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4 FEBRUARY 2002

Anton S. Desyatnikov,1,2 and Yuri S. Kivshar1

Nonlinear Physics Group, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia 2 Department of Optoelectronics, Faculty of Physics, Dnipropetrovsk National University, Dnipropetrovsk 49625, Ukraine (Received 19 June 2001; published 22 January 2002) We introduce the concept of soliton clusters multisoliton bound states in a homogeneous bulk optical medium and reveal a key physical mechanism for their stabilization associated with a staircaselike phase distribution that induces a net angular momentum and leads to cluster rotation. The ringlike soliton clusters provide a nontrivial generalization of the concepts of two-soliton spiraling, optical vortex solitons, and necklace-type optical beams.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.053901 PACS numbers: 42.65.Tg

1

Recent progress in generating spatial optical solitons in nonlinear bulk media opens the possibility to study truly two-dimensional self-trapping of light and interaction of multidimensional solitary waves [1]. The robust nature of spatial solitons that they display in interactions allows us to draw a formal analogy with atomic physics and treat spatial solitons as atoms of light. Our motivation here is to nd out whether more complex objects, viewed as atom clusters, can be constructed from a certain number of simple solitons atoms. In this Letter, we describe, for the rst time to our knowledge, the basic principles for constructing the so-called soliton clusters, ringlike multisoliton bound states in a bulk media. First, in order to discuss the formation of multisoliton bound states in a homogeneous bulk medium, we should recall the physics of the coherent interaction of two spatial solitons. It is well known [1] that such an interaction depends crucially on the relative soliton phase, say u, so that two solitons attract each other for u 0, and they repel each other for u p. For the intermediate values of the soliton phase, 0 , u , p, the solitons undergo an energy exchange and display an inelastic interaction. As a result, no stationary bound states of two coherently interacting solitons are possible in a bulk medium. Soliton spiraling was suggested theoretically [2] and observed experimentally [3] as a possible scenario for a dynamical two-soliton bound state formed when two solitons are launched with initially twisted trajectories. However, it was claried later [4] that the experimental observation of the soliton spiraling was possible due to an effectively vectorial beam interaction. As a matter of fact, the soliton spiraling reported in Refs. [3,4] is associated with large-amplitude oscillations of a dipole-mode vector state [5] generated by the interaction of two initially mutually incoherent optical beams. In spite of the fact that no bound states exist for two coherently interacting scalar solitons in a bulk medium, in this Letter we demonstrate that such bound states (or ringlike clusters) are indeed possible for a larger number of solitons, namely, for N $ 4. The main reason for the ex053901-1 0031-9007 02 88(5) 053901(4)$20.00

istence of such multisoliton states can be explained with the help of simple physics. Indeed, let us analyze possible stationary congurations of N coherently interacting solitons in 2 1 1 dimensions. The only nite-energy structures that would balance out the phase-sensitive coherent interaction of the neighboring solitons should possess a ringlike geometry. However, a ringlike conguration of N solitons will be radially unstable due to an effective tension induced by bending of the soliton array. Thus, a ring of N solitons will collapse, if the mutual interaction between the neighboring solitons is attractive, or otherwise expand, resembling the expansion of the necklace beams [6]. Nevertheless, a simple physical mechanism will provide stabilization of the ringlike conguration of N solitons, if we introduce an additional phase on the scalar eld that twists by 2pm along the soliton ring. This phase introduces an effective centrifugal force that can balance out the tension effect and stabilize the ringlike soliton cluster. Because of a net angular momentum induced by such a phase distribution, such soliton clusters rotate with an angular velocity which depends on the number of solitons and phase charge m. To build up the theory of the soliton clusters, we consider a coherent superposition of N solitons with the envelopes Gn x, y, z , n 1, 2 . . . , N , propagating in a self-focusing homogeneous bulk medium. The equation P Gn can be for the slowly varying eld envelope E written in the form of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation, i E 1D E1f I E z 0, (1)

where D is the transverse Laplacian and z is the propagation distance measured in the units of the diffraction length. Function f I describes the nonlinear properties of an optical medium, and it is assumed to depend on the total beam intensity, I jEj2 . The general features of the dynamical system (1) are determined by its conservation laws, or integrals of motion: R the beam power, P jEj2 dr, the linear momentum, 2002 The American Physical Society 053901-1

4 FEBRUARY 2002

R L R Im E =E dr, and the angular momentum, Mez Im E r 3 =E dr. For a ring of identical weakly overlapping solitons launched in parallel, we can calculate the integrals of motion employing a Gaussian ansatz for a single beam Gn , jr 2 rn j2 Gn 1 ian , (2) A exp 2 2a2 where rn xn ; yn denes the position of the soliton center, and an is the phase of the nth beam. Then, the integrals of motion take the form N X eYnk cosunk , P pa2 A2 L M p 2 eYnk rn 2 rk sinunk , A 2 n,k 1 N X pA2 eYnk jrn 3 rk j sinunk ,

n,k 1 n,k 1 N X

(3)

2jrn 2 rk j2 4a2 and unk where Ynk an 2 ak . We assume that the beams are arranged in a ring-shaped array: rn R coswn ; R sinwn with wn 2pn N, for which we nd Ynk 2 R a 2 sin2 p n 2 k N . First of all, analyzing many-soliton clusters, we remove the center-of-the-mass motion and take L 0. Applying this constraint to Eqs. (3), we nd the conditions for the ak1n 2 ak , which are easy soliton phases, ai1n 2 ai to satisfy provided the phase an has a linear dependence on n, i.e., an un, where u is the relative phase between two neighboring solitons in the ring. Then, we employ the phase periodicity condition taken in the form an1N an 1 2pm and nd u 2pm . N (4)

possible: u 0 0, u 1 2p 3, and u 2 4p 3, and 61 the correspondence is u $ u 72 . Therefore, it is useful to introduce the main value of u in the domain 0 # u # p, keeping in mind that all allowed states inside the domain 0 , u , p are degenerated with respect to the sign of the angular momentum. The absolute value of the angular momentum vanishes at both ends of this domain, when m 0, for any N , and when m N 2, for even N. The number m determines the full phase twist around the ring, and it plays a role of the topological charge of a phase dislocation associated with the ring. In order to demonstrate the basic properties of the soliton clusters for a particular example, we select the well-known saturable nonlinear Kerr medium with F I I 1 1 sI 21 , where s is a saturation parameter. This model supports stable 2 1 1 -dimensional solitons. First, we apply the variational technique to nd the parameters of a single soliton described by the ansatz (2) and nd A 3.604 and a 1.623 for s 0.5. Then, substituting Eq. (2) into the system Hamiltonian, we calculate the effective interaction potential U R H R jH ` j, where H is the system Hamiltonian, Z 1 1 H j=Ej2 2 jEj2 1 2 ln 1 1 sjEj2 dr . s s As a result, for any N we nd three distinct types of the interaction potential U R , shown in Fig. 1 for the particular case N 5. Only one of them has a local minimum at nite R which indicates the cluster stabilization against collapse or expansion. To verify the predictions of our effective-particle approach, we perform a series of simulations of different N-soliton rings, using the fast-Fourier-transform split-step numerical algorithm and monitoring the conservation of the integrals of motion. Alongside of nonstationary behavior, such as breathing and radiation emitting, we nd the clusters dynamics in excellent agreement with our analysis. According to Fig. 1, the effective potential is always

1.0

In terms of the classical elds, Eq. (4) gives the condition of the vanishing R energy ow L 0, because the linear momentum L j dr can be presented through the local current j Im E =E . Therefore, Eq. (4) determines a nontrivial phase distribution for the effectively elastic soliton interaction in the ring. In particular, for the well-known case of two solitons N 2 , this condition gives only two states with the zero energy exchange, when m is even (u 0, mutual attraction) and when m is odd (u p, mutual repulsion) [1]. For a given N . 2, the condition (4) predicts the existence of a discrete set of allowed stationary states corresponding to the values u u m with 6jmj m 0, 61, . . . , 6 N 2 1 . Here two states u differ only by the sign (direction) of the angular momentum, similar to the case of vortex solitons. Moreover, for any positive (negative) m1 within the domain p , juj , 2p, one can nd the corresponding negative (positive) value m2 within the domain 0 , juj , p, so that both m1 and m2 describe the same cluster. For example, in the case N 3, three states with zero energy exchange are 053901-2

N=5

0 -4

Effective potential, U

0.5

m=0

-8

0.0

m=2

-12

-0.5

-1.0

m=1

-1.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Ring radius, R

FIG. 1. Examples of the effective potential U R for a circular array of N 5 solitons. Corresponding values of the topological charge m are shown near the curves. The dynamically stable bound state is possible for m 1 only.

053901-2

4 FEBRUARY 2002

attractive for m 0, and thus the ring of N 5 in-phase solitons should exhibit oscillations and, possibly, soliton fusion. Indeed, such a dynamics is observed in Fig. 2(a). Although the oscillations of the ring are well described by the effective potential U R , the ring dynamics is more complicated. Another scenario of the mutual soliton interaction corresponds to the repulsive potential (shown, e.g., 4p 5). In the nuin Fig. 1 for the case m 2 and u merical simulations, the ringlike soliton array expands with the slowing down rotation, as is shown in Fig. 2(d). Evolution of the stationary bound state that corresponds to a minimum of the effective potential U R in Fig. 1 (for m 1) is shown in Fig. 2(b). Here the repulsive centrifugal force balances out the soliton attraction. The 3 effective potential predicts the stationary state at R0 with a good accuracy, and the cluster does not change its form while rotating during the propagation. To continue the analogy between the soliton cluster and a rigid body, we calculate the clusters moment of inertia, I , and its angular velocity, V: Z I jEj2 r 2 dr, V M I. (5) For the case shown in Fig. 2(b), the numerically obtained p 20 0.157, value of the angular velocity is Vnum while the formula (5) gives the value V 0.154. We also perform the numerical simulations of the excited

clusters, as shown in Fig. 2(c), and observed oscillations near the equilibrium state. Such a vibrational state of the N-soliton molecule demonstrates the dynamical radial stability of the bound state in agreement with the effectiveparticle approximation. Our analysis is valid for any N, and it allows us to classify all possible scenarios of the soliton interaction in terms of the phase jump u between the neighboring solitons in the array. Indeed, for u 0, the ring of N solitons collapses through several oscillations. If the main value of u belongs to the segment 0 , u # p 2, the interaction between solitons is attractive, the value of the induced angular momentum is nite, and there exists a rotating bound state of N solitons. However, if u belongs to the segment p 2 , u # p, the soliton interaction is repulsive and the soliton ring expands with or without u p rotation, similar to the necklace-type beams [6]. For example, in the case N 3 two stationary states are possible, u 0 and u 2p 3, and there exist no bound states. For N 4 and m 1, the value of u is p 2 and a cluster is indeed possible, as is shown in Fig. 3. Together with the intensity of the four-soliton cluster, in Fig. 3 we show the phase distribution for the distances up to 60 diffraction lengths. The initial staircase-like phase in the ring preserves its shape, and it is a nonlinear function of the polar angle w, similar to the phase of the necklace-ring vector solitons with a fractional spin [7]. Note that the phase of such a state can be described as a zeroth-order term in the expansion of the vortex phase near the nth soliton center: mw m 2pn xyn 2 yxn 2m .... N R2 (6)

Calculating the minimum of the potential U R that corresponds to the soliton cluster, we nd that for given m and N 1, the stationary cluster approaches a vortex soliton of the charge m. For example, the equilibrium radius R0 for the clusters with m 1 is R0 3.8 for N 4, and for N $ 4 it approaches the corresponding vortex radius R0 3. Furthermore, for m 2, the soliton bound states are possible only if u 4p N # p 2. This gives the condition N $ 8, and for N $ 9 we nd R0 5 which

FIG. 2. Different regimes of the interaction of N 5 solitons: (a) m 0, collapse and fusion through oscillations; (b) m 1, a stationary bound state with R0 3; (c) m 1, an excited bound state with the oscillation period zperiod 22; (d) m 2, the soliton repulsion. The initial radius of the ring in the cases (a), (c), and (d) is R 5.

FIG. 3. Rotating cluster of N 4 solitons. The parameters 3.8 and V 0.042. Phase images are scaled from are R0 2p (black) to 1p (white).

053901-3

053901-3

4 FEBRUARY 2002

FIG. 4. Examples of the rotating soliton clusters: (a) N 6 and m 1; (b) N 7 and m 1; (c) N 8 and m 2; here we show the exact bound state with R0 5.5 and the angular velocity V 0.092; (d) N 9 and m 2.

is close to the radius of a double-charged vortex. Thus, the ringlike soliton cluster can be considered as a nontrivial discrete generalization of the optical vortex soliton [8]. Clusters are generally metastable, and they experience the symmetry-breaking instability. However, they can propagate for many tenths of the diffraction length, being also asymptotically stable in some types of nonlinear media similar to the vortex solitons [9]. In Figs. 4(a), 4(b), and 4(d) we show some examples of the excited rotating clusters with a different number of solitons N and initial radius R N , while in Fig. 4(c) we present the stationary rotating cluster of N 8 solitons. We stress that the staircaselike phase distribution is a distinctive feature of the soliton cluster. The evolution of the soliton ring with the linear phases, i.e., those presented by the rst-order terms of Eq. (6), can be associated with complex deformation of the vortex. More interesting structures are found for the vector elds and incoherent interaction of solitons. For example,

three coherently interacting solitons cannot form a bound state. However, adding a single atom to the incoherently coupled additional component E1 [see Fig. 5(a)] leads to mutual trapping of all beams. Here, the incoherent attraction balances out both the coherent repulsion, as in the case of multipole vector solitons [10], and the centrifugal force induced by a net angular momentum. This leads to the cluster rotation similar to the two-lobe rotating propeller soliton [11]. In Fig. 5(b), we show the ve-lobe analog of the necklace-ring vector solitons recently discussed in Ref. [7]. Unlike the necklace-ring solitons, the vector cluster rotates and undergoes internal oscillations as it propagates. In conclusion, we have revealed a key physical mechanism for stabilizing multisoliton bound states in a bulk medium in the form of rotating ringlike clusters. Such soliton clusters can be considered as a nontrivial generalization of the important concepts of the two-soliton spiraling, optical vortex solitons, and necklace scalar beams, and they provide an example of the next generation of multiple soliton-based systems operating entirely with light. We believe that the basic ideas presented in this Letter will be useful for other applications, such as the beam dynamics in plasmas [12] and the Skyrme model of a classical eld theory [13], and they can be also generalized to the inhomogeneous systems (such as the Bose-Einstein condensates in a trap [14]). The authors are indebted to M. Segev and M. Soljacic for comments and E. A. Ostrovskaya for help and a critical reading of this manuscript.

[1] See, e.g., G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, Science 286, 1518 (1999), and references therein. [2] L. Poladian, A. W. Snyder, and D. J. Mitchell, Opt. Commun. 85, 59 (1991); V. V. Steblina, Yu. S. Kivshar, and A. V. Buryak, Opt. Lett. 23, 156 (1998); A. S. Desyatnikov and A. I. Maimistov, JETP 86, 1101 (1998); J. Schjdt-Eriksen et al., Phys. Lett. A 246, 423 (1998). [3] M. Shin, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2551 (1997). [4] A. V. Buryak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 81 (1999). [5] J. J. Garca-Ripoll et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 82 (2000). [6] M. Soljacic, S. Sears, and M. Segev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4851 (1998); 86, 420 (2001). [7] A. S. Desyatnikov and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 033901 (2001). [8] The phase structure resembles the vortex solitons in a discrete model recently studied by B. A. Malomed and P. G. Kevrekidis, Phys. Rev. E 64, 026601 (2001). [9] I. Towers et al., Phys. Rev. E 63, 055601 (2001). [10] A. S. Desyatnikov et al., Opt. Lett. 26, 435 (2001). [11] T. Carmon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 143901 (2001). [12] C. Ren et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2124 (2000). [13] R. Battye and P. M. Sutcliffe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3989 (2001). [14] J. E. Williams and M. J. Holland, Nature (London) 401, 568 (1999).

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