Hours
Forward Cument Factor, I Forward Peak Current (Anps) .050 .075 .1 .5 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 10 15 20 ~ 0.17 0.21 0.62 1.0 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.0 4.8 6.3 7.7 8.9 q

Temperature Factor - XT TJ (C) 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 1.0


1.3

1.7 2.1 2.7 3.3 4.1 5.1 6.3 7.7 9.3

q
I

(1)68
Fonnmrd Peak Currant (Amps), I $25

NOTE: For VariaMa Current Souroes, use the Initial Current Value.

Application
Application

Factor %A
x~ 4.4 .32 .45 .55 .63 .71 .77 .84 .89 .95

Duty Cydo 1 .1 .2 .3 .4 :: .7 .8 .9

XT

exp

((

-4635

TJ + 273

- ~

1
)) Pulsed

TJ

JunctionTemperature(C)

Quality Factor - ~ Quality Hermetic Package Nonhermetic with Faoet Coating Nonhermetic without Facet Coating 11.0 1.0 3.3
~A = 4.4, CW
%A = ~

Cycle

0-5,f%.i-d

NOTE: A duty cyclaof one in pulsed application represents the maximum amount it can ba driven in a pulsad mode. This is different from wntinuous wave applicationwhich will not withstandpulsed

oparatingIavels on a continuousbasis.

-..

-----

--

MIL-HDBK-217F
. ..

6.13

OPTOELECTRONICS,

LASER

DIODE Environment Factor - fiE %p .50 .53 ,56 .59 .63 .67 .71 .77 .83
.91 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4

Power ~radation
Ratio P~P~

Factor - np

Environment GB GF GM Ns Nu Ac IF %c UF RW SF MF
ML

ttE 1.0 2.0 8.0 5.0 12


4.0

9 1

0.00 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45
.50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 .85 .90 .95 ~

6.0 6.0 8.0


17

1.7
2.0 2.5 3.3 5.0 10

.50 9.0
24

lcp =

1 2 (1 -& PS

s .95

450

Ps = Pr =

Rated Optical Power Output (rnW) Required Optical Power Output (mW)

NOTE: Each laser diode must be replaced when power output falls to Pr for fai lure rate prediction to be valid.

6-22

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.14

DISCRETE

SEMICONDUCTORS,

TJ

DETERMINATION

Idealty, device case temperatures should be detetined Wl@me~. D8Vb #.IndOn te~-m iS then ~M~ TJ = Tc + where: TJ TC = = Junction Temperature(%) Case Temperature (~).

from a detailed thermal anatysis of the with tb folbwing relationship:

e~p

tf no thermal analysis exists, the defautt case

temperatures shown in Table ~1 should be assumed. Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (CAN). This parameter should be determhwd from vendor, military specffkation sheets or Table 6-2, whiohever is greater. It may also be estimated by taking the mclpmcal of the reconvnended &wa!lng Ieve!. For examp!e, a devtce derating reconxnendatton of .16 W wou!d restAina6K of6.250CAN. lf6wcannot bedetermhwd assurnea O~vabeof 7oc/w. P= Device Worse Case Power Diss@ation (W)

The models are not applicable to devices at overstress conditions. If the calculated junction temperature is greater than the maximum rated junction temperature on the MIL slash sheets or the vendors specifications, whichever is smaller, then the device is overstressed and these models ARE NOT APPLICABLE.

Table 6-1:

Default

Caee

Temperatures

(Tc)

for All Environments

Environment

TC (C)

I
% Ns Nu AC IF Uc UF *RW SF MF ML CL

35 45 50 45 50 60 60 75 75 60 35 50 60 45

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.14

DISCRETE

SEMICONDUCTORS,

T i

DETERMINATION

Table

6-2:

Approximate

Juriction-to-Case Devices

Thermal

Resistance

(6JC)

for

Semiconductor

In Varfous

Package Sizes

Package Type TO-1 TO-3 TO-5 TO-8 TO-9 TO-12 TO-1 8 TO-28 TO-33 TO-39 T041 TO-44 T046 TO-52 TO-53 TO-57 TO-59 TO-60 TO-61 TO-63 To-66 TO-71 TO-72 TO-83 TO-89 TO-92 TO-94 TO-99 TO-126 TO-127 TO-204 TO-204AA

OJC (w 70 10 70 70 70 70 70 5 70 70 10 70 70 70 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 70 70 5 22 70 5 70 : 10 10

Package Type TO-205AD TO-205AF TO-220 Do-5 D07 Do-9 DO-13 DO-14 Do-29 Do-35 DO-41 DO-45 DO-204MB DO-205AB PA-42A,B PD-36C PD-50 PD-77 PD-180 PD-319 PD-262 PD-975 PD-280 PD-216 PT-2G PT-6B PH-13 PH-16 PH-56 PY-58 PY-373

Ok (%A#) 70 70 5 5 5 10 5 5 10 5 10 10 10 5 70 5 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70

When available, estimates must be based on military specification sheet or vendor vaiues, whichever is higher.

OJC

6-24

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.15 Example Given:

DISCRETE

SEMICONDUCTORS,

EXAMPLE

Silicon dual transistor (complementary), JAN grade, rated for 0.25 W at 25C, one side onty, and 0.35 W at 25C, both sides, with TM = 2000C, operating in linear service at 55C case temperature in a sheltered naval environment. Side one, NPN, operating at 0.1 W and 50 percent of rated voltage and side two, PNP, operating at 0.05 W and 30 percent of rated voltage. The device operates at iess than 200 MHz.

Since the device is a bipolar dual transistor operating at low frequency (c200 Miiz), it falls into the Transistor, Low Frequency, Bipoiar Grwp and the appropriate modei is given in %ction 6.3. Since the device is a dual device, it is necessary to compute the faiiure rate of each side separately and sum them OJc k ufk~wn, OJc = 70%/w ~i~ be a~md. t~e{k. Also, si~ Based on the given information, the following model factors are determined from the appropriate shown in Section 6.3. .00074 2.2 2.1 1.5 .68 .21 .11 2.4 9 Using equation shown with XR tabie, Pr = .35 W Side 1, 5070 Voltage Stress Side 2, 3(I?% Voitage Stress s@O1, TJ=TC+eJC %55+70( .1).62c Side 2, TJ = 55+ 70(.05) = 59C tables

= =

(.00074)(2.2)(1 .011 Faiiures/106

.5)(.68) (.21)(2.4)(9) Hours

+ (.00074)(2.1)(1

.5)(.68) (.1 1)(2.4)(9)

6-25

MIL-HDBK-217F

7.1

TUBES,

ALL TYPES

EXCEPT

TWT AND

MAGNETRON

DESCRIPTION All Types Except Traveling Wave Tubes and Magnetrons. Includes Receivers, CRT, Thyratron, Crossed Field Amplifier, Pulsed Gridded, Transmitting, Vidicons, Twystron, Pulsed Klystron, CW Klystron

= kb7cLnE

Failures/l

06 Hours

(Includes Tube Type Receiver Tnode, Tetrode, Pentode Power Rectifier


Thyratron Crossed Field Amplifier QK681 SFD261 Pulsed Gridded 2041 6952 Transmitting Triode, Peak Pwr. s 200 KW, Avg. Pwr, s 2KW, Freq. g 200 MHz Tetrode & Pentode, Peak Pwr. s 200 KW, Avg. Power 5 2KW, Freq. S 200 KW If any of the above limits exceeded Vidicon Antimony Trisulfide (Sb2S3) Photoconductive Material Silicon Diode Array Photoconductive Material Twystron VA144 VA145E VA145H VA913A Klystron, Pulsed 4KMP1OOOOLF 8568 L3035 L3250 L3403 SAC42A VA842 Z501OA ZM3038A
q

Both

Base Failure Rate - ~ and Wearout Failures) Rando[ Tube Type Lb 5.0 10 50 260
150 140 390

Klystron, Low Power, (e.a Local Oscillator) Klystron, Continuous Wave* 3K3000LQ 3K50000LF 3K21OOOOLQ 3KM300LA 3KM3000LA 3KM50000PA 3KM50000PA1 3KM50000PA2 4K3CC 4K3SK 4K50000LQ 4KM50LB 4KM50LC 4KM50SJ 4KM50SK 4KM3000LR 4KM50000LCI 4KM50000LR 4KM170000LA 8824 8825 8826 VA800E VA853 VA856B VA888E

30

9.0 54 150
64 19

75 100

250

51 48 850 450 490

230 43 230 66 69 93 100 18 150 190

110 120 150 610 29 30 28 15 38 37 140 79 57 15 130 120 280 70 220 65 230

If the CW Klystron of interest is not listed above,

use the Alternate CW Klystron ~ Table on the following page.

If the pulsed Klystron of interest is not listed above,

use the Alternate Pulsed Klystron Ab Table on the following page.

MIL-I-IDBK-217F

7.1

TUBES,

ALL

TYPES

EXCEPT

TWT

AND

MAGNETRON

Attemate* Base Failure Rate for Pulsed Klystrons - A


F(GHz)

Learning I T (years) <1

Factor - XI L

Zs!&!L
.01 .30
.80 1.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 10 25

.2
16 16 16 17 18 19 21 22 31

.4
16 16 17 17 20 22 25 28 45

.6
16 17 17 18 21 25

.8
16 17 18 18 23 28

1.0
16 17 18 19 25 31

2.0
16 18 21 22 34 45

4.0

6.0

10 2.3 1.0

;: 25 28 51 75

;: 30 34

2 >3

30
34 60

35
40 75

40
45 90

63
75 160

110 q = = = T =
10(T) -2, 1 sT<3

+2=
F P=

2.94 (F)(P) + 16 Operating Frequency in GHz, 0.2s Fs 6 Peak Output Power in MW, .01 s Ps 25 and P s 490 F-295

10, TsI 1,T23 Numtw of Years since Introduction to Field Use

See previous page for other Klystron Base Failure Rates.

Environment Environment

Factor - nE

GB
T

Aftemate Base Failure Rate for CW Klystrons - ~

GF GM

1.0
14 8.0 24 5.0 8.0 6.0 12 40 .20 22 57 1000

3K!!!!L
0.1 ;;; 5.0 8.0 10 30 50 80 100 30 31 32 33 34 35 45 55 70 80 31 32 33 34 35 36 46 56 71 81 33 33 34 35 37 38 48 58 73 34 34 35 36 38 39 49 59 38 39 40 41 42 43 47 48 49 50 57 57 58 66 66

N~ Nu %c IF %c
UF RW

SF

%
P= F =

0.5P + .00046F + 29 Average Output Power in KW, 0.1 s Ps 100 and Ps 8.0(10) 6( F)-17 Operating Frequency in MHz, 300s Fs8000

MF ML CL

q See previous page for other Klystron Base Failure Rates.

MIL-HDBK-217F

7.2 DESCRIPTION Traveling Wave Tubes Xp = &E Failures/l 06 Hours

TUBES,

TRAVELING

WAVE

Environment Factor - XF Base Failure Rate - &


Power (W) 100 500 1000 3000 5000 8000 10000 15000 20000 30000 40000 .1 1 2 Frequency (G-Hz) 4 6 8 10 29 29 29 32 33 39 43 52 64 14 42 42 43 46 49 56 62 76 93 18 61 62 62 68 72 75 83 91 110 140

Environment GB GF GM Ns N %c IF Uc

~E 1.0 3.0 14 6.0 21 10 14 11 18 40 .10 22 66 1000

11 12 13 16 20 24 16 20 24 11 12 13 12 14 16 20 24 11 172125304465 12 13 14 12 13 15 18 22 26 19 23 20 13 14 16 14~5~62024293551 15 16 18 22 26 32 17 18 20 24 29 35 20 22 24 29 36 43 25 27 30 36 43 53

%= p.

11(1.00002)P

(1.l)F

UF RW

Rated Power in Watts (Peak, if Pulsed), .001< P s 40,000 = Operating Frequency in GHz, .3s Fs 18.

SF MF

ML
If the operating frequency is a band, or two different values, use the geometric mean of the end point frequencies when using table.

CL

/-3

MIL-HDBK-217F
DESCRIPTION Magnetrons, Pulsed and Continuous Wave (CW) %=% 7c@@E Failures/l 06 Hours

7.3

TUBES,

MAGNETRON

Base Failure Rate - ~

Qs!!?!m
.01

.05 .1
.3 .5 1 3

.1 1.4 1.9 2.2 2.8 3.1 3.5 4.4

.5 4.6 6.3 7.2 9.0 10 11 14

1 7.6 10 12 15 17 19 24

5 24 34 39 48 54 62 77

10 41 56 64 80 89 100 130

20 67 93 110 130 150 170 210

Frequency (GHz) 30 40 50 91 130 110 120 150 180 140 180 210 180 220 260 200 240 290 230 280 330 350 280 410

60 150 210 240 300 330 380 470

70 170 230 270 330 370 420 530

80 190 260 290 370 410 470 580

90 200 280 320 400 440 510 630

100 220 300 350 430 480 550 680

Pulsed

Magnetrons:

I
.1 s Fs 100 .ol<p~5

CW Magnetrons (Rated Power < 5 KW):


A@8

%) =
F P = =

9(F)

.73 ~pl.20

Operating Frequency in GHz, Output Power in MW,

I
Environment

Utilization Factor - q I Utilization (Radiate Hours/ Filament Hours) 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3
0.4 7CU .44

Environment

Factor - mr 1 nc

GB GF GM N~ Nu *IC
IF

1.0 2.0 4.0


15 47 10 16 12 23 80

.50 .55
.61

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0!9 1.0


nu R = = 0.44 + 0.56R Radiate Hours/Filament Hours

.66 .72 .78 .83 .89 .94


1.0

*UC
UF *RW

.50
Construction Construction Factor - m

MF
XC 1.0 ML

43 133 2000

c, CW (Rated Power< 5 KW) Coaxial Pulsed Conventional Pulsed 1.0 5.4

/-4

MIL-HDBK-217F

8.0

LASERS,

INTRODUCTION

. . , i.e., those items The models and failure rates presented in thk section apply to ~ wherein the Iasing action is generated and controlled. In addition to laser peculiar Items, there are other assernbhes used with lasers that contain electronic parts and mechanical devices (pumps, valves, hoses, etc.). The failure rates for these parts should be determined with the same procedures as used for other electronic and mechanid devices in the equipment or system of which the laser is a part. The laser failure rate models have been developed at the functional, rather than piece part level because the available data were not sufficient for piece part model devebpment. Nevertheless, the laser functional models are included in this Handbook in the interest of completeness. These laser models will be revised to include piece part modek and other laser types when the data become available. Because each laser family can be designed using a variety of approaches, the failure rate rnodets have been structured on three basic laser functbns whii are common to most laser families, but may differ in the hardware knplernentation of a given function. These functions are the Iasing rneda, the laser pumping mechanism (or pump), and the coupfing method. Examptes of media-related hardware and reliability Influencing factors are the solid state rod, gas, gas pressure, vacuum integrity, gas mix, outgassing, and tube diameter. me electrical discharge, the flashlamp, and energy level are exarr@es of pump-related hardware and reliabilii influencing factors. The coupling function reliability influencing factors are the Q switch, mirrors, windows, crystals, substrates, coatings, and level of dust protection provided. Some of the laser models require the number of active optical surfaces as an input parameter. An active opticai surface is one with which the laser energy (or beam) interacts. internally reflecting surfaces are not counted. Figure 8-1 below illustrates examples of active optiil suffaces and count.

Tot*

wloclw9 Mnuf cho Acthm Qxkalsurb20

Pdult

.
b@u

*am Examples of Active Optical Surfaces

Figure

8-1:

8-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

8.1

LASERS,

HELIUM

AND

ARGON DESCRIPTION Helium Neon Lasers Helium Cadmium Lasers Argon Lasers

~ ..

= MED,AZE

+ COUPLING

n E Failures/l

06 Hours

Lasing Media Failure Rate - kMEDIA Type He/Ne He/Cd Argon MEDIA 84 228
457

Environment Factor - n=
b

Environment GB GF GM N~ Nu %c %

~E .30 1.0
4.0

3.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 7.0


9.0

Coupling Failure Rate - ~0[ lpi ,NG ----... Types %OUpLING


Helium Argon 0 6

Uc
UF RW

5.0 .10 3.0 8.0 NIA

SF MF ML
NOTE: The predominant argon laser failure mechanism is related to the gas media (as reflected

CL

in XMEDIA; however, when the tube is refilled periodically (preventive maintenance) the mirrors can be expected to (as part of ~OUpLIN@ deteriorate after approximately 104 hours of operation if in contact with the discharge region. COUPLING is negligible for helium lasers.

8-2

MIL-HDBK-217F
q-

8.2

LASERS,

CARBON

DIOXIDE,

SEALED

DESCRIPTION C02 Sealed Continuous Wave Lasers

Lasing Media FaiWe Rale - ~DM Tube Current (rnA) 10 20 30 40 50 100 I %UEDIA 240 930 1620 2310 3000 6450
Active OptW

-. Surfaces 0s 1
2

1
2

~S

- Numbr

of Active Optical SUrfaces

%tEDIA - 69(1) -0 l= Ttitimti(mA), 10s Is15O

NOTE: Only *ive optical surfaoss ars counted. An active optical surfaca is one with

whiohth.laser anorgyorbwn~ Internallyreflecting surfaces are not oounted. on the Sae Fquro 8-1 for examples datormining
number of optical surfaces.

Gas Overfill Factor = * C02 Overfill Percent (%)


%0

Environment Faotor - XE

o
25 50

1.0

Environment %3 % GM

%E .30 1.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 5.0 .10 3.0 8.0 WA

.75 .50

%-1

-.01 (%0Overfill)

Ns Nu AC IF *UC *UF

Overfill percent is based on the psrwnt increase ovsr the o@imum002 partialpssure which is (llm=l normalIyintherango ofl.5t03Tm mm Hg Prassure) for mostsealad C02 lasers.

Peroent of BaJlast Vohmetric Increase

RW sF

o
50 100 150 200 n~ - (1~) (% Vol. Inc./l 00)

1.0
.58 .33 .19 .11

hu~ ML c

U-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

8.3

LASERS,

CARBON

DIOXIDE, FLOWING DESCRIPTION C02 Flowing Lasers

+J = &JpLIN&OS

x E Failures/l OGHours

Coupling Failure Rate - XCWPL,NG Power (KW) .01 .1


1.0

Environment

Factor - XE

%OUpLING

Environment GB GF GM Ns

fiE .30 1.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 7.0 9.0
5.0 .10 3.0 8.0 NIA

I
3WP

300

%OUPUNG P _ Aver-

PowerOutputin KW, .01 s Ps 1.0

NU *IC IF *UC *UF


*RW SF MF ML

Beyond the 1KW range other glass failure mechanisms b~in to predominate and alter the ~OUpLING values.

It should also be notedthat C02 flowinglaser optical

devices are the primary source of failure occurrence.


A tailored optical cleaning preventive maintenance program on optic devices greatty extends iaser fife.

Optical Surface Factor - ~S Active Optical Surfaces 1 2 I 0s 1


2

CL

XOS - Number of Active Opticai Surfaces NOTE: Oniy active optical surfaces are counted. An active opticai surface is one with which the iaser energy or beam interacts. Internally reflecting surfaces are not counted. See Figure 81 for exampies on determining the number of opticai surfaces.

8-4

,.. MIL-HDBK-217F

8.4

LASERS,

SOLID

STATE,

ND:YAG

AND

RUBY

ROD

DESCRIPTION Neocfymium-Ytt~m-AbminurnGamet Ruby Rod Lasers

(ND:YAG) Rod Lasers

+)= ( p~~ +MEDIA


I Pump Pulse Failure Rate - kpuMp
fXannn
1 -------.

+ 16.3 xc~s)

~E Failures/l

06 Hours

Pump Pulse Failure Rate - kpUM@ IKnmtnn Ftaehla~} ,. ... ~.-.. .


.-w. ..-. .~v,

Fla=hlarrmm\
--. . . . .-,

The empiricalfmula

used to determine ~UMp

The empirical formula used to determine *MP Ktypton lamp is: ~p - [625][,0($9

for

(Failures/1@ Hours) for Xenon lamps is:

km 1[ ] Failures/l

06 Hours

+WMP

= @~)

(PPS) 2000
[

k (d,k)

8058

kpUMp ] ~nm,

is the failure me contributionOf the krypton flashlamp or flashtube. me flashlamps

@lJfvIp

k the failure rate contribution of the xenon flashlamp or flashtube. The flashlamps evaluated herein are linear types used for military solid state laser systems. Typical defautt model parameters are given below.

evalutad herein are the continuouswave (CW) type and are most widely used for commercial solid state applkations. They are approx-imatety7mm in diameter and 5 to 6 inches brig. P is the average input power in Idbwatts. Default value: P =4. is the flashlamp or flashtube arc length in inches. Defautt value: L -2. is the woling factor due to various cooling
media immediately surrounding the flashlamp or fkht~. ~~L = 1 for a~ air or inert gas cooling. n-.1 for all liquid = .1, liquid

PPS

is the repetition pulse rate in pulses per

second. Typbal values range between 1 and 20 pulses per second.


Ej is the fkwhlamp or flashtube input energy per pulse, in joules. Its value is determined from the actual or desgn input energy . For values less than 30 @Jes, use Ej = 30. Default value: E = 40. j is the flashlamp or flashtube inside diameter, in millimeters. Default value: d = 4. is the flashlamp or flashtube arc length in inches. Default value: L = 2. is the truncated pulse width in microseconds. Use t -100 microseconds for any truncatd pulse width exceeding 100 microseconds. For shotier duration pulses, pulse width is to be measured at 10 percent of the maximum current amplitude. Defautt value: t = 100. is the cooling factor due to various cooling media immediately surrounding the flashlamp or flashtube, ~~~L = 1.0 for any air or inefl gas cooling, ~C@L = .1, Iquid cooled. = .1 for

Zca

designs. Defautt va!ue: ~c~L cooled.

Meda Failure Rate - ~EDiA Laser Type ND:YAG ) R~ PPS


F

MEDIA o _ (3600) (PPS) [43.5 F2052~

is the number of pulses per second


is the energy density in Joules per cm. z/pulse over the cross-sectional area of the laser beam, which is nominalty equivalent to the cross-sectional area of the laser rod, and its value is determined from the actual design parameter of the laser rod utilized.

xc~L

ail liquid cooled designs. Default value: COOL

NOTE: ~MEDIA is negligible for ND:YAG lasers.

8-5

MIL-HDBK-217F

8.4

LASERS,

SOLID

STATE,

ND:YAG

AND

RUBY

ROD

CouplingCleadinassFactor - -z
Lovd Cleardiness Rk3#ltml#c&&s ~-r~d. ~ BOUOWBrovided over p tin. 30 % 1

Environment Factor ~E Environment GB GF GM Ns Nu


60

%E .30 1.0 4.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 7.0 9.0


5.0 .10 3.0 8.0 N/A

Mln&nalprmXw$Orwdwing opaning, makltananoe, mpdr, and testing. Bellows prddad Ovw Optkat train.

duringopening, Minimal pr~ons mdntorumca, repair,and ta8drg. No tx?lbw, prOvWxfOvu ~ train.

Ac AF %c

NOTE: Mhoughsodod qsternstendmberelMle OnoeCompatible aterials m havebeenSeh30ted and proven,extreme caremuststtlt e takento prevsnt b theentranoe partkdatesduringmanufacturing, of field ftashlamp repkemmt, or routine maintenance repair. Contamhatkm is the major cause of solid state lasermatfurx3ion, and spedal provlsbns and vigilanoe must oontirwalty be provided to maintain the deanllness level required.

UF
RW SF MF ML

CL
Optioal Surfaoe Factor - ~S Active Optical Surfaces 1 2 0s 1 2

~s

= Numbr of ActiveOptical Surfaces

NOTE: Only activeoptioalsurfmms munted. are Anactiveopticalsurfaceis one withwhid the iaser energyor beam interacts.Internally reflecting surfacesare notcxxmted.See Figure8-1 for
examphw on dettinlng surfaces. the number of OPUcat

8-6

,,,

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.0

RESISTORS,

INTRODUCTION

This section includes the active resistor specificationsand, in addition, some eider/inactive specifications are included because of the large number of equipments stilt in field use which oontain these parts. The Established Reliability (ER) resktor family generaity has four qualification failure rate levels when tested per the requirements of the appikabie specification. These quaiiitbn failure rate levels difier by a factor of ten (from one level to the next). However, field data has shown that these failure rate levels differ by a factor of about only three, hence the ~ values have been set accordingly. The use of the resistor modek requires the calculation of the electrfcat power stress ratio, Stress = -~ Pow@r/~t~~er,orPr~9.16 for variable msktors. The models have been structured such that derating curves do not have to be used to find the base failure rate. The rated IXWer for the stress ratb is ~al to the full nominal rated power of the resistor. For example, a MlL-R_ resistor has the foiiowing derating cume:

100

80 60
40

20

0
0 40 80 120

AMBlENT TEMPERATURE DEGREES CELSIUS

IN

Figure

9-1:

MIL-Ft-39006

Deratlng

Curve

This particular resistor has a rating of 1 watt at 70C arrtknt, or below. If Itwere behg used in an ank#ent temperature of 10OC, the rated power for the stress calculation would still be 1 watt, ~ 45% of 1 watt (as read off the curve for 100*C). Of course, while the deratlng cuwe k not needed to determine the base failure rate, it nmst still be observed as the maxinum operating condtbn. To aid in detenMing if a resistor is being used within rated conditions, the base failure rate tables show entries up to certain combinations of stress and temperature. If a given operating stress and temperature point faits in the blank portion of the base failure rate table, the resistor is ovemtmssed. Such wisappfbatbn wouid require an anatysis of the circuit and operating conditions to bring the resistor within rated conditions.

9-1

MIL-I+DBK-217F

9.1

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

COMPOSITION DESCRIPTION Resistors, Fixed, Composition (Insulated), Established Reliability Resistors, Fixed, Composition (Insulated)

SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39008 MIL-R-11

STYLE RCR RC

Xp s kbXRXQnE Failures/l OGHours

Base Failure Rate - ~ TA (%)


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ;: 90 100 110 120

stress.5
.00015 .00021 .00031 .00046 .00067 .00098 .0014 .0021 .0031 .0045 .0065

Quality Factor - ~ Quality .9


.00028 ,00043 .00064 .00096 .0014 .0021 .0032 ,0048
7CQ

.1
.00007 .00011 .00015 .00022 .00031 .00044 .00063 .00090 .0013 .0018 .0026 .0038 .0054

.3
.00010 .00015 .00022 .00031 .00045 .00066 .00095 .0014 .0020 .0029 .0041 .0060

.7
.00020 .00030 .00045 .00066 .00098 .0014 .0021 .0032 .0047

s
R P M MlL-R-l 1 Lower

.03 0.1 0.3 1.0 5.0 15

Environment Factor - ~E
%=4.5x 10-gexp ( 12 (W))exff?(-))

Environment GB

~E

1,0
3.0 8.0 5.0
13 4.0

T= s=

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power

GF GM Ns Nu

Resistance Factor - ~R Resistance Range (ohms) <.l >.l M Mtol M OM ~R 1.0 1.1 1.6
2.5

Ic IF %c *UF RMI

5.0 7.0 11 19 .50 11 27 490

>l.OMtol
>1OM

SF MF ML b CL

9-2

-----

- --

1-

r.llauLe

Lila

aullclllu

LAG

u&uw*,

.y

*u

b..*--

~-----

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.2 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39017 MIL-R-22684 MIL-R-55182 MIL-R-105O9 STYLE RLR RL RN (R, C, or N) RN

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

FILM

DESCRIPTION Fixed, Film, Insulated, Established Reliability Fued, Film, Insulated Fixed, Film, Established Reliability Fixed, Film, High Stability

Failures/l OG Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ IMIL-R-22684----- MIL-R-990171 .....- and ...._ .._ --- . -I

Base Failure Rate - ~ [MIL-R-1 0509 and MIL-R-551 82) .9


.0013 .0014 .0016 .0018 .0019 .0022 .0024 .0027

TA (%) 0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

.1
.00059 .00063 .00067 .00072 .00078 .00084 .00092 .0010 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0015 .0017 .0019 .0022

.3
.00073 .00078 .00084 .00090 .00098 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0014 .0016 .0018 .0020 .0023

.5
.00089 .00096 .0010 .0011 .0012 .0014 .0015 .0017 .0018 .0021 .0023 .0026

.7
.0011 .0012 .0013 .0014 .0016 .0017 .0019 .0021 .0024 .0027

TA (Z: o 10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

.1
.00061 .00067 .00073 .00080 .00088 .00096 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0014 .0015 .0017 .0018

.3
.00074 .00082 .00091 .0010 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0015 .0016 .0018 .0020 .0022 .0024 F

.5
.00091 .0010 .0011 .0013 .0014 .0015 .0017 .0019 .0021 .0024 .0026 .0029 .0033

.7
.0011 .0012 .0014 .0016 .0017 .0020 .0022 .0025 .0028 .0031 .0035 .0039 .0043 F

.9
.0014 .0015 .0017 .0019 .0022 .0025 .0028 .0032

.0040 .0045 .0051 .0058

z~~ .0024 .0026 .0029

.0033 .0036

.0045

=;

0065

~=3.25x 104 .xp(*)exf(=))

~=

5x10-5exp

((=YXPP (-))
35

T. s.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power

Ambient Temperature (oC) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power NOTE: Do not use MlL-R-l 0509 (Characteristic B) below the line. Points below are overstressed.

S =

9-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.2

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

FILM

Resistance Factor - ~n ,, Resistance Range (ohms) <.l M


>().lMtOIM

lc~ 1.0
1.1

Environment Factor - ~
b

Environment

~E

GB GF

1.0
2.0 8.0

>l.OMtol >IOM

OM

1.6

Ns
2.5

4.0 14 4.0 8.0 10 18 19 .20 10 28 510

Nu *IC

QuaJ-~ Factor - ~ Quality s R P M MlL-R-l 0509 MIL-R-22684 Lower lt~ .03 0.1 0.3 1.0 5.0 5.0 15

IF

*UC
*UF

%+/v
SF
MF

ML c,

9-4

MIL-HDE3K-217F

9.3 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-11804 STYLE

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

FILM,

POWER

RD

DESCRIPTION Fued, Film, Power Type

Ap = kb7cRz*7cE Failures/l
Base Failure Rate - ~ TA (%)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 & %=

OGHours
QuaIii Factor - ~
%Q !

.1
.0089 .0090 .0092 .0094 .0096 .0098 .010 .010 .010 .011 .011 .011 .012 .012 .012 .013 .013 .014 .014 .015 .015 .016

.3
.0098 .010 .010 .010 .011 .011 .011 .012 .012 .012 .013 .013 .014 .014 .014 .015 .016 .016

stress .5
.011 .011 .012 ,012 .012 .013 .013 .014 .014 .015 .015 .016 .016 .017

.7
.013 .013 .014 .014 .015 .015 .016 .016 .017

Quality .9
.015 .015 .016 .017 .017

I I
\

MIL-SPEC

Lower

I I

1.0

3.0

Environment Factor - x=
Environment GB GF GM Ns NU

2.0 10

5.0
17

*IC IF *UC
202 ((*)2) x

6.0 8.0
14 18 25

7.33 x 10-3 exp

*UF , RW SF MF ML C

xp((~) T= s=

(=)8)3

.50
14 36 660

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power

Resistance Factor - ZR Resistance Range (ohms) lo to 100 > 100to


>lOOKtol >lM

x~ 1.0

100K
M

I I

1.2

1,3
3.5

9-5

---

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.4

RESISTORS,

NETWORK, STYLE Rz

FIXED,

FILM
DESCRIPTION Resistor Networks, Fixed, Film

SPECIFICATION MIL-R-83401

~=
Temperature Factor - XT . TC (Z)

.00006 ~ ZNRZQXE Failures/106 Hours


Quality Factor - ~ Quality !
7CQ

25 30 35
40

45 50 55 60 % 75

1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.5


4.2 5.0

80 85 90 95 100 105

110
115 120 125

8.3 9.8 11 13 15 18 21 24
27 31

MIL-SPEC Lower

I
I

1
3

Envirmment Environment

Factor - n=
~E

6.0 7,1

GB GF GM

1.0

2.0 8.0
4.0

\
Tc = Case Temperature (C)

N~ Nu

14 4.0 8.0 9.0 18 19 .50 14 28 510

Ic
NOTE: follows: TC TA = = TA + 55 (S) Ambient Temperature (C) Operating Power Package Rated Power If Tc is unknown, it can be estimated as IF

Uc
UF RW

SF
MF ML

s=

Any device operating at TC > 125C is overstressed.

c,

Number of Resistors Factor - ~NR

I
I

NR = Number of Film Resistorsin Use I


NOTE: Do not include resistors that are not used. I

9-6

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.5 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39005 MIL-R-93 STYLE RBR RB

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

WIREWOUND

DESCRIPTION Fixed, Wlrewound, Accurate, Established Reliability Fixed, Wirewound, Accurate

Xp = lbnRZQnE Failures/l OGHours


Base Failure Rate - ~ Quality Factor - ~ Quality
7tQ

str13s TA (W)
0 % 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 m ~. .0031 exp (T+273)loexpp(T;g3) 398 )15

.1
.0033 .0033 .0034 .0034 .0035 .0037 .0038 .0041 .0044 .0048 .0055 .0065 .0079 .010 .014

.3
.0037 .0038 .0039 .0040 .0042 .0043 .0046 .0049 .0053 .0059 .0068 .0080 .0099 .013

.5
.0CM5 .0047 .0048 .0050 .0052 .0055 .0059 .0064 .0070 .0079 .0092 .011 .014 .018

.7
.0s7 .0059 .0062 .0066 .0070 .0075 .0081 .0089 ,0099 .011 .013 .016 .021 .028

.9
s
.0075 .0079 .0084 .0090 .0097 .011 .012 .013 .015 .017 .020 .025 .033 R

.030 .10 .30 1.0 5.0


15

P M MIL-R-93 Lower

Environment Factor - XE Environment

GB GF
2.0 11 5.0 18 15 18 28 35 27

Ts=

Ambient Temperature (oC) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power

GM
N~ Nu

Resistance Resistance

Factor - ~R

AC

Range (ohms)

~R 1.0
1.7 3.0 5.0

IF *UC

Up to 10K
> 10Kto >lOOKtol >IM 100K M

*UF
%w

SF MF
ML

.80
14 38 610

c,

9-7

I
4

,, . .

,,

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.6

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

WIREWOUND, STYLE

POWER DESCRIPTION Fixed, WireWound, Power Type, Established RelkbNty Fixed, Wirewouruf, Power Type

SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39007 MIL-R-26

hb7c#Q7t~ Failures/l OGHours


Resistance Factor - ZR
.7 .9 .021 .024 .027 .031 .035 .ti 74 1.0 78 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.6

Base Failure Rate - &. Stress TA (C) .1


.0042 .0045 .0048 .0052 .0056 .0081 .0066 .0072 .0078 .0085 .0093 .010 .011 .012 .014 .015 .017 .019 .021 .023 .026 .029 .033 .037 .042 .047 .054 .061 .06 .079 .091 .10 .3 .0062 .0068 .0074 .0081 .0089 .0097 .011 .012 .013 .014 .016 .018 .020 .022 .025 .028 .032 ,036 .040 .046 .052 .059 .068 .077 .088 ,10 .5 .0093 .010 .011 .013 .014 .016 .017 .020 .022 .025 .028 ,031 .036 .040 .046 .052 .060 .068 .078

(MIL-R-39007) Re istan ) Ra[ up qs00 bsoc 1:


1.0 71 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.0
>1K

w
>Iw

* >19(

1: 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 X% 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310

.014 .016 .017 .020 .022 .025 .028 .032 .037 .042 .048 .055 .063

Siyte

s
7!3( 1.2

*75 KkJ 1* 1.6

I&
1.6

&
1.6 NA

1.2

1.6

NA

N/l

1.0
80 1.0 81 1.0 82

1.2

1.6

1.6

NA

NA

NA

NA

1.6

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1.6

1.6

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

1.0
84

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.2

1.6

NA

NA

1.0
89

1.0

1.4

NA

NA

NA

NA

MA

Quality Factor - nQ
Quality
KQ

s
R
~-M148eXP(~)2ex@) (=))

.03 .10 .30 1.0 5.0 15

P
T= s= Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Ftatad Power

M MIL-R-26
Lower

NOTE: Do not use MlL-R-39oo7 Resistors below the line. Points below are overstressed.

Y-u

--

MIL-HDBK:217F

9.6

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

WIREWOUND,

POWER

Resistanm

Factor - XR
I

Environment Factor - ~ Environment


]ms) *la b I!iw 1.2 1.6 M E E NA NA NA NA NA K NA NA $ NA NA NA 1.6 1.6 1.6 NA K

(MIL-R-2 Resistance mge


MIL-R-26

~E 1.0 2.0 10 5.0 16 4.0

up s 100 1.0 t .0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1,0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

>100 m IK

>1 K
to ICM 1.0

>1OK
to
100K

>150K

GB GF % NS NU

J%
1.6 NA NA E

10 Rwll
Rw RW12 Rw 13 Rw 14 Rw 15 RW16 RW20 Rw 21 KE RW 24 RW 29 RW30 Rw 31 RW32 ZE EE Rw 37 E: Rw 47 RW55 RW56 RW 67 l%: Rw 70 Rw 74 Fw 70 R: RW 81

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1,0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2

1.0
1.2 1.6 2.0 2.0 2.0 NA NA 2.0 1.6 1.4 1.2 I& NA
NA 1.4

1.0 1.2 1.0 1.0 ;:: 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 NA 1.4 ;:: 1.4 1.6 NA

Ic
K NA WA NA NA NA E NA NA E NA $ NA 2.0 2.0 NA NA K NA NA K K NA

IF Uc *UF Rw SF MF ML CL

8.0 9.0 18 23 .30 13 34 610

1.4
1.4 1.5

1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4


2.4 2.6 E NA W 1.6 1.6 NA NA NA

E NA E NA E

9-9

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.7

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

WIREWOUND, STYLE RER RE

POWER,

CHASSIS

MOUNTED

SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39009 . MIL-R-18546

DESCRIPTION Fixed, Wirewound, Power Type, Chassis Mounted, Established Reliability Fixed, Whewound, Power Type, Chassis Mounted

Base Failure Rate - ~ stress


TA (Z) .1

Resistance Factor - ZR .7 .0076


.0087 .0100 .012 .013 .016 .018 .021 .024 .028 .032

.3 .0032
.0036 .0040 .0045 .0050 .0056 .0063 .0070 .0079 .0088 .0098 .011 .012 .014 .015 .017 .019 .022 .024 .027 .030

.5 .0049
.0056 .0064 .0072 .0082 .0093 .011 .012 .014 .016 .018 .020 .023 ,026 .030 .034

.9
.012 .014 .016 .019 .022 .026

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

.0021
.0023 .0025 .0020 .0031 .0034 .0037 .0041 .0045 .0050 .0055 .0060 .0066 .0073 .0081 .0089 .0098 .011 .012 .013 .014 .016 .017 .019 .021 .023

(Characteristic G (tnductive Winding ti MlL-R-l 8546 and lL-R- 1009) Kmotr hms mos I 10 +*1 T + Rated XIK c) to Styte Powar 2% IK IOK z
RE 60 RER60 RE 65 RER65 RE 70 RER70 RE 75 RER75 5 1.0
1.2

1.2

1.6
1.6

NA

NA

10

1.0

1.0

1.2

NA

NA

20

1.0

1,0

1.2

1.2

1.6

NA

30

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.6

RE 77 RE 80

75 120

1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0

1.0 1.0

1.2 1.2

1.6 1.6 I

Resistance Factor - XR (Charaderistic N (NoninductiveWinding)of MIL-R-18546 and Noninc ctively Woun Styles of MIL 3-39009)
Resi: mce Ran e Raled 4 Styb RE 60 RER40 RE 65 RER45 RE 70
Ptxer

-qr

T!mi 4
to lK 1.2

52)
1.0 1.0

E
1.6 1.6

20K

1;
NA NA
NA

~ = .00015 exp 2.64 ( (%)ex(aa)

T=
s=

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power

10

1.2

NA

20

1.0

1.0

1.2

1.6

NA

NA

RER50 RE 75 RER55
30 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4
NA

75 RE 80 120

1.0 1,0

1.0 1.0

1.0 1,0

1.2 1.1

1.6 1.4

NA NA

!.

,,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.7

RESISTORS,

FIXED,

WIREWOUND,

POWER,

CHASSIS

MOUNTED

Quality Faotor - ~ Quality s R P M


MIL-R-18546

Environment Factor - ~

Environment GB
.030 GF .10 GM .30 1.0 5.0 15 Ns Nu AIc IF Uc *UF RW SF MF ML c~

~E 1,0
2.0 10 5.0 16 4.0 8.0 9.0 18 23 .50 13 34 610

Lower

9-11

MIL-FIDBK-217F

SPECIFICATION M IL-T-23648

STYLE RTH

DESCRIPTION Thermally Sensitive Resistor, Insulated, Bead, Disk and Rod-Types

Xp = &QzE

Failures/l OG Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ Type Bead (Styles 24, 26,28,30,32, 34, 36, 38, 40) Disk (Styles 6,8, 10) A~ .021

Environment Factor - xz
L

Environment

~E

GB GF
%

1.0 5.0 21 11 24 11 30 16 42 37 .50 20 53 950

.065

Ns Nu

Rod
(Styles 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 42)

.105 Ic IF Uc UF Quality Factor - fl~ RW SF


~Q

Quality MIL-SPEC Lower

MF

1 15

ML c,

9-12

....,. i

.. . *.

. ..

.. . .

.,.

. . . .. .

.,, ..

MIL-tiDBK-217F

9.9 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39015 MIL-R-27208 STYLE Iv-R RT

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

W! REWOUND

DESCRIPTION Variable, Wtrewound, Lead Screw Actuated, Established Reliability Variable, Wkewound, Lead Screw Actuated

Xp = kbfiTAp~XRZvXQzE Failures/l OG Hours


Base Failure Rate - ~
stress

Potentiometer Taps Factor - q~o=


snr g

.1

.3
.011 .012 .012 ,013 .015 .016 .018 .020 .023 .027 .032 .038 .047 .059

.5
.013 .014 .015 .017 .018 .020 .023 .026 .03 .035 .042 .051

.7
.016 .017 .019 .021 .023 .026 .029 .033 .039 .046 .055

.9
.020 .021 .024 .026 .029 .033 .037 .043 .050 .060

N TAPS

TAPS

N TAPS

TAPS

N TAPS

TAPS

I
;

o
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

.0089 .0094 .010 .011 .012 .013 ,014 .016 .018 .021 .024 .029 .035 .044 .056

3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

2.7 2.9 3.1 3,4 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9

23 z E :: 30 31 32

5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0

2 =
%APS =

2S

+ 0.792

l--

. %

0062(=?X(S (T=);
Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power. See Section 9.16 for Calculation of S.

TAPS

Number of PotentiometerTaps, includingthe Wiper and Terminations. ~ I Voltage Factor - xv

T s

Applied Rated Otoo.1 >0.1 to >0.2 to >0.6 to >0.7 to >0.8 to >0.9 to

Voltage* Voltage 0.2 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

% 1.10 1.05 1.00 1.10 1.22 1.40 2.00

Resistance Factor - XR

Resistance Range (ohms) 10t02K >2K to 5K >5K to 20K

%
1.0 1.4 2.0

w
R

Applied

= =

~RpApplied Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance Power Dissipation 40 Volts for RT 26 and 27 90 Votts for RTR 12, 22 and 24; RT 12 and 22

Applied Rated v Rated

= =

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.9

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

WIREWOUND

QualityFactor - nfi
u

Environment
%Q

Factor - KG
L

Quality

Environment
% GF

~E

s
R P M MIL-R-27208 Lower

.020 .060

1.0 2.0 12 6.0 20 5.0 8.0 9.0 15 33 .50 18 48 870

%... .20 .60 3.0 10


Ns

Nu

Ic
IF Uc
UF RW SF MF ML cl

9-14

I /

.!

.,,

1 9.10 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-12934 STYLE RR

MIL-HDBK-217F

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

WIREWOUND,

PRECISION

DESCRIPTION Variable, WIrewound, Precision

Base Failure Rate - ~


stress

Resistance Factor .7
.13 .14 .16 .17 .20 .22 .26 .30 .36 .44 .54

.1
o .10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .17 .19 .21 .24 .28 .33 .40 .49 .60

.3
.11
.12 .13 .14 .15 .17 .19 .22 .25 .30 .35 .42 .52 .65

.5
.12 .13 .14 .16 .J7 .20 .22 .26 .30 .36 .44 .54

.9
.14 .15 .17 .19 .22 .26 ,30 .36 .43 .54

Resistance Range (ohms) 100 to IOK >?OK to 20K >20K to 50K >50K to 10OK
>100 >200K K

R 1.0
1.1 1.4 2.0 2.5

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

to 200K to 500K

3.5

Potentbrneter Taps Factor \


-.0735 exp ( 1.03 (~ )4.45)X
TAPS

?AP:
TAPS 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 ;;:

TAPS

TAPS

1.0

1.1
exp((z%) T= s. (*)351) 1.2 1.4 1.5 ;:: 2.1 :::

Ambient Temperature ~C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power. See Section 9.16 for Calculating S.

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 :; 3

$:; ::: 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 :::

ConstructionClass Factor - z=
b f

ConstructionClass
RR0900AZA9J1 3 4 03

7K*
2.0 1.0 3.0 %APS TAPS = -

M5
25

.(-),,,

Number of Potentiometer Taps, including the W@er and Terminations.

1.5

Sample type designation to show how construction class can be found, In this example the construction cJass is 2. Construction class should always appear in the eighth position.

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.10

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

WIREWOUND,

PRECISION

Vottage Factor - ~
Applied Rated o Voltage voltage % MIL-SPEC 1.10

Quality Factor - XQ Quality

UQ
2,5 5.0

to 0.1

>0.1 to 0.2 >0.2 to

Lower
1.05 1.00

0.6

>0.6 to 0.7 >0.7 to 0.8 >0.8 to 0.9 >0.9 to 1.0

1.10 1.22 1.40 2.00

Environment Factor - n=
Environment
L

GB GF GM Ns

1.0 2.0 18 8.0 30 8.0 12 13 18 53 .50 29 76 1400

Applied

== Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance

Nu *IC IF *UC *UF

RP

Applied v Rated

Power Dissipation 250 Votts for RR0900, RRI 100, RR1300, RR2000, RR3000, RR31OO, RR3200, RR3300, RR3400, RR3500

*RW SF MF ML CL

Rated

423 Volts for RR3600, RR3700 500 Votts for RR1 000, RR1 400, RR21 00, RR3600, RR3900

Rated

9-16

MIL-HDBK-21

;F

9.11 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-19 STYLE RA

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

WIREWOUND,

SEMIPRECISION

DESCRIPTION

MIL-R-39002

RK

Variable, Wirewound, Semiprecision (Low Operating Temperature) Variable, WWnvound, Semiprecision

kp = Base Failure Rate - ~

+)~A#Rf/nQn Failures/l
E

06 Hours Resistance Factor - ZR

A(~)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

.1 .055 .058 .063 .069 .076 .085

.3 .063 .069 .076 .086 .098 .11

stn?ss .5 .072 .081 .092 .11 .13 .15

.7 .083 .095 .11 .13 .16 .20 .9 .095 .11 .13 ,17 .21 .27

Resistance Range (ohms) 10t02K


>2K

%
1.0

to 5K

1.4
2.0

>5K to 10K

Potentiometer
N

Taps TAPS 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Factor - ~APq TAPS 2.7 2.9 3,1 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9

. . ..TAPS 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0

TAPS 3 4 5 6 7

TAPS 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5

N TAPS 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

I
I

80 90 100 110 120 130 )

:6,1= .16 .19 .24 .31 .42

.26 .34 .45

.42 .59 .85

.69 1.0

1.1

= .0398 exp

(-

514

8 (%)5). ) 9 10 11 12

e+% T= s-

(*)446

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power, See Section 9.16 for S Calculation.

2 NOTE: Do not use MlL-R-l 9 below the line. Points below are overstressed. MS ?APS TAPS = 25 + 0.792

Number of Potentiometer Taps, including the Wiper and Terminations.

9-17

MIL-HDE3K-217F

9.11

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

WIREWOUND,

SEMIPRECISION

Vottage Factor - ~ Applied Voltage* Rated Voltage Otoo.1


>0.1 to 0.2 >0.2 >0.6 >0.7 >0.8

Environment

Factor - z=
L

Environment
%
1.10 1.05 1.00 1.10 Alc 8.0 12 N/A N/A 38 .50 N{A N/A NIA 1.22 IF 1.40 2.00 %c UF RW

GB GF GM
N~ Nu

1.0 2.0 16 7.0 28

to 0.6 to 0.7
to 0.8 to

0.9

>0.9 to 1.0

q V

SF Applied =

MF Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance CL ML

Rp

Applied v Rated

Power D~ssipation 50 Votts for RA1o 75 Volts for RA20X-XC, F 130 Volts for RA30X-XC, F 175 Volts for RA20X-XA 275 Volts for RK09 320 Volts for RA30X-XA

Quality Factor - n=

Quality
MIL-SPEC Lower 2.0 4.0

9-18

#u

.UUIE

.Ulz

.UEU

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.12 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-22 STYLE RP %=

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

WIREWOUND,

POWER

DESCRIPTION

Variable, Whwound, Power Type


H..,.

&~Ap#R~ZcZ&E Failures/IO

Base Failure Rate - ~


Sm?ss TA (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 .1 .064 .067 .071 .076 .081 .087 .095 .10 .12 .13 .15 .17 .20 ~ 11 \ = .0481 exp ( 334 (T:%)46)X 12 2.3 2.5

Resistance Factor - nR .7
.097 .11 .12 .13 .15 .17

.3
.074 .078 .084 .091 .099 .11 .12 .14 .15 .18

.5
.084 .091 .099 .11 .12 .14 .15 .18

.9
.11 .12 .14 .16

Resistance Range (ohms) 1 to 2K


>2K
tO

1.0 5K 1.4
2.0

>5K to 10K

Potentiometer
N

Taps

Factor - ~APS TAPS 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9

., .,TAPS 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0

TAPS 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

TAPS 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1

N TAPS 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

N TAPS 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

10

exp(+

(TJ~~)2083) 2 us + 0.792

T. s=

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power. See Section 9.16 for S Calculation.

%APS TAPS

= =

25

Number of Potentiometer Taps, including the W@er and Terminations

9-19

.-.

.A

--,

I
I
9.12 RESISTORS, VARIABLE,

MIL-HDBK-217F

WIREWOUND,

POWER

Voltage Factor - ~ Applied Voltage* Rated Voltage


Otoo.1 >0.1 to 0.2 Quality % MIL-SPEC 1.10 Lower 1.05 1.00 1.10

Quality Factor - XQ
I

~Q
2.0 4.0

I
I Environment Factor - ZE

>0.2 to 0.6 >0.6 to 0.7


>0.7 to 0.8

\
1.22 1.40 2.00

Environment
GB GF

~E
1.0 3.0 16 7.0 28 8.0 12 N/A N/A 38 .50 N/A WA NIA b

>0.8 to 0.9
>0.9 to 1.0

GM Ns

q v
Rp

Applied

= =

~RPpApplied Nominal Total Potentiometer

Nu Alc IF Uc RP1 O UF *RW

Resistance Applied Rated = = = Power Dissipation

250 Volts for RP06, 500 Votts for Others

SF I MF ML

Construction Construction Class Enclosed Unenclosed

Class Factor - ~ Style Xc

cL

RP07,

RP1l,

RP16 I

All Other Styles are Unenclosed

II

20 1.0

9-20

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.13 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-22097 STYLE RJ

RESISTORS, DESCRIPTION

VARIABLE,

NONWIREWOUND

MIL-R-39035

RJR

Variable, Nonwifewound (Adjustment Types) Variable, Nonwirewound (Adjustment Types), Established Reliability Failures/l 06 Hours Resistance Factor - mR

% = b%APSR%%E
Base TA (%) .1 .021 .021 .022 .023 .024 .025 .026 .028 .030 .034 .038 .043 .050 .060 .074

Failure Rate - & .3


.023 .023 .024 .025 .026 .028 .030 .032 .035 .039 .044 .051 .060 .073

smss .5
.024 .025 .026 .028 .029 .031 .033 .036 .040 .045 .052 .060

.7
.026 .027 .029 .030 .032 .035 .038 .042 .046 .053 ,061

.9
.028 .030 .031 .033 .036 .039 .043 .047 .053 .061

Resistance Range (ohms) 10 to 50K >50K to 100K >IOOK to 200K >200K to 500K
>500K to 1 M

R 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4


1.8

0
;: 30 40 50 60 70

% 100 110 120 130 140

Potentiometer
N TAPS TAPS N

Taps

Factor TAPS

%APS
N

TAPS

TAPS 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

TAPS 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0

I
I

3 \ = .019 exp (. 445 (Il&y)x 4 5 .xP(&(T;;r) 246) 6 T= s = Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power. See Section 9.16 for S Calculation. 7 8 9 10 11 12

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9

2 MEf hAPS TAPS = = 25 + 0.792

Number of Potentiometer Taps, , including the Wiper and Terminations.

9-21

1 I
MIL-HDBK-217F

9.13

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

NONWIREWOUND

Voltage Factor - ~ Applied Voltage Rated Voltage Oto 0.8 >0.8 to 0.9 >0.9 to 1.0 *v 1.00 1.05 1.20

Environment Factor - xc
L

Environment
GB GF %
N~ Nu

~E

1.0 3.0 14 6.0 24 5.0 7.0 12 18 39 .50 22 57 1000

Applied

== = Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance

Alc IF

Rp

AUc UF

Applied v Rated

= =

Power Dissipation RW 200 Votts for RJ and RJR26; RJ and RJR50 SF MF ML * c1

300 Volts for All Others

Quality Factor - G

Quality
s R P M MIL-R-22097 Lower .020 .060 .20 .60 3.0 10

9-22

__

. _ _

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.14 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-94 STYLE RV

RESISTORS, DESCRIPTION

VARIABLE,

COMPOSITION

Variable, Composition, Low Precision Failures/l OG Hours Resistance Factor - Xn Resistance Range (ohms)
.7 .9 .038 .042 .048 .056 .067 .082 .11 Potentiometer Taps
TAPS

Lp = #TAp&#f/nQnE
Base Failure Rate - ~ TA (%) o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 .1 .027 .028 .029 .031 .033 .036 .039 .045 .053 .065 .084 .11 .3 .030 .031 .033 .036 .039 .044 .050 .060 .074 .096 .13 Stress .5 .032 .034 .037 .041 .047 .054 .065 .08 .10 ,14

..

.035 .038 .042 .048 .056 .067 .083 ,11 .15

50 to 50K

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1,8

>50K to lOOK >1OOKto 200K >200K to 500K >500K tO 1 M

Factor - ~AP: TAPS 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9
N

.14
N

TAPS 3 4 5 6

TIW 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5

TAPS 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

TAPS 7 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0

.0246

13XP

[. 459

(*)9.3-)X
)

7 0

.xp(&(w)

9 10 11 12

Ts =

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of OperW!ng Power to Rated Power, See Section 9.16 for S Calculation.

?APS TAPS

MEr+07,2
25 . Number of Potentiometer Taps, including the Wiper and Terminations.

9-23

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.14

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

COMPOSITION

Voltage Factor - ~ Applied Voltage* Rated Voltage o to 0.8 >0.8 to 0.9 >0.9 to 1.0 % 1.00 1.05 1.20

Environment Factor - XE
Environment
~E

GB GF GM N~ Nu

1.0
2.0 19 8.0 29 40 65 48 78 46 .50 25 66 1200

Applied

-d Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance

*IC IF
Uc *UF

Rp

Applied v Rated

. = = w = = = w =

Power Dissipation *RW 500 Volts for RV4X--XA8XB 500 Vofts for 2RV7X--XA&XB ML 350 Volts for RV2X-XA&XB cl 350 Votts for RV4X--XA&XB 350 Votts for RV5X--XA&XB 350 Volts for RV6X--XA&XB 250 Votts for RV1 X--XA&XB 200 Votts for All Other Types

SF
MF

Quality Factor - nO

MIL-SPEC

2.5 5.0

Lower

9-24

lvllL-t-fDBK-217F

9.15 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-39023

RESISTORS, STYLE RQ

VARIABLE,

NONWIREWOUND, DESCRIPTION

FILM

AND

PRECISION

MIL-R-23285

RVC

Variable, Nonwirewound, Film, Precision Vatiabie, Nonwirewound, Film

Lp = kbXTAp~ZRZvZQnE Base Failure Rate - ~


~RQ Stvle OnIv) TA (W) .1 .023 .024 .026 .028 .032 .037 .044 .053 .068 .092 .13 .20

Failures/l

OG Hours Base Failure Rate - ~

&iess
.5
.026 .029 .032 ,036 .041 .049 .060 .076 .10 .14

lRVP. .Shfk mlu) ) ,. . . . -., .-F !.,

.3
.024 .026 .029 .032 .036 .042 .051 .064 .083 .11 .17

.7
.028 .031 .035 .040 .047 .057 .070 .091 .12

.9
.031 .034 .039 ,045 .053 .065 .083 .11

TA (C)

.1 .028 .029 .030 .031 .032 .034 .036 .039 .043 .048 .055 .064 .077 .096 .12 .17 .24 .37

.3
.031 .032 .033 .035 .037 .040 .044 .049 .055 .063 .075 .091 .11 .15 .20 .29 .44

.5
.033 .035 .037 .040 .043 .047 .053 .060 .070 .083 .10 .13 .17 .23 .33 .50

.7
.036 .038 .041 .045 .050 .056 .064 .075 .09 .11 .14 .18 .25 .36 .53

.9
.039 .042 .046 .051 .058 .066 .078 .093 .11 .15 .19 ,26 .37 .55

0
10 20 30 40 50 % 80 90 100 110

0
;; 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

T+273 () h :.,;;; &F)

7.4

) T+273 () 398 (T;Y);3 7.9

T= s =

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Ogmrating Power to Rated Power. See Section 9.16 for S Calculation.

%=

.0257 exp

q(a)

T Resistance Resistance Range Factor - ZR R 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1,8 I s

= =

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating Power to Rated Power. See Section 9.16 for S Calculation.

(Ohms)

Up to 10K >1 OK to 50K >50K >200K >lM to 200K tO 1 M

9-25

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.15

RESISTORS,

VARIABLE,

NONWIREWOUND, . . ..TAPS 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1

FILM

AND

PRECISION
Quality Factor - TCO

Potentiometer Taps Factor - ~APq


N

TAPS 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

TAPS 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5

TAPS 73 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

TAPS 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9

TAPS 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Quality
MIL-SPEC Lower 2 4

Environment 6.4 Environment 6.7 GB 7.0 7.4 GM 7.7 8.0 NS Nu *IC 2 d %APS TAPS = = 25 + 0.792 GF

Factor - XE ~E 1.0 3.0 14 7.0 24 6.0 12 20 30 39 .50 22 57 1000

10 11 12 w

IF %c
*UF RW

Number of Potentiometer Taps, including the Wiper and Terminations.

SF
Voltage Applied Rated Voltage Voltage Factor - ~ MF

v
1.00 1.05 1.20 r

ML c,

O to 0.8
>0.8 to 0,9

>0.9 to 1.0

q V

. Applied =

Rp

Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance

Applied

Power Dissipation 250 Votts for RQ090, 110, 150, 200, 300

Rated

= a

500 Volts for RQ1 00, 160, 210 350 Votts for RVC5, 6

9-26

,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.16

CALCULATION

OF

STRESS

RATIO

FOR

POTENTIOMETERS

Stress Rat& (S) Calculationfor Rheostats

Stress Ratb (S) Cakulation for Potentiometers

Connected Conventionally

&
s-

mnax
%AffiEt)(maxr~ed)

s. EFF

APPLIED
x GANGED x RATED

Maxinwn ament Whii will


be passed through the rheosta in tho ckouft.

ImZIXrat~

Current rating of

the
Applied Vin

Equhmkmt owerinputtothe p potendometer henitis not w loaded(i.e.,wiper lead dkaommctod).Calcukte as follows: V2 in % InputVoltage
Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance

potentiometer. H ourrent rating is not given, use:

&te@p P
Power Rating of Potentiometer

Rp

rated

Rp

Nominal TotalPotentiometer
Resistance

%ATED %4NGED

Power Rating of Potentiometer Factor to correct for the reduction in effective rating of the potentiometer due to the dose proxim~ uf two or more potentiometers when they are ganged together on a common shaft. see below. Correction factor for the electrical loading effect on the wiper oontact of the potentiometer. Its value is a function of the type of potentiometer, its resistance, and the bad resistance. See next page.

%ANGED

Factor to cxmect for the reduction in affective ratfng of the potentiometer due to the dose proximity of two or more potentiometer when they are ganged together on a cwnmon shaft. See bebw.

Ganged-Potentiometer FWOf
Number of Sections Single TW Three Four Five Six First Potentiometer Next to Mount 1.0 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 I Second in Gang 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.50 ().50 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.40 l-hkd in Gang

- ICG~GED Fourth in Gang Fifth in Gang Sixth in Gang

Not App Iioable Not Not 0.60 0,50 I 040

Applicable Applicable Not 0.60 050 Applicable 1 Not Applicable I 060

9-27

(
9.16 CALCULATION OF STRESS

,MIL-HDBK-217F
RATIO FOR POTENTIOMETERS

Loaded Potentiometer Derating Factor- ZEFF

Styk Constant - KH .,
Potentiometer

%1
0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 10.0 100.0 .04 .13 .22 .31 .38 .45 .51 .55 .59 % .80 .87 .90 .92 .96 1.00 0.3 .03 .09 .16 .23 .29 .35 .40 .45 .49 .53 .65 .73 .81 .86 ,88 .94 .99 0.5 .02 .05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .29 .33 .37 .40 .53 .82 .72 .78 .82 .90 .99 1.0 .01 .03 .05 .08 .11 .14 .17 %? .25 .36 .44 .56 .64 .69 .83 .98

MIL-SPEC MlL-R-l 9
MIL-R-22 MN-R-94 MlL-R-l 2934

Style Type RA
IW Rv RR1 000, 1001, 1003, 1400, 2100, 2101, 2102,2103

%
0.5 1.0 0.5 0.3

MIL-R-12934 MIL-R-22097 MIL-R-22097 MIL-R-23285

All Other Types RJll, RJ12

0.2 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 I

All Other Types

Rvc
RT22, 24,26,27 AH Other Types RK RTR 22,24 RTR12 RQ RJR

RL2

MIL-R-27208 MIL-R-27208

%FF

RL2 + KH (

RP2 + 2RPRL )

MIL-R-39002 MIL-R-39015 MJL-R-39015 MIL-R-39023 MIL-R-39035

RL

Load resistance (If RL is variable, use lowest value). RL is the total resistance between the wiper arm and one end of the potentiometer.

f%
%i -

Nominal Total Potentiometer Resistance Style -nstant. See KH

Table.

9-28

.--

MIL-HDBK-217F

9.17
Example Given:

RESISTORS,

EXAMPLE

Type RVISAYSA505A vartable 500K ohm resistor procured per MIL-R-94, rated at 0.2 watts is being used in a fixed ground environment. The resistor ambient temperature is 40C and is dissipating 0.06 watts. The resistance connected to the wiper contact varies between 1 megohm and 3 megohms. The potentiometer is connected conventionally without ganging.

The appropriate model for RV style variable resistors Is given in Sectbn 9.14. Based on the given infonnatbn the folbwing modei factors are determined fnm the tables shown in Seotbn 9.14 and by foiiowingthe procedure for determining electrical stress for potentiometers as desdbed in Section 9.16.

From Section

9.16

APPLIED EFF

.06W .62
1.0

KH . .5 for MIL-R-94 (Section 9.16 Tabie)


Not Ganged (Section 9.16 Table, Single Section,

%ANGED RATED
s

First Potentbmeter) .2W APPLIED ~EFF x GANGED x RATED .06 = (.62)(1.0)(.2)

= m

From Section

9.14

.047
1.4 1.0

TA = 40C, S Rounded to .5
500K ohms 3 Taps, Basic Single Potentiometer VRATED = 250 VOttS for RV1 prefu

1.0

VAPPLIED

= ~ (500,000)(.06) 173 = ~

~ 173 VOftS = q W

APPLJE#RATED 2.5

2.0

% TAPS%
(.047)(1.0)(1

V Q E
.4)(1 .0)(2.5) (2.0) = .33 Failures/l 06 Hours

9-29

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.1 SPECIFICATION MII--C-25 STYLE


CP

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PAPER,

BY-PASS

DESCRIPTION Paper, By-pass, Filter, Blocking,

DC

MIL-C-12889

CA

Paper, By-pass, Radio Interference Reduction AC

andl3-Zp = lbZCVXQnE
Base Failure Rate - ~

Failures/l

OG Hours Base Failure Rate - ~


(T-125% Max Ra!ed)

(T.85c MaxRated)
(All MIL-G-12889:MIL-C-25 Stvles CP25. 26.27.28.29. 40, 41, 67, 69,70,72, 75, 76,77,78:80:81 i 82: Characteristics E. F)

(MIL-C-25 Styles CP 4,5,8,9, 10, 11, 12 13; Characteristic K)

S&
TA (%) .1

TA (%]

.1
.00086 .00087 .00087 .00088 .00089 .00091 .00095 .0010 .0011 .0014 .0019 .0030 .0063

.3
.0011 .0011 .0011 .0011 .0011 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0014 .0017 .0023 .0037 .0078

stress .5
.0035 .0035 .0035 .0035 .0036 .0037 .0039 .0041 ,0046 .0056 .0076 .012 .026

.7
.015 .015 .015 .015 .015 .016 .017 .018 .020 .024 .033 .052 .11

.9
.051 .051 .051 .051 ,052 .053 .056 .060 .067 .081 .11 .18 .37

.3 .0011
.0011 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0016 .0021 .0034 .0074

.5
.0036 .0036 .0037 .0039 .0044 .0052 .0069 .011 .024

.7
.015 .016 .016 .017 .019 .022 .030 .048 .10

.9
o .051 10 .052 20 .054 30 .057 40 .063 50 .075 60 .10 70 .16 80 .35 90 100

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

.00088
.00089 .00092 .00097 .0011 .0013 .0017 .0027 .0060

\=.00086[(~)5+

l]exp(2.5(~)18)

110 120

T= s =

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and peak A.C. voltage.

~=.ooW3[(5)5+ 1]-p(2..(~)8)
T. s Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

Operating voftage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

1o-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.1

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PAPER,

BY-PASS

Capacitance Factor- WV -. Capacitance, C (@)


MIL-C-25* .0034 .15 2.3 16. MIL-C-12889 All

Environment

Factor - x_

c v

Environment

fiE

e~
0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6

1.0
2.0 9.0 5.0

GF GM

Nu
1.0 Ic IF

15 6.0 8.0 17 32 22 .50 12 32 570

Cv

= 1.2c095

*UC *UF %w

Quality Factor - Xfi Quality MIL-SPEC Lower 3.0 7.0

SF
MF ML CL

10-2

+.-

- ., .

... .,.

. ... . ... .. .

., .,.

,,,

.. ...

..

MIL-HDBK-217F

.10.2 SPECIFICATION MlL-C-l 1693 STYLE CZR and CZ

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PAPER,

FEED-THROUGH

DESCRIPTION Paper, Metallizecf Paper, Metallized Plastiq RFI Feed-Throuqh Established Reliability and

Non-Establi;ht?d Reliability Xp = kbZCvZQzE


Base Failure Rate - ~

Failures/l

06 Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ ~= 150C Max Rated)
i~haraeinrktic .. ... P} ,-, ,-, ----. f

(T=85c MaxRated) (Char-enstics E, W) TA (C) o ;;


30 40 50 60 70 80

( .7 .020
.021 .021 .023 .025 .030 .039 .064 .14

.1 .0012 .0012
,0012 .0013 .0014 .0017 .0023 .0037 .0080

.3 .0014 .0015
.0015 .0016 .0018 .0021 .0028 .0045 .0099

.5 .0047
.0048 .0050 .0053 .0058 .0069 .0092 .015 .032

.9 .069
.070 .072 .076 .084 .10 .13 .21 .47

TA (%)
0
E 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

.1
.0012
.0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0013 .0013 .0015 .0017 .0022 .0033 .0058 .014

.3
.0014 .0014 .0014 .0014 .0014 .0015 .0015 .0015 .0016 .0017 .0018 .0022 .0028 .0040 .0072 .017

.5
.0047 .0047 .0047 .0047 .0047 .0048 .0048 .0049 .0051 .0055 .0060 .0071 .0091 .013 .024 .057

.7
.020 .020 .020 .020 .020 .020 .021 .021 .022 .023 ,026 .03 .039 .057 .10 .24

.9
.068 .068 .068 .068 .068 .069 .070 .071 .074 .079 .087 .10 .13 .19 .34 .62

~=.o.11,[(~) +1]..P(2.,(~)18)
T= s= Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Base Failure Rate - ~


(T= 125C Max Rated) (Characteristic K) Sfmss .3 .5 .0014 .0014 ,0014 .0014 .0015 .0015 .0016 .0017 .0019 .0023 .0031 .005 .010 .0047 .0047 .0047 ,0047 .0048 .0049 .0052 .0055 .0062 .0075 .010 .016 .034 ~00115[(~)5+ T=

11expF5(-Y

Ambient Temperature (C) = Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

TA (C) o ;: 30 40 E 70 80 90 100 110

.1 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0013 .0014 .0015 .0019 .0025 .0040 .0084

.7
.020 .020 .020 .020 .021 .021 .022 .024 .027 .032 .044 .07 .15

.9
.068 .068 .068 .069 .070 .072 .075 .08 .09 .11 .15 .24 .49 s Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and peak A,C. voltage.

120

\=.00115[(~) T. s

+ l]w(25(Tjfl)18)

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

MIL-HDBK-217F
i

10.2

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PAPER,

FEED-THROUGH

Capadtance Capacitance, C (JAF) 0.0031 0.061 1.8 f

Factor-WV

Environment Environment

Factor - XE

L
1.0 1.5
Quality Factor - XQ
Reliability

.70

GB
GF

1.0

2.0 9.0 7.0 15


6,0 8.0 17 28 22

GM
N~ Nu

v = 1.4c02

*IC
IF

*UC
*UF %w SF M Non-Established Lower

Quality

.50

1.0 3.0

MF ML c,

12 32

10

10-4

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.3 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-14157 MIL-C-19978 STYLE CPV CQR and C(2

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PAPER

AND

PLASTIC

FILM

DESCRIPTION Paper and Plastk Film, Est. Rel. Paper and Plastk Film, Est. Rel. and Non-Est. Ret.

1P = &cVZQnE Base Failure Rate - ~ (?-=65c MaxRated) (MIL-C-14157styleCPV07; MlL-C-l9978 Characteristics P, L]


stress TA ~) 0 ;: 30 40 50 60 .1 .00053 .00055 .00061 .00071 .00094 .0015 .0034 .3 .00065 .00069 .00075 .00088 .0012 .0019 .0042 .5 .0021 .0022 .0025 .0029 ,0038 .0061 .014 .7 .0092 .0096 .9 .031 .032 .036 .042 .055 .088 .20

Failures/l

Oe Hours Base Failure Rate - ~


(-r. e5chk Ratacf) ML-C-14157 StvleCPV17:

MIL@--19978 Characteristics E, F; G, M)

St?ess .1
.00051 .00052 .00054 .00057 .00063 .00074 .00099 .0016 .0035 .3 .00063 .00064 .00066 .00070 .00077 .00092 .0012 .0020 .0043 .5 .0021 .0021 .0022 .0023 .0025 .0030 .0040 .0064 .014 .7 .0089 .0090 .0093 .0099 .011 .013 .017 .028 .061 .9 .030 .030 .031 .033 .037 .043 .058 .093 .20

.011
.012
.016 .026 .059

~=..oo,[(~)+ 1].xp(2..(~)18)
TsAmbient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and pa ak A.C. voltage.

~-.wm[(~)s+ l]e.p(2.5(*)18)
Ambient Temperature (C) s Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage Operating voltage is the sum of appiied D.C. voftage and peak A.C. voltage.

T-

Base Faibre Rate - ~

(T. 125oCMaxRated)
(MIL-C-141 57 StVta CPV09 and MlL-C-l 9978 Chara&teristics K, Q, S) Stress TA (C) .1 .3 .5 .7 .9 o 10 20 30 40 50 % 80 90 100 110 120 .00050 .00050 .00051 .00051 .00052 .00053 .00055 .00059 .00067 .00081 .0011 .0018 .0037 .00062 .00062 .00062 .00063 .00064 .00066 .00068 .00073 ,00083 .0010 .0013 .0022 .0045 .0020 .0020 .0020 .0021 .0021 .0021 .0022 .0024 .0027 .0033 .0044 .0071 .015 .0087 .0088 .0088 .0089 .009 .0092 .0096 .010 .012 .014 .019 .030 .064 .029 .029 .030 .030 .030 .031 .032 .035 .039 .047 .064 .10 .21

A (%)
o

Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 170C Max Rated) (MIL-C-1 9978 Characteristic T) Stress .1 .3 .5 .7
.00050 .00050 .00050 .00050 .00050 .00050 .00051 .00051 .00052 .00054 .00056 .00060 .00067 .00079 .0010 .0015 .0026 .0061 .00062 .00062 .00062 .00062 .00062 .00062 .00063 .00063 .00065 .00066 .00069 .00074 .00083 .00098 .0013 .0018 .0032 .0075 .0020 .0020 ,0020 .0020 .0020 .0020 .0021 .0021 .0021 .0022 .0023 .0024 .0027 .0032 .0041 .006 .011 .025 1].xp(2.5(*)18) ,0087 .0087 .0087 .0087 .0087 .0088 .0088 .0089 .0091 .0093 .0097 .010 .012 .014 .018 .026 .046 .11

.9 .029 .029 .029 .029 .029 .030 .030 .030 .031 .031 .033 .035 .039 .046 .060 .087 .15 .36

Y
30 40 :: :: 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

~-.ooW[(~)5+ l]e.p(2.5(*)8)
T= s. Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voftage and peak A.C. voltage.

~=.0005[(~)5+

. T = Ambient Temperature ~C) s= Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and Desk A.C. voltaae.

10-5

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.3

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PAPER

AND

PLASTIC

FILM

-. Capacitance, C @F) *CV

Environment Environment GB

Factor - XE %E 1.0

MIL-C-14157: .0017 .027 .20 1.0

.70 1.0 7.3 1.6 .70 1.0 1.3 1.6

GF

2.0 8.0 5.0 14


4.0 6.0 11.0 20 20 .50 11 29 530

GM Ns Nu %c
IF *UC

MIL-C-19978: w .00032 .033 1.0 15.0


q

Cv = 1.6C013 7tcv = 1.3C 0.077

*UF *RW SF MF ML

Quality Factor - nQ Quality

~Q
.03
.10

s
R P M L MlL-C-l 9978, Non-Est. Rel.

.30
1.0

3.0 10 30

Lower

10-6

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.4 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-18312 MI L-C-39022

CAPACITORS,

FIXED, STYLE CH CHR

METALLIZED

PAPER,

PAPER-PLASTIC

AND

PLASTIC

DESCRIPTION Metallized Paper, Paper-Plastic, Plastic MetalJized Paper, Paper-Plastic, Plastic, Established Reliabifii

kp = kbTCCvXQxE Failures/l Base Failure Rate - ~ (T-85c MaxRated) (MIL-C-39022Charactertatic and 12 (50 Voltsrated]. 9
Chara

OG Hours Base Failure Rate - ~

~ (%)
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

eristic 49; and MlL-C-l 8312 Characteristic R) stress .1 .5 .7 .9 .3

(T=1250CMax Rated) (MIL-C-39022 Char~eristic 9 and 12 (above 50 Votts ratedl Characteristics 1.10, 19, 29, 59; and .MlL-C-l8312 Chara%istic N) Strass .1 .3 .7 .9 .5 TA (~) o .00069 .00069 .00070 .00070 .00071 .00073 .00076 .00082 .00092 .0011 .0015 .0024 .0051 .00086 .00086 .00086 .00087 .00088 .00090 .00094 .0010 .0011 .0014 .0019 .0030 ,0063 .0028 .0028 .0028 .0028 .0029 .003. .0031 .0033 .0037 .0045 .0061 .0098 .020 .012 .012 .012 .012 .012 .013 .013 .014 .016 .019 .026 .042 .088 .041 .041 .041 .041 .042 .043 .04s .048 .054 .065 .088 .14 .30

.00070
.00072 .00074 .00078 .00086 .0010 .0014 .0022 .0048

.00087 .00089 .00091 ,00097 .0011 .0013 .0017 .0027 .0059

.0029 .0029 .0030 .0032 .0035 .0041 .0055 .0089 .019

.012 .012 .013 .014 .015 .018 .024 .038 .084

.041 .042 10 .043 20 .046 30 .051 40 .06 50 .08 60 .13 70 .28 80 90

~=.WW9[(~)5+

l]exp(2.5

(=)18) 100 110 120

T. s-

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating voftage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

\=.00069[(~)+ T= S =

l]exP(2.5

(=)18)

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.4

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

METALLIZED

PAPER,

PAPER-PLASTIC

AND

PLASTIC

Capadtance

Factor - wv

Emkmment Factor -xc


b

Capacitance, C @F)
0.0029 0.14 2.4

c v
.70 1.0

Environment GB GF %

~E 1.0 2.0 8.0 5.0 14 4.0 6.0 11.0

1.3

NS Nu *IC IF

Zcv = 1.2C

0.092

Quality Factor - Xn
u

*UC

Quality

7CQ
0.03 .10 .30 1.0 3.0 Non-Est. Rel. 7.0 20

*UF RW

20 20 .50 11 29 530

s
R P M L MIL-C-18312, Lower

SF MF ML CL

MIL-HDBK-217F

10,5 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-55514

CAPACITORS, STYLE
CFR

FIXED,

PLASTIC

AND

METALLIZED

PLASTIC

DESCRIPTION
Plastic, Metallized Plastic, Est. Rel.

Xp = kbXcvXQzE

Failures/l

OG Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 12SOC Max Rated)


(Characteristics M, N)
(Charadari@im.-. . 0 -, \ -. -------R., !%) , - t

TA (%)
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

.1
.0010 .0010 .0011 .0011 .0012 .0015 ,0020 .0032 .0069

.3
.0012 .0013 .0013 .0014 .0015 .0018 .0024 .0039 .0085

.5
.0041 .0042 .0043 .0045 ,0050 .0059 .0079 .013 .028

.7
.018 .018 .018 .020 .022 .026 .034 .055 .12

.9
.059 .060 .062 .066 .073 .086 ,11 .18 .40

TA (C)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

.1
.00099 .0010 .0010 .0010 .0010 .0011 .0011 .0012 .0013 .0016 ,0022 .0035 .0073

.3
.0012 .0012 .0012 .0012 .0013 .0013 .0014 .0015 .0016 .0020 .0027 .0043 .0090

Strws .5
.0040 .0040 .0041 .0041 .0041 .0043 .0044 .0048 .0054 .0065 .0087 .014 .029

.7
.017 .017 .017 .018 .018 .018 .019 .020 .023 .028 .038 .06 .13

.9
.058 .058 .059 .059 .060 .062 .064 .069 .077 .094 .13 .20 .43

~=.00099[(:)5+

l]exP(2.5

(%)18)

100 110

T=
s=

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

120

Operating vottage is the sum of applied C).C. voftage and peak A.C. voltage,

\=.00099[(;)5+

1].XP(2.5

(-)18)

T= s-

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voftage. i

,..

. .

MIL-J+DBK-217F

10.5

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

PLASTIC

AND

METALLIZED

PLASTIC

Capacitance Factor - WV Capacitance, C (jLF)


0.0049 0.33 7.1 38. 0.085

Environment Factor - n=
L

~cv
.70 1,0 1.3 1.5

Environment GB GF GM Ns Nu Alc % %c
*UF

~E 1.0 2.0 10 5.0 16 6 11 18


30
23 .50 13 34 610

7CCV=1.1 C

Quality Factor - ZQ Quality

~Q
.030 .10 .30 1.0
10

RW SF MF ML cL

s
R P M Lower

1o-1o

,--

nI

--A

A.-

MIL-HDBK-21

7F

10.6 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-63421 STYLE

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

SUPER-METALLIZED

PLASTIC

DESCRIPTION

CRH 1P = kbXCvZQnE

Super-Metallized Plastic, Est. Rel. Failures/l OG Hours


Capacitance Factor - WV
t Capacitance, C (vF)

Base Failure Rate - ~

(T= 125C Max Rated) stress .1 .3 .5


o :: 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 .00055 .00055 .00056 .00056 .00057 .00058 .00061 .00065 .00073 .00089 .0012 .0019 .0040 .00068 .00068 .00069 .00069 .00070 .00072 .00075 .00081 .00091 .0011 ,0015 .0024 .0050 ,0022 .0022 .0023 .0023 .0023 .0024 .0025 .0026 .0030 .0036 .0049 .0078 .016

Cv
.64 1.0 1.3 1.6

.7
.0096 .0096 .0097 .0098 .0099 .010 .011 .011 .013 .015 .021 .033 .070

.9
.032 .032 .033 .033 .033 .034 .036 .038 .043 .052 .07 .11 .24

.001 0.14 2.4 23

ncv

= 1 .2C

0.092

Environment ~=.00055[(~)5 + 1].XP(2.5 (~) ; I Environment

Factor - X_

GB
T. s= Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage GF GM Ns Nu

4.0 8.0 5.0 14 4.0 6.0 13.0 20 20 .50 11 29 530

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Alc
Quality Factor - ZQ IF

Quality

7tQ
.020 .10 .30 1.0 10

Uc UF fhv

s
R
P M Lower

sF MF ML

CL

.. .

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.7

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

MICA STYLE CM DESCRIPTION MICA (Dipped or Molded)

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-5

MIL-C-39001

CMR Ap = LbZCvZQzE BaseFailure Rate - ~

MICA (Dipped), Established Reliability Failures/l OG Hours


Base Failure Rate - ~ (T=850C Max Rated) (MIL-C-5, Temp. Ran@ N) stress .1 .3 .5 .00024 .00038 .00059 .Ooow .0015 .0023 .0036 .0056 .0087 [(~)3+ .00051 .00079 .0012 .0010 .003 .0047 .0074 .012 .018 1]W(16

TA ~)

(T=70C Max Rated) (MIL-G5, Temp. Range M) stress .1 .3 .5 .00030 .00047 .00075 .0012 .0019 .0031 .0049 .0078 8.6x10-10 .00041 .00066 .0011 .0017 .0027 .0043 .0068 .011 [(3)3 .00086 .0014 .0022 .0035 .0056 .0089 .014 .023 + I]exP(16

I .7 .0019 .0030 .0047 .0075 .012 .019 .030 .049 (~) .9 .0036 .0058 .0092 .015 .023 .037 .059 .095 ) lb= TA (C) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

.7 .0011 .0017 .0027 .0042 .0065 .010 .016 .025 .039 (w)

.9 .0021 .0033 .0052 .0081 .013 .020 .031 .048 .076 )

T
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ~=

.00017 .00027 .00042 .00066 .0010 .0016 .0025 .0040 I .0062

8.6 XW1O T= s.

T.
s.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Ambient Temperature (oC) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Base Failure Rate - ~ (T=125CMax Rated)

Base Failure Rate - ~


n=1500C Temp. Ranqe 0) .7 .9 .00062 .00093 .0014 .0021 .0031 .0046 .0069 .010 .016 .023 .035 .052 .077 Max Rated) Temp. Ranqe P) .7 .00017 .00024 .00036 .00052 .00076 .0011 .0016 .0024 .0034 .0050 .0073 .011 .016 .023 .033 .049 (7;;?) .9 .00033 .00047 .00069 .0010 .0015 .0022 .0031 .0046 .0067 .0098 .014 .021 .030 .044 .065 .095 ) stress .5 R-ange P; MIL-C-39001, UY!!kQs Temp. TA (C) o 10 20 30 40 % 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 .1 .00003 .00004 .00006 .00008 .00012 .00018 .00026 .00038 .00055 .0008 .0012 .0017 .0025 .0036 .0053 .0078 .3 .00004 .00005 .00008 .00012 .00017 .00025 .00036 .00053 .00077 .0011 .0016 .0024 .0035 .0051 .0074 .011

f!fwi
TA (C) o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 ~b= T= s=

Temp. Range O; MIL-C-39001 Stress .1 .3 .5 .00005 .00008 .00011 .00017 .00025 .00038 .00057 .00085 .0013 .0019 .0028 ,0042 .0063 .00007 .00011 .00016 .00024 .00036 .00053 .0008 .0012 .0018 .0027 .0040 .0059 .0089 .00015 .00022 .00033 .00050 .00074 .0011 .0017 .0025 .0037 .0055 .0083 .012 .018 jeW(16

.00032 .00048 .00071 .0011 .0016 .0024 .0036 .0053 .008 .012 .018 ,027 .040 (%%))

8.6)( 10-10 [(3)3+

.00008 .00011 .00017 .00024 .00035 .00051 .00075 .0011 .0016 .0023 .0034 .0050 .0073 .011 .015 .023 1].XP(16

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

Ab= S.6XIO-10[(33+

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and pa ak A.C. voltage.

Ambient Temperature (C) T= Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftaqe sOperating voltage is the s~m of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

10-12

* ,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.7 Capacitance Factor - ~V

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

MICA

Capacitance, C (pF)
2 38 300 2000 8600 29000 84000

Environment Factor - z=
Cv .50 .75 1.0 1.3 106 %c 1,9
IF

Environment
GB

1.0 2.0 10 6.0 16 5.0 7.0 22 28 23 .50 13 34 610

GF %
Ns Nu

2.2

Uc
UF

Cv

= 0.45C4

%nN
SF MF

Quality Factor - nQ Quality


T

ML

c1 .010 .030 .10 .30


1.0 1.5

s
R P M L MIL-C-5, Non-Est. Rel. Dipped

3.0 6.0 15

MIL-C-5, Non-Est. Ref. Molded Lower

10-13

r-

--

...:--

r---

----

nu.

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.8

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

MICA, STYLE CB

BUTTON

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-1095O

DESCRIPTION MICA, Button Style

Xp = LbZCvXQnE
Base Failure Rate - ~
(T= 85C Max Rated)

Failures/l

OG Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 150C Max Rated) fAll TvoP=-----Fxrxmt ----CR50\ \ . ....-

(Stvle CB50)

s&-

TA (Z) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

.1 .0067 .0071 .0076 .0082 .009 .010 .012 .013

.3
.0094 .0099 .011 .011 .013 .014 .016 .019

.5
.019 .021 .022 .024 .026 .029 .033 .039

.7
,042 .044 .047 .051 .056 .063 .072 .084

.9
.082 .086 .092 .10 .11 .12 .14 .16

TA (C)

.1 .0058 .0059 .0061 .0062 .0064 .0067 .0070 .0074 .0079 .0085 .0093 .010 .011 .013 .015 .018

.3
.0081 .0083 .0085 .0087 .009 .0094 .0098 .010 .011 .012 .013 .014 .016 .018 .021 .025

stress .5
.017 .017 .018 .018 .019 .019 .020 .022 .023 .025 .027 .03 .033 .038 .044 .052

.7
.036 .037 .038 .039 .040 .042 .044 .046 .049 .053 .058 .064 .072 .082 ,095 .11

.9
.071 .072 .074 .076 .079 .082 .086 .090 .096 .10 .11 .12 .14 .16 .18 .22 i

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

::00

5~~~~)~~l]ex~72

(~-

100 110

T.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

120 130 140 150 k

s=

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

~=

.0053 [(~)3

+ l]exP(l.2

(T~~~)63)

T= s==

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage. c

10-14

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.8

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

MICA,

BUTTON

Quality Factor - ZQ

Environment Factor - X.
t

Quality
MIL-C-1095O Lower

ftQ
5.0 15

Environment GB GF GM Ns
1.0 2.0 10 5.0 16 5.0 7.0 22 28 23 .50 13 34 610

Capacitance Factor - ~v Capacitance, C (pF)


8

Nu AC IF
*UC

Cv
.50 .76 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2

50 160 500 1200 2600 5000

UF RW SF MF ML cL

Cv

= .31c023

10-15

. =n--==-=-c=.==s-ee..-

_m_-

. .

..

_._. ~== _. ._.

MIL-HDBK-217F

, I

I I
I

10.9

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

GLASS
STYLE CY CYR DESCRIPTION GIass Glass, Established Reliability

SPECIFICATION MlL-C-l 1272 MIL-C-23269

Ap = kbnCVTCQnE Failures/l Base Faiture Rate - ~ (T=125C Max Rated)

OG Hours
Base Failure Rate - &
(T= 200C Max Rated) (MIL-C-1 1272 Ternp Range D) & .1 .3 .5 .? .00001 .00001 .00002

WL!!!!! C-23296
TA (%; o
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

and MlL-C-l 1272 Temp. Range Cl


Stmss

.1
.00005 .00007 .00011 .00016 .00024 .00036 .00054 .0008 .0012 .0018 .0027 .0040 .0060

.3
.00005 .00008 .00012 .00018 .00027 .00041 .00061 .00091 .0014 .0020 .0030 .0045 .0068

.5
.00010 .00014 .00022 .00032 .00048 .00072 .0011 .0016 .0024 .0036 .0054 .0080 .012

.7
.00023 .00035 .00052 .00078 .0012 .0017 .0026 .0039 ,0058 .0087 .013 .019 .029

.9
.0005! .0008 .0012 .0018 .0028 .0041 .0062 .0092 .014 .021 .031 .046 .069

TA (C o 10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

.9
.00010 .00014 .00019 .00027 .00038 .00053 .00074 .0010 .0015 .0020 .0029 .0040 .0056 .0079 .011 .016 .022 .031 .043 .060 ,084

.Oooo1 .00002
.00001 .00002 .00003 .00004 .00005 .00007 .00010 .00014 .00020 .00028 .00039 .00055 .00078 .0011 .0015 .0021 .0030 .0042 .0059 .0083 .00002 .00003 .00005 .00007 .00009 .00013 .00018 .00025 .00035 .00050 .00070 .00098 .0014 .0019 .0027 .0038 .0053 .0075 .010 .015

.00004 .00006 .00008 .00011 .00016 ,00022 .00031 .00044 .00061 .00086 .0012 .0017 .0024 .0033 .0047 .0065 .0092 .013 .018 .025 ,035

.00002 .00003 .00005 .00006 .00009 .00013 .00018 .00025 .00035 .00049 .00069 .00096 .0014 .0019 .0027 .0037 .0052 .0073

b = 8.25X lo-fo [(:)4

+ 1].xlp

(T;%)

190 200

T= s=

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage $= 8.25x I0 -q(:)4+ 1]W(16 (%%) )

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and peak A.C. voltage.

T= s.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C, voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Ml13HDBK-217F

10.9

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

GLASS

Capacitance Factor - ~,v -. Capacitance, C (pF) 1 4 30 200 900 3000 8500 Cv .62 .75 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2

Environment Factor - ZE

Environment GB GF GM Ns Nu AC IF *UC *UF RW

~E 1.0 2.0 10 6.0 16 5.0 7.0 22 28 23 .50 13 34 610

Cv = 0.62C014

SF MF

Quality Factor Quality

ML
~Q

~Q
.030 .10 .30 1.0 3.0 3.0
10

CL

s
R P M L MlL-C-l 1272, Non-Est. Rel.
Lower

10-17

MJL-HDBK-21

7F

10.10

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

CERAMIC,

GENERAL

PURPOSE

3ECIFICATION

M !L-C-11015 M L-C-39014

STYLE GK CKR

DESCRIPTION Ceramk, General Puqxxe Ceramk, General Purpose, Est. Rel.

Lp = kbZcvZQnE
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 850C Max Rated) AIL-C31014 Styles CKR13, 48, 64, 72; IL-C-I 1015 Type A Rated Temperature)
I

Failures/l

OG Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T =1500C Max Rated) ItL-C-l 1015 T ype C Rated Temperature)

TA (W
.1 o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 .00067 .00069 .00071 .00073 .00075 .00077 .00079 .00081 .00083 .3 .0013 .0013 .0014 .0014 .0014 .0015 ,0015 .0016 .0016 .5 .0036 .0037 .0030 .0039 .004 .0042 .0043 .0044 .0045 .7 .0088 .0091 .0093 .0096 .0099 .010 ,010 .011 .011 .9 .018 .019 .019 .020 .020 .021 .021 .022 .023 o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 125C Max Rated) (MIL-C-39014 Styles CKR05-12, 14-19, 73, 74; IL-C- I 1015 Type B Rated Temperature) stress .1 .3 .5 .7 .9 (=) o 100 110 120 130 140 150

.1 .00059 .00061 .00062 .00064 .00065 .00067 .00068 .00070 .00072 .00073 .00075 .00077 .00079 .00081 .00083 .00085

.3

.5
.0032 .0033 .0034 .0035 .0035 .0036 .0037 .0038 .0039 .0040 .0041 .0042 .0043 .0044 .0045 .0046

.7
.0078 .008 .0082 .0084 .0086 .0088 .009 .0092 .0095 .0097 .0099 .010 .010 .011 .011 .011

.9
.016 .016 .017 .017 .018 .018 .018 .015 .019 .020 .020 .021 .021 .022 .022 .023

.0011
.0012 .0012 .0012 .0013 .0013 .0013 .0013 .0014 .0014 .0014 .0015 .0015 .0016 .0016 .0016

L
. %T= s=

0003[(33 ) 18X(T=
Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A,C. voltage.

10
:: 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

.00062 .00063 .00065 .00067 .00068 .00070 .00072 .00074 .00076 .00077 .00079 .00081 .00084

.0012 .0012 .0013 .0013 .0013 .0014 .0014 .0014 .0015 .0015 .0015 .0016 .0016

.0033 .0034 .0035 .0036 .0037 .0038 .0039 .0040 .0041 .0042 .0043 .0044 .0045

.0082 .0084 .0086 .0088 .0090 .0093 .0095 .0097 .010 .010 .010 .011 .011

.017 .017 .018 .018 .018 .019 .019 .020 .020 .021 .021 .022 .023

\
Ts.

0003[(33+11xp
Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

. b =
T= s.

ooo[(~)+11p(=)
Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and peak A.C. voltage.

NOTE: The rated temperature designation (type A, B, or C) is shown in the pan number, e.g., CKG1AW22M).

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.10

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

CERAMIC,

GENERAL

PURPOSE

Capacitance Factor - WV Capacitance, C (pF) 6.0 240 3300 36,000 240,000 1,100,000 4,300,000

Environment Factor - n=
L

~cv
.50 .75

Environment
GB GF GM 1.0 2.0 9.0 5.0 15 4.0 4.0 8.0 12 20 .40 13 34 610

1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2

Ns Nu Ac IF

Uc
*UF

Xcv = .41C

0.11

*RW
SF MF

Quality Factor - n=

ML

Quality

c1
.030 .10 .30 1.0 3.0 3.0 10

s
R P M L

MlL-C-l 1015, Non-Est. Rel.


Lower

10-19

MIL-I-IDBK-217F

10.11

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

CERAMIC,

TEMPERATURE

COMPENSATING

AND

CHIP

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-20 MIL-C-55681

STYLE CCR and CC CDR

DESCRIPTION Ceramic, Temperature Compensating, and Non Est. Rel. Ceramic, Chip, Est. Rel.

Est.

I
Base Failure Rate - ~

lp = kbZcVXOzE

Failures/l

OG Hours
Capacitance Factor - ~,v

(r-85%
(MIL-C ~~ W) 10 20 30 40 E 70 80 )

Max Ratecf)
45, 85, 95-97) .7 .0019 ,0029 .0043 .0064 .0096 .014 .021 .032 .047 .9 .0040 .0059 .0088 .013 .020 .029 .044 .065 .097 L Stress .5 .00080 .0012 .0018 .0026 .0039 .0059 .0088 .013 .019

Stybs CC 20,25,30,32,35,
.1 .3 .00028 .00042 .00063 .000!34 .0014 .0021 .0031 .0046 .0069

Capacitance, C (pF)
1

Cv .59

.00015 .00022 .00033 .00049 .00073 .0011 .0016 .0024 .0036

I
,

7 81 720 4,100 17,000 58;000 0.12 Zcv = .59C

.75 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9


2.2

I
\

Quality Factor - XQ )1 Quality

= 2.6x1O -9[(:)3+ T. s-

1].XP(14.3

(T;3

~Q
.030 .10 .30 1.0 3.0
10 Environment Factor - XE I ~E

s
R P M
Non-Est. Lower Rel.

Ambmnt Temperature (%) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and maak A.C. vottaoe. Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 125oC Max Rated) (MIL-C-20 Styles CC 5-9,13-19,21,22,26,27, 31,33, 36, 37, 47, 50-57, 75-79, 81-83, CCR 05-09,13-19, 5457, 75-79, 81-83, 90; MIL-C-55681 All CDR Styles) Stress TA (C) .1 .3 .5 .7 .9 0 E 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 .00005 .00007 .00010 .00014 .00021 .00030 .00042 .00061 .00087 .0012 .0018 .0026 1 .0037 2.6x10 T= s. g[(~)+ .00009 .00014 .00019 .00028 .00040 .00057 .00082 .0012 .0017 .0024 .0034 .0049 .0071 .00027 .00038 .00055 .00078 .0011 .0016 .0023 .0033 .0047 .0068 .0097 .014 .020 l]exp(143 .00065 .00093 .0013 .0019 .0027 .0039 .0056 .008 ,011 .016 .024 .034 ,048 (TJ~T .0013 .0019 .0027 .0039 .0056 .008 .011 .016 .023 .034 .048 .069 .099 ) )

Environment

GB GF % N~ Nu %c IF *UC
*UF *RW

1.0 2.0 10 5.0 17 4.0 8.0 16


35 24

~=

SF

.50 13 34

MF
Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

ML

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voftage and peak A.C. voltage.

610

I0-20

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.12 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-39003 STYLE CSR

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

ELECTROLYTIC,

TANTALUM,

SOLID

DESCRIPTION Tantatum Electrolytic (Solid), Est. Ret.

P = %mCV%R
Base Failure Rate - ~ Stress ~ (c)
o

n Failures/l Q E

OG Hours

Series Resistance Factor - Zsl Circuit Resistance, CR (ohms/vott)


.7 .026 .027 .028 .030 .032 .035 .040 .047 .050 .074 .10 .15 .24 (T~& ) .9 .051 .052 .055 .058 .063 .069 .078 .092 .11 .14

.1
.0042 .0043 .0045 .0048 .0051 .0057 .0064 .0075 .0092 .012 .016 .024 .039

.3 .0058 .0060 .0063 .0067 .0072 .0079 .009 .011 .013 .017 .023 .034 .054 .

.5 .012 .012 .013 .014 .015 .016 .019 .022 .027 .034 .047 .07 .11 1]..p(2.6

% R .066 .10 .13 .20 .27 .33

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
90 100 110 120

>0.8 >0.6 to 0.8 >0.4 to 0.6


>0.2 to 0.4 >0.1 to 0.2

0 to 0.1

Lb = .00375 [(~)3 T. s=

CR

= Eff. Res. Between Cap. and Pwr. Supply Voltage Appiied to Capacitor

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

operating votiage is the sum of applied D.C. vohage and peak A.C. voltage.

Envimment
Environment

Factor - YC=
L

Capacitance Factor - WV Capacitance, C @F) .003 .091 1.0 8.9 50 210 710 0.12 Cv 0.5 .75 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9

GB GF %
NS Nu

1.0 2.0 8.0 5.0 14 4.0 5.0 12 20 24


.40 11 29 530

AC
n~v = 1 .Oc

IF
*UC

Quality Faotor-x.
q

*UF

Quality

c s

+%-I
0.010 0.030 0.030 0.10 0.30 1.0 1.5 10

RW SF MF ML CL

B R P M L Lower

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.13

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

ELECTROLYTIC,

TANTALUM,

NON-SOLID

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-3965 MIL-C-39006

STYLE CL CLR

DESCf IPTION Tantalw 1, Electrolyk (Non-Solid) Tantalw I, Electrolytic (Non-Solid),

Est. Rel.

kp = kbXcVZCXQxE
Base Failure Rate - ~ (-r = 85C Max Rated) (MIL-C-3965 Styles CL24-27, 34-37) TA (C) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ~~ool ~ .1 .0021 .0023 .0026 .0030 .0036 .0047 .0065 .3 .0029 .0032 .0036 .0042 .0051 .0066 .0091 stress .5 .0061 .0067 .0075 .0087 .011 .014 .019 .7 .013 .014 .016 .019 .023 .029 .041 .9 .026 .028 .031 .036 .044 .057 .079

Failures/l

06 Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~

(T= 175eC Max Rated) tllL-C-3965 Sty Ies CL1O, 13, 14, 16-18)

TA (% o
10 20 30 40 50

.1
.0017 .0017 .0018 .0018 .0019 .0019 .002 .0021 .0023 .0025 .0028 .0032 .0037 .0046 .0059 .0079 .011 .018

.3
.0024 .0024 .0025 .0025 .0026 .0027 .0028 .0030 .0032 .0035 .0039 .0044 .0052 .0064 .0082 .011 .016 .025

.5
.0050 .0051 ,0052 .0053 .0054 .0056 .0058 .0062 .0066 .0072 .0080 .0092 .011 .013 .017 .023 .033 .051

.7
.011 .011 .011 .011 .012 .012 ,013 .013 .014 .016 .017 .020 .023 .029 .037 .049 .071

.9
.021 .021 .022 .022 .023 .023 .024 .02L .028 .030 .034 .039

T s.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 125C Max Rated) (MIL-C-3965 Styles CL20-23, 30-33, 40-43, 46-56, 64i7, 70-73; and all MI L-C-39006 Styles) Stress .7 .9 ,1 .3 TA (C) .5

o 10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

.0018 .0019 .0020 .0021 .0023 .0025 .0028 .0033 .0041 ,0052 .0071 .011 ,017

.0026 .0026 .0028 .0029 .0032 .0035 .0040 .0046 .0057 .0073 .010 .015 .024

.0053 .0055 .0057 .0061 .0066 .0072 .0082 .0096 .012 .015 .021 .031 .050

.011 .012 .012 .013 .014 .016 .018 .021 .025 .033 .045 .066 .11 (Tj~~ )

.022 .023 .024 .026 .028 .030 .034 .040 .049 .084

kb=.00165[(~)3+ 0 ) T.

l]exp(2.6(~

)-0)

Ab=.00165[(~)3+ T= s.

l]exp(2.6

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

s=

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

Operating voltage is the sum of apphed D.C. voftagc and peak A.C. voltage.

10-22

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.13

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

ELECTROLYTIC,

TANTALUM,

NON-SOLID

Capadtanoe

Factor - ~v I ~cv
.70 1.0 1.3
Quality

Quality Factor - nfi

I I

Capadance, C (p.F)
.091 20 1100

I
Factor - ~ I

s
R

.030 .10 .30 1.0 1.5 Non-Est. Rel. 3.0 10

P M L

WV = .82C0066

Constmction Construction Type

MIL-C-3965,
7CC

Lower

Slug, All Tantalum Foil, Hermetic Slug, Hermetic Foil, Non-Hermetic Slug, Non-Herrnetk
q

q q

.30 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0

Environment Environment

Factor - z=
L

fiE

q Type

of Seal Identified as Follows:

GB GF GM Ns
Nu Ac

1.0 2.0 10 6.0 16 4,0 8.0 14 30 23 .50 13 34 610

1) MIL-C-3965 (CL) - Note Last Letter in Part Number: G - Hermetio E - Non-Hermetic Example: CL1 OBC700TPQ is Hermetic 2) MIL-C39006 (CLR) - Consult Individual Part Specification Sheet (slash sheet) NOTE: Foil Types -

CL 20-25,30-33,40,41,51 CLR 25,27,35,37,53,71,73

-54, 70-73

IF Uc UF RVV SF MF ML cL

Slug Types - CL 10, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18,55,56, 64-66, 67 CLR 10, 14, 17,65, 69,89 All Tantalum - CL 26,27,34-37,42,43, CLR 79 46-49

10-23

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.14

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

ELECTROLYTIC,

ALUMINUM

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-39018

STYLE CUR and CU

DESCRIPTION Ektrolytic, Aluminum Oxide, Est. Rel. and Non-Est. Rel.

Lp = kbZCvmQzE
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 85C Max Rated) [M IL-C-39018 stvle 71 ~

Failures/l

06 Hours
Base Faiture Rate - ~

Stfws
T* (%)
0 ;: 30 40 50 60 70

.1
.0095 .012 .017 .023 .034 .054 .089 .16

.3
.011 .015 .020 .028 .042 .065 .11 .19

.5
.019 .024 .033 .046 .068 .11 .18 .31

.7
.035 .046 .062 .087 .13 .20 .33 .58

.9
.064 .084 .11 .16 .23 .36 .60 1.1 . )

(T= 125C Max Rated) (All h L-C-3901 8 Styles Except 71, 16 and 17) stress TA (~) .1 .5 .7 .9 .3 o 10
20 30 40 .0055 .0065 .0077 .0094 .012 .015 .021 .029 .042 .064 .10 .17 .30 .0067 .0078 .0093 .011 .014 .019 .025 .035 .050 .077 .12 .21 .37 .011 .013 .015 .019 .023 .030 .041 .057 .083 .13 .20 .34 .60 .021 .024 .029 .035 .044 .057 .077 .11 .16 .24 .38 .63 1.1 .038 .044 .052 .064 ,080 .10 .14 .20 .28 .43

;=.O

o:[(~;~+

l]:;~.og;-;

50 60

T=

Ambient Temperature (C) 70 Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage 80 90 100 110 120 .9 .047 .057 .072 .094 ,13 .18 .26 .40 .64

s-

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voftage.

Base Faiture Rate - ~ (T= 105C Max Rated) (MIL-C-39018 Styles 16 and 17) Sttess .7 ,1 .3 .5 .0070 .0085 .011 .014 .019 .026 .038 .059 .095 ,0064 .010 .013 .017 .022 .031 .046 .071 .11 .014 .017 .021 .027 .037 .052 .076 .12 .19 .026 .031 .040 .051 .069 .097 .14 .22 .35

[A(~) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 :: 100 :=,0

,,=.00254[(:)3

+ I]exp(s.09

(~)

5 )

T.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

s=

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

O:[($;:+

1]:~.og::;;7;~

), I

T s=

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating voftage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

10-24

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.14

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

ELECTROLYTIC,

ALUMINUM

Capacitate Capacitance, C (@) 2.5 55 400 1700 5500 14,000 32,000 65,000 120,000

Factor - WV

Environment

Cv
.40 .70 1.0 1.3

Factor - YC_ k

Environment GB GF L GM Ns r NU AK AIF

1.0
2.0 12 6.0 17 10

1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8

12 28 35 27
.50 14 38 690

*UC UF RW SF MF

Cv

= .34c08

ML CL

Quality Factor - YCQ Quality

%Q
.030 .10 .30 1.0 3.0 10

s
R P M Non-Est. Ret. Lower

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.15

CAPACITORS,

FIXED,

ELECTROLYTIC

(DRY),

ALUMINUM

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-62

STYLE CE

DESCRIPTION Aluminum, Dry Electrolyte, Polarized ~ailures/106

Ap = XbXcvZQzE
Base Failure Rate - ~
(T -- - ----- . .-. -.-, \ = Roc. Mar Ratt?ch

Hours

Quality Factor - Xfi Quality


.7 .9

stress
TA (C) 0
:: 30 40 50 60

.1 .0064
.0078 .0099 .013 .018 .026 .041

.3

.5

7rQ

.0074 .009 .011 .015 .021 .030 .047

.011 .014 .017 .023 .031 .046 .071

.020 .024 .030 ,040 .055 .08 .12

.034 .042 .053 .070 .096 .14 .22

MIL-SPEC Lower

3.0 10

Environment Environment

Factor - n=
L

:~o

T.
s-

;5)3

:1:0 (i) ;;

GB GF GM N~ Nu

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage

n~

1.0 2.0

12 6.0

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and peak A.C. voltage.

17 10
12 28 35 27

*IC
IF
Capacitance Capacitance, 3.2 62 C (vF) Factor - Xcv ~cv .40

*UC *UF *RW .70 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.5 2.8 SF
~F

.50 14 38 690

400 1600 4800 12,000 26,000 50,000 91,000

ML c1

~cv

= .32C

0.19 I

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.16

CAPACITORS,

VARIABLE,

CERAMIC

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-81

STYLE Cv

DESCRIPTION Variable, Ceramic kp = kbfiQZE Failures/l 06 Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ (MIL-CTA (Z) o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70


1 80 (T= 85C Max Rated) 1 Styles CV 11, 14, 21,31, 32,34,40, .1 .0030 .0031 .0033 .0036 .0041 .0047 .0058 .0076 .011 .3 .016 .017 .018 .020 .022 .026 .031 .041 .058 .5 .086 .069 .073 .080 .089 .10 .13 .17 .24 .7 .18 .10 .20 .21 .24 .20 .34 .4s .63

Quality Factor - nQ
41) .9 .37 .39 .41 .45 .50 .59 .72 .94 1,3

Quality MIL-SPEC Lower

x~
4 20

Environment 1

Factor - n=
L

Environment

xc L

GB Ab=.00224[(~)3
T s. =

1.0 3.0 13 8.0 24 6.0 10 37 70 36 .40

+ 1].xp(l.,,

(~)101)

GF GM Ns Nu
AC

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voftage

Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and peak A.C. voltage.

Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 125C Max Rated) (M IL-C-81 Styles CV 35, 36) stress .1 .3 .5 .7
.0028 .0028
.0029

iF Uc .9
.35 .35
.36

TA (C) o ;:
30 40 50 % 80 90 100 110 120

*UF
RW SF MF ML CL

.015 .015
.016

.061 .062
.064

.16 .17
.17

.0030 .0031 .0033 .0035 .0038 .0043 ,0050 .0062 .0079 .011

.016 .017 .018 .019 .021 .023 .027 .033 .043 .059

.066 .068 .072 .077 .084 .095 .11 .14 .17 .24

,18 .18 ,19 .21 .23 .25 .30 .36 .47 .64

.37 .39 .41 .44 .48 .54 .63 .76 .98 1.4

52

~-.00224[(~)3+
T= s=

l]exp(l.59(~)101)

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A.C. voltage.

10-27

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.17

CAPACITORS,

VARIABLE, STYLE Pc

PISTON

TYPE DESCRIPTION Variable, Piston Type, Tubular Trimmer

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-14409

Lp = XbXQnE Failures/l
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T. 125C Max Rated) (MIL-C-14409 Styles G, Ii, J, L, T) Stress .1 .3 .5 .7 .0030 .0041 .0055 .0075 .010 .014 .019 .025 .034 .047 .063 .086 .12 X1 O-7 [(~)3+ .0051 .0070 .0094 .013 .017 .024 .032 .043 .059 .079 .11 .15 .20 .013 .010 .024 .033 .044 .060 .082 .11 .15 .20 .27 .37 .51 l]exP(1201 .031 .042 .057 .077 .10 .14 .19 .26 .35 .48 .65 .88 1.2 (%%)
h

OG Hours
Quality Factor - nQ

Quality

4
ZQ 4

TA (C) 1:

.9 .063 .085 .11 .16 .21 .29 .39 .53 .71 .96 1.3 1.8 2.4 ) ,

MIL-SPEC Lower

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 $=7.3


T=

Iv
Environment Factor - ZE

Environment

GB GF GM Ns
Nu

3.0

-+-l
18 3.0 4.0 20 30 32

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage


D.C. vohage

~er~ting

vohage is the sum of applied and pe ak A.C. voltage. Base Failure Rate - ~ 150C Max Rated) (MIL-C-1 4409 Characteristic (T= Stress .1

Alc
IF

%c
0)

UF
.9 .038 .051 .068 ,09 .12 .16 .21 .28 .38 .50 .67 .89 1.2 4:: 2.8

o
10 20 30 40 50 % 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150

.0019 .0025 .0033 .0044 .005s .0077 .010 .014 .018 .024 .032 .043 .057 .076 .10 .13

,3 .0032 .0042 .0056 .0074 .0099 .013 .018 .023 .031 .041 .055 .073 .097 .13 .17 .23

.5 .0081 .011 .014 .019 .025 .034 .045 .060 .079 ,11 .14 .19 ,25 .33 .44 ,59

.7 .019 .025 .034 .045 .060 .079 .11 .14 .19 .25 .33 .44 .59 .78 1.0 1.4

RW SF MF ML c,

.50 18 46 830

kb = 7.3 x 10-7

[(33+
T =

(C) Ambient Temperature s= Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage Operating voltage is the sum of applied D.C. voltage and peak A,C. voltage.

11ex421 (-))
,

--

.-

. ..

----

-r

----

--

I
I

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.18

CAPACITORS, DESCRIPTION Variable, Air Trimmer

VARIABLE,

AIR

TRIMMER

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-92

STYLE CT kp = kb~QmE

Failures/l

06 Hours Environment Factor - z~

Base Failure Rate - ~ \ 1A (C)


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

-.3

- ...-.

. .-. --, .5
.032 .044 .059 .08 .11 .15 .20 .27
.36

stress
.7
.076 .10 .14 .19 .26 .35 .47 .63
.85

Environment
.9
.15 .21 .28 .38

nE 1.0 3.0 13 8.0 24 6.0 10 37 70 36 .50 20 52 950

.1
.0074 .010 .014 .018 .025 .034 .046 .062 .083

GB GF % NS NU *IC

.013 .017 .023 .031 .042 .057 .078 .10 .14

.52 .70 .94 1.3


1.7

IF Uc *UF RW SF MF

- 1.92 % T-

XIO-6[(-&)3+

1]

.wfos

(~)

ML CL

Ambient

Temperature

(C) Voltage D.C. vottag~

s=

Ratio of Operating

to Rated

Operating voltqe is the sum of applied and peak A.C. voltage.

Quality Factor - XQ
Quality
~Q

MIL-SPEC Lower

5 20

10-29

------

r--

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.19

CAPACITORS,

VARIABLE STYLE

AND

FIXED,

GAS

OR

VACUUM

SPECIFICATION M IL-C-23 183

DESCRIPTION

CG

Gas or Vaa.mm Dielectric, Fixed and Variable, Ceramic or


Glass Envebpe

Lp = kbXcFXQnE
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T. 85C Max Rated) (Styles CG 20,21,30,31,32,40-44,
51,60-64,

Failures/l

OG Hours
Base Failure Rate - ~ (T= 125C Max Rated) (stvl@ .50) -\ -.= .- CG -.-, Strm8 .1
.014 .014 .014 .015 .016 .016 .018 .019 .022 .025 .031 .04 .055
.3 .5 .7 .9

stress
.1
0
.3 .5 .7 .9

m
.88 ,92 .98 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.7 2.2 3.2 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.6 4.7 6.6 0 10 20 30 40 50

10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Ab=.o112

.015 .016 .017 .018 .020 .024 .029 .038 .054

.081 .084 .090 .098 .11 .13 .16 .20 .29

.33 .34 .37 .40 .45 .52 .64 .83 1.2

.075 .077 .078 .08 .084 .088 .095 .10 .12 .14 .17 .21 .29

.37 .31 .32 .33 .34 .36 .39 .42 .48 .55 .68 .87 1.2

.82 .83 .85 .88 .91 .96 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.3

1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.7 3.1 3.8 4.9

[(~)3+ T=

11(15 (=)O1;
Vottage is the sum of applied

60 70

s=
Operating and peak

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated voltage

80 90 100 110 120

D.C. voltage

A.C. voltage.

Base Faiture Rate - ~ (T= 100C Max Rated) (Styles CG 65, 66)
Stress

.1
o

.3

.5

.7

.9

30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1:

.014 .015 .015 .016 ,018 .020 .022 .027 .034 .045 .066

.078 .080 .084 .088 .095 .11 .12 .14 .18 .24 .36

.30 .33 .34 .36 .39 .43 .49 !59 .74 .99 1.5

.85 .87 .91 .96 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.6 2.0 2.7 3.9

1.8 1.8 1.9 ;;; 2.4 2.8 3.3 4.2 5.6 8.2 T= s= Ambient TemWrature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated Vottage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied D.C. vottage and pa ak A,C. voltage.

~=.0112 T=

[(+)3+

l]exP(l.59

(~)lol)

s.

Ambient Temperature (C) Ratio of Operating to Rated

Voltage D.C. voltage

Operating vottage is the sum of applied and oeak A.C. voltaae.

10-30

I .!
I

,..

... .,,

... . .

.,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.19

CAPACITORS,

VARIABLE

AND

FIXED,

GAS

OR

VACUUM

Configuration Factor - TCCF


-Conf~ratkm Fixed Variable C F .10 1.0

Environment

Factor - fiE

Environment % GF GM Ns Nu

~E 1.0 3.0 14 8.0 27 10 18 70 108 40 .50 NIA NIA NIA

QuaIii Quality MIL-SPEC Lower

Factor- XQ
~Q

AC IF
3.0 20

*UC
*UF RW SF MF ML cL

MIL-HDBK-217F

10.20 Example Given:

CAPACITORS,

EXAMPLE

A 400 VDC

rated capacitor

type CQ09A1 KE153K3 iS Ming procured

is being used in a fixed ground with the applicable

environment, 59C component ambient temperature, and 200 VDC applied with 50 Vrms
@ W Hz. The Capadtor specification. in full accodance

The letters CQ- h the type designation hdkate that the specification is MIL-C-19978 and that it is a NonEstablished Reliability qualii level. The Ist K in the designation indicates characteristic K. The E in the designation corresponds to a 400 vott DC rating. The 153 in the designation expresses the
capacitance in pioofarads. The first two digits are signifiint and the third is the number of zeros to follow. Therefore, this capacitor has a capacdance of 15,000 picofarads. (NOTE: Picos 10-12, p = 10~

The appropriate model for CQ style capacitors is given in Section 10.3. Based on the given information the following model factors are determined from the tables shown in Section 10.3. Voltage stress ratio
must account for both the applied DC volts and the peak AC vottage, hence,

.68

S=

DC Volts Applied + ~2 (AC Volts Armlied~ = DC Rated Voltage

lb

.0082

Substitute S = .68 and TA = 55C into equatbn shown

with CharacteristicK ~ Table.


7ECV =

.94 10 2.0

Use

Table Equation (Note 15,000 pF = .015 pF)

7CQ ~E

= =

= ~

ICcv nQ XE = (.0082)(.94)(1

O)(2) = .15 FailuresJl 06 Hours

10-32

MIL-HDBK-217F
11.1

INDUCTIVE

DEVICES,

TRANSFORMERS

SPECIFICATION

MIL-T-27 MIL-T-21038 MIL-T-55831

STYLE TF TP

DESCRIPTION Audio, Power and High Power Pulse Low Power Pulse

IF, RF and Discriminator Xp = lb~QXE Failures/l 06 Hours

,
Base Faiture Rate - ~

Maxinwm Rated OperatingTemperature (C) TH~ (%)


30
35

~~ 1
.0024 .0026 .0028 .0032 .0038 .0047 .0060 .0083 .012 .020 .036 .075

1052 .0023 .0023 .0024 .0025 .0027 .0029 .0032 .0035 .0040 .0047 .0057 .0071 .0093 .013 .019 .030

,~3 .0022 .0023 .0024 .0025 .0026 .0027 .0029 .0030 .0033 .0035 .0039 .0043 .0048 .0054 .0062 .0072 .0085 .010 .013 .016 .020

, =4 .0021 .0022 .0022 .0022 .0023 .0023 .0023 .0024 .0025 .0026 .0027 .0028 .0029 .0031 .0033 .0035 .0038 .0042 .0046 .0052 .0059 .0068 .0079 .0095 .011 .014

1705 .0018 .0018 .0019 .0019 .0020 .0020 .0021 .0021 .0022 .0023 .0024 .0024 .0025 .0026 .0027 .0028 .0030 .0031 .0032 .0034 .0036 .0038 .0040 .0042 .0044 .0047 .0050 .0053 .0056

>1706 .0016 .0016 .0016 .0016 .0017 .0017 .0017 .0017 .0017 .0017 .0017 .0017 .0018 .0018 .0018 .0018 .0019 .0019 .0019 .0020 .0020 .0021 .0021 .0022 .0023 .0024
.0025 .0026 .0027 .0029 .0030 .0032

40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 NOTE:
1

Themo

if THS IS not above the temperature rating for a given insulation class.
MIL-T-27 Insdatmn Class 0, MIL-T-21038 Insulation Class C?,and MlL-T-5563I tnsuhon lSs ) MIL-T-27 Insulation Class R, MIL-T-21 038 Insulation Class R, and MIL-T-55831

}1s are valtd onl


fiHS + 273\ ---= \

\..oolat?xp

Class O.

Insulation Class A.

3 4

~-om-(:))
~-mwx(TH:;:73)84 . Hot Spot Temperature (%), See Se&h 11.3.

+=m2exc:~273)i0
Rotor to Transformer

+-18*F=)87

MIL-T-27 Insulation Class S, MlL-T-2I 038 Insulation Class S, md MIL-T-S5631

Insulation Class B.

MIL-T-27 Insulation Class V, MIL-T-21 038 Insulation Class T, and MIL-T-s5631

Insulation Class C,*

MIL-T-27 Insulation Class T and MIL-T-21 038 Insulation Class U.*

MIL-T-27 Insulation Class U and MIL-T-21038

Insulanon Class V Nottor Oatormlnstlon of Irwulatlon Class I

Application

11-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

11.1

INDUCTIVE

DEVICES,

TRANSFORMERS

Quality Factor - ~
Family Type
Pulse Transformers Audio Transformers Power Transformers and Filters 1 MIL-SPEC

1.5 3.0 8.0


12

I Lower I 5.0 I 7.5 30


I

TRANSFORMER APPLICATION NOTE: Insulation Class and Family Type


Determination

MIL-T-27
TF I MIL-T-27 4 I Grad,

Example
R

Deslgnatlon
01
Fatity

m
~ symbol

576

RF Transformers

30

Imldabrl Clasa

Family Type Codes


q

Are: and Filter: 01 thru 09, 37 thru 41

Refer to Transformer Appllcatlon Determlnatlon of Family Typ.

Note

for
Power Transformer Audio Transformer:

10 thru 21, 50 thru 53

Environment Environment GB

Factor - ZE ~E

Pulse Transformer:

22 thru 36, 54

MI L-T-21038
1.0 TP
4

Example
Q

Designation
X11 OO8COO1

GF %
Ns Nu

6.0
12

MIL-T-21038

Grade

I
Insulation

5.0 16 6.0 8.0 7.0 9.0 24 .50 13 34 610


Grade 2

Class

MIL-T-55631.

The Transformers are Designated


Types, Grades and Classes.

Alc
IF

with the following Type I


Type II

. .

*UC
UF RW SF MF

Type Grade

Ill

Intermediate Frequency Transformer Radio Frequency Transformer Discriminator Transformer For Use When immersion and Moisture Resistance Tests are Required For Use When Moisture Resistance Test is Required For Use in Sealed Assemblies 85oC Maximum Operating Temperature 105C Maximum Operaiing Temperature 12SeC Maximum Operating Temperature > 125C Maximum Operating Temperature

Grade 3 Class O Class A Class B Class C

. -

The class denotes the maximum operating temperature (temperature rise plus maximum ambient temperature).

11-2

MIL-HDBK-217F

11.2 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-15305 MIL-C-3901O STYLE

INDUCTIVE

DEVICES,

COILS

DESCRIPTION Fixed and Variable, RF Moided, RF, Est. Rel.

Failures/l 06 Hours Xp = kbnc7cQ7LE


Base Failure Rate - ~ Maximum Operating Temperature ~C) TH~ (oC) 30 35 40 45 50 E 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 851 .00044 1052 .00043

Construction Factor - Xc Construction Fixed Variable Zc


1504 .00037 .00037 .00037 .00038 .00038 .00039 .0004 .00041 .00042 .00043 .00044 .00046 .00047 .0005 .00052 .00055 .00059 .00063 .00068 .00075 .00083 .00093 .0011 .0012 0014

1253
.00039

.00048
.00053 .0006 .00071 .00087 .0011 .0015 .0023 .0037 .0067 .014

.00044
.00046 .00048 .00051 .00055 .0006 .00067 .00076 .00089 .0011 .0013 .0018 .0024 .0036 .0057

.0004
.00042 .00043 .00045 .00048 .00051 .00054 .00058 .00063 .00069 .00076 .00085 .00096 .0011 .0013 .0015 .0018 .0022 .0028

I
Quality Factor - ~

1 2

Quality s R P M MIL-C-15305 Lower

7rQ .03 .10 .30 1.0 4.0 20

NOTE: The models are valid onty if THS is not above the tern perature rating for a given insulation class.

~=mmex(:~:) ,n$u~onc,-$o
MlL-C- 15305 2

=mgexp(:;:) 3.

MlL-C-l 5305 InsulationClass A and MIL.C-3901 o ,~u~~c,wA,

~--19exp(TH::27a)e7
MIL-C-3901O Insulation ChseeB.
4.

MIL-C-15305 InsulationClass B and

MIL-C-I 5305 Insulation Class C and MIL-C-3901O


Insulation Class F .

HS

= Hot Spot Temperature(C), See Section f 1.3.

Refer to Coil Appllcetlon Note for Determhmtlon of Inaulatlon Claes.

11-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

11.2

INDUCTIVE

DEVICES,

COILS

Environment Factor - ZE Environment GB GF % Ns Nu Ac


IF

COIL

APPLICATION

Determination ~E 1.0 4.0 12 I 5.0 16 5.0 7.0 6.0 8.0


24 MIL--G153O5

NOTE: Infsulatlon Class From Part Designation

MlL-C-l 5305. All parts in this specification are R.F. wils. An example type designation is:

LT

4 I Insulation Class Code

001

Famify

*UC *UF
RW

The codes used for the Insulation C&ss are: 1,2,3 Class C: 4, 5, 6 Class B: 7, 8, 9 Class O: 10,11,12 Class A:

SF MF ML CL 13 34 610

.50

MI L-C-3901 O. An example type designation per this specification is: M I Military Designator 39010/01 A

Document Sheet Number

Insulation class

11-4

MIL-HDBK-217F

11.3 ,

INDUCTIVE

DEVICES,

DETERMINATION

OF

HOT

SPOT

TEMPERATURE

Hot Spot temperature can be estimated as follows: THS=TA+ where: THS TA AT = = = Hot Spot Temperature Average Temperature (C) (C) Rise Above Ambient (C) Inductive Device Ambient Operating Temperature 1.1 (AT)

AT can either be determined by the appropriate Temperature Rise- Test Method paragraph in the device base specification (e.g., paragraph 4.8.12 for M IL-T-27 E), or by approximation using one of the procedures described below. AT Approximation
Infnrmatinn .. ... .. ... .
.. ,

Knnwn
,., ,....

-,

AT Annrqximation w .
.yp.

1.

MIL-C-3901 O Slash Sheet Number MIL-C-39010/l C-3C, 5C, 7C, 9A, 10A, 13, 14 tvllL-c-39010/4C, 6C, 8A, 11, 12

AT = 15C AT = 35C AT= 125 w@

2.

Power Loss Case Radiating Surface Area Power Loss Transformer Weight Input Power Transformer Weight (Assumes 80% Efficiency)

3.

AT=

11.5 WL/(Wt.).6766

4.

AT = 2.1 w,/(w@66

w~

Power Loss (W) Radiating Surface Area of Case (in2). Transformer Weight (Ibs.)
Input Power (W) See below for MIL-T-27

A wt.
w,

= =
=

Case Areas

NOTE: Methods are listed in preferred order (i.e., most to least accurate). MIL-C-3901 O are microminiature devices with surface areas less than 1 in2. Equations 2-4 are applicable to devices with surface areas from 3 in2 to 150 in2. Do not include the mounting surface when determining radiating surface area, MIL-T-27 Case Radiating Areas (Excludes Mounting Surface) Case Case Area (in*) Area {in2) 4 GB 33 LB 7 43 GA LA
11 HB . 42 MB

Case AF AG
AH

Area (in2) 82 98
98

AJ EB EA FB FA

18 ;; 25 31

HA JB JA KB KA

53 58 71 72 84

MA NB ::

115
117

139 146

11-5

MIL-HDBK-217F
I

12.1

ROTATING

DEVICES,

MOTORS

I
I The following failure-rate model appiies to motors with power ratings betow one horsepower. This model is applicable to polyphase, capacitor start and run and shaded pole motors. Its application may be extended to other types of fractional horsepower motors utilizing rolling element grease packed bearings. The rndel is dictated by two failure modes, bearing failures and winding failures. Application of the model to D.C. brush motors assumes that brushes are inspected and replaced and are not a failure mode. Typical appkations include fans and Mowers as well as various other motor applications. The model is based on Referenoe 4, which oontains a more comprehensive treatment of motor life precktion methods. The reference should be reviewed when bearing loads exceed 10 percent of rated bad, speeds exceed 24,000 rpm or motor back include motor speed slip of greater than 25 percent. The instantaneous failure rates, or hazard rates, experienced by motors are not oonstant but increase with time. The failure rate model in this sectbn is an average failure rate for the motor operating over time period t. The motor operating time period (t-hours) is selected by the analyst. Each motor must be replaced when it reaches the end of this perbd to make the calculated ~ valid. The averaga failure rate, ~, has been obtained by dividing the cumulative hazard rate by t, and can be treated as a constant failure rate and added to other part failure rates from this Handbook.

~2 %[ = UB 3+~

1 1

x 106 Failures/l 06 H0ur6

Bearing & Winding Characteristic Life - aB and aw


TA ~C) -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -lo -5 o 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 aB (Hr.) 310 310 330 370 460 660 1100 1900 3600 6700 13000 23000 39000 60000 78000 86000 80000 68000 55000
2357 2534 7A + 273 )

aw

(Hr.)

TA (oC) 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 E 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140

aB (Hr.) 44000 35000 27000 22000 17000 14000

aw

(Hr.)

1.9e+08 1.2e+08 7.4e+07 4.78+07 3.1 e+07 2.0e+07 1.4e+07 9.2e+06 6.4e+06 4.5e+06 3.2e+06 2,3e+06 1.6e+06 1.2e+06 8.9e+05 6.60+05 5.oe+05 3.8e+05 2.9e+-5 1 4500 7A + 273

2.3e+05 1.8e+05 1.4e+05 1.1 e+05 8.8e+04 7.0e+04

11000
9100 7400 6100 5000 4200 3500 2900 2400 2100 1700 1500

5.7e+04
4.6e+04 3.8e+04 3.le+04 2.5e+04 2.1 e+04 1.8e+04 1.5e+04 1.2e+04 1.oe+04 8. 9e+03 7.5e+03

aB

= [

10 (

+ 2010 (

+ 300

-1 1

aw aB
aw TA t NOTE:

= =
s =

10

2357 [ TA + 273

1 .83]

Weibull Characteristic Life for the Motor Bearing Weibull Characteristic Life for the Motor Windings Ambient Temperature (C) Motor Operating Time Period (Hours)

See next page for method to calculate aB and aw when temperature is not constant.

12-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

12.1

ROTATING

DEVICES,

MOTORS

%.ala

Ilation Or cYcled eWr*ure

The following equation can be used to calculate a weghted (e.g., for bearings substitute aB for all as in equation). h1+h2+h3+------hm

characteristic life for both bearings and windings

hm + al where: a=
h, h2 h3 hm = = = =

+ a2

+------- a3

am

either (%Bor aw
Time at Temperature T, T, to T3

Time to Cycle From Temperature


Time at Temperature Time at Temperature Bearing Bearing (or Winding) (or Winding) T3 Tm Life at T, Life at T2

al 2

= =

T, + T3 NOTE: T2=2, T4=2

T3 + T,

T3 i= T2 T1 hl h2 h3

Hours Thermal

(h) Cycle

12-2

MIL-HDBK-217F

12.2

ROTATING

DEVICES.

SYNCHROS

AND

RESOLVERS

DESCRIPTION Rotating Synchros and Resolvers Lp = XbKSZNXE NOTE:

Failures/l 06 Hours

Synchros and resolvers are predominately used in service requiring only slow and infrequent motion. M-echanical wearout problenis are infrequent so that the electrical failure mode dominates, and no mechanical mode failure rate is required in the model above.

Base FaiUre Rate - ~ Tr (C) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 .0083 .0088 .0095 .010 .011 .013 .014 .016 .019 .022 .027 TF (%) 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 .032 .041 .052 .069 .094 .13 .19 .29 .45 .74 1.3

Number Of Brushes Factor - ~N Number of Brushes 2 3 4 %N 1.4 2.5 3.2

Environment Factor - YIC=


L

Environment GB GF

~E

1.0 2.0 12 7.0 18 4.0 6.0 16 25 26 .50


14

% TF

= .00535 exp (T~:~3 = )85 Frame Temperature (C)

GM NS Nu

If Frame Temperature is Unknown Assume TF .40 C + Ambient Temperature

Aic
IF

*UC Size Factor - XS %s DEVICE TYPE Synchro I


Resolver I 3 2.25 1.5

UF *RW Size 18 or Larger 1 SF MF ML CL

Size 8 or Smalier 2

Size 10-16

1.5

36 680

12-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

12.3

ROTATING

DEVICES,

ELAPSED

TIME

METERS

DESCRIPTION Elapsed Time Meters

kp = kbycE

Failures/l 06

Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ Type A.C. Inverter Driven Commutator D.C.

Environment Factor - Xr
b

k~ 20 30

Environment % GF GM

ZE 1.0 2.0 12 7.0 18 5.0 8.0 16 25 26 .50 14 38 NIA

80

N~ Nu *IC

Temperature

Stress Factor - ZT XT .5 .6 .8 1.0

Operating T (C)/Rated T (C) o to .5 .6 .8 1.0

IF *UC UF *RW SF MF ML CL

12-4

MIL-HDBK-217F

12.4 Example Given:

ROTATING

DEVICES,

EXAMPLE

Fractional Horsepower Motor operating at a thermal duty cycle of: 2 hours at 10OC, 8 hours at 20C, 0.5 hours from 100C to 20C, and 0.5 hours from 20C back to 100C. Find the average failure rate for 4000 hours operating time.

The basic procedure is to first determine operating temperature at each time intewai temperature when traversing from ow temperature to another, e.g. T2 = (100 + 20/2 = ~c. aB and aw at each temperature to use in the ~ e~ation. ati then use these vakes to determine a wei@kf

(or averge ~te~in and aw

average ~

h,

2 hr.

T, T2
T3

= =
=

1 OOC; 60%;
20C;

aB aB
aB

= =
=

6100 hours; 35000 39000


hOUfS;

aw aw aw

= = =

31000 180000

hours
hOUR

h2 = h4 = 0.5 hr. h3 = 8 hr.

hours;

1600000 hours

aB

2 6100

2 +0.5+8+0.5 0.5 8 + 35000 + 39000

0.5 + 35000

= 19600 hours

aw

2 31000

2 +0.5+8+0.5 0.5 8 + 180000 + 1600000

0.5 + 180000

= 146000

hOUB

(3++0
(
(4000)2 (19600)3 1 + 146000 X106 ) 9.0 FaihxeW 06 Hours

12-5

MIL-HDBK-217F

13.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-5757 MIL-R-6106 MI L-R-19523 MIL-R-39016

RELAYS,

MECHANICAL

MIL-R-19648 MIL-R-83725 MIL-R-83726

DESCRIPTION Mechanical Relay (Except Class C, Solid State Type)

Lp = &XLZCZCYCXFXQXE Base Failure Rate - ~


Rated

Failures/l

06 Hours Load Stress Factor - XL

Temperature 125c~ .0059 .0060 .0061

TA (W)
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 % 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120

85%+

s
.05 .10 .20 .30 .40 .50 .60 .70 .80 .90 1.00 1.

I Resist ive
1.00 1.02 1.08 1.15 1.28 1.48 1.76 2.15 2.72 3.55

Load Typo lnductive2 1.02 1.06 1.28 1.?6 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4 Lamp3 ; :Z 2.72 9.49 54.6

.0060 .0061 .0063


.0065 .0068 .0072 .0077 .0084 .0094 .011 .013 .016 .020

.0062 .0064
.0066 .0068 .0071 .0074 .0079 .0083 .0089 .0097 .011 .012 .013 .015 .018 .021 .025 .031

~2
,8

XL = @Xp ()

3.

S2
XL = exp ~

() s2~= ~
Operatino Load Current Rated Resistive Load Current

2.

~L = ep ()

125

For single devices

which switch two different load types, evaluate XL for each possible stress load type

1%= 2%=
TA .

005excA::73)57 00MexcAJ~73)04
Cycle Rate
(Cycles per Hour) Ambient Temperature (oC) 21.0 <1.0 Cycle Rate (Cycles per Hour) >1000 10-1000

combination and use the worse case (largest ZL).

Cycling Factor - ~YC


CYC (MI L-SPEC) i-io~ 10 0.1

WC

Contact Form Factor - ~

(Lower

Quality)

(Applies

to Active Conducti ng Contacts) Contact Form ~c I DPST 1.50 1.75 2.00 2,50 3.00 4.25 5.50 8.00

Cycles per Hour 2 100 ) (

Cycles per Hour 10

SPDT 3PST 4PST DPDT PDT 4PDT

NO~

:Values of ZCYC

for cycling rates beyond

the

basic design limitations of the relay are not valid. Design specifications should be consulted prior to

6PDT

Vauation f CYC.
13-1

I
I I
13.1
RELAYS,

h41L-HDBK-217F

MECHANICAL

Oualhy
R P x

% .10
I .30 .45

I
con~tion

i
Construction Type Dry Rwd

u M L Non-Est.Rol.

.60 :::
3.0

Ifbwmv[ d In@

I MofcuwWottod

6 11131.

18

I
ArmuW(lmngand 6 5 12

Envimnmont Factor -~
$tE ,

10

Environment

MIL-SPEC

LowOrOudity 2.0 5.0


I

GB %
GM NS i N

1.0
2.0 15 8.0 27

Poi8fizod

B8mcul Ammtuf6110 10 AwnmJro (short) 100 MwcuryWetted


ArrnmW@ (081anc0d A 6 9

20 20 100
2 M 12

u 24 78 15 20 20 36 140 5-20 w Elut mfiic Hqh Spood

*IC
A~

7.0

9.0 11 12
46

Auc %F

L&w I
Mching, MqymtiZ Mdiurn Uucury Wmttod B8bcod Arwnturo vaCwm (Gk!m) Vaafwl (CkmmiC) An I short]

Tiu90 Dd8y,

1 -1-1
5 5 20 5 10 10 40

SF %
% cl

.50 I
25 66 WA

1.0 72

10

IPm-

11

WA 2 7 12 6 z

CWMctom m Cwu?t)

1~

(short) Wchankd Latching OatuK#d Ann8tufo .

10
5 1

20
10 I

Iw

,.

=1

-.

MIL-HDBK-217F

13.2 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-28750 MIL-R-83726

RELAYS,

SOLID

STATE

AND

TIME

DELAY

DESCRIPTION Relay, Solid State Relay, Time Delay, Hybrid and Solid State

The most accurate method for predicting the failure rate of solid state (and solid state time delay) relays is to sum the failure rates for the individual components which make up the relay. The individual component failure rates can either be calculated from the models provided in the main body of this Handbook (Parts Stress Method) or from the Parts Count Method shown in Appendix A, depending upon the depth of knowledge the analyst has about the components being used. If insufficient information is available, the following cfefautt model can be used: ~ = ~X@E Failure@106 Hours

Base Faiiure Rate - ~ Relay Type Solid State Solid State Time Delay Hybrid .40 .50

Environment Factor - Xr Environment GB GF GM .50 NS Nu *tc nE 1.0 3.0 12 6.0 17 12 19 21 32 23 .40 12 33 590

Quality Factor - ZQ Quality IF ~Q Uc

MIL-SPEC Lower

1.0 4.0

*UF RW SF MF ML CL

13-3

, +

MIL-HDBK-217F

14.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-S-3950 MIL-S-8805 MIL-S-8834

SWITCHES,

TOGGLE

OR

PUSHBUTTON

MIL-S-22885 MIL-S-83731

DESCRIPTION Snap-action, Toggle or Pushbutton, Single Body

Failures/l Xp = kb7tcyc7cL7rc7zE

06 Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ Description Snap-action Non-snap Action

Contact Form and Quantity Factor - xc 1 Lower Quality Contact Form SPST DPST SPDT 3PST 4PST DPDT 3PDT 4PDT 6PDT xc 1.0 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.2 5.5 8.0

MIL-SPEC .00045 .0027

I
I
*CYC 1.0

.034 .040

Cycling Factor - Zcyc


b

Switching Cycles per Hour s I Cycle/Hour

Environment Factor - nE >1 Cycle/Hour Number of Cycles/Hour Environment GB Load Stress Factor - ~L Stress s 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Resistive 1.00 1.02 1.06 1.15 1.28 1.48 1.76 2.15 2.72 3.55 4,77 Load Type Induct ive 1.02 1.06 1.28 1.76 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4 Lamp 1.06 1,28 2.72 9.49 54.6 GF GM Ns NU Alc IF Uc *UF RW SF MF ML CL 25 67 1200 ~E 1.0 3.0 18 8.0 29 10 18 13 22 46 .50

s=

Operating Load Current Rated Resistive Load Current = = = exp (S/.8)2 exp (S/.4)2 exp (S/.2)2 for Resistive Load for Inductive Load for Lamp Load

XL XL ~L

NOTE: When the switch is rated by inductive load, then use resistive XL.

14-1

1,.,

*mm..

I,

,-

.AA1.4WI

.4

WI.*-

fi

.4Knw

MIL-HDBK-217F

14.2

SWITCHES,

BASIC

SENSITIVE DESCRIPTION Basic Sensitive

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-88f)5

Ap =L7C ~YCXLZE ~
Base Failure Rate - ~

Failures/l

06 Hours

Cycling Factor - ncyc Switching Cycles per Hour CYC 1.0

%=%JE%C
~ = ~E + n~

(if Actuation Differential is >0.002 inches)

(if Actuation Differential is <0.002 inches)

51 Cycle/Hour

n = Number of Active Contacts Description %E %C bO MIL-SPEC .10 .00045 .0009 Load StreSs Factor -XL Stress s 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 ::: 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 s= Resistive 1.00 1.02 1.06 1.15 1.28 1.48 1.76 2.15 2.72 3.55 4.77 Load Type Inductive 1.02 1.06 1.28 7.76 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4 Lamp 1.06 1.28 2.72 9.49 54.6 Lower Quality .10 .23 .63

>1 Cycle/Hour

Number of Cycles/Hour I

Environment Factor - xc Environment GB GF % Ns N *IC IF Uc UF *RW SF MF 25 67 1200 1.0 3.0 18 8.0 29


10

18 13 22 46 .50

Operatin~ Load Current Rated Resistive Load Current = = = exp (S/.8)2 exp (S/.4)2 exp (S/.2)2 for Resistive Load for Inductive Load for Lamp Load

ML

Ci nL XL ~L

NOTE: When the Switch is Rated by Inductive Load, then use Resistive XL.

I 4-L

MIL-HDBK-217F

14.3 SPECIFICATION MIL-S-3786 kp = lb7ccycKL7cE

SWITCHES,

ROTARY

DESCRIPTION Rotary, Ceramic or Glass Wafer, Silver Alloy Cotiacts Failures/l 06 Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~


b

Cycling Factor - ~yc Switching Cycles per Hour CYC 1.0 I


> 1 Cycle/Hour

Base failure rate model (~: %=%E%F %=%E+~G (for Cemrnc RF Wafers) (for Rotary Switch Medium Power Wafers) n = Nu~r Description b E bF %G of Active co~ta~s MIL-SPEC .0067 .00003 .00003 Load stress Faotor - ~L Stress s 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 s. m
Resistive

s 1 Cycle/Hour

I
v

Number of Cycles/Hour

Lower Quality .10 .02 .06

Environment Factor - nEnvironment GB GF GM N~ Nu 1.0 3.0 18 8.0 29 10 18 13


22 46

Load Type
Inductive Lamp

1.00 1.02 1.06 1.15 1.28 1.48 1.76 2.15 2.72 3.55 4.77

1.02 1.06 1.28 1.76 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4

1.06 1.28 2.72 9.49 54.6 1

Alc IF % UF RW SF MF ML , CL

.50 25 67 1200

Operating Load Current Rated Resistive Load Current = = exp (S/.8)2 exp (S/.4)2 exp (S/.2)2 for Resistive Load for Inductive Load for Lamp Load

XL XL

~L =

NOTE: When the Switch is Rated by Inductive Load, then use Resistive XL.

,.

MIL-HDBK-217F

14.4

SWITCHES,

THUMBWHEEL DESCRIPTION Switches, Rotary (Printed Circuit) (Thumbwheel, lnand Pushbutton) Zp = (~1 + XN %2) XCYCZLXE Failures/l 06 Hours

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-2271O Line

CAUTION:

This model applies to the switching function only. The model does not consider the contribution of any discrete components (e.g., resistors, diodes, lamp) which may be mounted on the switch. If significant

(relative to the switch failure rate), the failure rate of these devices must be calculated using the appropriate sectionof this Handbook and added to the failure rate of the switch.
This model applies to a single switch seotion. This type of switch is frequently ganged to provide the required function. The model must be applied to each section individually.

I
I

Base Failure Rate - kbl and %2 MIL-SPEC Description Lower Quality

Cycfing Factor- XCYC Switching Cycles


Der Hour

CYC

%1
b 2

.0067 .062

.086 .089

I
I
I

s 1 Cycle/Hour

1.0
Number of Cycles/Hour

> 1 Cycie/Hour

Number

of Active Contacts

Factor - ZN

I
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

~N = Number of Active Contacts

Environment Factor - x= Environment GB GF Lamp


1.06 1.28 2.72 9.49 54.6
~E

Load Stress Factor - ZI Stress s 0.05 Resistive


1.00 1.02 1.06 1.15 1.28 1.48 1.76 2.15 2.72 3.55 4.77

1.0 3.0 18

Load Type inductive


1.02 1.06 1.28 1.76 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4

N~ Nu Aic IF Uc U F

8.0 29

10
18
13 22 46

s= XL
XL

Operating Load Current Rated Resistive Load Current =


=

RW SF MF

.50 25 67 1200

exp (S/.8)2
exp (S/.4)2

for Resistive

Load

for Inductive Load for Lamp Load

ML CL

XL NOTE:

exp (S/.2) 2

When the Switch is Rated by Inductive Load, then use Resistive XL.

14-4

MIL-HDBK-217F

14.5 SPECIFICATION M IL-C-55629 MIL-C-83363 MIL-C-39019 w-c-375 DESCRIPTION Circuit Breakers, Circuit Breakers, Circuit Breakers, Circuit Breakers,

SWITCHES,

CIRCUIT

BREAKERS

Magnetic, Unsealed, Trip-Free Remote Control, Thermal, Trip-Free Magnetic, Low Power, Sealed, TripFree Service MoJded Case, Branch Circuit and Service

I
= &cnUZQKE Base Failure Rate - ~ Description 1 Lb
I

Failures/l

06 Hours
Quality Factor - XQ Quality
*Q i

1
/ I

I
I

Magnetic I Thermal I
Thermal-Magnetic I

.020 .038

I
I

MIL-SPEC Lower

1.0 8.4 * Environment Factor - n=

.038

I
Environment GB 1.0 2.0 15 8.0 27 7.0 9.0 11 12 46 .50 25 66 tWA d

Configuration Configuration

Factor - XC Zc

GF SPST DPST 3PST 4PST 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 GM Ns Nu


An IF

Use Factor - m t
u

Use Not Used as a Power OtiOff Switch Also Used as a Power On/Off Switch

*UC lru *UF 1.0 *RW SF 10 MF ML CL

14-5

n7c

----

..A

Ann

MIL-HDBK-217F
I I
I

15.1

CONNECTORS,

GENERAL

(EXCEPT s M M M M M M M M M M

PRINTED

CIRCUIT

BOARD)

DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION Rack and Panel M IL-C-24308 M IL-C-28748 IL-C-28804 .M M IL-C-83513 M Cimdar M L-C-5015 M IL-C-26482 M 1~ M L-C-38999 L-C-81 511 I q1JOTE: See following page for connector configurations.

EDIFICATION* .C-3607 .-c-3643 .-C-3650 .-c-3655 .-C-25516 .-(2-3901 2 .-C-55235 .-c-55339 .-C-3767 .-C-22992

DESCRIPTION Coaxial, RF

Power

MIL-C-49142

Triaxial, RF

Ap = AbZ~ZpnE Failures/l 06 Hours


APPLICATION NOTE: The failure rate model is for a mated pair of connectors. It is sometimes desirable to assgn half of the overall mated pair connector (i.e., single connector) failure rate to the line replaceable unit and half to the prediction to allow a chassis (or backplane). An example of when this would be beneficial is for input to maintainability failure rate weighted repair time to be estimated for both the LRU and chassis. This accounting procedure could be significant if repair times for the two halves of the connector are substantially different. For a single connector divide kp by two.

Base Faiture Rate - ~


To (oC) Al .00006 Insert Material* f32 & .00025 .00033 .00044 .00057 .00073 .00093 .0012 .0015 .0019 .0023 .0029 .0036 .0045 .0056 .0070 .0087 .011 .014 .018 .022 .029 .0021 .0026 .0032 .0040 .0048 ,0059 .0071 .0087 .011 .013 .016 .020 .024 D4 .0038 .0048 .0062 .0078 .0099 .013 ,016 .020 .026 .033 .043 .056 .074 . ~=

Base Failure Rate - ~

(oontd)

.020 ~xp

~-lsgz.o
((0+=)+ ~0x73)53;

.00008
;:
30 40 50 60 70
80

90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

.00009 .00011 .00014 .00016 .00020 .00023 .00027 .00032 .00037 .00043 .00050 .00059 .00069 .00080 .00094 .0011 .0013 .0016 .0019 .0023 .0028 .0034 .0042 .0053

2. ~=

.431

exp

((.+ 7)+ (R:y)


T-073.6

3. ~=

.190e~p

((0+4+ (%:7)42)
T-1298.0 ~-1528.8 ((0+27)+ ~0&:73)472)

4. ~ = .770 exp

To =
To =

Internal Contact Operating Temperature (C) Connector Ambient Temperature + Insert Temperature Rise

See folbwing page for Insett Temperature Rise Determination.

ff a mating pair of connectors uses two types of insert materials, use the average of the base failure rates for the two insert material types. See following page for inserl material determination.

MIL-HDBK-217F

15.1

CONNECTORS,

GENERAL

(EXCEPT

PRINTED

CIRCUIT

BOARD)

Insert Material Determination -Possible Insert Materials Conf guration Specification A B c D Rack and Panel MIL-C-28748 x M IL-C-83733 x MIL-C-24308 x x M IL-C-28804 x x MIL-C-83513 x x Circular I MIL-C-5015 MIL-C-26482 MIL-C-28840 MIL-C-38999 MIL-C-8151 1 MI L-C-83723 MI L-C-3767 MIL-C-22992 MI L-C-3607 MIL-C-3643 MIL-C-3650 MI L-C-3655 MIL-C-25516 MIL-C-39012 MI L-C-55235 MIL-C-55339 MIL-C-49142 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x : x x x

x x x

Power
I

x x

Insert Tempe rature Rise (AT I ) Determination ContacI 12 16 20 1 2 T 1 2 5 8 3 13 4 4 8 13 19 5 ; 5 18 27 6 3 8 7 4 10 23 36 46 13 30 8 5 16 57 9 37 6 70 10 7 45 19 41 15 15 96 70 26 20 25 106 39 54 30 72 35 40 92 w AT AT AT AT AT i = = = = =


=

Coaxial

0.989 (i)l 85 0.640 (i) 85 0.274 (i) 85 0.100 (i)l 85

22 Gauge Contacts 20 Gauge Contacts


16 Gauge Contacts

12 Gauge Contacts

Insert Temperature Rise


Amperes per Contact

Triiial Insert Material Type A B

RF Coaxial Connectors Common Insert Materials Vitreous Glass, Alumina Ceramic, Polyimide Diallylphtalate, Melamine, Fluorosilicione, Silicone Rubber, Polysulfone, Epoxy Resin Polytetrafluorethy lene (Teflon), Chbrotrifluorethylene (Kel-f) Polyamide (Nylon), Polychloroprene Temperature Ran~e (C)* -55 to 250 -55 to 200 RF Coaxial Connectors (High Power Applications)

AT= 5C

AT = 50C

Mating/Unmating -55 to 125 Mating/Unmating Cycles* (per 1000 hours) o to .05 > .05 to .5 >.5t05 >5t050 > 50

Factor - KK nK 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0


and disconnect.

D ~ne

-55 to 125

These temperature ranges indicate maximum =pability of the insert material only. Connectors Jsing these materials generally have a reduced emperature range caused by other considerations of :onnector design. Applicable connector specifications contain connector operating emperature range,

One cycle includes both connect q

I
MIL-HDBK-217F
I

I
I

15.1

CONNECTORS,

GENERAL

(EXCEPT

PRINTED

CIRCUIT

BOARD)

Active Pins Factor - n


Number of Active Cent acts

Environment Factor - XE
~E

Xp
1.0 1.4 1.6 1.7 ;:: ::: 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.5 7.4 8.4 9.5 11 12.

Number of Active

Contacts 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110


115 120

Environment
13 15 16 18 E 23 25 27 30 32 35 37 40 43 46 50 53 57 61 65 69 74 78 83 89 94 100

MIL-SPEC 1.0 1.0 8.0 5.0 13 3.0 5.0 8.0


12 19

Lower Quality 2.0 5.0. 21 10 27 12 18 17


25 37

GB GF % Ns Nu *IC % %c
UF RW

; 3 4 5 6 : 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

125
130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200

SF MF ML CL 10 27 490

.50 20 54 970

.80

q N

= =

0.51064 Number of Active Contacts

An active contact is the conductive element in a oonnector which mates with another element for the purpose of transferring electrical energy. For
ooaxial and triaxial oonneotors, the shield contact k oounted as an active contact.

15-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

15.2

CONNECTORS,

PRINTED

CIRCUIT

BOARD DESCRIPTION One-Piece Connector Two-Piece Connector Failures/l 06 t-iours mrature Ri: ! (AT C) Determination c tntad Guac 26 22 20
I

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-21097 MIL-C-55302

Base Faiture Rate - L To (C) o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 .00012 .00017 .00022 .00028 .00037 .00047 .00059 .00075 .00093 .0012 .0015 To (<) 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
Ab

Connector Ter Amperes Per Contact


1

.0018 .0022 .0028 .0035 .0044 .0055 .0069 .0088 .011 .015

2 3 4 5

2 8 16 27 41

1 4 8 13 19

1 2 5 8 13

AT = 2.100 (i).85 AT = 0.989 (i)l .85 AT = 0.640 (i)-85

26 Guage Contacts 22 Guage Contacts 20 Guage Contacts

AT = Contact Temperature Rise


i =

Amperes per Contact

To = Internal Contact Operating

Temperature

(C)

Mating/Unmating lvlating/Unmating Cycles* (Perl 000 Hours) o to .05 > .05 to .5 >.5t05 >5t050 >50

Factor - XK

1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0

A cycle is defined as the mating and unrnating of a connector.

15-4

MIL-HDBK-217F

15.2 Active Pins Factor - z


Number of Active Contacts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Number of Active Contacts

CONNECTORS,

PRINTED

CIRCUIT

BOARD

Environment Factor - ~
~E

*P

Environment 13 15 16 18 19 :; 25 27
30 32 35 37 40 43 46 50 53 57 61 65 69 74 78 :; 94 100

MIL-SPEC 1.0 3.0 8.0 5.0 13 6.0 11

Lower C?ualit~ 2.0 7.0 17 10 26 14 22 14 22 37

1.0 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.9

GB GF GM Ns Nu Alc

% 75 80 E 196 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 195 200

2.0 ::: 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.9 H 3.3


3.4 3.6 3.7 ::: 4.8 5.6 6.5 7.4 !; 11 12

*UC *UF RW SF
MF

6.0 11 19 .50 10 27 490

.80 20 54 970

ML c,

np =
=

exp

()
~

N-1

c1

0.51064 Number of Active Pins

An active contact is the conductive element which mates with another element for the purpose of transferring electrical energy.

15-5

MIL-HDBK-217F

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-83734 Failuresll

DESCRIPTION IC Sockets, Plug-in 06 Hours

P = %ZPXE

Base Failure Rate - ~ I Type All MIL-S-83734 ?b~ .00042

Environment Factor - XE r I Environment GB GF GM ~E 1.0 3.0


14

Active Pins Factor - np


Number of Active contacts

INS 7tp Nu Alc IF *UC *UF RW SE MF ML

6.0 18 8.0
12 11 13 25

6 8
10

2.0 2.3
2.6 3.1 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.6 5.3 6.7 7.4
9.1

14 16 18 20 22 24 28 36 40 48 50 64

.50 14 36 650

9.5 13

CL

np q N

= = =

exp

()

N-1 ~

0.51064
Number of Active Contacts

An active contact is the conductive element which mates with another element for the purpose of transferring electrical energy.

15-6

-.

---

---

.-

MIL-HDBK-217F

16.1

INTERCONNECTION

ASSEMBLIES

WITH

PLATED

THROUGH

HOLES

DESCRIPTION Circuit Boards, Printed (PCBS) and Discrete Wiring

Ap = Lb N1 xc [

+ N2 (ZC

+ 13)]

~Q~E

Failures/106

Hours

APPLICATION NOTE: For assemblies not using Plated Through Holes (PTH), use Section 17, Connections. A discrete wiring assembly with electrokms deposit plated through holes is basically a pattern of insulated wires laid down on an adhesive coated substrate. The primary cause of failure for both printed wiri~ and discrete wiring assemblies is associated with plated through kle pr6blems (e.g., barrel cracki~). Base Failure Rate - ~ Technology Printed Wiring Assembly/Printed Circuit Boards with PTHs Discrete Wiring with Electroless Deposited PTH (s 2 Levels of Circuitry) i~bl Qud@ ~actor Quality MIL-SPEC or Comparable Institute for Interconnecting, and Packaging Electronic Circuits (lPC) Standards Lower
fiQ

nQ 1

II
&

II

.000041

.00026 2

Number of PTHs Factor - N, ard NFactor N, Quantit~ Quantity of Wave Soldered Functional PTHs Quantity of Hand Soldered PTHs I Complexity Factor - Zn Number of Circuit Planes, P 52 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Discrete Wiring w/PTf-i Xc = .65 P.m 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 1 2sPs16 I Environment Factor - nE Environment GB I 7CC 1.0 2.0 7.0 5.0 13 5.0 8.0 16 28 19 .50 10 27 500

N2

GF GM Ns Nu
AC IF

Uc *UF RW SF MF ML c,

MIL-HDBK-217F

17.1

CONNECTIONS

DESCRIPTION Connections Used on All Assemblies Except Those Using Plated Through Holes (PTH)

APPLICATION NOTE: The failure rate model in this section applies to connections used on all assemblies except those using plated through holes. Use the Interconnection Assembly Model in Section 16 to account for connections to a circuit board using plated through hole technology. The failure rate of the structure which supports the connections and parts, e.g., non-plated-through hole boards and terminal straps, is considered to be zero. Solderless wrap connections are characterized by solid wire wrapped under tension around a post, whereas hand soldering with wrapping does not depend on a tension induced connection. The followiW model is for a single co~nection. -~ = ~ZQZE

Failures/l 06 Hours

Base FaiJure Rate - L


!

Environment Factor - ZF Environment fiE 1.0 2.0 7.0 4.0 11 4.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 16 .50 9.0 24 420

Connection

Type * .00014 .00026 .00005 .0000035 .00012 .000069

Hand Solder, w/o Wrapping Hand Solder, w/Wrapping Crimp Weld Solderless Wrap Clip Termination Reflow Solder

GB GF GM N~ Nu *IC IF

Quaiiiy Factor - XO Quality Grade Crimp Types Automated


~Q

C;mments

1,0
q

Uc Daily pull tests recommended. UF %w sF

Manual Upper

1.0

Only MIL-SPEC or equivalent tools and terminals, pull test at beginning and end of each shift, color coded tools and terminations. MIL-SPEC tools, pull test at beginning of each shift. Anything less than standard criteria.

MF ML CL

Standard

2.0

Lower

20.0

411 Types
~xcept Crimp

1.0

17-1

,,

MIL-HDBK-217F

18.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-M-103O4

METERS,

PANEL

DESCRIPTION Meter, Electrical Indicating, Panel Type, Ruggedized Failures/l 06 Hours

= %nAzFnQzE

Base Failure Rate - ~


Type

QuaI@ Factor - ~ Quality .090 M IL-M-1 0304 Lower I nQ 1.0 3.4

All

Application Factor - ~A Application


Direct Current Alternating Current

I
1.0 1.7

Environment Factor - XF Environment GB GF %! ~E 1.0 4.0 25 12 35 28 42 58 73 60 1,1 60 NIA N/A

Function Function Ammeter Voltmeter

Factor - ~F 1 ~F

Ns Nu Alc IF
1.0

1.0
I

Uc UF RW

Other*

2.8

Meters whose basic meter movement construction is an ammeter with associated conversion elements.

SF MF ML CL

18-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

19.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-3098 DESCRIPTION Crystal Units, Quartz

QUARTZ

CRYSTALS

Lp = AbXQnE Failures/l

06 Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ Frequency, f(MHz) 0.5 I Lk


u

Environment

Factor - xc
L

Environment G~ GF GM NS NU Aic iF Uc UF %w SF MF ML CL

~E 1.0 3.0 10 6.0 16 12 17 22 28 23 .50 13 32 500

1.0

.011
.013 .019 .022 .024 .026 .027 .028 .029 .030 .031 .032 .033 .033 .034 .035 .035 .036 .036 .037 .037 .037 .038

5.0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105

Ab =

.o13(f).23

Quality Factor - xfi


u

Quality MIL-SPEC Lower

fiQ 1.0 2.1

19-1

______ _ ___ _____ __

MIL-HDBK-217F

20.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-L-6363 W-L-1 11

LAMPS

DESCRIPTION Lamps, Incandescent, Aviation Sewice Lamps, Incandescent, Miniature, Tungsten-Filament

kp = ~~u~A~E

Failures/l

06 Hours

NOTE: The data used to develop this model included randomly occurring catastrophic APPLICATION failures and failures due to tungsten filament wearout. Base FaiUre Rate - ~ Rated Voltage, Vr (Votts) 5 6 12 14 24 28 37.5
Ab

Environment Factor - m~ . Environment GB GF GM NS Nu *IC %E 1.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 .70 4.0 6.0 27

.59 .75 1.8 2.2 4.5 5.4 7.9

I
Ab = .074(vr) 29

IF Uc UF

Util@ion

Factor- nu

*RW SF MF

Utilization (Illuminate Hour# Equipment Operate Hours) < 0.10 0.10 to 0.90 > 0.90 0.10 0.72

ML cL

1.0

Application Factor - ~A Application Alternating Current Direct Current 1.0 3.3

20-1

a..

11

MIL-HDBK-217+

21.1 SPECIFICATION MlL-F-l 5733 MIL-F-18327

ELECTRONIC

FILTERS,

NON-TUNABLE

DESCRIPTION Filters, Radio Frequency Interference Fitters, High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Band Suppression, and Dual Functioning (Non-tunable)

The most accurate way to estimate the failure rate for electronic fitters is to sum the failure rates tor the individual compments which make up the filter (e.g., ICs, diodes, resistors, etc.) using the appropriate models provided in this Handbook. The Parts Stress models or the Parts Count method given in Appendix A can be used to determine individual component failure rates. If insufficient information is available then the following defautt model can be used. ~=%~xE Failures/l 06 Hours

Base Failure Rate - ~ Type


MlL-F-l

Environment Factor - ZE
Ab Environment GB GF GM .12 NS NU .12 ~E 1.0 2.0 6.0 4.0

5733, Ceramic-Ferrite

.022

Construction (Styles FL 10-16, 22, 24, 30-32, 34, 35, 38, 41-43, 45, 47-50, 61-65, 70, 81-93, 95, 96) MlL-F-l 5733, Components, Discrete LC (Styles FL 37, 53, 74)

9.0 7.0 9.0 11


13 11 .80 7.0 15

MlL-F-l 8327, Discrete LC Components (Composltlon

*IC IF

1)
.27

M IL-F-18327, Discrete LC and Cfystai Components (Composition 2)

Uc *UF
RW SF MF

Quality Factor - ~

ML
1

Quality

CL

120

MiL-SPEC

1.0 2.9 I

Lower

21-1

l\

----

MIL-HDBK-217F

22.1 SPECIFICATION W-F-1726 W-F-1814 MIL-F-5372 ML-F-23419 MIL-F-15160 DESCRIPTION Fuse, Caftridge Class H Fuse, CaMdge, High Interrupting Capacity Fuse, Current Limiter Type, Aircraft Fuse, Instrument Type Fuse, Instrument, Power and Telephone (Nonindicating), Style FO1

FUSES

+)

%Eai1ure@106Wrs

APPLICATION NOTE: The reliability modeling of fuses presents a unique problem. Unlike most other components, there is very little correlation between the number of fuse replacements and actual fuse failures. Generally when a fuse opens, or blows, - something else in the circuit has created an overload condition and the fuse is sknply functbning as designed. This model is based on life test data and represents fuse open and shorting failure modes due primarily to mechanical fatigue and corrosion. A short faiture mode is most cornmonty caused by electrically conductive material shorting the fuse terminals together causing a failure to open condition when rated current is exceeded.

Base Failure Rate - &


Type

Environment

Factor - TCF

Environment

~E
1.0

W-F-1726, W-F-1814, MIL-F5372, MIL-F-23419, ML-F-151 60

.010

%
GF

2.0 8.0 5.0 11 9.0 12 15 18 16 .90 10 21 230 J

% NS Nu AC IF

Uc
*UF *RW SF MF ML CL

22-1

I I

MIL-HDBK-217F

I
23.1 L MISCELLANEOUS PARTS

- Failure Rates for Miscellaneous Parts (Failure@ 106 Hours) Failure Rate

Vibrators (M IL-V-95) 60-cycle 120-cycle 400-cycle

15 20 40

Lamps Neon Lamps

0.20

Fiber Optic Cables (Single Fiber Types Only)

0.1 (Per Fiber Km)

Single Fiber Optic Connectors*

0.10

Microwave Elements (Coaxial & Waveguide) Attenuators (Fixed & Variable) Fixed Elements (Directional Couplers, Fixed Stubs & Cavities) Variable Elements (Tuned Stubs & Cavities)

See Resistors, Negligible

Type RD

0.10 0.10x z~
0.20 x ~E O.10x?tE

Microwave Ferrite Devices Isolators & Circulators (S100W)


Isolators & Circulators Phase (>100W)

Shifter (Latching)

Dummy Loads < 1 Oow 1Oow to < 1Ooow > 1000W

0.010 x ~E 0.030 x n~ 0.10 x ZE 0.030 x fiE

Terminations (Thin or Thick Film Loads Used in Stripline and Thin Film Ckcults)

Caution: Excessive Mating-Demating

Cycles May Seriously Degrade Reliability

23-1

MIL-HDBK-217F
23.1 MISCELLANEOUS PARTS

Environment Factor - X,..


.V. V..-v . W.O, .V -w..-

(Durnmy ~E 1.0 2.0 8.0 5.0 12 Environment

Load

Environment GB GF GM NS Nu

GB GF GM N~

1.0
2.0 10 5.0 17 6.0 8.0 14 22 25 .50 14 36 660

N
AC

*IC IF Uc
UF RW

5.0 8.0 7.0


11 17

IF

*UC
UF *RW

SF
MF ML CL 24 450

.50 9.0

SF MF ML

I {

c,

23-2

MIL-tiDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT RELIABILITY PREDICTtON

Parts Ccxmt Rellablllty Prediction - This prediction method is applicable during bid proposal and early design phases when insuff-kient information is avaitable to use the part stress analysis models shown in the rndn body of this Handbook. The information needed to apptythe method is (1) generk pal ws (includlng complexity for mkrodrcults) and quantities, (2) part quallty levels, and (3) equipment environment. The equipment failure rate Is obtained by looking up a generic failure rate in one of the following tables, muttiptying it by a qualityfactor,and then summing it with failure rates obtained for other components in the equipment. The general mathematkal expressbn for equipment failure rate with this method is:

Equation 1

for a given equipment environment where: EQUIP = = = = Total equipment failure rate (Failure@l 06 Hours) Generic failure rate for the i h generk part (Failures/106 Quality factor for the i h generic part Quantityof i h generk part Number of different generk part categories in the equipment Hours)

9
7LQ

Ni n

Equation 1 applies if the entire equipment is being used in one environment. If the equipment comprises several units operating in different environments (such as avionics systems with units in airborne inhabited (Al) and uninhabited (Au) environments), then Equation 1 should be applied to the portions of the equipment In each environment. These environment-equipment failure rates should be added to determine total equipment failure rate. Environmental symbols are defined in SeCtion 3. The quality factors to be used with each part type are shown with the appkabk ~ tables and are not

necessarily the same values that are used in the Parl Stress Anatysis. Microcircuits have an additional multiplying factor, ~L, which accounts for the maturfty of the manufacturing process. For devices in production two years or more, no rrmdiiition should be ndtiplied is needed. For those kI production less than two years, ~ by the appropriate XL factor (see page A-4).

ft should be noted that no generic failure rates are shown for hybrid mkrocimdts. Each hybdd is a fakfy unique devke. Since none of these devkes have been standardized, their complexity cannot be determined from their name or function. Identically or similarly named hybrids can have a wide range of complexity that thwarts categorization for pufposes of this prediction method. tf hybrids are anticipated for a design, their use and construction should be thoroughly investigated on an individual basis with application of the predktbn model in Section 5. The failure rates shown In this Appendix wem calculated by assigning model defautt values to the failure rate modets of Section !5through 23. The speclfk defaultvaJues used for the model parameters are shown with the ~ Tabtes for mkrocimults. Default parameters for atiother part cfasses are summarized in the tables startifi on Page A-12. For parts with characterfstks which differ significantly from the assumed defaults, or parls used in large quantities, the underlying models in the main body of this Handbook can be used.

A-1

I MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

-*O* . .

..mi@j

Wml cum.
00.

C99$ . .

ml-m

eetnm
000

snNc9tn c9w*a 0000

Cuu: . .

:f%m o-mm
0000

131

L q

*: I
A-2

-=--.-=-a-.

-=

-=

==

=.

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

U3

&i 0
0

o .

liniimil~l -_
I

~-s

UL--l!

13-LA

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

fj > II I
+
1

ii

(?3 II I
q

.-

S
B

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

.
0

1! i

!I

$?
A --

A --

a5

in

A-5

--

--~+=-=-..--..--

---

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

#
9

A-6

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

A-7

MIL-I+DBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

&

a
10

N ij

& 8

*,
0,

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

A-9

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

c+
U3

to

m
F2

A-10

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

0
Ui

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MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

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T-Y-.

w. -

0000000
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MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

A-13

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

A-14

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

? 0.00.0.000.00.
---v---9FW-.

qo.

o.000ooo
.V-WF

o
----

qq

A-15

--

I
I

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

0 .

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a5
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A-16

-.

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

A-17

nn

AK

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT

/4-18

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

B:

VHSJC/VHSIGLIKE

AND

VLSI CMOS

(DETAILED

MODEL) It

This appendix contains the detaibd versbn of the VHSICMSI CMOS model contained in Sectbn 5.3. is provided to albw more detailed device level design trade-offs to be acxmmplkhed for predominate failure modes and mechanisms exhibited in CMOS devices. Reference 30 should be consulted for a detailed derivation of this model. CN~ ~,(t) + ~t) + ~(t) + ~~(t) + ~.~ RATUSWL + ~~ + ~~(t)

Lp(t)

Ip(t) Aox(t) q-Jt) kc(t)

Pred.kted Failure Rate as a Function of Time Oxide Failure Rate Metallization Failure Rate Hot Carner Failure Rate Contamination Failure Rate Package Failure Rate EOS/ESD Failure Rate

~~~(t)
k PAC % SD q~(t)

Miscellaneous Failure Rate

The equations for each of the above failure mechanism failure rates are as follows:

A %YPEO)(

-7.7 to) (+ox)


~

Lox (in F/l 06) =

AR

OR )[

(.0788 e

(e -7.7 AToxt )

5 .399 exp ~ + (t+to)a~x (( =Ox A TYPEOX = = Total Chip Area (in cr#) .~

In (t + to) - In t500x )

2 )1

for Custom and Logic Devices, 1.23 for Memories and Gate Anays

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

B:

VHSIC-VHSIC-LIKE

AND

VLSI

CMOS

(DETAILED

MODEL)

AR

.21 cm2 2 where X. = 2 w and X~ is the feature

Doox

Oxide Defect Density (tf unknown, use size of the device)

% ()%

DR to

1 Def ect/cm2 Effective Screening Time (Actual Time of Test (in 106 hrs.)) (ATOX (at Junction s~eenjm
tern.) (in ~))

Tox

Temperature

Acceleration Factor, =

exp

3 - (+ [ 8.6 I7x1O 5

- *)]

(where TJ = Tc + 9JCP (in K)) 1

%(-JX

-192

(~

- *)

Eox

Maimm MV/cm) 1.3x1022

power

&Jppiy

Votbge VDD, divided by the gate oxide thickness

(in

(QML)

t500x

ATOX Vex (QML)

(in 106 hrs.)

= 2 if on CNL, .5 if not.

~ox

Sgma obtained fmm test data of oxide faibres fmm the same or similar process. If not avaiiable, use a Oox value of 1.

time (in 106 Hours)

B-2

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

B:

VHSIC/VHSIGLIKE

AND F FQw

VLSI

CMOS

(DETAILED

MODEL)

&

= [

A %YPEMET AR

OMET R

~ 00102 -

~-1 8 O)(A ,~E~(e-.8TME+ )

+[(,+;fl=e.P[~( l.(t+to)-,.t50METfJ
=
= Total Chip Area (in cm

.88 for Custom and Logic Devices, 1.12 for Memory and Gate Arrays

.21 cm2
Xo

2 where ~ = 2 pm and X~ is the feature size of

OMET

Metal Defect Density (tf unknown use ()


x~

the device) = = 1 Defect/cm* Temperature Acceleration Factor

exp [ 8.6;yj0-5 (~ - A)] (TJ

=TCASE +,JcP

(inOK)~

= =A

Effective Screening Time =

(in 106 hrs.)


q

(at Screening Ternp (in K)) .388 (Metal TME Type)

(Actual Scmenhg

Tune (in 106 hrs))

50MET

(QML)

(in 106 hrs.)

J2 A

(QML) = 2 if on QML, .5 if not. Metal Type = 1 for Al, 37.5 for AI-CU or for A1-Si-Cu J a WT u = The mean absoMe value of Metal Current Density (in 106 Amps/cm2) failures from the same or a similar

slgrna otXained from test data on electmnigration process. If this data is not available use cm = 1.

time (in 106 hrs.)

B-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

B:

VHSIGVHSIGUKE

AND VLSI

CMOS

(DETAILED

MODEL)

-.5 %c 2 (

In (t + to) - In t50 HC

)1

50HC

(QML)3.74XI THC d

0-5

$u Q -2.5

()

Id

(QML) = 2 if on QML, .5 if not

.039 % tic = exp [ 8.617x10-5

Id sub

Drain Current at Operating Temperature.

If unknown use id = 3.5 e 0057J If unknown use

in K)

(WV

Substrate Current at Operating Temperature. Isub = .0058 e -OOWg J (in K) (mA)

% to

sgma derived from test data, if not available use 1. ATW (at wreening time (in 106 hrs.) Temp. (in K))
q

(Test Duration in 106 hours)

ATIC)N F~~TlOf!l --0028 to AT~N e -.0028 ATCON t

%hl

.000022 e

-,0exp [ 8.617x1O 5

[+

-4$1 (where TJ = Tc + 8JCP (in K))

to

Effective Screening Time ATmn (at screening junotion temperature (in K)) (actual screening time in 106 hrs.)

time (in 106 hrs.)

B-4

MIL-t-iDBK-217F

APPENDIX

B:

VHSIC/VHSIGLIKE

AND

VLSI

CMOS

(DETAILED

MODEL)

%AC fiE
7CQ

= =
=

(.0024 + l.=

x 10-5 (spins)) ~

~T

+ ~~

See Section 5.10 See Sectbn 5.10

Package Type DtP Pin Grid May Chip Carner (Surface MOUM T=hno~y)

npT 1.0 2.2 4.7

PH %

Package Hermetidty Factor O for Hermetic Packages -.5 399 exp t~~ [(~PH2

PH

In(t) - In(tsop))g for plastc packages

%0

86x
Pt+

10-6 exp

2 - (; [ 8.617x1O 5

- *)]

2.96 exp ~

[1

TA

ArWent

Temp. (in K)

(mL230[+ + -+1
.74 time (in 106 hrs.)

(l-DC)(RIi) whereTJ= Tc + eKp OnK)

(for example, for 50% Relative Humidity, use RH = .50)

B-5

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

B:

VHSIGVHSIGLIKE

AND

VLSI

CMOS

(DETAILED

MODEL)

-.0002

VTH

%0s

- OOo:;&-

VTH = ESD Threshold of the device using a 100 pF, 1500 ohm discharge model

MIS

(.01 e

2.2 ~) ~ATMl~ ) (e -2.2 ATMIS t,

TMIS =

= Temperature Acceleration Factor -.423 [ 8.6317x10-5 (+ - A)]

exp

where TJ = Tc + eJcP (in K)

to = = t=

Effective Screening Time ATMl~ (at Screening Terrp time (in 106 hrs.) (in K))
q

Actual Screening Time (in 106 hours)

B-6

-an

AC

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

C:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Publications tisted with AD nunbers National Technical hlfOtiiOfl 5285 Port Royal Road ~@eM, VA 22151 (703) 487-4650

may be obtained trom: Service

U.S. Defense Contractors may obtain copies from: Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station - FDA, Bldg. 5 Alexandria, VA 22304-6145 (703) 274-7633 Documents with AD number prefix with the letter B or with the suffix L: These documents are in a Limfted Distributbn category. Contact the Defense Technical Information Center for_ procedures. Copies of MIL-STDSS, MIL-HDBKs, and specifications are available from: Standardization Document Order Desk 700 Robins Ave. Buikfing 4, Section D Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094 (215) 697-2667 The year of publiition of the Rome Laboratory (RL) (formerly Rome Air Development Center (RADC)) documents is part of the RADC (or FL) nunber, e.g., RADGTR-66-97 was published in 1968. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Laser Reliability Prediction, RADC-TR-75-21 O, AD A016437. AD A013735.

ReliabiMy Model for Miniature Blower Motors Per MIL-B-23071 B, RADC-TR-75-178, High Power Microwave Tube Reliability Study, FAA-RD-76-I Electric Motor Reliabii~ Development Model, RADC-TR-77406, 72, AD AO033612.

AD A0501 79. AD A050678.

of Nonelectronic Part Cyclic Failure Rates,RADC-TR-77417,

This study devebped 6.

new faiture rate models for relays, switches, and connectors. RADC-TR-~432, AD A050180.

Passive Device Failure Rate Models for MIL-HDBK-217B,

This study developed new failure rate models for resistors, capacitors and inductive devices. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11, Quantification of Printed Circuit Boatd Connector ReWMtty, Crimp Connection Reliability, RADC-TR-78-15, LS1/Micmprocessor A Re@nda~ Reliabilii AD A050505. RADC-TR-79-97, AD A06891 1. RADC-TR-77-433, AD A049980.

Prediction Model Development, AD A050837.

Notebook, RADC-TR-77-287,

Revision of Environmental Faofors for MIL-HDBK-217B,

RADC-TR-80-299,

AD A091837.

L-1

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

C:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

12. 13.

Traveling

Wave Tube Failure Rates,- RADC-TR-80-288,

AD A096055. AD A090029.

Reliability Predict&n Modeling of blew Devices, - RADC-TR~237, This study devebped mernortes.

failure rate nmdek for magnetic bubble memories and charge~upkf

14. 15.

Failure Rates for Fiber Optic Assemblies, RADC-TR-80-322, Printed Wiring Assembly and Interconnection

AD A092315.

ReliabMfy, RADC-TR-81 -318, AD Al 11214.

This study dwebped faihn fate modets for printed wtrfng asae~s, solderless wrap assanbfies, wrapped and soldered assemblies and discrete wirfng assemblies with ebctroless depostted plated through holes. 16. 17. 18. Avionio Etimentat F_ for MIL-HOBK-21 7, RADC-TR-81 -374, AD B084430L. 72, AD Al 18839. 08, AD Al 35705.

RADC Thermal Guide for Reliability Engineers, RADC-TR-82-1

Reliability Modeling of Critical Electronic Devices, RADC-TR-83-1

This report devebped failure rate prediction procedures for magnetrons, vidicions, cathode ray tubes, semiconductor lasers, helium-cadtim lasers, heiiim-neon lasers, Nd: YAG lasers, electronic filters, sofid state relays, time delay relays (electronic hybrid), circuit breakers, I.C. Sockets, thumbwheel switches, electromagnetic meters, fuses, crystals, incandescent lamps, neon gbw lamps and surface acoustic wave devices. 19. This study developed failure rate models for nonoperating periods.
20.

RADC Nonelectronic Reliability Notebook, RADC-TR-85-194,

AD A163900.

This report contains failure rate data on rnechanicaf and electromechanical parts.
21.

Reliabilii

Prediction for Spacecraft, RADC-TR-85-229,

AD A149551.

TMs study kwestigated the reliability performance h@ories of 300 Satellite vehicles and is the basis for the halving of all model %E factors forMIL-HDBK-217E to MIL-HDKB-21 7E, Notice 1. 22. Surface Mount Technology: A Reliability Review; 1986, Available from Reliabilii PO BOX 4700, Rome, NY 13440-8200, 800-526-4802. Thermal Resktames AD B1084I7. of Joint Army Navy (JAN) Certified Microcimuif Pa&ages, Anatysis Center,

23.

RADC-TR46-97,

24.

Large Scale Memory Emr


This

Detection and Correction? RADC-TR-87-92,

AD B1 17785L.

study developed models to cakwlate memory system reliiility for memories incorporating error detecting and correcting codes. For a summary of the study see 1989 IEEE ReliabiMy and Maintainability SymposUm Proceedings, page 197, Accounting for Soft Errors in Memory Reliability Prediiion.a

25.

Reliability Analysis of a Surface Mounted Package Using Finite Element Simulation, RADC-TR-87177, AD A189488.

c-2

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

C:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

26. 27. 28.

VHSIC Impact on System Reliability, RADC-TR-86-13,

AD B122629. AD A193759. AD A200529.

Reliability Assessment of Surface Mount Technology, RADC-TR-68-72, Reliability Prediction Models for Discrete Semiconductor

Devices, - RADC-TR-88-97,

This study developed new failure rate prediction modets for GaAs Power FETS, Transient Suppressor Diodes, Infrared LEDs, Diode Array Displays and Current Regulator D-. 29.
30.

Inqxmt of Fiber Optics on System Reliability and Maintainabilii, VHSWVHSIC Like Rel&bi14y Prediotlon Modeling, RADGTR-69-I

RADC-TR-88-124, 71, AD A214601.

AD A2CH946.

This study provides the basis for the VHSIC model appearing in MIL-HDBK-21 7F, Section 5. 31. Reliability Assessment Using Finite Element Techniies,m RADC-TR-89-281, AD A21 6907.

This study addresses surface mounted solder interconnections and miorowire boards platedthru-hole (PTH) connections. The report gives a detailed account of the factors to be considered when performing an FEA and the procedure used to transfer the results to a reliability figure-of-merit. 32. Reliability Analysis/Assessment of Advanced Technologies, RADC-TR-90-72, ADA 223647,

This study provides the basis for the revisedmicmchwit Memories) appearing in MIL-HDBK-217F, Sectii 5. 33.

models (except VHSIC and Bubble

Improved Reliability Prediction Model for Field-Access Magnetic Bubble Devices, AFWAL-TR-811052, Reliability/Desgn Thermal Applications, MIL-HDBK-251.

34. 35.

NASA Parts Application Handbook, MIL-HDBK-976-B (NASA). This handmok is a five vohnne series which dfscusses a full range of eiectrfcal, electronic and electromechanical component parts. It provides extensive detailed technical informatbn for each component part such as: definitions, oonstructbn details, operating characteristics, derating, failure mechanisms, screening techniques, standard parts, environmental considerations, and circuit appliition. Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data 1991 , NPRD-91. TM report contains field ?aiture rate data on a variety of ektrical, mechanical, electromechanical and microwave parts and assernblii (1 400 different part types). It is available from the Re@bMty AnaJysis Center, PO Box 4700, Rome, NY 13440-6200, Phone: (315) 337-0900.

36.

Custodians: Amy-CR Navy - EC Air Fome -17

Preparing Activity: Air Force -17 Project No. RELI-0064

c-3

. .. . ----

MIL-HDBK-217F

APPENDIX

C:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Review AcWtWs: Army - Ml, AV, ER Navy - Sl+, AS, OS ~rForce -11, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19,99 User Activities: Army - AT, ME, GL Navy - CG, MC, YD, TD Alr Force -85

c-4

Qmult cmamsnd mnuactd

ImE:Thistcummynott a Jeusod*=7wt*d
nquhm9nts.

Camnoms sdlmbdanmsbfmtinat

doaunsm, brupostwdvus, ddatkm, udwikatkmofspedk=bn~sm nor Oons$mwrhplyuthofizdcm mwdvearly o podtJnd thodsr9ncdcka8na w8)wb

(Fo#dahg

lt?ishe)

(FM abng this line)


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PROPOSAL

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1
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Nuntxw and Wording:

Wording

ReaaodRaIionab

\or

R~rnrnerKMon

6.

REMARKS

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DD .% 1426

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