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Compton Scattering

Joseph Bonfield 09528334

Introduction:

The following experiment was carried out to investigate the phenomenon of Compton scattering. Compton scattering is a form of inelastic scattering which gamma ray and x-ray photons undergo through collisions with matter. A portion of the energy of the scattered photon is transferred to an ejected electron which recoils from the scattering target. An illustration of Compton scattering can be seen in Fig. 1[1] below.

Fig. 1. A photon of wavelength & Energy

E comes in from the left, collides with a target at


rest, and a new photon of wavelength ' & Energy

E' emerges at an angle . The scattered electron has energy Eeand is scattered at angle (not
shown).

In this experiment our aim is to perform the following three tasks: 1. Measure the energy of the scattered photons as a function of their scattering angle and compare this to theoretical results. 2. Measure the differential cross-section for Compton scattering. 3. Measure the energy of the Compton edge.

Theory:
Part 1 of this experiment consisted of measuring the energy of the scattered photons from a 137Cs (Caesium 137) source, then comparing these measured results to a set of theoretical results to be calculated. In order to begin this experiment it was first necessary to calibrate our detector. The detector used consisted of a scintillation detector, photomultiplier tube and an amplifier. The detector operates by the following means: i. The scattered photon(s) enter the scintillator and interacts with the scintillation crystal.

ii. This interaction produces another more energetic photon which then travels to the PM (photomultiplier) tube.

iii. This photon then strikes the photocathode of the PM tube producing an electron.

iv. The electron then comes into collision with a series of plates through which its energy increases. v. Finally the electron strikes the anode producing a signal which is then amplified. During Compton scattering interactions both the energy and the momentum are conserved. Through this and knowing the rest energy of an electron (0.511 MeV) we can state the following[2]:

E'=0.6621+1.295(1-cos) [1]

Which can be rewritten as:

1E'=1.9561-cos+1.51 [2]

Where; =The scattering angle (radians) E'=The energy of the scattered photon (KeV)

As equation [2] above is in the form y=mx+c, the equation of a line, we can state that a graph of 1E' versus 1-cos will give us a straight line with intercept 1.51 and a slope of 1.956.

The second part of this experiment requires us to determine the differential cross-section for Compton scattering. The cross-section for a material is a statistical expression for the likelihood that an interaction will take place. From the material provided for the experiment we have the following expression for the Compton cross-section: comptonmeasured='N [3] Where: '=Sum counts under the photopeakLive time (Intrinsic peak efficiency) N=number of electrons in the scattering sample. =Solid angle of the detector in steradians. =1013106e-3443.48 Bq cm-2

In part three our aim is to determine the Compton edge for a number of radioactive sources. The Compton edge is the Kinetic Energy of the recoiling electron when the incident gamma ray photon emitted is scattered through an angle of 180. Fig. 2 shows an example of a source spectrum with photo peak and Compton edge indicated. We placed a number of sources in a sealed detector, similar to the one described earlier except this particular detector is shielded so as to avoid the detection of background radiation such as cosmic rays. After this we wish to compare our experimental results to theoretical ones in order to verify our results. We do this by computing the rest energy of the electron from our results. We are given the following formulae:

mnrc2=2E-T22T [4]

m0c2=2EE-TT [5] Where: T=Energy of Compton edge. mnrc2=Non-relativistic electron rest energy. m0c2=Relativistic electron rest energy. E=Energy of the photons.

Where equation [4] corresponds to the non-relativistic rest energy and [5] corresponds to the relativistic rest energy.

Fig. 2. Gamma-spectrum showing Compton edge and photo peak.

Experimental Procedure:
Each of the three component parts of this experiment were carried out in similar manners. In part one we wish to determine the energies of the scattered photons. This is done by changing the angle of our detector, which is mounted on a moveable track. But it was first necessary to calibrate the detector. To do this we used three sources 241Am, 133Ba (which has two photo peaks at different energies) and 137Cs. Table 1 detailing the calibration is shown below.

Source
241

Energy of Photo-peak (MeV) 59.5 303 356 662

Channel 64.4 362.84 430.85 799.25

Am Ba Ba Ba

133 133 137

Table. 1. Calibration channels.

We move the detector through angles ranging from 10 to 100 in intervals of5. There is an aperture in front of the source that can be opened and closed; this should be left closed when not in use and when changing the angle of the detector. At each angle we wait until 10,000 counts have passed, we then record the counts and time. We then use the Maestro-32 programme to get the energy of the photo peak obtained. This is repeated until we reach 100 degrees. The data measured here is used for both part one and two.

Fig. 3. Experimental apparatus, 137Cs source is shielded with lead bricks. Computer and amplifier not shown.

For part 3 a number of sources were placed in similar detector (this one was shielded against background radiation) and their spectra were recorded. From these spectra we able to determine the energy of the photo peak and the energy of the Compton edge.

Results & Analysis:


Part 1: The theoretical and experimental with associated error bars are graphed in Fig.4 below. There is quite a noticeable difference between the two which I believe is the result of a problem with the calibration of the detector. I recalibrated the detector and repeated the experiment twice but with no significant improvement in my results. If we assume an error in the calibration of ~1KeV then we have the plot of Fig.5.

Fig.4. Theoretical values (blue) vs. Experimental data (red) with associated errors

Fig. 5. Data plotted with a difference of 1 KeV

We want our slope and intercept to match those given to us in the manual, table 2 below contains the desired values and the values obtained from the two plots above.

Theoretical Result Slope: Intercept: 1.956 1.51

Fig. 4. 1.828 4.41710-3


1.491 1.54910-3

Fig. 5.
1.936 4.69210-3 1.507 1.61810-3

Table 2 Slope & Intercept values.

Part 2: Fig. 6. Shows the experimental data for the Compton cross section as a function of the angle measured at, as well as the theoretical data for the cross-section. The experimental data was of by about 1000 so I introduced a scaling factor for the purpose of fit on the graph. From the plots we can see that the cross-section increases as we approach greater angles.

Fig. 6. Experimental (blue) & Theoretical (red) Compton cross-section vs. Measured angle. The experimental data was multiplied by a scaling factor of 1000.

Part 3: Fig. 7 displays the recorded compton edge energies against the recorded energies of the corresponding photo peaks. We can see from the plot that the graph is linear (apart from a minir deviation at the bottom) and has a slope of 513.218 keV, which is an approximate value for the (relativistic) rest energy of an electron.

Fig. 7 Electron kinetic energy (Compton edge) as a function of the photopeak energy (E)

Fig. 8 shows the plot of the rest energy of the electrons when calculated non-relativistically using equation [4] above. The calculations yield rest energies of varying magnitude which are in conflict with the accepted value for electron rest energy, resulting in a linear plot (when the bestfit function is applied.

Fig. 8 Electron rest energy calculated non-relativistically with a line of best fit applied. The slope is 513.248 keV

Fig.9 shows a plot of the rest energies of the electrons when calculated in a relativistic manner by using equation [5]. By overlaying our result from the experimental values, 513.218 keV, we can see that the results obtained are in the region of the accepted value. The error bars for this particular plot seem rather small for most points, which i cannot seem to explain. I believe a minor error in my calculation of the errors is the cause but i was unable to determine it .

Fig.9 Electron rest energy calculated relativistically with associated errors

Conclusion:
The energies acquired for the scattered photons fell short of the expected values given by our theoretical curve. Through repeated attempts at the procedure the same results were obtained. This seems to suggest that the error lies within the calibration of the detector used. With this taken into account, we decreased the measured energies of the photons by ~ 0.01 MeV (1keV). This gave a better fit and better slope and intercept values of 1.507 1.61810-3 and 1.936 4.69210-3 respectively. The values obtained for the differential cross-section were off from the theoretical values calculated by approx two orders of magnitude. The reason for this is not apparent to me but I suspect it was a problem with my calculations. The measured Compton edge and photo peaks for the samples used agreed well with the theoretical values and provided a linear plot with a slope of 513.218 keV, which is well within the error for the expected value.

The non-relativistic electron rest energy calculated from our results, when graphed, yielded a plot which was slightly non-linear. However a line of best fit applied gave a value for the rest energy of 513.248 keV (from the intercept). The relativistically calculated electron rest energies were all within the desired range of 512.7 keV. However the applied errors did not seem to be appropriate as they all seemed the same for each point. Again as in part 2, I believe that this is a result of a computational error that I may have made while working on the errors.

References:
Compton Scattering Experiment lab manual. Compton scattering, the electron mass, and relativity: A laboratory experiment; P. L. Jolivette & N. Rouze. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Compton-scattering.svg/259pxCompton-scattering.svg.png (Illustration in introduction) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/comptint.html

Mathcad Calculations:
Part 1:
i 0 . . 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 97.5

.62075 .59873 .57553 .54924 .52128 .49341 .46573 .44095 E .4179 .39411 .37181 .35226 .33376 .31612 .30080 .28717 .28022
i. 180 0.662
i

1i

1.295 1

cos 1i

1 Ei 1.611 1.67 1.738 1.821 1.918 2.027 2.147 2.268 2.393 2.537 2.69 2.839 2.996 3.163 3.324 3.482 3.569

1 E
i

1.629 1.694 1.773 1.864 1.968 2.084 2.209 2.345 2.489 2.64 2.798 2.96 3.127 3.296 3.467 3.637 3.722

1i 0.349 0.436 0.524 0.611 0.698 0.785 0.873 0.96 1.047 1.134 1.222 1.309 1.396 1.484 1.571 1.658 1.702

cos 1i 0.94 0.906 0.866 0.819 0.766 0.707 0.643 0.574 0.5 0.423 0.342 0.259 0.174 0.087 0 0.087 0.131

cos 1i

0.06 0.094 0.134 0.181 0.234 0.293 0.357 0.426 0.5 0.577 0.658 0.741 0.826 0.913 1 1.087 1.131

Ei 0.621 0.599 0.576 0.549 0.521 0.493 0.466 0.441 0.418 0.394 0.372 0.352 0.334 0.316 0.301 0.287 0.28

0.614 0.59 0.564 0.536 0.508 0.48 0.453 0.426 0.402 0.379 0.357 0.338 0.32 0.303 0.288 0.275 0.269

3.5

1 E i 1 E i

2.5

1.5

0.2

0.4 1 cos 1 i

0.6 , 1

0.8 cos 1 i

slope ( 1

cos ( 1 ) ) ,

1 E

= 1.828

slope ( 1

cos ( 1 ) ) ,

1 E

= 1.956

intercept ( 1

cos ( 1 ) ) ,

1 E

= 1.491

intercept ( 1

cos ( 1 ) ) ,

1 E

= 1.491

0. . 9

.599738 .59710 .59686 .59602 x .59732 .59711 .59707 .59732 .59777 .59755
1 xj

aj

Stdev a 3

Stdev a = 2.655 10

Stdev x 4

E = 9.496 10 E Ei
2

yi

y1i

yi

1.5. 10

ydown i

1 Ei 1 Ei

yi

yup i

yi

y1i . 3 3.96410 . 3 4.14910 . 3 4.36710 . 3 4.64810 . 3 4.99510


3 5.4. 10

. 3 5.87810 . 3 6.38410 . 3 6.93710 . 3 7.61410 . 3 8.36910 . 3 9.15310 0.01 0.011 0.012 0.013 0.014

yi . 3 2.46410 . 3 2.64910 . 3 2.86710 . 3 3.14810 . 3 3.49510


3 3.9. 10

. 3 4.37810 . 3 4.88410 . 3 5.43710 . 3 6.11410 . 3 6.86910 . 3 7.65310 . 3 8.52410 . 3 9.50210 0.01 0.012 0.012

yup i 1.613 1.673 1.74 1.824 1.922 2.031 2.152 2.273 2.398 2.543 2.696 2.846 3.005 3.173 3.335 3.494 3.581

ydown i 1.608 1.668 1.735 1.818 1.915 2.023 2.143 2.263 2.387 2.531 2.683 2.831 2.988 3.154 3.314 3.471 3.557

3.5 1 E i yup i i 2.5 i 3

ydown 1 E

1.5

0.2

0.4 1 cos 1 i

0.6 , 1

0.8 cos 1 i

yi

1 Ei cos 1i

xi

erroryi

yi

ff

fitmwt x, y , errory) ( 1.497 1.815 3 3

ff =

1.549 10 4.417 10 21.805 0.113

Part 2:
i 0 . . 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 97.5

.62075 .59873 .57553 .54924 .52128 .49341 .46573 .44095 E .4179 .39411 .37181 .35226 .33376 .31612 .30080 .28717 .28022 104.92 143.50 128.98 155.68 168.34 195.06 249.08 218.34 t 250.78 341.96 298.96 330.12 340.64 369.72 409.56 374.2 380.74

10015 10038 10056 10024 10042 10060 10024 10067 counts 10044 10025 10021 10009 10034 10004 10405 10019 10024
counts i ti
i 1.1325

0.1522 Ei

. 23 ( 79.3) ( 13) 6.022141510 ( ( 26.981539 ) )

25 N = 2.3009210 r 1.75

A = 9.62113

26
A R

= 0.37004

years

34

years

. 1.01310 e

6.

43.48

I = 463451.98296
i

N. . I

. 29 9.2618610 . 29 6.5153310 . 29 6.9439610 . 29 5.4389610 . 29 4.7494510 . 29 3.8584710 . 29 2.8202710 . 29 3.0371410 . 29 2.4825910 . 29 1.7004910 . 29 1.8201810 . 29 1.5487110 . 29 1.4154510 . 29 1.2226710 . 29 1.0851810 . 29 1.0851510 . 29 1.0378510

8 10

29

6 10

29

4 10

29

2 10

29

20

40 i

60

80

100

1.29

re

2.82. 10

13

ai

cos i

part1i

( re) 2

. 1

cos i . deg

2 2

. 1

cos i . deg

part2i

1 1

1
2

cos i . deg 1 . 1

cos i . deg

cos i . deg

cm sr

theory i

part1i . part2i

0 -26 0 6.4646210 -26 1 5.8058210 -26 2 5.1323110 -26 3 4.4836810 theory = -26 4 3.8872810 -26 5 3.3587210 -26 6 2.9040310 -26 7 2.5223110 -26 8 2.2083510 -26 9 1.954610 -26 10 1.752710

5 10

26

4 10 theory i 3 10

26

26

2 10

26

1 10

26 20 40 i 60 80 100

Multiply experimental result by scaling factor of1000

8 10

26

6 10

26

theory

i 4 10 i

26

( 1000 )

2 10

26

20

40

60 , i i

80

100

Part 3:
i 0 . . 14
512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 re 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7 512.7

1332.5 1297 1274.5 1236 1173.2 1097.3 1063.7 E 834.25 818.37 661.7 569.7 511 416.9 356 122.1

1120 1083.41 1058.11 1021 965 889.27 857.43 T 637 629.29 475.46 393 339 256.19 206 40
3 = 1.297 10

2 E

3 = 2.594 10

classically calculated rest energy


( 2 E 2T T)
2

nri

2 E

i i

2 i

2 T

nri . 3 1.06610 . 3 1.05310


3 1.05. 10

. 3 1.03110 988.739 958.025 940.499 835.159 806.429 756.112 708.795 688.037 651.144 621.447 521.22

erroredge

50 15

erroredge = 3.333

1200

1000

800 T T T erroredge erroredge 400 600

200

200

400

600 E

800

1000

1200

1400

1200

1000

nr

800

600

400

200

400

600 T

800

1000

1200

slope ( T , nr ) = 0.499 intercept ( T , nr ) = 513.248 ( slope ( T , nr ) T ) intercept ( T , nr )

bestfit

1200

1000

bestfit nr 800

600

400

200

400

600 T

800

1000

1200

intercept ( T , nr ) = 513.248 slope ( T , nr ) = 0.499

reli

2 E

. E T
i

Relativistic calculated rest energy


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 reli 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

yup i

reli

reli

512.7

ydown i

reli

reli

0 . . 1200

erri

2 E

4 T

i 2 i

2 2 E

4 T

530

520

rel rel rel re err err i i

510

500

490

480

200

400

600 T , T

800

1000

1200