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UAE holistic plan: Kadra power infrastructure development

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Dr Vinesh Thiruchelvam
Senior Electrical Engineer Atkins Middle East

Abstract
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been far sighted in its approach towards developing an infrastructure that meets the demands of the future. The expansive urban development in the UAE has caused the power demand to increase and there will be an upwards shift for many years to come. Although the population pressures differ between the seven Emirates, Abu Dhabi and Dubai lead the way for current demands being met. The concerns, however, have shifted to the Northern Emirates of Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ras Al Khaimah and Fujairah, which are all in the throes of developing and expanding their infrastructure to facilitate residential and tourist development. In this technical paper, we take a specic look at the Kadra development located in the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah. The current Kadra catchment would be considered as a simple village and it will move into a sustainable community living zone by 2015. This is the vision of the central government as part of its target for urban development.

Introduction
Approximately 97% of the UAEs electricity production is fuelled by natural gas, with the remaining three per cent produced by diesel generation and steam turbines (primarily in the Northern Emirates). The major players in the UAEs electricity generation sectors are Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, which currently accounts for 53% of the capacity; Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA) (29%); Sharjah Electricity and Water Authority (SEWA) (11%) and the Federal Electricity and Water Authority (FEWA), which operates in the Northern Emirates (7%). The escalating scale of urban development is impacting signicantly on the demand for electricity. The demand for electricity in the UAE has been growing at double digit rates for many years and according to all estimates it will continue to do so until at least 2020. Although they are not experiencing quite the same population pressures as Abu Dhabi and Dubai, the Northern Emirates of Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ras Al Khaimah and Fujairah are all in the throes of developing and expanding their infrastructure to facilitate residential and tourist development. In fact, the UAE and Saudi Arabia have the highest projected increase in demand within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region, which is expected to continue to grow at a minimum rate of 10% per annum, far outstripping the world average of 3% per annum.

Holistic plan area/zone Northern Emirates

Figure 1 - Holistic development zone

There is currently an insufcient capacity of power generation in some parts of the UAE. Combined with the non-existence of the national grid, this has resulted in the shortage of electricity in certain areas. Some of the new real estate development projects and industrial zones have not been able to secure sufcient power supply and have had to resort to power generators fuelled by diesel or gas. Security of energy supply is an area of increasing visibility and acknowledged importance for maintaining the UAE national economy and welfare. The UAE itself has a growing energy demand.

Assuming primary energy resources are available in full capacity to cater for the upcoming demand, secure power distribution into future developments, such as the Kadra Catchment Area in the Northern Emirates, will enhance the towns growth. Interruption of service of this power infrastructure may cause inconvenience or harm to the Kadra community and economy. It may also snowball into other systems that depend on continuous electricity supply. This approach of secure power is essential in development of Kadra not only in terms of the population growth but also from an industrial growth or a sustainable living point of view.

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UAE holistic plan: Kadra power infrastructure development

UAE power distribution - Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah


The current power supply distributed into the Fujairah and Ras Al Khaimah region predominantly is from two main power stations: (i) 1150MW via 400kV transmission network lines distributed from Taweelah Power Station (ADWEA-Abu Dhabi) into Dhaid 400kV Substation. (ii) 861MW via 132kV transmission network lines distributed from Qidfa Power Station (FEWA-Fujairah) into Ras Al Khaimah and Fujairah regions including the 132kV substations at Dhaid and Tawain. The general distribution within a region or emirate is traditionally at 132kV unless it is direct from the power station at 400kV. This is via overhead transmission lines. From a 132kV substation, the power is stepped down to a medium voltage of 11kV which is then distributed to any local development. Within the towns or local housing areas the 11kV is further stepped down to 400V usually via pocket substations. The 400V low voltage is distributed into each household distribution board and for industrial in most cases it is a direct 11kV supply. For medium or low voltage the distribution is normally done via power cables direct buried in the ground.
Figure 2 - Emirates National Grid (Regulation & Supervision Bureau, 2009)

FEWA/SEWA Base Electricity Methodology for Residential / Commercial Projects

Projects' Developers Connected Load Forecasts

FEWA/SEWA Demand/Diversity Factors

FEWA energy sourcing


In 2008, Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) signed a deal with FEWA to supply it with increasing imports of electricity, reaching up to 2,500MW by 2015. Electricity demand in the Emirates covered by FEWA peaked at 1,840MW in the summer of 2009, 3% higher than the maximum consumption of 1,790MW recorded in 2008. Peak exports to FEWA from Abu Dhabi in the summer of 2009 were about 909MW, compared with 758MW in 2008.

Developers' Connected Load x FEWA/SEWA Demand / Diversity Factors = Unadjusted Developers' Mega Projects Peak Demand Forecast

Peak Demand Forecast Adjustment Factors for 2015 / 2020 / 2030 UPC's Total Population Forecasts versus Mega Projects Developers' Total Population Forecasts

Mega Projects' Population Curve Pro-rated to obtain Intermediate Years

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FEWA has about 1,120MW of generation capacity, but most of the power plants are small, ageing and inefcient.

FEWA/SEWA Base Electricity Demand Forecast

Figure 3 - FEWA power development methodology

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UAE holistic plan: Kadra power infrastructure development

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of the study diversity application will be detailed further. The expected diversity target will be at 0.7 which should give the development an After Diversity Maximum Demand (ADMD) of approximately 28.2MW.

Considerations and appropriate options


From the site visits conducted (Figure 4) and communications with the local residents it was apparent that the power received is continuous but they do experience power cuts mainly during heavy rain. As such an investigation will be needed on this matter in relation to the network quality to and within Kadra. The new site power distribution will be integrated with the extensive onsite generation systems to enable the import and export of power under differing load and environmental conditions. The following voltages will be provisionally utilised for the power distribution network design throughout the Kadra development: 132,000 Volts - (132kV) High Voltage (HV) 11,0000 Volts - (11kV) Medium Voltage (MV) 400 Volts - (0.4kV) Low Voltage (LV) FEWA will provide supplies to the site at 132kV from an existing nearest 400/132kV sub station. The supply will be provided via underground cable circuits to the perimeter of the site and will terminate in a new 132/11kV sub station. The power infrastructure for the future development will include the following: Cable corridor reservations for 132 kV cabling from the FEWA network to the 132kV substation plot Corridor reservations and network infrastructure for the MV reticulation from the 132kV substation to the 11/0.4 kV pocket substations throughout Kadra Corridor reservations and network design for LV services (400 volts) supplying street lighting, pumping stations, residential units, telecoms equipment, trafc control equipment and any other infrastructure facilities.

400kV transmission line through Kadara from Dhaid power station

Figure 4 - Existing distribution to and in Kadra

Since Abu Dhabi is the main contributor to the UAE federal budget, and the federation funds FEWA, the UAE government has taken the view that it makes economic sense to export electricity produced by Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Companys (ADWECs) more modern and costeffective power plants to FEWA. Most of the electricity supplied to FEWA and SEWA by ADWEC is generated at the 890MW Fujairah 1 power and desalination complex at Qidfa. A second plant, Fujairah 2, which will also supply the Northern Emirates, is under construction nearby. It will have a capacity of 2,000MW and is scheduled to start up in late 2010. A new 240-kilometrelong pipeline is being installed to take Qatari Gas from receiving facilities at Taweelah in Abu Dhabi to Fujairah to fuel the facility. Figure 2 illustrates the distribution ow direction within the Emirates National Grid (ENG). At the moment, Union Water & Electricity Company (UWEC) will also be supplying up to 500 MW of power to FEWAs network and ultimately to the ENG network. The ENG project, set up by the Abu Dhabi Government in 2001, is being jointly undertaken by UWEC, ADWEA, DEWA, FEWA and SEWA. A new greeneld power generation and water production plant, adjacent to the existing ADWEA Fujairah F1 plant, is being implemented as an IWPP at Qidfa near Fujairah on the Gulf of Oman coast. The project

was scheduled to be completed by July 2010 with total net power generation capacity of 2000MW. This is an example of how the utility board is providing for the growth within the Northern Emirates region. Figure 3 is the typical owchart of how FEWA formulate their methodology against the growing energy demand in the region.

Future demand assessment


Based on the development plan for Kadra, an electrical energy demand was projected from 2010 till 2030 in ve phases. Projection was done for the residential units and all public service units. The demand was calculated based on the total built up area using locally benchmarked watts/m norms. The nal projected demand for 2030 is calculated as 40.28MW. This was based on conventional cooling and not district cooling. To cater for this estimated load a 132kV substation will be built. The location is to be nalised in agreement with the utility provider FEWA. The preliminary estimation is a requirement for 60m x 40m plot area. The power output capacity of the substation is 42.5MW and this allows for 2.22MW spare power availability. The substation will be built based on the N+1 system. It is estimated that the transformers will be sized at 25MVA and three units will be housed in the substation. In the next stage

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UAE holistic plan: Kadra power infrastructure development

The pocket substation consists of a bunded base to allow the placement of the transformer and outgoing LV switchboard that is placed directly on the bund and then covered with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) housing that is positioned over the top of the equipment providing a basic shield from direct sunlight, rain, sand and unauthorised personnel. The LV switchboard provides 400V supplies to villas distribution boards and also to feeder pillars that reticulate to local supplies such as for the street lighting or any public service buildings.

and Atkins to plan and locate the substation as commercially and strategically possible.

Issue No. 2
The client has requested a study on the feasibility of micro power generation. A more detailed study needs to be undertaken to collate meteorological data to justify application feasibility available via the relevant research bodies. The evaluation of renewable energy and suitable technologies is included in this study under the various disciplines covered. Options for Issue No. 2 Renewable energy technology offers a realistic power source alternative (or supplement). The energy technologies termed as renewable are often up for debate. In general, renewable energy does not provide consistent power supply as it is typically dependent on energy sources that peak and wane (i.e. sunshine, wind, rainfall, etc.) hence renewables tend to suit a power grid whereby renewable energy systems augment a primary power source. Convention is a solution whereby renewables generate a proportion of the developments energy. For the purposes of this assessment we have highlighted the applicable/ feasible areas for micro generation which are as listed below: Photovoltaics (PVs) - solar energy There are two forms of renewable energy that use sunlight directly. (i) Solar photovoltaic cells (solaror PV cells) convert radiation from the sun into electricity (ii) Solar thermal panels produce hot water using sunlight absorbers. Wind turbines - wind energy

tend to increase with the distance covered. Rural electrication such as to Kadra is thus costly. It often proves more economical to rely on distributed generation in such cases. This has often been the case for mountain areas or low density areas remote from the main cities. Option for Issue No. 3 One option to minimise the energy demand and incorporate a distributed network would be in terms of the cooling methodology for Kadra. To meet this requirement district cooling would seem to t. District cooling is centralised production and distribution of cooling energy. Chilled water could possibly be delivered via an underground insulated pipeline to residential buildings to cool the indoor air of the buildings within Kadra. Specially designed units in each building/ villa then use this water to lower the temperature of air passing through the building's air conditioning system. The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the coolingenergy demand of many of the buildings. District cooling can be run on electricity or natural gas, and can use either regular water or seawater as the means to reject the heat from the cooling generation process. Along with electricity and water, district cooling constitutes a new form of energy service. District cooling systems can replace any type of air conditioning system. This air conditioning system is subject to a difcult operating environment, including extreme heat, saline humidity and windborne sand. The feasibility of district cooling should be further investigated at the next study stage.

Community integrated energy


It is possible to save energy by generating and converting energy for electricity, cooling and heating at a neighbourhood level where the urban density is high enough, rather than the building level. Some parts of the UAE have seen considerable application of district cooling that has demonstrated good energy savings, provided more exibility at development/building level and has resulted in lower health risks. Thermal energy storage can easily be incorporated to reduce peak cooling and electrical loads. The next technical development is likely to be district cooling using interconnected grids under municipal ownership where providers all compete for custom on the basis of efciency and therefore breakdown potential monopolies. Such technology could be well suited to the Kadra, and it could be implemented in a phased manner either as a public or private venture.

Issues and options


Issue No. 1
The main issue at the moment for this study is the clarity of power availability within the existing Kadra area. Information is still lacking from FEWA to formulate future requirements. Options for Issue No. 1 To progress further discussions with both FEWA with the assistance of the client to bring awareness to the authorities on the Kadra development To use current demand estimation as a benchmark for the 132kV substation design

FEWA discussion
With regards to upstream power distribution, the utility board will do the network analysis to tie in with the existing network. This is a normal process and should be kept that way. With co-operation and assistance of the client, a joint discussion with FEWA will be undertaken to address the demand for the new development. Discussion with FEWA will also allow for an assessment on the following elements that could be implemented:

Issue No. 3
In an integrated power system, rural electrication is challenging for two reasons. Firstly as large capital expenditures are required to connect remote areas due to the distance to be covered through overhead lines, connecting remote areas with small consumption might prove uneconomical. This effect is amplied when taking into account transmission and distribution losses because both

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UAE holistic plan: Kadra power infrastructure development

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Solar energy for homes


Given the high number of sunshine hours in the Kadra area, solar power is a realistic power source. Solar power is most commonly generated through photovoltaic cells, alternatives include solar thermal power and solar concentrators. One of the biggest problems with PV panels in hot climates is that performance drops off signicantly above 90C. The other problem is dust; without regular cleaning a thick layer of dust soon builds up on any horizontal surface in the UAE, see Figure 6. A key drawback of solar power is the large amount of land area required to generate signicant amounts of power. As mentioned above, it is unrealistic to target 100% of the development demand from renewables. This would require an enormous land area and therefore is discounted. Smaller solar farms could supplement the primary power source. Solar power does not have to be isolated in one area within the development to work. An alternative or in addition to bulk renewable energy, is to integrate renewables into the urban fabric or into specic sites and rail/road designs. PVs can be installed on the roof of any building or villas in particular. Typically, an array is incorporated into the roof or walls of a building/villa, and roof tiles with integrated PV cells can now be purchased. Alternatively, an array can be located separate from the villa but connected by cable to supply power for a group of villas. This is simplied as the small solar farm concept.

Figure 5 - Typical wind turbines in the desert area

Consideration of a gas infrastructure versus electrical infrastructure Possibility of sharing existing 132kV substation, if load is reduced Assumptions on unit energy consumption for villas Investigate the possibility of smart e-grid distribution with FEWA Consider peak demand versus off peak demand and method of control (dynamic demand management) Metering and monitoring strategy - Smart/Intelligent metering.

Micro power generation


Wind power generation
Wind power generation could be a possibility if the energy towers, see Figure 5, are strategically located in relation to the highest wind catchment point. This requires a separate plot of land to assemble and erect the wind energy towers. A site specic feasibility analysis would be required to determine the viability of wind power. This study would determine year-round wind speeds, direction and frequency. Wind power technology (wind driven turbines) could potentially be installed on the site to augment the primary power supply.

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Figure 6 - Typical solar farm in the desert

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UAE holistic plan: Kadra power infrastructure development

Solar street lighting


PV application can be utilised for the street lighting installation. The most recent developments with regard to the technology behind solar street lighting have been in connection with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Firstly, these consume far less power than the older type of conventional sodium lamp. In addition, they have a much longer working life, better colour denition and require smaller solar components than sodium lamps. It can be appreciated therefore, that in order for solar street lights technology to be efcient and cost-effective, a thorough and meticulous assessment has to be carried out, paying the utmost regard to information concerning solar radiation, the amount of sunshine prevalent and general climatic conditions for Kadra. This needs to be done hand-in-hand with careful consideration of the exact requirements of the street lighting system. In other words, the number of hours of illumination required on a daily basis and other important data have to be precisely determined in order to provide the client with the system that will meet all those criteria. If these items are all properly assessed, then there will be the ability to provide an efcient, reliable, economically sound, purposebuilt solar street lighting network.

Recommendations
Based on current information, energy demand current or existing growth is 15.61MW in 2010 increasing to 40.28MW in 2030. The 20 year development and population rise is in parallel with a 61% energy demand maturity growth. In line with the energy demand growth the following is recommended: (i) The energy demand will need to be further veried with the nal development plan for Kadra. At this early masterplan stage the capacity of the network connection must encompass design development and changes during the construction period of this project. It is recommended that initial negotiations with the FEWA are based on a demand range of between 45-50MW (ii) A new 132kV substation may need to be built with location and upstream network tie-ins to be coordinated with FEWA as required (iii) Some of the basic meteorological data will be obtained, such as the kWh/m of horizontal irradiation for solar energy and the annual wind mean velocity to study renewable energy possibilities (iv) Recommend a detailed Community Integrated Energy approach to meeting the developments power demand requirements, including (among others) integration of demand reducing schemes; incorporating renewables into the urban fabric (and power grid) and recycling and recovery of energy. We recommend a detailed study is commissioned to develop this exciting opportunity further

(v) For street lighting, further feasibility on type of lights and the integration will have to be discussed with the infrastructure designers. The ve points above, when undertaken, give the overall energy demand study considerable decision making technical data towards the next phase of development study. It also allows for a thorough database and benchmark setting for the correct design path. It is recommended that the following three main steps be executed towards a sustainable development: (i) Load reduction (ii) System optimisation (iii) Renewable substitution. Load reduction is a passive design strategy which will be studied further in the next study stage incorporating part of the IDP. Some possible elements to study further are: Controlled daylight supply replacing articial lighting Change of set point to >24C instead of 22C Buffer spaces and adjusted set point depending on use Most energy efcient equipment Reduced water consumption.

Optimising supply systems is part of energy demand strategies and the element that will be studied further is the intelligent metering with energy saving incentives In addition to the above MoPW will have to raise awareness in the Kadra community of consumer initiatives towards saving energy and sustainability.

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References
1. 2. 3. Regulations and Supervision Bureau, UAE Vision 2030, Pg 17, 2009 RAK Green Building Guidelines, Ras Al Khaimah Municipality, 2010. ADWEA Demand Manual, Pg 23, 2010.

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