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Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate, or biological material that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living

organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Categories of Air Pollution Air pollution is categorized by the emissions

1. Carbon di oxide

2. Aerosol fumes and gases 3. Toxic gases 4. Smoke and 5. Dust Carbon di oxide emission results in the generation of the green house gases such as water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluro carbon and ozone. Toxic gases spreading in the air will result in poisoning of the species up to death. Smoke results in the visibility loss. Emissions from Textile Processing Oil mist and organic emissions produced when textile materials containing lubricating oils, platicizers, and other materials that can volatilize or be thermically degraded into volatile substances, are subjected to heat. Processes that can be sources of oil mist include tentering, calendaring, heat setting, drying, and curing. Acid mist produced during the carbonization of wool and during some types of spray dyeing. Solvent vapors released during and after solvent processing operations such as dry cleaning and volatile organic compounds from mineral spirit solvents in print pastes or inks. Exhaust gases emanating from polycondensation of melt spinning fiber lines Dust and lint produced by the processing of natural fibres and synthetic staple prior to and during spinning, as well as by napping and carpet shearing. Emission in processes Easy care finishing Formaldehyde carcinogenic agent Flame retardant finish Hydrogen cyanide, halogen compounds or oxides of nitrogen, highly conc. Carbon monoxide Drying, curing HCl and cyanide produced when drying of incompletely removed excess antistatic, flame retardant or softening compounds occurs

Summary of the wastes generated during textiles manufacturing

Process Source Pollutants Energy Emissions from boiler Particulates, nitrous oxides Production (Nox) sulphur dioxide (SO2) Coating, dryingEmission from high temperatureVolatile organic components and curing ovens (VOCs) Cotton handlingEmissions from preparation, carding, Particulates activities combing, and fabrics manufacturing Sizing Emission from using sizing compoundNitrogen oxides, sulphur oxide, (gums, PVA) carbon monoxide. Bleaching Emission from using chlorineChlorine, chlorine dioxide compound Dyeing Disperse dyeing using carriersCarriers Sulphur dyeing H2S Aniline dyeing Aniline vapors Printing Emission Hydrocarbons, ammonia Finishing Resin finishing Heat setting of Formaldehyde synthetic fabrics Carriers - low molecular weight Polymers - lubricating oils Chemical Emissions from storage tanks forVolatile organic components storage commodity and chemicals (VOCs) Waste waterEmissions from treatment tanks andVolatile organic components, treatment vessels toxic emissions
source: www.e-textile.org Effect of Dust Formation of dust film on every surface Particles fall into moving parts of machinery Dirty appearance of product Effect of Dust - Health Hazards

Cotton dust biossinosis (lung disease) Asbestos dust lung cancer Wool dust allergic, sneezing attacks, asthma and related diseases

Pollutants Sulpher di oxide aldehydes chlorine

Effects On HumanSources Being Irritates respiratory Boiler flue gas, rayon system and causes plant etc. bronchitis Irritates all parts of Polyester plant respiratory system Causes lung irritation Processing house and also irritation in eyes

Carbon di oxide

Deprives body cells of Boiler house oxygen and cause unconsciousness by CO combining with hemoglobin

Pollution Control Spinning mill maintaining m/c parts Maintaining hardness of rubber cots Maintaining RH% Using overhead pneumatic cleaners Cyclone filters, Cloth filters

Wet processing unit Electrostatic precipitator scrubber oxidizer General control measures 1. Height of chimneys: Chimneys height should not be less than 30 meters and release the pollutants not in the vicinity of living organism 2. Gravitational & inertial separator: These are working on gravitational and inertial concepts of collecting, filtering etc of the particulate matter. Eg. settling chambers, dynamic separator and wet cyclones & multiple cyclones. 3. Filters: Woven or sintered metal beds of fibres, metal turning, fibrous mats & aggregate bed filter, paper filters and fabric filters are used for the filtration of particulate matter like dust, lint and fumes.

References 1. Keith Slater, "Environmental impact of textiles: production, processes and protection", Textile Institute (Manchester, England), Published by Woodhead Publishing, 2003, ISBN 1855735415, 9781855735415 2. www.e-textile.org 3. http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/pdfdownload.asp? filename=2195&article=2195&status=new

water pollution and the textile industry


September 30, 2009 by Aaron Raybin
The apparel industry has a big pollution problem. The World Bank estimates that 17 20 percent of industrial water pollution comes from textile coloration and treatment

(http://airdye.com/about/how). Theyve also identified 72 toxic chemicals in our water solely from textile dyeing, 30 of which are permanent. This represents an appalling environmental issue for the industry. With consumers striving to purchase eco-friendlier products, water pollution from dye houses and coloration treatments could be a major hurdle for apparel manufacturers. How can a company claim to sell a green shirt if the dye used to color it is polluting water and may be linked to cancer in humans? Some companies have taken action (maybe link to NADA post?) and removed dyes from certain garments, but there is no denying that consumers want color and variety in their clothing. Fortunately, for companies producing goods with synthetic fabric there is a solution; AirDye. AirDye is a dyeing technology that uses air not water to dye garments, allowing companies to create garments with vivid designs and colors, without polluting our water and environment. Here are the AirDye facts: - Uses 95 percent less water - Emits 84 percent less Green House Gases (GHG) - Requires 87 percent less energy - Reduces damaging of goods (Up to one percent of goods are damaged using AirDye compared to 10 percent of traditionally dyed garments) - No Rules Wash. Wash at any temperature, with whites or colors, with or without bleach - Allows for new designs. Dye different sides of a single piece of fabric different colors or designs When creating eco-friendlier apparel, it is important not to forget the role dye plays as an environmental ill. Consumers are becoming quite conscious of how bad traditional dyeing is for the environment but have put up with it until now because there has not been a viable alternative. AirDye is that alternative. The technology is already used to dye and decorate swimsuits for MissPeaches(miss peaches link), t-shirts for A Lot To Say, Window Coverings for Hunter Douglas, handbags for JulieApple, and mostly recently the runway fashions of Costello Tagliapietra. In the race to go green companies need an advantage. The companies above have found theirs. What will yours be?

The textile industry has a big pollution problem. The World Bank estimates that 17 to 20 percent of industrial water pollution comes from textile dyeing and treatment. Theyve also identified 72 toxic chemicals in our water solely from textile dyeing, 30 of which are cannot

be removed. This represents an appalling environmental problem for the clothing designers and other textile manufacturers. With consumers eager to purchase eco-friendly products, water pollution from dye houses and coloration treatments could be a major hurdle for apparel manufacturers. How can a company claim to sell a green shirt if the dyeing process used to color the garment wastes and pollutes water? Some companies have taken action and removed dyes from certain garments, but it seems unlikely that everyone would be happy with off-white or beige as the only choices at the store. Consumers want color and variety in their clothing. Fortunately, for companies producing goods with synthetic fabric there is a solution: AirDye. AirDye is a dyeing process that uses air instead of water to dye garments, allowing companies to create garments with vivid designs and colors, without polluting our water and environment. Here are the facts about AirDye technology: Uses 95 percent less water Emits 84 percent less Green House Gases (GHG) Requires 87 percent less energy

Reduces damaging of goods (Up to one percent of goods are damaged using AirDye compared to 10 percent of traditionally dyed garments)

No Rules Wash. Wash at any temperature, with whites or colors, with or without bleach Allows for new designs. Dye different sides of a single piece of fabric different colors or designs When creating eco-friendly clothing, drapes, or even carpet, it is important not to forget the role dye plays as an environmental ill. Consumers are becoming quite conscious of how bad traditional textile dyeing is for the environment but have put up with it until now because there has not been a viable alternative. AirDye is that alternative. Heres an example of how AirDye compares to the traditional wetdye process for 25,000 medium mens t-shirts:

This unique dyeing process is already used to create vibrant, double-sided swimsuits for Miss Peaches Swimwear, used with 100% recycled PET for ecochic t-shirts by A Lot To Say, ground-breaking hospitality industry window coverings from Hunter Douglas Hospitality, designer handbags by JulieApple, and mostly recently, the runway fashions of New York design houseCostello Tagliapietra. In the race to go green, companies need an advantage. The companies above have found theirs. What will yours be? Learn more about AirDyes environmental benefits detailed in our Environmental Profile / Life Cycle Assessment.
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Workers consistently exposed to the noise levels above 85 or even 90 dBA may reveal permanent hearing loss. Prevalence of noise induced hearing loss was highest in theworkers working in weaving area, followed by the spinning workers and the workersworking in TFO, doubling area.In addition to hearing loss, exposure of workers to noise levels of 90119 dBA was alsofound to result in Cardiovascular and psycho physiologic problems. Sleep disorders and headache Mental fatigue Annoyance, speech interference and reduced alertness, compared to thoseworking in a relatively quiet room (60-75 dBA) Increased blood pressure, deep body temperature and pulse rate. S peed of performance was impaired significantly by noise Suggestion to eradicate noise pollution in Textile industry:

Noise in spinning section can be reduced by pr oviding elastomeric spindlemounts, elastomeric ring holders and proper maintenance lubrication of gears,etc Replacement of parts with resilient materials like nylon instead of metal can provide reduction in impulse noise of looms. Attempts shall be made to produce complete enclosures around the loom. Proper maintenance by ensuring the following:1.Reduction of imbalance through proper alignment and balancing of rotatingequipment, preferably accomplished under dynamic load conditions.2.Replacement of worn parts, such as bearing, gears and other moving parts.3.Regular lubrication to reduce friction.4 . T i g h t e n i n g o f l o o s e p a r t s . 5.Correct assembly of machine parts or replacements . Vibration isolators prevent noise from being transmitted through the baseof the equipment.

Damping These commercially available mastic polymeric or foamedcoatings reduce sound amplitude and duration and, are best used in conjunctionwith other noise control treatment. Combination of foam and lead-filled vinyl provide a degree of bothabsorption and transmission loss where only marginal (10 dBA or less) noisereduction is necessary . Improving the acoustic environment by the addition of sound absorptiveelements. A partial enclosure or sound barrier with both absorptive and soundtransmission loss qualities, and correctly placed, can provide noise reduction of the order of 8 to 12 dB. A complete enclosure can provide a greater degree of reduction ranging from 30 dB to over 60 dB depending upon the design. Preventive measures to control noise pollution: Noise surveys to determine the degree of hazardous noise exposure by surveyingany area in which workers are likely to be exposed to hazardous noise (>85 dBA).Level of

hazard depends on noise intensity, duration of exposure during a typicalworking day and overall exposure during working life. Engineering and administrative controls are undertaken to reduce exposures to<90 dBA, and include: design of equipment, its location and layout, selection of quieter machines, treatment of noisy rooms, administrative controls, proper maintenance and isolation of the worker from source. Audiometric tests, by pre-employment and p e r i o d i c f o l l o w - u p t e s t i n g b y employers, to help determine employee effects; employee medical history andnon-workplace noise exposure should be assessed. Hearing protection devices such as earmuffs or helmets to reduce the amount of sound reaching the ear. Conclusion: Noise is a pollutant. Noise is an important cause of environmental pollutionworldwide especially in urban centres where the industries situated. Exposure toe x c e ssive noise is the major avoidable cause of

p e r m a n e n t h e a r i n g i m p a i r m e n t worldwide. The estimated costs of noise to developed countries range from 0.2% to 2%of GDP (gross domestic product). There is a serious shortage of accurate epidemiologicalinformation on prevalence, risk factors and costs of noise induced hearing loss, especiallyin developing countries. The main concern of noise control is therefore the development, p r o d u c t i o n a n d p r e f e r r e d u s e o f low-noise working equipment and p r o c e s s e s . Comprehensive research needed in t echnical measures for noise abatement, settings tandards, improving hearing protectors, and low cost medications for prevention. References: 1.Prevention Of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss -Report of a WHO-PDH InformalConsultation, Geneva, 28-30 October 1997 (website)2.Evaluation of occupational environment in two textile plants in northern Indiawith specific reference to noise by Raman Bedi in Industrial health 2006, 44 112116.3.http://www.cseindia.org/programme/health/pdf/c onf2006/a4noise.pdf.4.http://www.nioh.org5.Job hazards profiling and workplace improvements in SMES Experiences fromIndia by Steinberg, R.; Hannak, J. & K.Balakrishnan in Safety Science Monitor,Vol 9, Issue 1, 2005; short communication 3.6.Noise Pollution In Textile, Printing And

Publishing Industries In Saudi Arabia -M a d b u l i H . N o w e i r A n d A . T . M . J a m i l i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l M o n i t o r i n g a n d Assessment 83 : 103111, 2003. 7.Do ambient noise exposure levels predict hearing loss in a modern industrialcohort? by P M Rabinowitz, D Galusha, C Dixon-Ernst, M D Slade and M R Cullen in Occup. Environ. Med. 2007; 64; 5359.8.A Guide To Noise Control In Minnesota by Minnesota Pollution control agency9.Noise Exposure And Hearing Loss Prevention Programmes After 20 Years Of Regulations In The United States By W E Daniell, S S Swan, M M Mcdaniel, J ECamp, M A Cohen And J G Stebbins In Occup. Environ. Med. 2006; 63; 343-351.10.Noise Sources by Professor Samir N.Y. Gerges and Gustav A. Sehrndt andWolfgang Parthey in WHO report11.Noise Control for Industry by John M. Handley in Water, Air, and Soil Pollution2 (1973) 331-353. Author profile: Mail i.d : sen29iit@yahoo.co.insen29iit@gmail.com Bottom of Form