(Non-Parametric Techniques) Chi-Square Test (DR SEE KIN HAI)

( χ 2 ) (PART 2)

Chi-Square Test for Relatedness or Independence (Practice)
Students from Year 10 of a school were asked about the types of games they like in school. 32 males and 24 females responded that they would like Game A, while 28 males and 4 females preferred Game B. You wish to determine whether sex differences in games exist. (Test the Null hypothesis that the two variables sex and games are independent of each other). 1. Enter the data below then use the [Weight Cases] option to tell SPSS 20 to count

the frequency and not the scores.

Fig 1

1=male, 2=female 1=Game A, 2=Game B

2. Select [Data] and click on [Weight cases…] to open the dialogue box.
Select [Weight cases by] then move [freq] to [Frequency Variable] box then [OK]


The [Weight On] should appear on the status bar at the bottom of the application window.

\ 3. Select [Analyze] then [Descriptive Statistics] to select [Crosstabs..] to open the dialogue box. 4. Move [Game..] to [Rows] box and [Gender] to [Columns] box then[Statistics] to open the [Crosstabs..] sub-dialogue box, select [Chi-square] then [Continue] then click on [Cells] 5.


Check [Chi-square] then [Continue] then [Cells] from the previous screen which reappears

Select [Observed], [Expected] and [Unstandardized] then [Continue] and [OK] from the previous screen which reappears.

4 Interpreting the output for the chi-square

This table gives the frequency [observed count], [expected count] and [Residual] =obser freq - Ex freq for each of the 4 cells

[Count] in cross-tabulation is the same as Table shown in Fig 1 above.

Eg . Obser freq for Game B for male = 28, Exp freq = 21.8, then Residual = 28 - 21.8 = 6.2

As the minimum expected frequency = 10.2 >5 thus you can be confident that the main assumptions of chi-square have not been violated. By looking at observed cell frequencies, we can conclude that girls are more likely to favour Game A, while boys are more evenly distributed in both games.

Pearson Chi-Square = 8.650 with df = 1 and two-tailed significance p = 0.003 which is less than 0.05/2 (0.025) thus this chi-square is significant.

If min count < 5 and 2 x 2 chi-square use Fisher Exact Test (See Next Example)

5 Reporting the output for the chi-square 2 ways of reporting: 1. There was a significant difference between the observed and expected frequency of Year 10 students from the school in their preference for the two types of games ( χ 2 = 8.65, DF = 1, p = 0.003). OR 2. There was a significant association between sex and preference for the different types of games ( χ 2 = 8.65, DF = 1, p = 0.003). Thus, we can conclude that girls were more likely than boys to prefer Game A and less likely to prefer Game B. COURSEWORK 1 An English language teacher doing her M Ed from UBD wanted to know whether the types of reading materials are related to secondary students’ school location in Brunei. She administered a questionnaire to collect data regarding students’ favourite reading materials. She coded the materials as, 1= newspaper, 2 = magazine and school location as 1= rural, 2=urban. The following table shows the frequency distribution of 295 students according to their favourite types of reading materials and locations.

She wanted to test her Null hypothesis that the two variables (types of materials and location) are independent of each other. Or the types of reading materials are not related to students’ school locations.

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