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Chemical Composition: Tourmaline is a complex silicate of boron and aluminum, composition varies. Tourmaline crystals are hexagonal, prismatic crystals that commonly have a rounded triangular cross section, striated lengthwise. Also radiated, columnar, massive. Colors include blue, green, pink, red, yellow, brown, black, bi-colored, tri-colored, and colorless. Tourmaline may be found in Brazil, Russia, Burma, Afghanistan, Malagasy Republic, Maine, California. Hardness: 7 - 7 1/2 Metaphysical Attributes: Inspiration, understanding, confidence. Balances male/female energies and the mind. Blue (Indicolite) Tourmaline: Communication, psychic awareness. Corresponds to the throat and third-eye chakras, and corresponds to the astrological signs of Libra and Taurus. Green Tourmaline: Creativity, prosperity, abundance. Represents life energy of plants. Excellent for people who work with herbs for healing. Enhances cooperation and healing. Opens the heart chakra, and corresponds to the astrological sign of Capricorn. Rubellite (dark pink) Tourmaline: Creativity, love, devotion. Corresponds to the root and heart chakras, and the astrological signs of Sagittarius and Scorpio. Pink (light) Tourmaline: Love, spirituality, joy, peace, understanding. Corresponds to the heart chakra and crown chakra, and the astrological sign of Libra. Watermelon Tourmaline: Activates the heart chakra, corresponds to the astrological signs of Virgo and Gemini. Black Tourmaline: Protects against negativity. Encourages intellectual thought, vitality. Corresponds to the root chakra, and the astrological sign of Capricorn.

Tourmaline Crystal Chips - Mixed Colors(Brazil)- These Tourmaline Crystal Chips come in mixed colors including green, pink and blue. These Tourmaline Chips have a very high vibration and are wonderful for meditation or for your crystal pouch. These Tourmaline Crystals just sparkle under the light and are very translucent and gemmy. Tourmaline has long been associated with attracting wealth into one's life. Tourmaline Crystals work with and connect all the Chakras, and align the subtle bodies which, when used with this intention, can help bring order and flow into one's life. Tourmaline Crystals are great for healing work and for creative projects. Having such a variety of types of Tourmaline can help one persevere to bring a project through to fruition from beginning to end. Use these sweet Tourmaline Crystal Chips to help encourage a flow of gratitude and universal love in your life.

Tourmaline: A Crystal for the Millennium

It is believed by many who live with crystals that certain stones are here for the express purpose of guiding us into new dimensions of being. Although I believe that all crystals can help us in this way, I do have a special appreciation for members of the tourmaline family. In their natural state tourmalines are characterized by parallel ridges (or striations) which run the length of the crystal. When heated a tourmaline crystal develops opposing electrical charges at opposite ends. I don't recommend doing this, but the phenomenon illustrates the ability of this stone to conduct electricity. The effect of this energy on us can be very powerful. Tourmaline can help to break up energy blockages which cause stress and confusion, and bring about calmness and clarity. Tourmaline aids in clarity by helping us to move beyond limited ways of thinking in order to embrace a greatly expanded concept of reality. It teaches us that we are light beings in physical form, and helps us to experience the physical and spiritual worlds as one. When we experience ourselves as in this way we can have a clear sense of our purpose in existence. Although all forms of tourmaline have the above characteristics, each also has a specific focus according to color. Some of these are described below. (More detailed descriptions will soon be available at Beyond the Rainbow.) Black Tourmaline (Schorl) Black tourmaline's particular function is to repel negative energy. This can refer both to external energies or inner emotions, such as anger, resentment, or jealousy. It is a very good stone to carry when you're experiencing any kind of stress. Green Tourmaline (Verdelite)

Green tourmaline is believed to be a healer on all level. It is used to purify and strengthen the nervous system so that it can circulate increased spiritual energy. Many people use, carry, or wear it to relieve chronic exhaustion. It is also commonly used for the creation and manifestation of goals, and is believed to be particularly helpful for creativity and abundance. Pink Tourmaline (Rubellite) Pink tourmaline (whose actual color ranges from a deep red - hence the name rubellite - to a pale pink) is part of the triad of heart stones which also includes rose quartz and kunzite. Rose quartz nurtures an unconditional love of self. Kunzite focuses that energy and helps the heart to make loving choices. Pink tourmaline expresses that love to others. Watermelon Tourmaline This stone is a mixture of green and pink tourmaline, and blends the energies of these two stones, healing the heart of emotional wounds and enabling it to give love. Since it combines the opposite colors of red and green it is also very good for reconciling emotional conflicts. Black tourmaline is available in rough stones and pendants. Green tourmaline is available in tumbled stones. Pink tourmaline is available in pendants.

Aligning and channeling, natural tourmaline crystals and jewelry help an individual tap into positive, healing energy.
Tourmaline is a powerful healing crystal, linking spiritual energy with physical matter. It can be found in a range of colors, from green tourmaline to black, each with its own individual characteristics. All of the colors of tourmaline share the innate properties of this stone. Whether using in metaphysical work, or wearing tourmaline jewelry, this gemstone is a unique and beneficial treasure for all who practice or are interested in the power of crystals.

Fundamental Tourmaline Properties

Tourmaline crystals can be found in a range of sizes and colors, yet they all share a hexagonal shape, with distinct striations. It is along these physical channels that electrical light flows, making this metaphysical stone a potent tool in energy work. An experienced healer can use a tourmaline crystal wand to re-balance the pathways of subtle energy in the body, the meridian system, or to connect the healing energy of two other stones in a crystal layout. The inherent structure provides for the intense tourmaline properties.

The most fundamental property of tourmaline is its ability to transform dense energy into lighter energy. It disperses the negative and replaces it with the positive. It purifies, balances, and transforms, having a remarkably beneficial impact on its surroundings. It raises the vibration of energy and protects. Place this metaphysical crystal anywhere healing, compassionate energy is due in the garden, a child's room, even the workplace. Wear tourmaline jewelry to attract all of the positive benefits of this stone. Ads by Google Your Zodiac Horoscope Insert Your Birthdate & Get Answers about Past-Present and Future. Free Blue Star Sapphires Top Quality Burmese & Sri Lankan Star Sapphires at Wholesale Prices

Metaphysical Benefits of Tourmaline Crystals

Tourmaline stones have many useful properties for metaphysical work. For the chakra system, they have a cleansing and balancing effect. For the aura, they clear away blocked and negative energies. They have been traditionally used in shamanic practices as a protective stone. As tourmaline transmutes what is dense into what is light, it has the ability to bring clarity to problems. It allows an individual to develop a deeper awareness of self, and external relationships. Meditating with this crystal inspires compassion and tolerance. For the mind, a tourmaline crystal has a balancing effect. By harmonizing left brain and right brain thoughts, it encourages a state of calm and peace, ideal for the problems of everyday life, as well as for times of deep thought and learning. By connecting with a higher, spiritual energy, tourmaline assists the mind in expanding, letting go of the menial so growth can take place.


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The Properties of Kunzite Crystal Healing Stones Crystals for Healing Emotional Pain and Trauma Using Crystals for Spiritual Purposes

Healing Properties of Tourmaline Stones

For the physical body, tourmaline crystals are wonderful for releasing tension and stress. By resetting the meridian system, they will help the body reach a state that is capable of healing, unfettered by blocked, stagnant energy. They also help to increase energy. Although crystal healing should not be a substitute for regular medical care, a session with a professional crystal healer, or even personal meditation or use of this stone can be greatly beneficial. A gem elixir is effective. A pendant, ring, or other piece of jewelry made from tourmaline can be worn, or the stone can be placed as appropriate on the body. As with all healing and metaphysical crystals, be sure to cleanse and recharge upon receiving the stone, and on a regular basis to periodically eliminate unwanted energies from the crystal. Sources: Hall, Judy. "The Crystal Bible: A Definitive Guide to Crystals." (Godsfield Press, 2003). Raphaell, Katrina. "Crystal Healing: The Therapeutic Application of Crystals and Stones." (Aurora Press, 1987).

Read more at Suite101: Tourmaline Crystal Healing Properties: Metaphysical and Healing Benefits of Tourmaline
Crystals & Jewelry |


Tourmaline is not a single mineral, but a group of several closely related minerals. The three most well-known members are Elbaite, Schorl, and Dravite. Other lesser known members include Uvite, Liddicoatite and Buergerite. There are yet more members of the Tourmaline group, but these are extremely rare and not discussed in this guide. Tourmaline is extremely popular among collectors and is a well-known gemstone. It is the most multicolored mineral type known, occurring in virtually every color of the spectrum. Individual stones are often multicolored and are unsurpassed in their beauty. The color of some Tourmaline can be enhanced through heat treatment. Some greenish stones can be made deep green, some brownish-red stones can be made red, and some light pink stones can be made colorless through heating. Tourmaline has many interesting optical properties. Many green and blue specimens are strongly pleochroic. When viewed through their vertical axis, such specimens appear darker in color than when seen through their horizontal axis. In other Tourmalines, the color may actually be different when viewed at different angles because of the pleochroism. Certain Tourmalines exhibit a cat's eye effect when polished into cabochons. Tourmaline is both pyroelectric and piezoelectric. If a specimen is put under a pressure or temperature change, it will generate an electrical charge. When this happens, dust particles become attached to the crystal ends. For additional information, see the gemstone section on Tourmaline.

Chemical Formula

The simple chemical formula, which covers the main forms of Tourmaline (Elbaite, Schorl, andDravite), is as follows: (Na,Ca)(Mg,Li,Al,Fe2+)3Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)4 The expanded formula, which additionally covers Uvite, Liddicoatite, and Buergerite, is as follows: (Na,Ca)(Mg,Li,Al,Fe2+,Fe3+)3(Al,Mg)6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH,O,F)4 The formula for the Tourmaline group is very complex. See The chemical formula of Tourmaline for more details.

Composition Color

See The chemical formula of Tourmaline. Tourmaline is extremely varied in color. Colors include black, brown, green, red, pink, blue, and gray. White, colorless, yellow, orange, and purple colors are less common. Crystals are frequently multicolored, containing two or more distinct colors. Some specimens are pleochroic. White 7 - 7.5 Hexagonal

Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas

(Click for animated model)

Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Usually as elongated prismatic crystals that are heavily striated. Also as short, stubby, prismatic crystals. Most Tourmaline crystals have a rounded, triangular cross-section. Seldom in tabularcrystals. Aggregates include columnar, radiating, botryoidal, stalactitic, in dense groups of tiny,

elongated needles, and in compact masses.

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks

Transparent to opaque 2.9 - 3.3 Vitreous. Some black and brown specimens may be dull. 3,2 Conchoidal to uneven Brittle 1) Strongly pyroelectric. 2) Piezoelectric. 3) A few forms of Tourmaline fluoresce yellow in shortwave ultraviolet light.

In Group Striking Features Environment

Silicates; Cyclosilicates; Tourmaline Group Color, crystal form, hardness, and deep vertical striations. Elbaite, Schorl, and Liddicoatite are almost exclusively from granite pegmatites, while Dravite andUvite or mostly from metamorphic environments such as marbles. Buergerite is from igneousrhyolite deposits. 1 2 1

Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3)

The variety list below shows the main Tourmaline group members, as well as the popular Elbaite variety forms. Please see individual member page for additional variety names.

- Colorless variety of Elbaite Tourmaline. Buergerite - Rare individual member mineral of the Tourmaline group, occurring almost exclusively at Mexquitic, San Luis Potos, Mexico. Dravite - Individual member mineral of the Tourmaline group. It is usually brown in color, and the term may be corrupted to include all forms of brown Tourmaline.

Elbaite - The most well-known individual member mineral of the Tourmaline group. Elbaite is the most transparent and colorful form of Tourmaline. The term Elbaite may be corrupted in the gemstone industry to refer specifically to green Tourmaline.

- Blue variety of Elbaite Tourmaline.

Liddicoatite - Uncommon member mineral of the Tourmaline group found primarily in Madagascar. It is the calcium analogue of Elbaite, containing calcium in its chemical formula instead of sodium.

- Pink to red variety of Elbaite Tourmaline.

Schorl - Individual member mineral of the Tourmaline group. It is black in color, and the term may be corrupted to include any very dark Tourmaline forms.

Uvite - Uncommon member mineral of the Tourmaline group, usually found in metamorphic environments such asmarbles.

Watermelon Tourmaline
- Variety of Elbaite Tourmaline that is green on the outside and red on the inside.

Tourmaline is a very popular gemstone. Its popularity has greatly increased since the 1990's, and this has also been reflected in the astronomical prices demanded from the finest Tourmalines. Tourmaline is used as a jewelry gemstone and is cut into all forms and styles. All colors of Tourmaline, especially multicolored gems, are used in jewelry. Tourmaline can form in extremely aesthetic slender crystals that are highly valued by collectors. It is one of the most prized minerals, and fine crystals can be among the most beautiful examples in the mineral kingdom. Instead of being faceted, many fine Tourmaline crystals are preserved for their beauty. Thick, elongated crystals are sometimes sliced into sections and sold as "Tourmaline cross sections". The piezoelectric nature of Tourmaline makes it useful as a component of high pressure gauges.

See the individual Tourmaline mineral pages for detailed locality information for each form of Tourmaline.


Quartz, Microcline, Albite, Lepidolite, Beryl, Spodumene, Biotite, Cookeite, Calcite


Beryl - Striations are much finer and are horizontal, and usually more hexagonal in crystal form. Apatite - Crystals lack striations , softer (5). Epidote - Softer, different crystal habits.


The pictures below show just one example of each individually named type of Tourmaline. For more images, see the specific pages on Elbaite, Schorl, Dravite, Uvite, Liddicoatite, and Buergerite.

Tourmaline's name comes from the Sinhalese word "turmali," which means "mixed." Tourmaline, occurring in more colors and combinations of colors than any other gemstone variety, lives up to its name. The many different colors or Tourmaline mean that this stone can easily be mistaken for just about any other gemstone. Many stones in the Russian Crown jewels from the 17th Century once thought to berubies are actually Tourmalines. Introduction One of the most versatile of gemstones, tourmaline is available in every color, from colorless to black. You can find every tone from pastel to dark, and even with one or more colors appearing in the same stone. It truly is a wondrous and fascinating stone! Known for centuries, tourmaline first gained popularity when the Dutch began to import it in the early 17th century from Sri Lanka . They gave the gem a Sinhalese name, Turamali, which is believed to mean stone with mixed colors.

Tourmaline is actually the name of a group of related mineral species. In gemological practice, individual species names are not used. Instead, all are simply termed tourmaline. Tourmaline commonly comes from Tanzania, Madagascar, Brazil, Australia, Sri Lanka, the U.S., and Russia, plus other countries. Color Color is the major characteristic for tourmaline. This stone is found in morehues, shades and nuances than any other gem. Here are some of the most common varieties that are recognized in the gem trade. Rubellite Varying in color from mid to deep reds resembling ruby, rubellite is one of the rarest and most valuable tourmalines. Many gems in the 17th century Russian Crown jewels, originally thought to be rubies, are actually rubellite tourmalines. Indicolite From bright blue hues to bluish green colors, indicolite tourmaline is another rare tourmaline color, and high quality specimens are regarded as quite collectable. Chrome Chrome tourmaline is green, but is considered different from the regular greens as it derives it rich green color from trace elements of chromium. Found in East Africa , chrome tourmaline is rare and is usually found only in smaller sizes. Bi-Color Variations, zones and color bands in tourmaline are often purposefully accented with the cutting style to show bands and color zones in the gem. Occurring in uncountable colors variations, these are often seen in long acicular crystals. Watermelon Bi-color tourmalines which show a green skin and a red core; these are sometimes cut as slices Canary Bright yellow tourmaline from Malawi . Paraba A rare blue-green tourmaline containing copper, Paraiba tourmalinecan be found in amazing bright neon hues and can command thousands of dollars per carat. Found in a single area in Paraiba, Brazil, it is generally found in comparatively small sizes for tourmaline. Recent finds of copper content tourmaline in Nigeria and Mozambique have also produced similar bright neon tourmaline. Cat's Eye Chatoyant tourmaline in a variety of colors. It is often found in a rich green. Color-Change Changes from green in daylight to red in incandescent light. Other varieties may be simply sold with a color prefix, as in pink tourmaline. Like most gems, you want the color to be as intense as possible, however, not too dark or too light. Tourmaline has strong pleochroism , which means you can see different colors or depths of color when viewed at different angles, such as when you rotate the stone in the light. Notice the strong pleochroism of this green tourmaline. This is a result of the double refractive characteristic of tourmaline.

Lighting When viewing tourmaline, reds, oranges and yellows will look best under incandescent light, while greens, blues and violets look their best under daylight. Carat Weight of Tourmaline and Price It is common to find tourmaline in large crystal sizes. Large crystal sizes enhance tourmaline's depth and richness of color. Like other gems, when the carat weight of a tourmaline increases, so does the price per carat. However, large tourmaline crystals are simply more plentiful than smaller gems such as ruby and sapphire. This means that weight-related price jumps in tourmaline are less severe than in ruby and sapphire. It is common for comparable quality 3 Carat, 4 Carat, and 6 Carat tourmalines to all have similar per carat prices. You will not see this in rubies and sapphires. Clarity and Inclusion Different varieties of tourmaline tend to have different clarities. Thus while large clean tourmalines in the blue and blue-green colors are available, almost all red and pink tourmalines will show eye-visible inclusions. The most common inclusions in tourmaline are fractures and liquid-filled healed fractures. Needle inclusions are also common. Cut Tourmaline cuts are as varied as its color. With tourmaline's strong pleochroism, darker tourmalines are cut to display the lighter of the two pleochroic colors. Gems cut with this orientation are often rectangles and rectangular emerald cuts because of the elongated nature of tourmaline crystals. Tourmalines of lighter color are typically oriented with the table facet perpendicular to the c-axis, to display the richest color possible. Thus, they are often cut as rounds, triangles, trillions and ovals. A quick glance at the tourmaline suite shows this. In addition to faceted stones, cabochon-cut tourmalines often seen on the market. Treatment and Enhancement Most tourmaline is untreated. Some tourmaline, such as the rare paraiba variety, is heated to improve the color.

Tourmaline Gemology Color: Colorless, pink, brown, red, yellow, green, blue, black, violet, multicolored Moh's Harness: 7-7 Specific Gravity: 2.82-3.32 Refractive Index: 1.614-1.666

Double Refraction: -0.014 to -0.032 Fluorescence: Weak or none Cleavage: Indistinct Fracture: Uneven, small conchoidal, brittle Crystal System: Trigonal. Long crystals with triangular cross section and round sides. Interesting Fact An unusual characteristic of this stone is that tourmaline can be electrically charged by heating and cooling, or also applying pressure, such as rubbing the stone. For a long time tourmaline was known in Europe as aschentrekker (ash puller) as the stone was used by the Dutch to pull the ash out of their meerschaum tobacco pipes.

Tourmaline is a widely used gemstone. Tourmaline comes from the Singhalese term turamali, meaning something small from the earth. Heating and cooling, or rubbing a Tourmaline crystal can cause it to become electrically charged, with one end negative and the other positive. When charged, the crystal will attract dust particles or bits of paper. This property of pyroelectricity (with heat) or piezoelectricity (from pressure or rubbing) was known to Dutch traders who used the crystals to pull ashes from their meerschaum pipes, and they called them aschentrekkers, or ash pullers. Crystals are found embedded and encrusting in acid igneous rocks and their pegmatites, in calcareous rocks and schists, and in placer deposits.

METAPHYSICAL DATA Chakras: Earth, protects all Number: 2 (Varies) Zodiac Sign: Libra (Varies) Element: Earth Beneficial for: Protection; detoxification; spinal adjustents; balancing male-female energy; paranoia; hand-eye coordination; assimilation and translation of coded information; bronchitis; emphysema; pleurisy; pneumonia; energy flow; removal of blockages Tourmaline comes from the Singhalese term turamali. This stone is piezoelectric, meaning that it generates electricity under pressure, and pyroelectric generating electricity with heat. The Dutch called Tourmalineaschentrekker, "ash remover," as when heated it attracted ashes from a pipe. Tourmaline has a strong affinity with devic energies and is extremely beneficial for plants, keeping pests at bay, and, buried in soil, encourages growth of all crops. Purifying and transforming dense energy into a lighter vibration, Tourmaline grounds spiritual energy; balances chakras, meridians, and auric bodies; and forms a protective shield. Traditionally used for scrying, it pointed to the culprit or cause in times of trouble, and indicated a "good" direction in which to move. A powerful mental healer, balancing right and left hemispheres of

the brain and transmuting negative thought patterns into positive ones. Tourmaline assists in understanding oneself and others, taking you deep into your inner being, promoting selfconfidence, and diminishing fear. Banishing any feeling of victimization, it attracts inspiration, compassion, tolerance, and prosperity.

Tourmalines are gems with an incomparable variety of colours. The reason, according to an old Egyptian legend, is that the tourmaline, on its long journey up from the centre of the Earth, passed over a rainbow. In doing so, it assumed all the colours of the rainbow. And that is why it is still referred to as the 'gemstone of the rainbow' today. The name tourmaline comes from the Singhalese words 'tura mali'. In translation, this means something like 'stone with mixed colours', referring to the colour spectrum of this gemstone, which outdoes that of all other precious stones. There are tourmalines from red to green and from blue to yellow. They often have two or more colours. There are tourmalines which change their colour when the light changes from daylight to artificial light, and some show the light effect of a cat's eye. No two tourmalines are exactly alike. This gemstone has an endless number of faces, and for that reason it suits all moods. No wonder that magical powers have been attributed to it since ancient times. In particular, it is the gemstone of love and of friendship, and is said to render them firm and long-lasting.

Colours, names and nicknames

In order to understand this variety of colour, you will have to brush up your knowledge of gemmology a little: tourmalines are mixed crystals of aluminium boron silicate with a complex and changing composition. The mineral group is a fairly complex one. Even slight changes in the composition cause completely different colours. Crystals of only a single colour are fairly rare; indeed the same crystal will often display various colours and various nuances of those colours. And the trademark of this gemstone is not only its great wealth of colour, but also its marked dichroism. Depending on the angle from which you look at it, the colour may be different or more or less intense. It is always at its most intense when viewed looking toward the main axis, a fact to which the cutter must pay great attention when lining up the cut. This gemstone has excellent wearing qualities and is easy to look after, for all tourmalines have a good hardness of 7 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale. So the tourmaline is an interesting gemstone in many ways. TIn the trade, the individual colour variants have their own names. For example, a tourmaline of an intense red is known as a 'rubellite', but only if it continues to display the same fine

ruby red in artificial light as it did in daylight. If the colour changes when the light source does, the stone is called a pink or shocking pink tourmaline. In the language of the gemmologists, blue tourmalines are known as 'indigolites', yellowish-brown to dark brown ones as 'dravites' and black ones as 'schorl'. The last mentioned, mostly used for engravings and in esotericism, is said to have special powers with which people can be protected from harmful radiation. One particularly popular variety is the green Tourmaline, known as a 'verdelite' in the trade. However, if its fine emerald-like green is caused by tiny traces of chrome, it is referred to as a 'chrome tourmaline'. The absolute highlight among the tourmalines is the 'Paraiba tourmaline', a gemstone of an intense blue to blue-green which was not discovered until 1987 in a mine in the Brazilian state of Paraiba. In good qualities, these gemstones are much sought-after treasures today. Since tourmalines from Malawi with a vivid yellow colour, known as 'canary tourmalines', came into the trade, the colour yellow, which was previously very scarce indeed, has been very well represented in the endless spectrum of colours boasted by the 'gemstone of the rainbow'. Yet the tourmaline has even more names: stones with two colours are known as bicoloured tourmalines, and those with more than two as multicoloured tourmalines. Slices showing a cross-section of the tourmaline crystal are also very popular because they display, in a very small area, the whole of the incomparable colour variety of this gemstone. If the centre of the slice is red and the area around it green, the stone is given the nickname 'water melon'. On the other hand, if the crystal is almost colourless and black at the ends only, it is called a 'Mohrenkopf', (resembling a certain kind of cake popular in Germany). Tourmalines are found almost all over the world. There are major deposits in Brazil, Sri Lanka and South and south-west Africa. Other finds have been made in Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Tourmalines are also found in the USA, mainly in California and Maine. Although there are plenty of gemstone deposits which contain tourmalines, good qualities and fine colours are not often discovered among them. For this reason, the price spectrum of the tourmaline is almost as broad as that of its colour.

The 'aschentrekker'
It is not only designers who love the tourmaline on account of its inspiring variety of colour. Scientists too are interested in it because of its astonishing physical qualities, for tourmalines can become electrically charged when they are heated and then allowed to cool. Then, they have a positive charge at one end and a negative one at the other. This is known as 'pyro-electricity', derived from the Greek word 'pyr', meaning fire. The gemstone also becomes charged under pressure,

the polarity subsequently changing when the pressure is taken off. When the charge changes the tourmaline begins to oscillate, similar to a rock crystal but much more pronouncedly. The Dutch, who were the first to bring the tourmaline to Europe, were familiar with this effect a long time before it was able to be provided with a scientific explanation. They used a heated tourmaline to draw up the ash from their meerschaum pipes, and called the gemstone with the amazing powers an 'aschentrekker'. In the fascinating world of gemstones, the tourmaline is very special. Its high availability and its glorious, incomparable colour spectrum make it one of our most popular gemstones - and apart from that, almost every tourmaline is unique.

Most gem scholars agree that the tradition of birthstones arose from the Breastplate of Aaron: a ceremonial religious garment set with twelve gemstones that represented the twelve tribes of Israel and also corresponded with the twelve signs of the zodiac and the twelve months of the year. Because ancient people did not always classify gemstones by mineral species like we do, there is some debate about which gemstones were set in the breastplate and why. Because of this, different cultures around the world have developed different birth stone lists. The modern day list that you know is only the most recent list: some older lists still exist. Some also argue that the proper way to assign gemstones is according to astrological sign and not month. We think it is more fun to choose the gemstone that speaks to you from all the possibilities. Of course it is hard to keep track of all the lists. Enter the Gem-oMatic! Select your birthdate or other significant date or anniversary and the Gemo-Matic will give you the list of all the birthstones that correspond to that date!

Your birthstones: December Modern birthstone: turquoise or blue topaz or tanzanite

Zodiac gemstone for sagittarius: topaz

Ancient traditional birthstones: Hebrew: ruby Roman: ruby Arabic: ruby Hindu: topaz Polish: turquoise Russian: turquoise Guardian angel: adnachiel His talismanic stone: beryl The custom of wearing birthstones probably first became popular in Poland in the fifteenth or sixteenth century. For more information about the history of birthstones, try The Curious Lore of Precious Stones by George Frederick Kunz, a fascinating compendium of all the powers that have been associated with gemstones through the ages. For example, birthstones originally may have been worn each month by everyone, since the powers of the gemstone were heightened during its month. If that is true, to get the full effect, you need to go out and get a full set of twelve and rotate them each year!

Emeralds are fascinating gemstones. They have the most beautiful, most intense and most radiant green that can possibly be imagined: emerald green. Inclusions are tolerated. In top quality, fine emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds. The name emerald comes from the Greek 'smaragdos' via the Old French 'esmeralde', and really just means 'green gemstone'. Innumerable fantastic stories have grown up around this magnificent gem. The Incas and Aztecs of South America, where the best emeralds are still found today, regarded the emerald as a holy gemstone. However, probably the oldest known finds were once made near the Red Sea in Egypt. Having said that, these gemstone mines, already exploited by Egyptian pharaohs between 3000 and 1500 B.C. and later referred to as 'Cleopatra's Mines', had already been exhausted by the time they were rediscovered in the early 19th century. Written many centuries ago, the Vedas, the holy scriptures of the Indians, say of the precious green gems and their healing properties: 'Emeralds promise good luck ...'; and 'The emerald enhances the well-being ...'. So it was no wonder that

the treasure chests of Indian maharajas and maharanis contained wonderful emeralds. One of the world's largest is the so-called 'Mogul Emerald'. It dates

from 1695, weighs 217.80 carats, and is some 10cm tall. One side of it is inscribed with prayer texts, and engraved on the other there are magnificent floral ornaments. This legendary emerald was auctioned by Christie's of London to an unidentified buyer for 2.2m US Dollars on September 28th 2001. Emeralds have been held in high esteem since ancient times. For that reason, some of the most famous emeralds are to be seen in museums and collections. The New York Museum of Natural History, for example, has an exhibit in which a cup made of pure emerald which belonged to the Emperor Jehangir is shown next to the 'Patricia', one of the largest Colombian emerald crystals, which weighs 632 carats. The collection of the Bank of Bogota includes five valuable emerald crystals with weights of between 220 and 1796 carats, and splendid emeralds also form part of the Iranian National Treasury, adorning, for example, the diadem of the former Empress Farah. The Turkish sultans also loved emeralds. In Istanbul's Topkapi Palace there are exhibits with items of jewellery, writing-implements and daggers, each lavishly adorned with emeralds and other gems.

The green of life and of love

The green of the emerald is the colour of life and of the springtime, which comes round again and again. But it has also, for centuries, been the colour of beauty and of constant love. In ancient Rome, green was the colour of Venus, the goddess of beauty and love. And today, this colour still occupies a special position in many cultures and religions. Green, for example, is the holy colour of Islam. Many of the states of the Arab League have green in their flags as a symbol of the unity of their faith. Yet this colour has a high status in the Catholic Church too, where green is regarded as the most natural and the most elemental of the liturgical colours. The magnificent green of the emerald is a colour which conveys harmony, love of Nature and elemental joie de vivre. The human eye can never see enough of this unique colour. Pliny commented that green gladdened the eye without tiring it. Green is perceived as fresh and vivid, never as monotonous. And in view of the fact that this colour always changes somewhat between the bright light of day and the artificial light of a lamp, emerald green retains its lively vigour in all its nuances.

Fingerprints of nature

The lively luminosity of its colour makes the emerald a unique gemstone. However, really good quality is fairly rare, with inclusions often marring the evenness of the colour signs of the turbulent genesis which has characterised this gemstone. Fine inclusions, however, do not by any means diminish the high regard in which it is held. On the contrary: even with inclusions, an emerald in a deep, lively green still has a much higher value than an almost flawless emerald whose colour is paler. Affectionately, and rather poetically, the specialists call the numerous crystal inclusions, cracks or fissures which are typical of this gemstone 'jardin'. They regard the tender little green plants in the emerald garden as features of the identity of a gem which has grown naturally. So where do they come from and how is it that they exist at all? In order to answer these questions, we need to look far, far back into the time of the emerald's origin. Emeralds from Zimbabwe are among the oldest gemstones anywhere in the world. They were already growing 2600 million years ago, whilst some specimens from Pakistan, for example, are a mere 9 million years young. From a chemical-mineralogical point of view, emeralds are beryllium-aluminiumsilicates with a good hardness of 7.5 to 8, and belong, like the light blue aquamarine, the tender pink morganite, the golden heliodor and the pale green beryl, to the large gemstone family of the beryls. Pure beryl is colourless. The colours do not occur until traces of some other element are added. In the case of the emerald, it is mainly traces of chromium and vanadium which are responsible for the fascinating colour. Normally, these elements are concentrated in quite different parts of the Earth's crust to beryllium, so the emerald should, strictly speaking, perhaps not exist at all. But during intensive tectonic processes such as orogenesis, metamorphism, emergences and erosion of the land, these contrasting elements found each other and crystallised out to make one of our most beautiful gemstones. The tension involved in the geological conditions conducive to the above processes produced some minor flaws, and some major ones. A glance through the magnifying-glass or microscope into the interior of an emerald tells us something about the eventful genesis of this unique gem: here we see small or large fissures; here the sparkle of a mini-crystal or a small bubble; here shapes of all kinds. While the crystals were still growing, some of these manifestations had the chance to 'heal', and thus the jagged three-phase inclusions typical of Colombian emeralds were formed: cavities filled with fluid, which often also contain a small bubble of gas and some tiny crystals. Logically enough, a genesis as turbulent as that of the emerald impedes the

undisturbed formation of large, flawless crystals. For this reason, it is only seldom that a large emerald with good colour and good transparency is found. That is why fine emeralds are so valuable. But for the very reason that the emerald has such a stormy past, it is surely entitled to show it - that is, as long as only a fine jardin is to be seen, and not a rank garden which spoils both colour and transparency.

The world of fine emeralds

Colombia continues to be at the top of the list in terms of the countries in which fine emeralds are found. It has about 150 known deposits, though not all of these are currently being exploited. The best known names are Muzo and Chivor, where emeralds were mined by the Incas in pre-Columbian times. In economic terms, the most important mine is at Coscuez, where some 60 faces are being worked. According to estimates, approximately three quarters of Colombia's emerald production now comes from the Coscuez Mine. Colombian emeralds differ from emeralds from other deposits in that they have an especially fine, shining emerald green unimpaired by any kind of bluish tint. The colour may vary slightly from find to find. This fascinatingly beautiful colour is so highly esteemed in the international emerald trade that even obvious inclusions are regarded as acceptable. But Colombia has yet more to offer: now and then the Colombian emerald mines throw up rarities such as Trapiche emeralds with their six rays emanating from the centre which resemble the spokes of a millwheel. Even if many of the best emeralds are undisputedly of Colombian origin, the 'birthplace' of a stone is never an absolute guarantee of its immaculate quality. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries, such as Zambia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and Russia. Zambia, Zimbabwe and Brazil in particular have a good reputation for fine emeralds in the

international trade. Excellent emerald crystals in a beautiful, deep emerald green and with good transparency come from Zambia. Their colour is mostly darker than that of Colombian emeralds and often has a fine, slightly bluish undertone. Emeralds which are mostly smaller, but very fine, in a vivacious, intense green come from Zimbabwe's famous Sandawana Mine, and they often have a delicate yellowish-green nuance. And the famous emerald mines of Colombia currently face competition from right next door: Brazil's gemstone mine Nova Era also produces emeralds in beautiful green tones, and if they are less attractive than those of their famous neighbour it is only by a small margin. Brazil also supplies rare emerald cat's eyes and extremely rare emeralds with a sixspoked star. Thanks to the finds in Africa and Brazil, there are more emeralds on

the market now than there used to be - to the delight of emerald enthusiasts - .

A sophisticated gemstone
Whilst its good hardness protects the emerald to a large extent from scratches, its brittleness and its many fissures can make cutting, setting and cleaning rather difficult. Even for a skilled gem cutter, cutting emeralds presents a special challenge, firstly because of the high value of the raw crystals, and secondly because of the frequent inclusions. However, this does not detract from the cutters' love of this unique gem. Indeed, they have developed a special cut just for this gem: the emerald cut. The clear design of this rectangular or square cut with its bevelled corners brings out the beauty of this valuable gemstone to the full, at the same time protecting it from mechanical strain. Emeralds are also cut in many other, mainly classical shapes, but if the raw material contains a large number of inclusions, it may often be cut into a gently rounded cabochon, or into one of the emerald beads which are so popular in India. Today, many emeralds are enhanced with colourless oils or resins. This is a general trade practice, but it does have the consequence that these green treasures react very sensitively to inappropriate treatment. For example, they cannot be cleaned in an ultrasonic bath. The substances that may have been used by the cutter during his work, or applied subsequently, seal the fine pores in the surface of the gem. Removing them will end up giving the stone a matt appearance. For this reason, emerald rings should always be taken off before the wearer puts his or her hands in water containing cleansing agent.

A matter of trust
Unfortunately, because the emerald is not only one of the most beautiful gemstones, but also one of the most valuable, there are innumerable synthetics and imitations. So how can you protect yourself from these 'fakes'? Well, the best way is to buy from a specialist in whom you have confidence. Large emeralds in particular should only be purchased with a report from a reputable gemmological institute. Such an institute will be able, thanks to the most modern examination techniques, to differentiate reliably between natural and synthetic emeralds, and will inform you as to whether the stone has undergone any treatment of the kind a purchaser has the right to know about. And one more piece of advice on the purchase of an emerald: whilst diamonds generously scintillate their fire in sizes below 1 carat, you should go for larger dimensions when acquiring a coloured gemstone. True, there are some lovely pieces of jewellery with small coloured gems to set decorative accents, but emeralds, like other coloured gemstones, do not really begin to show that beautiful glow below a certain size. How large 'your' emerald ends up will depend

on your personal taste, and on your budget. Really large specimens of top quality are rare. This means that the price of a top-quality emerald may be higher than that of a diamond of the same weight. The fascination exuded by a fine emerald is simply unique.

Her majesty Queen Elizabeth II: This monarch has jewelry. In fact she has so much jewelry that she has a special room to keep it in about the size of an ice rink, and situated 40 feet beneath Buckingham Palace. That does not even include the British Crown Jewels which are kept in the Tower of London. The Queen's personal jewelry is conservatively valued at $57 million and most of it was received as gifts. One of the highlights of the collection is the so-called Timur Ruby, which is actually a magnificent spinel weighing 352.50 carats. It is inscribed with the names of several of the previous owners, who were Mughal emperors. Other fabulous gems in her collection include the Cambridge and Delhi Dunbar Parure, a fantastic suite of emerald jewelry which includes an emerald diadem; the Prince Albert Brooch, a huge sapphire which was given to Queen Victoria by Prince Albert the day before their wedding; Queen Mary's large ruby earrings, and a v-shaped ruby and diamond bandeau collar which the Queen models on the front cover of the publication "The Jewels of Queen Elizabeth", by Leslie Field, a whole book about her personal jewelry collection. The British Queen also owns several of the large diamonds cut from the Cullinan, the rough that produced the Stars of Africa, the Cullinan I and II (530 carats and 317 carats), which are part of the Crown Jewels. She reportedly refers to the Cullinan III and Cullinan IV, 94 and 63 carats respectively, as "Granny's Chips." Elizabeth Taylor has a well known jewelry collection, including the 33.19 carat Krupp diamond and the 69.42-carat pear shaped Taylor-Burton Diamond which now hangs from a diamond necklace after Liz decided it was just a little too large for a ring. Richard Burton also gave her a heart-shaped yellow diamond which was originally a gift from Shah Jahan in 1621 to his favorite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who also inspired the Taj Mahal. Although Liz is usually associated with huge

diamonds, she also has a fabulous collection of other gemstones. As an engagement present, Richard Burton gave her the emerald and diamond brooch, which she wears with an emerald necklace he gave her as a wedding present. Earrings, a bracelet, and a ring followed. Some of the emeralds in the

set were from the Grand Duchess Vladimir of Russia. One of Taylor's husbands, Michael Wilding, gave her a cabochon sapphire engagement ring. Mike Todd gave her a spectacular ruby necklace and earring set. Another gift from Burton was La Peregrina, one of the largest and most historic pearls in existence, a pear shaped drop weighing 203.84 grains once owned by the Spanish royal family.

Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis had as exquisite a taste in jewelry as in everything else. She favored large, colorful necklaces and bracelets from Van Cleef & Arpel. Her jewelry collection grew considerably when she married Aristotle Onassis: he gave his bride $5 million in jewelry and often slipped bracelets from Harry Winston in the biweekly bouquets of flowers he sent her. It is a well known fact that her engagement ring from Onassis sold for $2.6 million at the auction of the Estate of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis at Sotheby's on April 24, 1996. You may not have heard about some of the other jewelry that sold at the auction: a beautiful 47-carat kunzite ring that President Kennedy purchased as a gift for his wife but never had the chance to give her. This sold for more than $410,000; a beautiful amethyst necklace with graduated drops which sold for $55,000; lovely red tourmaline briolette earrings that dangled from amethysts, which sold for $35,000; a striking cabochon garnet flower brooch from the 19th century which sold for $145,000; a spectacular 17.68-carat ruby ring which sold for $290,000; some cabochon ruby dangling earrings which sold for $360,000; and a cabochon ruby necklace that was a bargain at $247,500. One surprise was an interesting little scarecrow pin in gold and gems that sold for $100,000! Marlene Dietrich in many of her movies, wore her own suite of dramatic jewelry which was set with huge cabochon emeralds. (All those emeralds

were particularly perfect for her role as the jewel thief in "Desire" in 1938.) In "Stage Fright", Dietrich tries to use her jewelry to blackmail Jane Wyman. She also wears her own ruby bracelet in that film: that bracelet recently sold at Sotheby's for $990,000. Once when baking a cake at Katherine Cornell's house, Marlene thought she had lost her 37.41-carat cabochon emerald ring which she had removed in the kitchen. The house was turned upside down but

the ring couldn't be found. It was only during dessert that the ring was discovered by one of the dinner guests inside a piece of the cake!

Summary:Tourmaline is easy to maintain and stable under normal temperature conditions. Warm soapy water is the best to clean the stone. You can polish these stones with oil which also is supposed to hide scratches. One should protect the stone from too much heat and acids. One should also protect tourmaline from sharp blows and scratches. Tourmaline ring buying guide.... .....the brightest rays from the sun, traveled along the rainbow collecting all its colors and fell on earth forming crystals ".... An Egyptian Legend. Tourmaline also known as the "rainbow stone" is a potpourri of colours. It is generally believed that these stones can match various moods and tempers as it has many faces. Tourmaline is a magical stone, and it is generally believed that these stones are extension of oneself. Tourmaline rings are considered very special. Accept there beauty and aesthetic value, they are also valued for there special healing powers. The word tourmaline is derived from the Sinhalese word "tour Mali" which means "a mixed parcel". Actually tourmaline is the only gem that comes in so many hues and each colour has its own significance. Sometimes even the same stone has many colours visible i.e. partly or multi coloured. Tourmaline is a stone of double refractive nature; hence one can see various shades in the same stone. These gems have been treasured through out history. They have been found in ruins dating several thousand years. They are valued as gifts symbolizing love. Size, cut, quality, colour and clarity of tourmaline are some important aspects to be taken in mind while going for a tourmaline ring. The colours of tourmaline can be divided into 2 basic categories i.e. warm colours and cool colours. Warm colours are reds, oranges and yellows which look best under incandescent light and cool colours are blues and violets which look good in moon light. Hence while buying a tourmaline one must examine it in various lights as its colour appear different in different lights. Let's study about tourmaline in various sub-groups for a better understanding. Colours: This is the most important aspect, as tourmaline comes in a wide variety of colours. 1. RUBELLITE TOURMALINE These are most valuable and most rare stones. Colours vary from pale rose to deep ruby. The most important aspect to keep in mind is that more the impurities, darker the shade and lesser the price. One of the important characteristic of this stone is that it shows numerous colours when viewed from various angles. The rubellite tourmaline denotes lasting love, friendship and stability is relation ships. 2. ELBAITE TOURMALINE This is generally know as the green tourmaline but can be in many colours. Most unique of these is watermelon tourmaline, which appears green on skin and red inside. One unique characteristic of this tourmaline is that it can have more than one colour zone in the same crystal. 3. PARAIBA TOURMALINE The name is derived from the Brazilian State of Paraiba where it was first found. Colour is vivid, deep blue or bluish green. Paraiba tourmaline is considered the best quality of tourmaline. 4. YELLOW TOURMALINE The colour of this stone varies from electric yellow to little brownish. Yellow tourmalines are embedded in black layer which needs to be removed, before the stone is cut. The unique characteristic of the stone is that it has a slight sweet scent, hence it is also know as the "lemon tourmaline". 5. BLUE TOURMALINE

True blue tourmaline is rare, as they mostly have slight shades of green in it. A blue tourmaline denotes high degree of harmony and is reported to bring openness and tolerance. 6. BLACK TOURMALINE This is supposed to be the protector. It wards away harmful radiations from the wearer. Cuts: Tourmalines looks good as round, triangles, trillions and ovals. Prices: The prices of tourmaline vary tremendously as per the quality. But the most important thing to be understood is that the lighter the colour the costlier the stone and the darker the colour the cheaper the stone. The darker colours obtain its colour due to its excess impurities. The most expensive are the Paraiba tourmaline which is around 10,000$ per carat or even more. Generally the tourmalines are ranging from 50$ to 85$ per carat. But for bi-colours it can go up to $1000/ carat or more. Size: The price of tourmaline does not depend on size but on weight of the stone. Generally tourmalines are less than 1 carat. Some qualities such as chrome and red tourmaline can be above 10 carats and Paraiba i.e. the costliest tourmaline is above 5 carats. Paraiba is considered the master piece. Sources of tourmaline The main source of tourmaline stones in Brazil. East African countries like Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar are known as the producer of Tourmaline. Except these Mexico and Sri Lanka are also good sources for these stones. Caring Tips Tourmaline is easy to maintain and stable under normal temperature conditions. Warm soapy water is the best to clean the stone. You can polish these stones with oil which also is supposed to hide scratches. One should protect the stone from too much heat and acids. One should also protect tourmaline from sharp blows and scratches. Some interesting facts of tourmaline 1. Pink tourmaline is supposed to provide grace and balance to a female. It also has protecting qualities. 2. Green tourmaline is supposed to provide strength and vigor to males. 3. Multi-coloured tourmalines are considered to be the anniversary birthstones, especially lucky for the 8th year of marriage. So now all you husbands know what to gift to your sweethearts on this anniversary, right? 4. Tourmaline is the stone for month of October. 5. All tourmaline in any colour are considered gifts of nature, and are considered to vile away bad luck and misfortunes. 6. Black tourmaline is the US STATE GEMSTONE of New York Things to be kept in mind while buying a tourmaline ring 1. QUALITY OF THE STONE? 2. IS THE STONE REAL OR SYNTHETIC? 3. TREATMENT DONE ON STONE? 4. NOTICABLE CHIPS, SCRATCHES OR INCLUSIONS TO BE AVOIDED. 5. COLOUR SHOULD BE EVEN THOUGHOUT THE STONE. Some tips for buying tourmaline rings

1. Silver/ white gold looks really good with tourmaline, especially with the cool colours like blues and ferozi. 2. One should try to buy a ring with 3-4 small stones in various colours embedded in a unique combination and style, in the same ring. This looks really stylish and can be worn with all kinds of dresses. 3. Always approach a registered jeweler before buying a tourmaline ring. One should be careful not to get a false stone, as it resembles a lot with glass and sold in fake coloured glass form. 4. Tourmaline can be worn with both casual and formal wear. So one should keep in mind the ring design before picking up the stone. 5. A big round tourmaline looks very attractive as a thumb ring. If you are the adventurous types you can go for this kind. 6. Tourmaline has got healing properties so one should really take care before choosing the color for oneself. But one should also remember that this only has its maximum effect if it touches the body. 7. If you are the creative kinds, you can buy a stone and get a ring made of your own design through a jeweler. But one should always approach a good jeweler as the embedding / fixing of the stone needs to be proper. 8. Tourmaline and diamonds look really kewl, especially when one big stone is surrounded with small diamonds like a necklace. 9. When using 2-3 colours of tourmaline in a ring, one should be careful of the colour combination. Best combinations are pink and blue, green and yellow. 10. If you decide to buy a single stone ring, instead of buying a basic design with the stone in centre top of the ring, go for something unique like a curved ring with the stone slightly displaced on one side. 11. Try mixing yellow and white gold for a tourmaline ring with a single stone. It looks really smart and different. But please pick a medium size stone for this design, as the emphasis has to be on the design as well as the stone. So now you are ready for a tourmaline ring, right?? What ru waiting for, go n get it!!

Summary: This stunning stone in colors ranging from all shades of green, blue, yellow, black, pink, red and clear is a feast to one's eyes. Word tourmaline itself comes from Ceylon or as it is now known as Sri Lankan word "Turumali", it means "gemstone" or sometimes referred as "mixed parcel" as it contains variety of minerals. I was first introduced to this stunning stone called Tourmaline when I first laid my eyes on this exquisite pink stone and have been a great fan of this multi-colored stone ever since. The more and more I learnt about this gem the more I am in awe of this stone, astounded by its range of colors and its beauty. This stunning stone in colors ranging from all shades of green, blue, yellow, black, pink, red and clear is a feast to one's eyes. Word tourmaline itself comes from Ceylon or as it is now known as Sri Lankan word "Turumali", it means "gemstone" or sometimes referred as "mixed parcel" as it contains variety of minerals. It is also called "Verdalite" which comes from Latin, known as "greenstone". Tourmaline is a collectors delight as we find enthusiastic collectors from all parts of the world on the look out for the rarest of colors, size of the stone, the setting and the concentration of colors with little or no banding of colors. "Color" -this gives the beauty to tourmalines. Colors in every hue, shade and nuance graces this stone. Some tourmalines even have more than one color. The color that the stone gets depends on the place from where it is mined. Pariba tourmaline is a electric blue stone. While Brazil is home to green and bluish green tourmaline.

SriLanka possesses Rubellite which is blessed with colors of ruby ranging from pink to red. Malawi produces bright yellow tourmalines. Some of the varieties of tourmalines are Rubellite (red), Indicolite ( blue), Chromolite (rich green), Canary (bright yellow), Watermelon ( green-edge and red-heart combo) Paraiba ( intense green to rich blue), Bi-color (more than one colored) Cats eye (variety of colors) and Color-change (Color changes with light from red to green ). Rest of the tourmalines are just called with the color prefix like pink-tourmaline. The color of the stone takes a different hue depending on the mineral and the proportion in which is present in it . Pariba tourmaline is said to have copper in small amount and even traces of gold. "Cut" this is also an important factor one must remember when looking for tourmaline. It can be as varied as its color and can add or subtract to the beauty of the stone. Each cut can bring out the colors differently. Always go in for the cut-style that is appealing to you, making sure that the angles are right, light is coming back to the eye in a pleasing way and bring out the colors beautifully. Usually lighter colored tourmalines are oriented with table facet perpendicular to the c-axis to bring out the deepest color. Tourmalines are usually cut as rounds, triangles, trillions and ovals. Tourmaline is quite a hard stone with it hardness being 7.5. Tourmalines must be protected from scratches and blows, this is to warn you that one must not wear them while boxing or wrestling!!!!. Large temperature changes could cause harm to the stone. "Clarity"- Usually tourmalines always comes with inclusions and can never be clean as diamonds. Tourmaline is a very popular gem with its price ranging from fairly affordable to being very expensive depending on the concentration of color and size of the stone. "Carats" which means the weight of the stone. It becomes dearer with the increasing weight of the stone which is measured in carats. A carat is approximately one fifth of a gram. Larger stones being rare is very valuable. Paraiba being the most expensive tourmaline. . So the 4 C's play an important role in determining the value of a gemstone and have to be considered while we are buying tourmaline too. They influence the fifth C being the "Cost". Tourmaline has this physical property to change its electric charge when heated so in seventeenth century Dutch sailors brought tourmaline to Europe and used them to clean the pipes as it attracted ash other light objects by becoming polarized crystalline magnet. they called them "aschntrekkers" Moreover the very unusual colors of tourmaline ranging from electric blue to emerald green, from ruby red to exquisite pink is sure to attract attention. Tourmaline can also be used as birthstone as it comes in all colors and birthstones are determined by the color of the stones. Many mystical properties are also attributed to this exquisite gem. Pink tourmaline is said to enhance female balance and protection while green tourmaline is its counterpart enhancing male balance. Legend also has it that the wearer of all colors of tourmalines are protected from evil-eyes, misfortunes and wards off danger. Multi-coloured tourmaline is also the anniversary birth-stone on the 8th year of marriage. So if one's marriage is on the rocks its time to get this rock. It is an eye candy if it is set in the right way. While we are shopping for tourmalines we should enquire as to where it came from, its size and the richness of color. One must also examine the tourmaline in all kinds of lighting before buying as it can look completely different in daylight and in incandescent lighting. Soon one can become a connoisseur and be able to discern the finest of gem and be able to appreciate them. Tourmaline's wide spectrum of colors provides innumerable options for any kind of jewellery to go with any kind of outfit making it a collectors delight.

Question: How Can I Maintain Good Feng Shui While Traveling for Extended Periods of Time? Answer: This is an excellent question! Knowing how much our energy is connected to the environment we live or work in makes it very important to take good care of our home or office feng shui. What happens, though, if you decided to travel for a year or so? How can you maintain good feng shui in your various temporary homes? First, it is important to know that you affect the energy of the space as much as the energy of the space affects you. So, taking care of your inner feng shui, so to speak, is very important, especially when you do not have the security of your home to support and nourish you.

By inner good feng shui I mean being very mindful of maintaining good personal energy levels at all times, watching your thoughts and emotions and always choosing to stay on the bright and "feel good" side of things. Some places you might find yourself in might have very good energy, and some might have very challenging feng shui. Hopefully, you will have to spend very little time in rooms, or homes with bad feng shui. The very first level of good feng shui is just cleanliness on the physical level. You know, an actually clean space versus a space that looks clean but has all the junk stuffed in closets, basements or under the beds and coffee tables. That never really works, as you cannot foolChi, or energy. So, a physically clean space is the first obvious choice. Having it clean and keeping it clean. If you have a choice between renting different spaces, look for cleanliness and freshness as the absolute must, not for pretty decor. After you have a more or less clean foundation, you can always create good energy with a small "feng shui on-the-go" assortment of items. These would be items that will help clear the energy, as well as keep maintain good energy around you.

A couple of small crystals is always a good idea when you are away from home. Clear quartz and rose quartz are excellent choices, as are black tourmaline for protection or kyanite for balancing. Do not forget to cleanse your crystals from time to time. You can incorporate the crystals subtly as mindful jewelry/body feng shui, or by carrying small tumbled crystals in your pockets.

Essential oils that you like the most are always a good "feng shui on-the-go" tool. I always carry lavender oil with me to refresh my energy throughout the day. Lavender also has strong protective properties. Explore differentessential oils and see which scents strengthen you/your energy field the most.

Smudging or burning incense is a good idea for any space, but you might not have the ability to do that while travelling. However, even an airspray with a good essential oils mix would work well to quickly pick up the energy of the room. Check the book "Sacred Space"by Denise Linn for more info on space clearing.

Stay safe by feeling out the energy around you and avoid bad spots. A place can look very pretty and have dangerous energies or bad feng shui still. The only way to access this information is with your feelings - does it feel good, does it feel bad? Do not let your mind interfere for the first couple of seconds and you will sense things that might be hidden and not very obvious about the feng shui of any given space.

Then, of course, learn as much as you can about good feng shui basics before going away and you will quickly know what places would be better for you: from the energy of places close to the water to the energy of houses on a cul-de-sac.

If you are traveling with your partner and worry about maintaining the strength of yourloving relationship, it is always a good idea to have with you a small photo of your most fun and loving moments. The photo can be part of your "feng shui on-the-go" package and help smooth your communication when needed. Hope this helps and safe travels!