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Korosi

Johny Wahyuadi Soedarsono y y Departemen Metalurgi dan Material FTUI

What is Corrosion?
Reaction of a metal with its environment Aqueous corrosion
reaction with water (usually containing dissolved ions)

High temperature oxidation


reaction with oxygen at high temperature

High temperature corrosion


reaction with other gases

Examples of Corrosion
Rusting of steel
corrosion product (rust) is solid but not protective

Reaction of aluminium with water


corrosion product is insoluble in water, so may be protective

Burning of magnesium in air


high temperature oxidation

Rust Ne e R st Never Sleep

Kerugian Akibat Korosi


Sekitar 1 5 % dari Pendapatan Domestik Nasional / Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1998 kerugian akibat korosi adalah sebesar US $ 276 Milyar yang merupakan 3,15 % dari GDP

Penyebab Besarnya Biaya Korosi


Disain yang berlebihan (Corrosion allowance yang terlalu besar) Kehilangan produksi (shutdowns) Kerusakan komponen Biaya pemeliharaan Kontaminasi terhadap produk Kerusakan lingkungan

Data Kerugian Beberapa Negara Akibat Korosi


No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sektor Industri / Negara Industri pesawat terbang (USA) Pesawat militer (USA) Pesawat (tidak bisa terbang) Angkatan Udara dan Laut (Australia) Otomotif (Finlandia) Otomotif (USA) Menara Eiffel (Perancis) Minyak dan gas (AGIP) Minyak dan Gas (Laut Utara) Swiss Kerugian (US $) 13 M / tahun 3 M/ tahun 100.000 / hari 50 juta / tahun 300 Juta / tahun 0,25 % GNP tahun 1998 40 juta / 7 tahun 0,40 / barrel produksi tahun 1999 60% biaya pemeliharaan tahun 1999 3 5 % GNP

80 % kerusakan material pada industri minyak dan gas diakibatkan oleh korosi (US $ Milyar)
1.4 7 3.7 Eksplorasi Refining Pipa transmisi Distribusi gas 0.9 7 5 Transport Penyimpanan

Problem Keselamatan dan Lingkungan Akibat Korosi


Pengangkutan maupun penanganan bahan beracun dan berbahaya yang menggunakan material / logam Kontaminasi pada pipa saluran air minum atau industri makanan.

Contoh Kerugian Akibat Terjadinya Korosi


Kejadian tahun 1987 di Minnesota dimana korosi selektif pada lasan pipa bahan bakar mengakibatkan terjadinya kebakaran dengan korban tewas 2 orang Korosi pada pipa uap Pembangkit Listrik Nuklir di Virginia dimana terjadi korosi dan erosi, uap panasnya mengakibatkan 8 orang meninggal dunia.

Strategi Untuk Penghematan Biaya Korosi (Save 25 30 %)


Kepedulian semua pihak terhadap korosi Merubah salah persepsi bahwa korosi tidak bisa diatasi Perubahan kebijakan perusahaan dengan menerapkan management korosi Peningkatan pendidikan baik pendidikan terstruktur maupun training untuk para staf

Peningkatan keahlian disain yang tepat Peningkatan metode pengkajian dan prediksi umur pakai bahan / material Pengembangan teknologi pencegahan korosi melalui penelitian, pengembangan dan implementasi

Examples of Corrosion
Rusting of steel
corrosion product (rust) is solid but not protective

Reaction of aluminium with water


corrosion product is insoluble in water, so may be protective

Burning of magnesium in air


high temperature oxidation

Prinsip Korosi : Kec Korosi : mpy = W: D: A : T :

534 W

DAT berat ang be at yang hilang (mg) berat jenis logam ( g/cm3) luas permukaan (inch2) waktu (jam)

Aspek Elektrokimia Reaksi elektrokimia Polarisasi Pasivasi Aspek Lingkungan : Pengaruh oksigen dan hidrogen P h k i d hid Pengaruh kecepatan Pengaruh Temperatur Pengaruh Konsentrasi Korosi Pengaruh Galvanik

Aspek Metalurgi Sifat logam Masalah ekonomi Inspeksi Peralatan inspeksi

Material : Logam / paduan Polimer / plastik Keramik /non logam Sifat logam

Korosi

Batas butir, energi , mudah terkorosi (intergranular, pitting) Laku mekanik tegangan dalam / tegangan sisa (SCC) Faktor yang mempengaruhi sifat korosi : Tegangan Konsentrasi Hidrogen / Oksigen Homogenitas kimia (impurities, segregasi dll) dan fisik (roughness, scale, kotor dll) Protective film (pasivasi, lapisan oksida) impermeable, kuat, tidak mudah retak, adhesi, mudah terbentuk)

Pengaruh unsur paduan terhadap korosi Stabilitas alpha (Cr, Si, Mo, W dll.) Stabilitas gamma (Cu, Ni, Mn, Co dll) Pembentuk karbida (Fe, Mn, Nb, Ti dll) Menurunkan titik eutectoid ( Mn, V, Ta, W dll) Tahan korosi (Cr Ni Mo Ti Nb Mn Cu Si) (Cr, Ni, Mo, Ti, Nb, Mn, Cu, Produk korosi tidak mudah larut Pasivasi stabilitas karbida

Korosi di atmosfer dan air laut Korosi atmosferik disebabkan : Gas oksigen Uap air Pengotor Pengaruh atmosfer (kering, lembab, laut, tropis, pedesaan, kota, industri) Korosi lingkungan laut : pH Oksigen Kecepatan gerak air laut Temperatur Biota laut (biofouling / pelekatan material, over loaded)

Biota laut : Bernacles (menimbulkan celah akan mempercepat korosi) Sebagai penghalang / turbulensi lokal Mampu menembus lapisan pelindung Bakteri pereduksi sulfat (menghasilkan asam sulfat) Lingkungan laut : Daerah percikan (serangan korosi sangat kuat, no kuat fouling) Daerah Pasang (fouling mulai ada, air laut jenuh udara) Daerah laut dangkal (air laut jenuh oksigen, pengotor, fouling, gerakan arus) Laut dalam (korosi karena pengaruh oksigen, chlor dll) Daerah lumpur (komplex, korosi agak rendah / oksigen terbatas)

Corrosion of Zinc in Acid


Zinc dissolves with hydrogen evolution Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
Zinc known as a base or active metal
One atom of zinc metal toof hydrogen plus two molecules form reacts one molecule of molecule of hydrogen gas zinc chloride plus chloride (hydrochloric acid) goes to one

Corrosion of Platinum in Acid


Platinum does not react with acids Platinum is known as a noble metal

Connection of Platinum to Zinc


electrons

Zinc and platinum Zinc and platinum not current flows connected, no reaction and hydrogen is evolved on platinum on platinum

Zn Z

Pt

HCl Zn + 2HCl2+ + 2e- 2 + H2 2H+ + 2e- H2 Zn Zn ZnCl metal + metal ions + hydrogen hydrogen metal acid salt+ electrons ions + electrons hydrogen gas

Connection of Platinum to Zinc


Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 But we can separate metal dissolution and hydrogen evolution h d ogen e ol tion Zn Zn2+ + 2e2H+ + 2e- H2 These are known as electrochemical One zinc of in two electrons in the metal metal one reactions atom ionzincsolution Reactions that involve both
chemical change and the transfer of charge

Electrodes
Electrodes are pieces of metal on which an electrochemical reaction is occurring An anode is a e ect ode o which a a ode s an electrode on c an anodic or oxidation reaction is occurring A cathode is an electrode on which a cathodic or reduction reaction is occurring

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Anodic Reactions
Examples Zn Zn2+ + 2ezinc corrosion 2+ + 2eFe Fe iron corrosion Al Al3+ + 3ealuminium corrosion 2+ Fe3+ + eFe ferrous ion oxidation H2 2H+ + 2ehydrogen oxidation + + 4e2H2O O2 + 4H oxygen evolution

Cathodic Reactions
Examples O2 + 2H2O + 4e 4OHoxygen reduction 2H2O + 2e- H2 + 2OH- hydrogen evolution Cu2+ + 2e- Cu copper plating 3+ + e- Fe2+ Fe ferric ion reduction Reduction reactions

Corrosion of zinc in acid


When zinc is placed in acid the metal will start to dissolve and hydrogen will start to be liberated according to the potential of the metal Consider the anodic zinc dissolution reaction Zn Zn2+ + 2e-

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How Fast will Corrosion Occur?


Corrosion kinetics
Concerned with the rates of corrosion reactions

Mixed potential theory:


The corrosion potential will be that potential at which the sum of all anodic (positive) and cathodic (negative) currents on the electrode is zero

Polarization
The change in potential that is caused by

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Types of Polarization
Activation Polarization
The polarization necessary for the electrochemical reaction to go at the given rate Given by Tafels Law:

E = potential at current i Eo = potential at current io b = Tafel slope

E-log i and Evans Diagrams


Plot E against log for|, then activation Eo and io |i the cathodic a straight line polarization gives reaction Anodic reaction,
Electrode Potential

Tafel slope Mixed equilibrium p is icorr for the Tafel slope Ecorr andwhen sum as Cathodic reaction, reaction occursexpressed of positive corrosion Tafel zero is mV reaction per decade all currents is slope negative Eo and io for the of current anodic reaction mV log (-i2) - log (-i1) log |current|

Concentration Polarization
Additional polarization caused by drop in concentration of a reactant at the electrode surface As concentration falls, more polarization is needed to make the current flow Eventually, no more current can flow because no more reactant can reach the metal, and a limiting current is reached

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Concentration Polarization
Oxygen reduction is often affected by concentration polarization
Electrode Potential

Rate of cathodic oxygen Rate of cathodic oxygen reduction without reduction with concentration polarization Limiting current density concentration polarization rate of reaction limited by availability of oxygen at the metal surface

log |current density|

Resistance Polarization
If there is a resistance between the anode and the cathode in a cell, then the current flowing through that resistance will cause a potential drop given by Ohms Law: V = IR This is important for paint films and for high resistance solutions

Resistance Polarization
Electrode Pote ential

Resistance Polarization causes potential of anode and cathode to differ due to potential drop across solution, hence corrosion current is reduced

log |current density|

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Passivation
When a passive film is formed, this causes a marked drop in current density due to the resistance of the film and its effect as a barrier to diffusion This effect is seen on the anodic curve

Passivation
Electrode Pote ential

The passive film When aRapidrate of corrosion will be stablerate of cathodic affected by the has formed,criticallyto passivation, reactionthe current has leads cathodic curve Lower value the a steady, low rate of-cathodic and low rate of corrosion But it may to lead to low Currentleads as activity, and reaction slow density reaction passive current alsothe passive Very fallscathodic rate of form Active corrosion gives normal startsofrate of - the i high lowcorrosion? leads to l l film trate tocorrosion d t f corrosion active-passive transition activation polarization

log |current density|

Polarization Curves
Iron in hydrochloric acid
Electrode Poten ntial

Anodic iron dissolution Cathodic hydrogen evolution

log |current density|

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Polarization Curves
Iron in sulphuric acid
Electrode Poten ntial

Anodic iron dissolution ( (with active-passive transition) Oxygen evolution on passive film (or transpassive corrosion Cathodic hydrogen evolution as metal is oxidised to a higher oxidation state)

log |current density|

Effect of pH on reaction rate


Consider hydrogen evolution reaction 2H+ + 2e- H2 The concentration of hydrogen ions will influence the rate of the reaction As the hydrogen ion concentration is increased (i.e. the solution made more acid), so the rate of the reaction increases Similarly the potential will influence the ti th ti th

Effect of pH and potential on rate of hydrogen evolution


Slower Potential

Faster

pH

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Effect of pH on reaction rate


On platinum no metal dissolution will occur, but to balance the charge a reaction which creates electrons must occur If the solution contains dissolved hydrogen, the reverse of the hydrogen evolution reaction can occur: H2 2H+ + 2e-

Effect of pH on reaction rate


H2 2H+ + 2eThis reaction will go faster in alkaline solution (since H+ will be removed by H+ + OH- H2O) This reaction will go faster at more positive potentials (because electrons will be removed from metal)

Effect of pH and potential on rate of hydrogen oxidation


Oxidation Faster Reduction Slower Potential Oxidation Slower Reduction Rates equal Faster Electrochemical Equilibrium pH

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The Nernst equation


2H+ + 2e- = H2 The Nernst equation gives

For 1 atm. hydrogen gas

The Pourbaix (E-pH) Diagram


2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 2H2O = O2 + 4H+ + 4eEquilibrium potential as pH Ofallsstable increases 2 is 2H+ + 2e- = H2 Equilibrium potential falls as t ti l f ll H2O is stable pH increases

Potentia al

H2 is stable pH = - log [H+] 0 7 14

Pourbaix Diagram Corrosion for Zinc


2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 possible with oxygen reduction Corrosion Corrosion is possible, but likely possible with to y gZn(OH)) hydrogen be stifled by solid ( Corrosion C i i d t stable evolutioncorrosion product ZnO 2Corrosion requires 2is solid Corrosion Zn2+ stable oxidising in stable strong thermodynamically solution agent in solution impossible
Passivity
2

Potentia al

Immunity Zn metal stable 0 7 14

Corr rosion

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Pourbaix Diagram for Gold


2.0 1.6 C 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 0 Passivity C

Potentia al

Gold Gold cant corrode metal stable with oxygen reduction Immunity or hydrogen evolution

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Pourbaix Diagram for Iron


2.0 Will iron Will iron corrode 1.6 1.2 corrode inFe in alkaline 0.8 neutral waters? solution? 0.4
3+

Fe oxides where hydrogen Yes - although iron can stable can be evolved and 0.0 form an oxide in neutral 2+ iron dissolved -0.4 Fe stable solution, it tends not to -0.8forms a solid form directly ironthe No - on Fe metal stable metal, as oxide -1.2 potentials, the potential at all is too low, therefore it is and-1.6 passivate will 7 14 not protective. 0

Pourbaix diagram for Aluminium


1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 -2.0 -2.4

Potentia al

Potentia al

Will iron Yes - there is corrode in a reasonably wide acid? range of p g potentials

Al3+

Al2O3

AlO2-

Al 0 7 14

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Limitations of Pourbaix Diagrams


Tell us what can happen, not necessarily what will happen No information on rate of reaction Can only be plotted for pure metals and simple solutions, not for alloys

Sources of Localized Corrosion


Environment
oxygen concentration chloride ion concentration pH flow rate

Sources of Localized Corrosion


Material
segregation inclusions different phases grain boundaries

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Sources of Localized Corrosion


Mechanical
static stress fluctuating stress g

Galvanic Corrosion
Electrons Conventional current

2+ FeFe2+

Fe O2

O2

Cu

Table 1

Galvanic Corrosion Series in Seawater Standard emf series Table 2 Galvanic


Platinum

Eo at 25oC, (V vs NHE) Au-Au +1.498 The galvanic series. Noble or Pt-Pt2+ +1.2 Ag-Ag+ +0.799 cathodic Ordered by observed Note alloys can Hg-Hg22+ that some+0.788 behaviour in service Cu-Cu2+ +0.337 appear twice according to Reaction
3+

The emf, or electrochemical Gold Silver series. 18-8 Mo stainless steel (passive) Ordered by standard Nickel (passive) q Cupronickels ( potential Ni) Allows for corrosion equilibrium p p (60-90 Cu, 40-10 ) , whether th are 0.000 or h th they active ti H2-H+ Copper products Assumes activity of solution passive Nickel (active) Can be defined for alloys species Moone steel (active) Ni-Ni2+ -0.250 18-8 is stainless Fe-Fe2+ -0.440 Steel or iron Different for every Does not allow for protective Cr-Cr3+ -0.744 2024 aluminium (4.5 Cu, environment corrosion products 1.5 Mg, 0.6 Mn) Zn-Zn2+ -0.763 Cadmium 3+ Cannot be defined for alloys Al-Al -1.662 Active or Commercially pure aluminium (1100)
Mg-Mg2+ -2.363 Na-Na+ -2.714 After de Bethune and Loud anodic Zinc Magnesium and magnesium alloys from INCO test results

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Galvanic Corrosion
Important factors in galvanic corrosion
relative areas of anode and cathode difference in potential between anode and p cathode effect of anodic polarization on anode (some may passivate)

Galvanic Corrosion - Questions


Which is better, a steel bolt in a brass structure, or a brass bolt in a steel structure? The steel will be the anode, so a small steel bolt in a large brass structure will suffer severe galvanic corrosion. A brass bolt will be protected by the steel structur

Which is better?
Brass bolt in a steel structure Steel bolt in a brass structure

Small brass cathode will cause small increase in corrosion of steel structure. Bolt will be protected from corrosion by coupling to steel

Small steel anode will suffer large increase in corrosion due to coupling with brass structure.

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What should we paint?


A milk cooler has an inner liner of stainless steel, and an outer casing of mild steel. Chilled brine is used between the steel and stainless steel to cool the milk. This would be a very bad idea as any pin-holes in the paint Corrosion of the mild wouldis occurring steel act as the anode, with the full areaitof thegood idea steel as would be a stainless thepaint the inside of to cathode. the mild steel casing?

Galvanic Corrosion in Alloys


Galvanic corrosion can occur between different phases in an alloy This is especially important when one of the phases is much more active as a cathode, e.g.: th d
Cu-containing precipitates in aluminium alloys initiate pitting corrosion Fe and Cu impurities in commercial zinc cause a large increase in corrosion rate compared to pure zinc

Differential Aeration
Conventional current

Fe2+ Fe2+ O2

Fe
O2

Fe2+

2.0 1.6 Aerated Deaerated Electrons 1.2 pH goes 3+ pH goes acid by Fe alkaline Fe2+ + H2O FeOH+ + 0.8 by H+ O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 0.4 Fe oxides 4OH+ Steel passivates p Steel corrodes stable 0.0 00 actively -0.4 Fe2+ stable Fe -0.8 Fe metal stable -1.2 -1.6 0 7 14 pH
Pote ential

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Crevice Corrosion
O2
Metal Metal

1 2 3 4

water, in this case 2Cr3+ + 6H2O Cr2O3 + Active corrosion is 6H+ Oxygen is consumed incorrosion occurring in thecorrosion crevice by slow passive absence of an oxide film Passive corrosion continues, and pH falls by Cr3+ hydroly Passive film breaks down in acid and rapid active corrosi starts The active corrosion causes even stronger acidification a stabilises the crevice corrosion

Cr3+ O2 3+ Cr Hydrolysis is a reaction with

Crevice Corrosion

Pitting corrosion on free surface Crevice corrosion under washers

Pitting
ClO2 ClO2

Cr3+ Cr3+

The presence of chloride hydrolysis of Inside the growing pit - and important, Other anions (e.g. OHthe is SO42-) can as it allows the pH by breaks down the inhibit pitting, pH of and buffering the pH Cr3+ lowers a either about 1 to be achieved or by causing the oxygen passive (HCl is cathodic precipitation in the pitfilm. The a strong acid, and does not associate) and the metal the reduction reaction continues outside of a salt film chlorides are very soluble pit

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Mechanical Corrosion
Static stress

Aspects

of

stress-corrosion cracking hydrogen embrittlement y g liquid metal embrittlement

Dynamic stress
corrosion fatigue fretting corrosion

The Effect of Stress and Strain on Corrosion


Stress per se does not affect corrosion processes much Plastic strain can have a large effect:
increased dislocation density rupture of passive films

Stress-Corrosion Cracking
Cracking of a metal under the combined effects of a static stress and a specific chemical environment Several possible mechanisms, still not fully understood Cause of major industrial costs and safety hazards

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Stress-Corrosion Cracking
Mechanisms
Anodic dissolution y g Hydrogen embrittlement Film-induced cleavage

Anodic Dissolution

1 The walls and tip of the crack are passive 2 The passive film at the crack tip is ruptured by the plastic strain, and active corrosion occurs 3 The crack tip repassivates 4 Go back to 1

Film-Induced Cleavage

1 film 2 strain 3 4

The walls and tip of the crack are covered by a brittle (either an oxide film or ais ruptured by the plastic The film at the crack tip de-alloyed layer) The brittle crack continues into the metal The crack is blunted by plastic strain

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Hydrogen Embrittlement
H H H H H H HH

1 2 3 4

Hydrogen produced by the cathodic reaction Hydrogen diffuses to region of tri-axial tensile stress ahead of the crackbrittle fracture Hydrogen causes Crack blunts by plastic deformation as it runs out of hydrogen

Hydrogen Embrittlement
sources of hydrogen
welding electroplating p g contact with gaseous hydrogen corrosion, especially in the presence of sulphides

higher strength materials are more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement

Hydrogen Induced Cracking


Internal cracking of lower strength steels (e.g. pipeline steels) due to high pressure hydrogen collecting at inclusions.

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Hydrogen Cracking
Internal cracking of steels at higher temperatures due to reaction of dissolved hydrogen with carbon to form methane

Stress Corrosion Systems

Cracking

Brass and ammonia (often in local atmospheres). Austenitic stainless steels and chloride solutions (70oC). Carbon steels in caustic, carbonate/ bicarbonate, nitrate and phosphate. High strength aluminium alloys in water or water vapour.

Control of Stress-Corrosion
Remove stress (often difficult, especially for residual stresses) Avoid the necessary environment Apply electrochemical protection where possible Use a different material Live with it

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Liquid Metal Embrittlement


Liquid metals can permeate down grain boundaries and cause intergranular cracking:
mercury on brass and aluminium alloys liquid zinc on stainless steel

Corrosion Fatigue
Metal fatigue results in crack propagation due to a cyclic stress Corrosion makes both crack initiation and propagation easier

Fretting Corrosion
Rubbing of two metals removes oxide film and allows oxidation The o de may a so act as a ab as e e oxide ay also an abrasive Prevention of relative motion and allowing larger relative movement may prevent the problem

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Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion


the alloy is passive
pitting requires a passive external surface that can provide a high potential to cause the current to flow into the pit; if the external surface is active, this driving force is not available thus carbon steel will only pit if the solution tends to passivate it (e.g. alkaline solutions), it wont pit if it is corroding generally (e.g. neutral salt solutions)

Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion


passivity broken down locally, usually by chloride
the cause of the initiation of pitting p g corrosion is still not entirely clear, but it involves a very small pit nucleus that grows over periods of the order of seconds

Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion


pits become more stable as they become larger
for very small p the acidity will be y pits y neutralised by diffusion into the bulk solution very easily as the pits get larger the diffusion distances increase, and it gets harder for the acidity to diffuse away

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Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion


small pits are often stabilised by a film of oxide or metal that partially covers the entrance
this allows pits that would not otherwise be stable to continue growing (these are known as metastable pits)

Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion


pitting becomes more likely as the potential becomes more positive
this provides a greater driving force for the p g g corrosion process, and helps to stabilise the metastable pits

Management of Pitting Stainless steels


Pitting breakdown potential (that potential above which the anodic current starts to increase); lower pitting potential implies greater susceptibility Critical itti t C iti l pitting temperature (CPT t (CPT, temperature at which pitting is observed in aggressive conditions); lower CPT implies greater susceptibility Pitting Resistance Equivalent (formula based on composition e.g. Cr + 3Mo + 30 N) gives ranking of alloys

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Management of Pitting
Pit growth tends to follow a law of the form depth = constant x timen where n is between 0.3 and 0.5 Pitting is a statistical process, and can be modelled by extreme value statistics

Dealloying
Alloy containing one noble element and one base element (e.g. brass, Cu + Zn) Base element can dissolve leaving a matrix of the noble element
dezincification of brass graphitization of grey cast iron

Causes loss of mechanical strength without obvious change in shape

Dealloying

Plug-type dealloying of a brass tube

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Intergranular When stainless steel is heated to Corrosion


about 650oC, Cr carbides form at the grain boundaries C C CrCr Cr Cr C C

Because of its high diffusion rate, If the grain boundary Cr carbon can diffuse a long way to concentration falls low However, chromium can only diffuse form the precipitateenough (below about 9%), then it will no longer remainreduces a short distance, and this passive, and grain boundary corrosion will the matrix concentration of occur chromium at the grain boundary

Intergranular Corrosion
When grain boundary chromium carbide precipitation has occurred, the stainless steel is said to be sensitised. Sensitisation frequently occurs in the heat-affected zone during welding, and the resultant corrosion is called weld decay.

Intergranular Corrosion - Weld Decay of Stainless Steel

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Solving Weld Decay


Use a low carbon grade of stainless steel Use a stabilised grade of steel, which includes a strong carbide-forming element (Nb or Ti) to lock up the carbon For existing components that have been sensitised, heat treat to re-dissolve the carbides (but this is very difficult in practice)

Flow Effects
Flow can
increase transport of oxygen to the metal surface (may help to passivate) increase the rate of dissolution of corrosion product films mechanically remove oxides

Terminology is poorly-defined, and often contradictory

Erosion Corrosion
Corrosion accelerated by impact by solid particles These may remove metal, or they may just remove oxide and allow metal to corrode more quickly

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Impingement
Corrosion rate increased by the impact of turbulent eddies on the metal surface These locally remove the corrosion product by rapid dissolution, and allow rapid active corrosion Characterised by horseshoe-shaped pits

Cavitation
High velocity flow leads to pressure falling below zero at points of highest flow Vapour bubbles form in these regions as the liquid is pulled apart When the pressure increases again the collapse of the vapour bubbles creates an intense shockwave that removes metal or oxide from the surface

Flow Effects

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Terima Kasih

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