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Karakteristik bahan dan produk agroindustri

Oleh : Sarifah Nurjanah

Teknologi Industri Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung

Produk hasil pertanian

Grain

Fruits and vegetables

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Fish

Livestocks

Ciri produk pertanian :


n n n n

Bulky/ kamba : memakan banyak tempat Musiman : tidak selalu ada setiap saat Mudah rusak (perishable) : karena masih merupakan living thing/ makhluk hidup Tidak seragam : dalam satu kali panen bisa beberapa ukuran

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Bulky/ Kamba

- Ada rongga diantara satu bahan dg yang lain

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Musiman
- Buah-buahan : mangga, durian, dll - Perikanan tangkap

Mudah rusak
-Physiological factors (environmental factors, which affect product metabolism) -Physical factors (mechanical damage) -Biotic factors (pest and disease)

Chilling injury

crownrot

Impact bruishing

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Tidak seragam
-Dalam satu kali panen tidak sama tingkat kematangan dan ukuran -Perlunya sortasi dan grading

Sifat Biologi
n Masih

berlangsungnya metabolisme sesudah dipanen. n Terjadinya perubahan komponen dalam bahan yang akan menyebabkan berubahnya teksture dan penampakan serta rasa. n Perubahan yang terjadi mempengaruhi mutu produk.

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Metabolism
The most important physiological processes : - Transpiration : through the stomata, is related to cooling, as temperature increases, the rate or transpiration also increases. -Respiration : involves the uptake of oxygen, the release of carbon dioxide, and the breakdown of stored reserves, provide energy for metabolism , growth and maturation. A reduction in the rate of transpiration and respiration extends market life and improves overall fruit quality. Respiration rate indicates: -Metabolic activity in plant tissue -Also a guide to the potential storage life of product

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Glucose oxygen carbon water dioxide

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Perubahan komponen

Ripening chart

respiration

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Climacteric and non climacteric produce

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Climacteric : -Banana -Avocado -Mango -Tomato -Watermelon

Nonclimacteric : -Pineapple -Lemon -Orange -Cucumber -Grape

Dormant produce : Potato

Changes in weight, sugar, etc

Bahan Ajar Teknik Penanganan Hasil Pertanian - Revisi 0 - Update 02 Februari 2010

Changes in weight, texture, color, sugar content, etc of banana

ripening

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Sifat fisik dan mekanik


n

Sifat fisik : - ukuran, bentuk, luas permukaan, volume, densitas, porositas, warna, penampakan. - sifat yang sangat penting dalam mendesain proses dan mesin prosessing - mempengaruhi tingkat penerimaan konsumen

Physical Characteristics Shape and Size


- inseparable in a physical object - generally necessaery if the object is to be satisfactory described -dimensional parameters of the object must be measured Charted standards : - round, approching spheroid - oblate, flattened at the stem end and apex, etc Roundness Sphericity

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Roundness

Menentukan (roundness) Roundness = Ap Ac Ap = Lingkaran terdalam Ac = Lingkaran terluar

kebundaran

Spericity
Spericity =

volume of solid volume of circumscib ed sphere

( /6)abc 1 / 3 ( /6)a 3

) ( )

1/3

bc 1 / 3 a2 =

geometric mean diameter = major diameter


where

( abc)1/3 =a

a = longest intercept b = longest intercept normal to a c = longest intercept normal to a and b

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Volume dan luas permukaan


a. bulat memanjang V = volume S = luas permukaan a = poros memanjang elip (major axes) b = poros membujur elip (minor axes) e = eksentrisitas yaitu e = [ 1 (b/a)2 ] 1/2 V = 4/3 ( ab2) S = 2 b2 + 2 ab sin 1 e . e b. bulat membujur V = 4/3 ( a2b) S = 2a2 + b2 log e 1 + e . e 1e c. bentuk kerucut V = (/3) h (r12 + r1r2 + r22) S = (r1 + r2) [h2 + (r1 r2)2]1/2 r1 = jari-jari bagian dasar kerucut r2 = jari-jari bagian puncak kericut h = tinggi benda

Density
Density = weight of material, kg volume of the material,m3

The density values of grains and other commodities are used in design of storage bins and silos, separation of desirable materials from impurities, cleaning and grading, evaluation of the grain etc.

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Sifat thermal
Importance: Thermo-physical properties are important for process calculations during heat and mass transfer, process optimization and modeling. Predicting the shelf life of food products during storage and distribution These properties change with the type of product, product composition, product temperature, and the direction of heat flow. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are the most important thermal properties required in calculating heat transfer.

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Thermo-physical properties of interest Specific heat Thermal conductivity Thermal diffusivity Specific heat
-The amount of heat in kilocalories that must be added to or removed from 1 kg of a substance to change its temperature by 1oC -The unit is K cal/kgoC

Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity is a property of a material. It can be defined as the rate of heat that will be conducted through a unit thickness of a material when a unit temperature gradient exists across that thickness. The unit of thermal conductivity is W/m-C.

Thermal Diffusivity The rate at which heat diffuses by conduction through a material depends upon the thermal diffusivity of the material. The unit of thermal diffusivity of material is m2/sk.

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