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Education Center SpectrumAnalyzerBasics

CourseOutline
1 Overview:
Whatisspectrumanalysis?

2 TheoryofOperation: h f
Spectrumanalyzerhardware.

3 Specifications: 3 S ifi ti
Whichareimportantandwhy? What affects accuracy? Whataffectsaccuracy?

4 Measurements:
Whatmeasurementsdowemake?

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SpectrumAnalyzerBasics p y
1 Overview

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Overview WhatisSpectrumAnalysis?

8563A

SPECTRUM ANALYZER 26.5 GHz

9 kHz -

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Overview TypesofTestsMade yp

Modulation

Noise

Distortion

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Overview FrequencyversusTime Domain

Time Domain Measurements

Amplitude (power) ( )

Frequency Domain Measurements


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Overview DifferentTypesof Analyzers


Fourier Analyzer
Parallel filters measured simultaneously CRT shows full spectral display

f1

f2

f
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Overview DifferentTypesof Analyzers


Swept Analyzer
A

Filter 'sweeps' over p range of interest


CRT shows full spectral display

f 1

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SpectrumAnalyzerBasics
2 TheoryofOperation 2 Theory of Operation

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TheoryofOperation SpectrumAnalyzerBlock Diagram i


RF input attenuator mixer Input signal Pre-Selector Or Low Pass Filter local oscillator sweep generator Crystal Reference CRT display

IF gain

IF filter

detector

Log Amp

video filter

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TheoryofOperation Mixer y p
MIXER input

RF f sig LO

IF f sig

f - f sig LO f

f + f sig LO LO

LO

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TheoryofOperation IFFilter y p
IF FILTER

Input Spectrum IF Bandwidth (RBW) Display


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TheoryofOperation Detector y p
Detector

Amplitude

"bins"

Positive detection: largest value in bin displayed Negative detection: smallest value y in bin displayed Sample detection: last value in bin displayed
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TheoryofOperation VideoFilter y p

VIDEO FILTER

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TheoryofOperation O h C OtherComponents
LO Sweep Generator Frequency CRT Display IF Gain

RF Input Attenuator

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TheoryofOperation How it All Works Together HowitAllWorksTogether


fs
0 1 2 3 (GHz) ( ) Signal Range LO Range

f LO- f s fs
0 1

f LO

f LO+ f s
IF filter 6 6.5 65 3.6 detector

mixer input

fs

3 3.6 36

f IF
sweep generator A

LO

f LO
3 3.6 4 5 6 6.5 (GHz)

3 (GHz)

f 16

CRT display

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TheoryofOperation Front Panel Operation FrontPanelOperation


Primary functions (Frequency, Amplitude, Span) Softkeys

8563A

SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

Control functions (RBW, (RBW sweep time time, VBW) RF Input Numeric k N i keypad d
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SpectrumAnalyzerBasics
3 3 Specifications

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Specifications
Frequencyrange y, q y Accuracy,frequency& amplitude Resolution Sensitivity Di Distortion i Dynamicrange
8563A
SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

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Specifications FrequencyRange p q y g

Low frequencies for baseband and IF

Measuring harmonics 50 GHz and beyond!

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Specifications Accuracy p y
Absolute Amplitude in dBm Relative Amplitude in dB

Frequency

Relative Frequency
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Specifications Resolution: ResolutionBandwidth Resolution Bandwidth


Mixer Input Spectrum 3 dB Detector

3 dB BW

LO

IF Filter/ Resolution Bandwidth Filter (RBW) Sweep

RBW

Display p y
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Specifications Resolution: ResolutionBandwidth


10 kHz RBW 3 dB

10 kHz
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Specifications Resolution: RBWTypeandSelectivity RBW T d S l ti it

3 dB 60 dB 60 dB BW 60 dB BW 3 dB BW

3 dB BW

Selectivity

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Specifications Resolution: RBWTypeandSelectivity


RBW = 1 kHz Selectivity 15:1
3 dB Distortion products 7.5 7 5 kHz

RBW = 10 kHz

60 dB

60 dB BW = 15 kHz 10 kHz 10 kHz


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Specifications Resolution:Noise Sidebands


N i Noisesidebandscanpreventresolutionof id b d t l ti f unequalsignals

Phase Noise

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Specifications Resolution:RBW DeterminesMeasurementTime Determines Measurement Time


Penaltyforsweepingtoofastisanuncalibrateddisplay

S ep oo as Swept too fast

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Specifications Resolution:Digital ResolutionBandwidths

ANALOG FILTER

DIGITAL FILTER

RES BW 100 Hz

SPAN 3 kHz

Typical Selectivity Analog 15:1 Digital 5:1

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Specifications Sensitivity/DANL p y/
Aspectrumanalyzergeneratesandamplifiesnoisejust l d lifi i j likeanyactivecircuit
Mixer RF Input RES BW Filter LO Detector

Sweep
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Specifications Sensitivity/DANL p y/
Eff i L l f di l d i i f EffectiveLevelofdisplayednoiseisafunctionofRFinput i f RF i attenuation SignaltonoiseratiodecreasesasRFinputattenuationisincreased
Sg a e e Signal level

10 dB Attenuation = 10 dB Attenuation = 20 dB

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Specifications Sensitivity/DANL: IFFilter(RBW) IF Filter (RBW)


DisplayednoiseisafunctionofIFfilterbandwidth DecreasedBW=decreasednoise

100 kHz RBW 10 dB 10 dB 10 kHz RBW 1 kHz RBW

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Specifications Sensitivity/DANL: VBW


VideoBWsmoothesnoiseforeasieridentificationoflowlevelsignals Vid BW h i f i id ifi i fl l l i l

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Specifications Sensitivity/DANL p y/
Sensitivityisthesmallestsignalthatcanbemeasured

Signal Equals Noise

2.2 dB

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Specifications Sensitivity/DANL p y/
ForBestSensitivityUse:
NarrowestResolutionBW Mi i MinimumRFInputAttenuation RF I A i SufficientVideoFiltering(VideoBW<.01ResBW)

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Specifications Distortion p
Distortiontest:Isitinternallyorexternallygenerated?
RF INPUT ATTENUATOR IF GAIN

1 Change I Ch Input Att t Attn by 10 dB

2 W t h Signal on S Watch Si l Screen:

No change in amplitude = distortion is part of input signal (external) Change in amplitude = at least some of the distortion is being generated inside the analyzer (internal)

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Specifications DynamicRange p y g
D DynamicRangeforSpurSearchDependsonClosenesstoCarrier i R f S S hD d Cl C i
Dynamic range y g limited by noise sidebands Dynamic range y g limited by compression/nois e

dBc/Hz Noise Sidebands

Displayed Average Noise Level

100 kHz to 1 MHz

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Specifications DynamicRange p y g
Actualdynamicrangeistheminimumof:
Maximumdynamicrangecalculation Calculatedfrom:
Distortion Sensitivity

Noisesidebandsattheoffsetfrequency

1 - Spectrum Analysis Basics H7215A#169 v2.0

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PowerSuite
ACPR Channel Power Occupied Bandwidth Spectrum Emission Mask CCDF Burst Power Spurious Emissions TOI * Harmonics Harmonics*

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EMCmeasurements

Measure at Marker window Red indicates above limit Amber indicates above margin

MIL and CISPR Bandwidths

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Analog Demodulation Application


For X-Series signal analyzers

What is it?

Analog demodulation for AM/FM/PM Extremely fast analog signal analysis P id metrics AND ttune & li t Provides ti listen

Key Features

For more details


Lit #: 5989-6535EN Technical Overview Web: http://www.agilent.com/find/w9063a

Field Up-gradable Demodulate AM, FM or PM signal Quad View RF Spectrum Demodulated waveform AF Spectrum Demod Metrics Audio Filters Tune & Listen
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Noise Figure Application


For X-Series signal analyzers

What is it?

Key Features

The same noise figure measurement


application for MXA and EXA signal analyzers (noise figure and gain measurements)

Works with smart noise sources (SNS)


For more details
Lit #: 5989-6536EN Technical Overview 5989 6536EN Web: http://www.agilent.com/find/w9069a

sources

Field Up-gradable via license key Code compatibility with ESA, PSA and NFA Internal uncertainty calculator Supports SNS as well as 346 series noise Saved calibration data during p g power cycle y User defined noise source settling time setting Instrument Calibration that generates corrected

data during measurements to save time

User defined sweep time to accommodate <100% duty cycle DUTs

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PhaseNoiseMeasurements
Log Plot Measurement og ot easu e e t One button measurement to measure the phase noise in the desired frequency range Similar to PSA/ESA option 226 Phase Noise Measurement Personality which i our most popular application hi h is t l li ti Spot Frequency Measurement p q y One button measurement to monitor the phase noise at certain offset in the time domain while tuning or adjusting circuit Similar to PSA/ESA option 226 Phase Noise Measurement Personality which is our most popular application

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WorldsPremierSignalAnalysisSoftware:VSA&VXA

89601A Vector Signal Analysis Software Advanced signal analysis capabilities Broadest Demodulation Capabilities Runs INSIDE the X-series SA
AM,FM,PM FSK2,4,8,16,LVL BPSK/QPSK QAM16 1024 Bluetooth RFID DECT,TETRA HIPERLAN DVB,DTV cdmaOne/cdma2000/1 xEV-DV GSM/EDGE WCDMA,HSDPA TDSCDMA FixedandMobile WiMAX Andmanymore
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Agilent Benchtop SA Portfolio Overview


Performance

P-Class
PXA

X Platform Legacy
PSA

M-Class
MXA

E-Class
EXA

L-Class
CXA

ESA-E CSA

N9320B ESA-L

Entry 3 GHz Price

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FunctionComparison
EXA CXA!
More Apps To Come Soon More than 20 Meas. apps
MATLAB VSA/VXA

Fun nction

MATLAB

CSA

VSA/VXA Phase Noise Noise Figure

ESA-L

Phase Noise Noise Figure Analog Demod.

AM/FM Demod. Power Suite (2)

Analog Demod. Power Suite (10)

CATV
Power Suite (10) P S it

Power Suite (10)

Battery B tt S/R PreAmp


Basic SA (3/6GHz)

EMI features f t TG
(future)

EMI features
25 MHz Analysis BW

75Ohm Input

PreAmp p
Basic SA (3/7.5GHz)

TG
(50/75 Ohm)

PreAmp p
Basic SA
(3.6/7/13.6/26.5GHz)

Basic SA

(1.5/3/26.5GHz)

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Thankyou!
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