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AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM Open Loop System Consider a feed heating system in which feed is heated by steam without

checking the product output temperature. Product out

Steam in Steam out Feed Closed loop control system In the previous example instead of applying the steam blindly, product temperature is measured by using an RTD and connected to a controller and its output is connected to the control valve. Feed out TE TIC TCV Steam In

Feed In

Steam Out

The general concept is called feedback control . since the variable of interest (ie. Temp) is measured and the result is fed back through the control system into the process. A control system is necessary because the process is subjected to uncontrollable disturbances or load changes. Here the controlled variable is the liquid temperature (TL). this depends on feed rate (Qa), steam flow rate (Qs), ambient temperature (Ta), inlet feed temperature (To), steam temperature (St), steam pressure (Ps). Hence if any one of the parameter changes, TL will change. TL = f( Qa, Qs, Ta, To, Ts, Ps)

But in order to bring the temperature back to the set point, we only change the flow rate. All variables affecting the controlled variable other than the one being manipulated (here Qs) is defined as loads. This can be represented in a block diagram Uncontrolled variable (disturbance) Manip Process Variable (m) Controller Controlled variable (C)

Error_ - Feed back + Element Reference variable (set point) The feed back element ie. The value of temperature is the Process variable (PV), the value to be set is (SV or set value), the difference (sv- pv) determined by an adder is the error, the controller output going to the final control element is the manipulated variable (MV). In a direct action controller increasing measurement signal will cause an increase in controller output, while in a reverse control action the increasing measurement signal causes the controller to decreases its output. In the case heat exchanger if the controller is designed in such a way that the increase in temperature will cause the steam valve to open more (air to open), then when the outlet temperature increased the steam valve will open more causing further increase in temperature and eventually cause a runaway temperature. This is positive feed back. But the combination of negative feed back and lags may lead to oscillation and an instrument engineer will be interested in period and damping ratio (B/A) of the cycle. Period A B The period of the cycle may be measured as the time (usually in minutes) between any two analogous points such as between 2 positive or negative peaks. Depending on the period a loop having ( B/A = ) stabilizes fairly quickly following an upset. Automatic control system The basic purpose of automatic control is that production is achieved economically by Lowering the labor cost Eliminating or reducing human errors Improving process quality

Providing greater safety in operation Reducing the size of the process equipment and the amount of space it requires Minimizing energy consumption Control problems All physical devices and processes have energy storage capabilities and are resistant to change. In this aspect they are similar to capacitance and resistance. The potential is dropped when the flow is across a resistance and the amount of potential dropped is according to the amount of resistance. Same way potential is generated or saved when the flow is across a capacity element. The combinational presence of resistance and capacitance in a system gives rise to the time constant of the system, which is the time taken by the system to respond to a change in the driving force of the system or lag. Broadly there are 3 types of lags, process lags, measurement lag and transmission lag. Elements of a control loop There are mainly 4 elements in a control loop, they are detecting element, measuring element, controller element and final control element. Consider a flow loop. Let the flow is measured by an orifice (detecting element), DP measured is converted to 4-20mA or 0.2-1.0 signal by flow transmitter (measuring element), this is transmitted to a controller (say DCS) is the controller element and flow is controlled by a control valve (final control element). But all the 4 elements are not required in all the cases. Modes of Control Two Position Control This is the simplest mode of control. This is used when the controlled process variable need not be maintained at precise values. Ex. Water heater. temperature controller

Fuel gas Control valve The controller is such a way that when the measured value of temperature is below set point the control valve will open and remains open until the error is zero and then it closes. Due to the capacitance effect of the system the temperature continues to rise and then starts decreasing and the valve opens again. An interlock system which makes the control valve or final control element to close or open when a switch actuates is a two position control. Controller output P= 100% when error > 0 P= 0 % when error < 0

For any practical implementation there is an overlap as error increases through zero or decreases through zero. In this zone, no change in controller output occurs and 2 E is known as natural zone or differential gap.

100% controller output 0% - E 0 E Proportional Control The two position control results in oscillation in the value. Hence one mode was developed called proportional control. Here the controller output is proportional to the error(E = set point- measured value). The best example is the self actuating type controllers. The controller output can be expressed as Oi = K (e) + Oo. 1 Oi= controller output at any time : K= proportional constant or gain e = error (sv- pv) : Oo = controller output at zero error. In this equation K can be replaced by 100/ PB (PB= proportional band). Proportional band is the percentage of full scale change in input required to change the output from 0% to 100%. The controller action to be studied by applying various input disturbances such as step, linear and sinusoidal to the controller and study the outputs. From equation 1 we can write as Oi Oo = K (e). this clearly shows that except for Oi = Oo there will be an error term. This shows that whenever there is a load change which requires a change in Oi from Oo the error will exist which is known as offset. The offset will be less when K is large (PB is less). Which indicates that even the slightest change in process variable from the set point will drive the controller to give maximum value. Hence when a proportional controller alone is selected (which is seldom used) K should be selected according to the controllable range required and offset. 100 500% PB 80 60 Measured span (%) 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 output signal (%) 100% PB 200% PB 20% PB 50% PB Natural Zone

SETPOINT TEMPERATURE

TIME

FIGURE 1: PROPORTIONAL-ONLY CONTROL

Gain, or as it is more commonly called, Proportional Band, simply amplifies the error between setpoint and measured value to establish a power level. The term Proportional Band is one that expresses the gain of the controller as a percentage of the span of the instrument. A 25% PB equates to a gain of 4; a 10% PB is a gain of 10. Given the case of a controller with a span of 1000 degrees, a PB of 10% defines a control range of 100 degrees around setpoint. If the measured value is 25 degrees below setpoint, the output level will be 25% heat. The Proportional Band determines the magnitude of the response to an error. If the Proportional Band is too small, meaning high gain, the system will oscillate through being over-responsive. A wide Proportional Band, low gain, could lead to control "wander" due to a lack of responsiveness. The ideal situation will be achieved when the Proportional Band is as narrow as possible without causing oscillation. Figure l shows the effect of narrowing the Proportional Band to the point of oscillation. This control zone comes up to temperature with a 25% Proportional Band but there is an appreciable error between setpoint and actual temperature. As the Proportional Band is reduced, the temperature comes closer to setpoint until finally, at a setting of 1.5% the system becomes unstable.

Integral Controller Proportional controllers always deviates from the set point when subjected to load changes. This is objectionable in most of the cases and the reset mode or integral mode is often combined with proportional to the extent and the duration of the error signal. The controller output can be written as t Oi = Ti e(dt) + Oo 2 0 Oi= controller output at any time : Ti= reset rate in repeats per minute e = error (sv- pv) : Oo = controller output at zero error or time zero t = time. From this it is clear that the output is constantly changing as long as there is error signal. Ie. It not only depends on magnitude but also the length of time the error exists. The reset rate in repeats per minute means the number of time per minute the reset action produces a correction equal in magnitude to the correction from proportional action. Replace Ti with Ki where Ki = 1/ Ti and Ki = % output/ sec/ %error. Suppose an integral mode controller with reset action set at 5.7minute means that

Ki = 1/ (5.7 min) (60 sec/min) = 2.92 * 10 3 S -1 Slow change Error % Fast change Time controller lag Process lag Controller O/P fast rate Slow rate

Time Here a load change induced error occurs at some time Ti. The proper valve position under the new load to maintain is shown as line. In this mod the valve begins to change very rapidly (as E is more). As the valve opens the error decreases and slows the valve opening rate. Ultimate effect is that the system drives the error to zero at a slowing controller rate. From this we can see that the controller works to return to the set point. But it has a disadvantage when a sustained deviation occurs, a controller containing reset will eventually driven off scale. This will happen when the loop is opened for shut down or transfers to manual control. During shut downs by closing the valves reset action begins to force the proportional band of the controller upward to its limit trying to change the measurement. This characteristics is known as windup. It can be eliminated by automatically disabling the reset windup.
Integral action, or Automatic Reset, is probably the most important factor governing control at setpoint. The integral term slowly shifts the output level as a result of an error between setpoint and measured value. If the measured value is below setpoint the integral action will gradually increase the output power level in an attempt to correct this error. Figure 2 demonstrates the result of introducing Integral action. Again the temperature rises and levels out at a point just below setpoint. A 6% Proportional Band is used. Once the temperature settles, Integral action is introduced. Notice that the temperature rises further until it is at setpoint. The adjustment of this term is usually expressed in one of two ways; as a time constant in either minutes or seconds, or, the inverse of a time constant expressed as repeats/minute. If it is expressed as a time constant, the longer the Integral time constant, the more slowly the power level will be shifted (the fewer repeats/min., the slower the response). If the Integral term is set to a fast value the power level could be shifted too quickly thus causing oscillation since the controller is trying to work faster than the load can change. Conversely, an Integral time constant which is too long will result in very sluggish control. In Figure 3a, a Proportional Band of 6% and an Integral time constant of 200 seconds provides stable control at setpoint. A positive 20 degree perturbation results in some overshoot before settling. Figure 3b shows the result of a similar perturbation but with a 400 second Integral time constant. Lengthening the Integral time constant results in the markedly slower response shown.

SETPOINT TEMPERATURE PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL CONTROL PROPORTIONALONLY CONTROL

INTEGRAL ADDED

TIME

FIGURE 2: ADDING INTEGRAL ACTION


FIGURE 3a 20 o FIGURE 3b

TEMPERATURE

SETPOINT

- 20 o

8 minutes

8 minutes

INTEGRAL TIME CONSTANT 200 SECONDS

INTEGRAL TIME CONSTANT 400 SECONDS

FIGURE 3: WIDENING INTEGRAL TIME CONSTANT

With integral action, the controller output is proportional to the amount of time the error is present. Integral action eliminates offset. CONTROLLER OUTPUT = (1/INTEGRAL) (Integral of) e(t) d(t) Notice that the offset (deviation from set-point) in the time response plots is now gone. Integral action has eliminated the offset. The response is somewhat oscillatory and can be stabilized some by adding derivative action. (Graphic courtesy of ExperTune Loop Simulator.) Integral action gives the controller a large gain at low frequencies that results in eliminating offset and "beating down" load disturbances. The controller phase starts out at -90 degrees and increases to near 0 degrees at the break frequency. This additional phase lag is what you give up by adding integral action. Derivative action adds phase lead and is used to compensate for the lag introduced by integral action.

Rate or Derivative Control The output of such a controller changes in proportional to the rate of change of input. Rate controller is often uses on systems with large amounts of inertia or lag such as temperature. Since the change in output from a rate controller depends on the rate of change of the error signal it gives a large amount of correction to a rapidly changing error signal while the error is still small. Because of this some times this is known as anticipatory action. Oi = r (de/dt) + Oo where r =rate time.
Derivative action, or Rate, provides a sudden shift in output power level as a result of a quick change in measured value. If the measured value drops quickly the derivative term will provide a large change in output level in an attempt to correct the perturbation before it goes too far. Derivative action is probably the most misunderstood of the three. It is also the most beneficial in recovering from small perturbations. The oscillatory response to a perturbation shown in Figure 4a is virtually eliminated by Derivative action as shown in Figure 4b where a 40 second Derivative term is added to the 6% Proportional Band and 200 second Integral time constant. As with the other two tuning parameters, there is a way of improperly setting this term. Derivative oscillation is typically a cyclic wander away from setpoint. The Derivative time constant is usually set to a value equal to one sixth of the Integral time constant.

20 o

FIGURE 4a

FIGURE 4b

TEMPERATURE

SETPOINT

- 20 o

8 minutes PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL CONTROL RESPONSE

8 minutes RESPONSE WITH 40 seconds DERIVATIVE ACTION

FIGURE 4: ADDING DERIVATIVE ACTION

With derivative action, the controller output is proportional to the rate of change of the measurement or error. The controller output is calculated by the rate of change of the measurement with time. CONTROLLER OUTPUT = DERIVATIVE (d m/ dt) Where m is the measurement at time t. Some manufacturers use the term rate or pre-act instead of derivative. Derivative, rate and pre-act are the same thing. DERIVATIVE = RATE = PRE ACT Derivative action can compensate for a changing measurement. Thus derivative takes action to inhibit more rapid changes of the measurement than proportional action. When a load or set-point change occurs, the derivative action causes the controller gain to move the "wrong" way when the measurement gets near the set-point. Derivative is often used to avoid overshoot. Derivative action can stabilize loops since it adds phase lead. Generally, if you use derivative action, more controller gain and reset can be used. With a PID controller the amplitude ratio now has a dip near the center of the frequency response. Integral action gives the controller high gain at low frequencies, and derivative action causes the gain to start rising after the "dip". At higher frequencies the filter on derivative action limits the derivative action. At very high frequencies (above 314 radians/time; the Nyquist frequency) the controller phase and amplitude ratio increase and decrease quite a bit because of discrete sampling. If the controller had no filter the controller amplitude ratio would steadily increase at high frequencies up to the Nyquist frequency (1/2 the sampling frequency). The controller phase now has a hump due to the derivative lead action and filtering. (Graphic courtesy of ExperTune Loop Simulator.)

The time response is less oscillatory than with the PI controller. Derivative action has helped stabilize the loop.

Summary Use proportional action where Cycling action of on-off control is undesirable Load changes are small or infrequent Offset can be tolerated Add reset to the control system Offset must be eliminated Set point or load changes frequently Do not add reset if Startup overshoot must be eliminated The process can be controlled by a high gain proportional controller Add derivative to the control system On process having at least 2 linear lags Do not use derivative Noise is present, unless the amplitude of the noise is low relative to the amplitude of the signal Do not use on flow control

Combination controllers Mainly we are using 3 types of controllers namely PI, PD or PID are used in the industry. The output will be the added response of individual controllers. Implementation The P, I and D are implemented using digital or analog way. In an analog system operational amplifiers are used. An ideal Op- amp will have infinite voltage gain and infinite input resistance and zero output resistance. I2 Proportional Controller R2 Vi I1 V2 + R1 Vo

Vi= input voltage : Vo = output voltage I1 = I2 (infinite impedence for Op- amp and hence no current through the Op. Amp) Hence (Vi V2 ) / R1 = (V2 Vo )/ R2 but V2 = 0 volts (connected to ground) Vi / R1 = - Vo/ R2 Or Vo = ( - R2 / R1) Vi R2/ R1 is a constant, and output voltage is proportional to input voltage, or can be used for implementation of proportional controllers. Integral Controller We will use the principle that the value of current through a capacitance is equal to the value of capacitance multiplied by the derivative of the voltage difference across the capacitance. C I1 Vi R1 I2 V2 (Vi V2) / R1 = C d (V2 Vo) / dt but V2 =0 hence Vi / R1 = - C d (Vo) / dt or -(1 )/ R1 C * Vi = d (Vo) / dt integrating on both sides t -(1) / R1 C Vi dt = Vo 0 + Vo

this shows that the output voltage is proportional to the integration of the input voltage. Derivative controller Vi C I1 _ Vo V1 + C d (Vi V1) / dt = (V1 Vo) / R but V1 =0 volts C d (Vi) / dt = -Vo/ R Vo = - RC d (Vi)/ dt The output voltage is proportional to the derivative of the input voltage. Control strategies When the process becomes complex, it calls for a complex control that the process is maintained with in the limits. The controlling and measuring means should be fast acting and sensing, even the slightest lag can not be affordable. This resulted in control strategies such as cascade, ratio, feed forward, override, split range, time cycle, end point and program control. Cascade control This is a technique that uses 2 measurement and control systems to manipulate a single final control element. The following figure illustrates this. Product out TT TIC FIC FCV FT Steam in R I2

Feed TT temperature transmitter : TIC temperature controller FIC flow controller : FT - flow transmitter : FCV flow control valve The master or primary unit is the controller of the variable whose value is of prime importance, hence the product temperature. The slave or secondary controller is the one which affects the primary variable. More and close temp. can be achieved using cascade control than by temp. control alone. Cascade control accomplishes 2 important functions. 1) it reduces the effect of load changes near the source and 2. it improves control by reducing the effect of time lag hence used in temperature and analyzer applications.

When the feed rate or steam flow or pressure is varying considerably due to fluid capacity in the vessel and time lag, the temperature controller does not detect quickly and when correction has made the temperature may have reached normal. This cyclic action may occur. To avoid this we are normally using the cascade control Cascade control is not applied in fast control loops. Such as pressure, flow etc.

Cascade Control (multi-loop) Distinguishing features: 1 Two FB controllers but only a single control valve (or other -final control element). 2 Output signal of the "master" controller is the set point for slave" controller.

Two FB control loops are "nested" with the "slave" (or "secondary") control loop inside the "master" (or "primary") control loop. Terminology slave vs. master secondary vs. primary inner vs. outer

Cascade Control
The second alternative to simple feedback control is cascade control. In this setup there is one manipulated variable more than one measured variable An inner and outer control loop are formed each with an individual feedback controller. The outer loop controller is also known as the master or primary controller. The input to this controller is the measured value of the variable to be controlled. The setpoint is supplied by the operator. It passes its output signal to the inner control loop. The inner loop controller is known as the slave or secondary controller. It measures a second variable whose value affects the controlled variable. The setpoint is supplied by the output from the outer loop. Its output signal is used as the signal to the manipulated variable. The above points can be shown clearly in a diagram.

The major benefit from using cascade control is that disturbances arising within the secondary loop are corrected by the secondary controller before they can affect the value of the primary controlled output. Cascade control is especially effective if the inner loop is much faster than the outer loop and if the main disturbances affect the inner loop first. Below are described examples of cascade control in practise. It should be noted that in two of the three examples, the secondary loop is used to compensate for flowrate changes. In process systems this is generally the case. Example 1 - Reactor Temperature Control

In this example the aim is to keep T2 at its setpoint. The primary control loop detects and eliminates changes in T1, the temperature of the reactants. The secondary control loop detects changes in the temperature of the cooling water. Hence it can adjust the flow accordingly before the effects are detected by the primary control loop. If there was no second controller the effect of the cooling water would take a long time to materalise and hence eliminated. Example 2 - Distillation Bottoms Temperature Control In this example the primary loop detects changes in the temperature brought about by changes in composition, pressure, etc. The secondary loop detects changes in the steam flowrate and hence eliminates anticipated effects on the temperature.

RATIO CONTROL Ratio control is used to maintain the ratio between 2 variables. Ex. Air fuel ratio in furnaces, feed and catalyst ratio in reactors and mixtures of 2 or more materials in blending operations. steam FIC FT BOILER Fuel FIC FCV FT Ratio Controller Air The primary variable ie. Fuel flow transmitter output is connected to a ratio unit where it is multiplied by a ratio factor and the output becomes the set point of the secondary controller ie. Air controller. In all cases the primary controller may not be necessarily of uncontrolled one. Here the fuel is controlled by another ratio controller using steam demand as the primary variable. Ratio control may not be limited to 2 components alone, one primary variable can adjust several secondary variable each with separate ratio and individual controllers. An example is setting the pass flows in a reboiler. ratio contr. FCV FT

Ratio Control: Method I N. B. The loop gain changes with the wild variable, W, if M is manipulated.
R = M W Gain = dR 1 = dM W

If we choose to manipulate W instead of M, the gain is dR M Gain = = 2 dW W Ratio control is a type of feedforward control. Scaling considerations Example: Flow transmitters have different spans:

The gain for the ratio station, R, should be set at Rd desired ratio SW R = Rd , where SW span for variab le W SM S M span for variab le M Example: orifice + D cell ?

Feed Forward Control Feed forward is the application of a control action to a process before a deviation occurs in the controlled variable. But the feed back system works only after a deviation from target is sensed. Theoretically saying feed forward action prevents the deviation from occurring. It accomplishes this feet by measuring variables that causes load changes in the process and manipulating other variables that cancel out this effect. In the following figure load changes to the heat exchanger are sensed in the liquid feed before the changes reaches the exchanger. The computer calculates the amount of steam necessary to meet the new demand and the steam flow controller is set accordingly. The heat change requirement is anticipated due to load changes and the output temperature theoretically remains stable. To work the system the process should be modeled exactly including the dynamics and non linearitys. All instruments in the loop should be perfectly calibrated. But these are very difficult to achieve. Here disturbances other than feed forward variable are not controlled.

Due to this the feed forward by itself is insufficient control hence it is used conventionally with feedback control. Steam FT FIC Computer FT Liquid in TT TT HEAT EXCHANGER Liquid out One example of such a controller is the PH control using feed forward control action. Here influent flow changes cause direct corrective action to minimize their effect on effluent PH. All other load changes are corrected by the feed back PH controller. FT Influent FCV Reagent FCV TR

Feed PHT Forward Controller Effluent Another example is the 3 element boiler feed control which combines feed forward and cascade. Here the level is the master variable, feed water flow the slave variable, and the steam flow the disturbance variable. Usually a simple summing amplifier with bias will work the function of feed forward control. Another example of the feed forward is the complex distillation control. A distillation column is a pressure vessel where a fractional distillation of the feed mixture is done to separate its components. It consists of various trays with a bubble cap in each tray. The temp. of different trays differ and the temp. of a particular tray is the measure of the purity of the product drawn off at that location. Feed is introduced into the middle of the column. A temp. measurement is made near the top of the column. This temp. signal gives an inferential measurement of the %purity of the distillate product. The temperature measurement is transmitted to a controller that manipulates the distillate flow (by adjusting the set point of the flow controller). By adjusting this the amount of material drawn out of the column and hence the amount of material re circulated will vary. The higher the re circulation rate the purer the product. Reflux ratio is the ratio of product into the column divided by the distilled product drawn off. Assume that the column (which is very large) has been operating smoothly have a sudden feed rate change. The temp. controller will not initiate any change until the temp. measurement starts to change. Due to long time constant of the temp. loop it will take a

long time for the column to arrive at a new state of equilibrium. In the mean time the product which is out of specification ( % purity) is made. To apply a corrective action to the distillate flow rate in exactly the right amount and exactly at the right time feed forward control may be attempted. Ratio Relay TIC TT Pump FCV Lead Lag Compensator FT Crude feed A flow transmitter monitors the feed rate. A temp. transmitter is connected to a temp. controller. The output of the temp. controller passes through a multiplying relay (whose other input is the flow transmitter input) before being used as a set point to the flow controller. If the feed rate changes the distillate flow controller set point is changed immediately by an amount determined by the scaling of the multiplying relay. If the scaling is correct the distillate flow will be exactly adjusted to offset the feed rate change. The multiplier in conjunction with the feed flow transmitter has thus predicted the amount of corrective action required before the product quality deviated from the desired value. However the change in feed rate does not immediately affect the output quality due to large capacity of the column. Immediate adjustment to the flow will yield off specification product. Hence a lead lag system is introduced into the output of the feed rate transmitter to produce the necessary timing action. An adjustable time constant will allow matching the feed forward models time constant to that of the column. Introduction : Feedforward Control Distillate FIC Cooler

Control Objective: maintain C at its set point, C set , despite load disturbances.

Feedback Control : Measure C , compare it to R , adjust M so as to maintain C at R . Widely used (e.g., PID controllers) Feedback is a fundamental concept Feedforward Control: Measure L , adjust M so as to maintain C at R . Note that the controlled variable C is not measured.

Feedback Control

Feedforward Control

Comparison of Feedback and Feedforward Control 1) Feedback (FB) Control Advantages: Corrective action occurs regardless of the source and type of disturbances (cf. heat exchanger example) Requires little knowledge about the process (For example, a process model is not necessary) Versatile and robust (Conditions change? May have to re-tune controller) Disadvantages:

FB control no corrective action is taken until a deviation in the controlled variable occurs FB control is incapable of correcting a deviation from set point at the time of its detection Theoretically not capable of achieving perfect control Frequent and severe disturbances process may not settle out

2) Feedforward (FF) Control Advantages: Takes corrective action before the process is upset (cf. FB control.) Theoretically capable of "perfect control" Does not affect system stability Disadvantages: Disturbance must be measured (capital, operating costs) Requires more knowledge of the process to be controlled (process model) Ideal controllers that result in "perfect control: may be physically unrealizable. Use practical controllers such as lead-lag units 3) Feedforward Plus Feedback Control FF Control Attempts to eliminate the effects of measurable disturbances. FB Control Corrects for unmeasurable disturbances, modeling errors, etc. (FB trim) 4) Historical Perspective : 1925: 3 element boiler level control 1960's: FF control applied to other processes Example: Heat Exchanger

w = Liquid flow rate ws = Steam flow rate T1 = Inlet liquid temperatu re T2 = Exit liquid temperatu re

Control Objective: Maintain T2 at the desired value (or set point), Tset , despite variations in inlet flow rate, w . Do this by manipulating ws .

Feedback control Scheme: Measure T2 , compare to Tset , adjust ws .

Feedforward Control Scheme: Measure exit temperature, T2 .

w , adjust

ws (knowing Tset ), to control

Feedforward/Feedback Control of a Heat Exchanger

Feedforward Control In this configuration, a sensor or measuring device is used to directly measure the disturbance as it enters the process and the sensor transmits this information to the feedforward controller. The feedforward controller determines the needed change in the manipulated variable, so that, when the effect of the disturbance is combined with the effect of the change in the manipulated variable, there will be no change in the controlled variable at all. The controlled variable is always kept at its setpoint and hence disturbances have no efffect on the process. This perfect compensation is a difficult goal to obtain. It is , however, the objective for which feedforward control is structural. A typical feedforward control loop is shown in the figure below.

Another name for feedforward control is open loop control. The reason is that the measured signal goes to the controller parallely to the process. This can be seen in the next figure. This is in contrast to feedback or closed loop control. As mentioned previously the main advantage of feedforward control is that it works to prevent errors from occuring and disturbances have no effect on the process at all. However, there are some significant difficulties. Complex Computation The feedforward control computation involves determining exactly how much change in manipulated variable is required for a specific change in disturbance. To be able to make this computation accurately requires significant quantitative understanding of the process and its operation. There is also a tremendous escalation of the theoretical know-how required in the feedforward controller's computation activities. Knowledge of Process The structure of feed forward control assumes that 1.The disturbances are known in advance. 2.The disturbance will have sensors associated with them (measurable). 3.There will not be significant unmeasured disturbances. These limitations on the disturbances constrains the application of feedforward control, simply as most disturbances in the industrial processes are unpredictable and unmeasurable. Limitations In pure feedforward control, there is no monitoring on the controlled variable. If the controlled variable strays from its setpoint there is no corrective action to eliminate the error. This makes pure feedforward control somewhat impractical and a rarity in typical process application. Specific Controller Required The feedforward controller must be specifically and uniquely designed for the one particular control application involved, because of the necessity of accurate and quantitative calculations. Feedforward control is thus much more complicated and requires considerably more knowledge of the process than feedback. It also fails to deal with any disturbance that has not been measured.

In practice it is used very much less frequently than feedback, and is always combined with some form of feedback control. This being said, there are a number of circumstances where it can be used very effectively and the resulting performance improvements can be economically very significant. Over ride control Selective Control Systems (Overrides) For every controlled variable, there must be at least one manipulated variable. In some applications the number of controlled variables is not equal to the number of manipulated variables, that is N C N M High selector

Low Selector

multiple measurements one controller one final control element

override using Pi controllers - "old way" (vs. digital logic) 2 measurements 2 controllers 1 final control element over ride control in process control systems sometimes it is necessary to limit a variable in order to maintain safe operation or protect process equipment. If this variable is a function of the systems primary controlled variable the two variables can be interlocked in an over ride system. The primary variable maintains control as long as the second variable does not exceed its safe limits, at which point the second variable assumes control. An example used in trains area is in 4K (propane ) compressor. Here FCV 4100A (anti surge valve) is controlled by a signal from FIC through a low selector. Whenever HIC 4001 is lower than FIC 4001 instead of FIC, HIC will control FCV 4001A.

FCV 4001A FT

HIC 4001 low selector FIC

Split range control Split range control normally involves 2 control valves operated by the same controller. In the following example, N2 is used to maintain the vessel pressure, but under certain conditions the vessel pressure may become high and the excess pressure must be vented off. In this the N2 make up valve closes from 0-50% of signal range and vent valve opens from 55 to 100%. The dead band o 5% provided will vary according to the process requirement. PIC Vent Closes on 3-9 Opens on 9.5- 15 Psi Psi. PT N2 source

Split Range Control

2 manipulated variables (V1 and V2) while V1 opens, V2 should close

1 controlled variable (reactor pressure)

Time cycle control This type of circuits involve one or more circuits, usually electrical which activates onoff valves and other control devices to provide repetitive operation. EX. In KNPC gas plant trains Gas Drier, Liquid Drier, propane and butane treaters. Here we are using draining for certain time, depressurization for a certain time, heating for certain time, cooling filling for certain time.