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Table of the contents

S.no 1 2 3 4

Name Shumaila Zaman Orakzai Taif Gul Yasar Arafat Zeeshan Siddique

Part Q.1,2

From page to page

3 to 10 Q.3,4,7 11 to 13 Q.5,2(exploring world 14 to 24 wide web) Q.1,2,3,4(building 25 to 37 management skills)

Q: Discuss why it is important for human resource management systems to be consistent with the organizations strategy and goals and with each other. Human Resource Management strategy The Meaning of Strategy  A critical factor that affects Firm Performance  A factor that contributes to Competitive Advantage in markets  Having a long-term focus  Plans that involve the top executives and/or board of directors of the firm  A general framework that provides a perspective for selecting specific policies and procedures anagement Strategy. Why is HR critical to firm performance?  85% of all firms in the US are service firms.  Service is delivered by people.  Low quality HR leads to low quality customer service.  In the 21st century effective knowledge management translates into competitive advantage and profits.  Knowledge comes from a firms people.

What is unique about Human Resource Management?  HR is multidisciplinary: It applies the disciplines of Economics (wages, markets, resources), Psychology (motivation, satisfaction), Sociology (organization structure, culture) and Law (min. wage, labor contracts, EEOC)  HR is embedded within the work of all managers, and most individual contributors due to the need of managing people (subordinates, peers and superiors) as well as teams to get things done. HR Strategy:Strategic Fit

HR Strategy: HR System Internal Fit

HR strategy : Contest of HR System 1:The Five Factors Influencing the HRSystem  External Environment  Social: social values, roles, trends, etc.  Political: political forces, changes. Ex. Bush presidency and its agenda for Social Security.  Legal: laws, court decisions, regulatory rules.  Economic: product, labor, capital, factor markets.

2:The Workforce  Demographics 3. Organization Culture 1. Weak vs. Strong culture 2. Type of culture 4. Organization Strategy 1. What are a firms distinctive competencies? 2. What is the basis that competitive strategy be sustained? 3. What are a firms strategic objectives? 4. Compare corporate and Business strategies. 5. Technology of Production & Organization of Work 1. Physical layout/employee proximity 2. Required employee skills 3. Ease of monitoring employees input. HR Strategy:Strategic roles Distribution of Task Outcomes: 3 Possibilities 1. Foot soldier: low upside, low downside of performance variance 2. Guardian: low upside, high downside of performance variance 3. Star: high upside, low downside of performance variance.

HR Strategy: Consistency

HR StrategConsistency is an important quality related to the implementation of HR policies. Employees should receive a clear, undiluted message of what behaviors are important and desirable. When there is a fit between HR systems, employees are likely to receive consistent feedback. The 3 types of consistency are 1: Single employee consistency. For every individual employee all the elements in the HR sydtem should be consistent or at least complement each other. For example if a company provides an employee extensive training,then appropriate staffing,compensation and promotion practices should also be used to avoid turn over(loss of investment). 2: Among employee consistency. Different employees should be treated in a consistent manner to some extent. For example if the company adopts a set of practices for employee A,then for employee B in a similar conditions, the same set of HR practices is to be expected. 3: Temporal consistency or continuity. Organization HRM philosophy should present consistency over time(continuity). For example: In the foreseeable future,an employee should be able to expect how she or he will be treated in the company.(do not change things all the time).

Q: Interview a manager in a local organizationto determine how that organization recruits and selects employees. UNITED BANK LIMITED Recruitment

In order to determine the future staff needs UBL uses ratio analysis technique a forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by usin ratios between,e.g sales volume and number of employees needed. In which trends between two trends is deterrmined like volume of deposits,revenue,new branches etc and number of employees needed to perform tasks. Internal recruitment sources In forecasting the supply of inside candidates UBL uses qualification inventories,manual or computerized records listin employees education career and development intrests languages,special skills and so on to be used in selecting inside candidates for promotion. So in order to replace supervisor of a department , a person below educated than the current supervisor will be selected as a new supervisor. External recruitment sources External sources for hiring employees that UBL uses is succession planning the ongoing process of systematically identifying,assessing and developing organizational leadership to enhance performance. In which the UBL do analysis on the important key jobs in the organization , create a list of competent employeeswho can fulfill the requirements of that particular joband then select the best employees who can perform that job effectively and efficiently.The internal sources used by the UBL for hiring the candidates are advertising,head hunters and word of mouth.In advertising they use different types of media such as television, newspapers etc. UBL has hired its own retained executive recruiters/ head hunters(executive recruiters are special employment agencies,retained by employers to seek out top management talent for their clients) to find competent and qualified people for UBL. But due to some circumstances there is flexibility in hiring the employees internally and externally, e.g non availability of required candidates,lack of time,lack of resources etc. Usually UBL don,t take referrals, but due to some reasons the UBL takes referrals sometimes,e.g referral form a high command person,person on referral is qualified and competent etc.

SELECTION Selection process of UBL is based on qualification,previous job experience,age and health of the candidate. 1: The application form: For selection process the first step which the candidate has to be fulfilled is application form,which shows about the candidate education,previous performance,prior work history,experience,hobbies and health condition.It is extremely critical for her/his continued participaton in the examination process.Before that candidate has to review thoroughlywhat the job advertisement specifies the requiremments to qualify for the position. Candidate must meet all the criteria to considered for the position,ensure that, otherwise the candidate will be wasting his/her efforts in completing the application form. 2: Written test: Written exams are usually obtained from one of several test construction firms available to them.These tests are designed to determine level of technical and/or analytical abilities assoxiated with particular positon for which the candidate had applied. Unstructured questionnaire and IQ tests.Test results are sent by mail,usually within 6 working days.If the candidate receives a passing score,the candidate will be invited to continue in the examination process. 3: Performance exams: Test ability to accomplish specific job related tasks by providing opportunity to actually perform them.These tests are scheduled through HR department office,with notification in writing the date,time,locationamd duration oe the test.Instruction will be given on the tasks to be completed and then asked to complete them.Individuals with considerable relevant experience will conductthe evaluation.Safety,quality of work,adaptability,performance under stress,etc are evaluated. 4: Selection interview: Once the list of the candidate who is capable enough is established,is sent to the department,s that is hiring to fill a current vacancy.The department head is

responsible for setting up selection interviews.She/he may interview any one on the list.The department head will be looking for the candidate with the best qualifications for their particular position. The candidate who is selected,investigateher/his background and a probationary period before attaining permanent employment status.Additionallyan accordance with federal law,the candidate is required to provide proof of identity and proof that they can legally work.

Q 3:Discuss why training and development is an ongoing activity for all organizations. Training and Development Process, an ongoing Activity: The world is a global village and the boundaries of culture are blurred. Moreover this is an information era and every organization has an equal access to all the required information. Every organization has to compete with the best of the world and the only difference an organization can make is a workforce. Companies have to train and develop their workforce on continuous basis in order to maintain a liable fit between the organization objectives and the external environment. The basic purpose of the training and development is to anticipate change and respond proactively to it. Training and development plays a key role in helping change themselves and asses themselves and their environments and revitalize and rebuild their strategies, processes and structures. Below we will discuss those factors which compel a company to train and develop their workforce on continuous basis to be known as learning organization. Rapid Change in Technology: Information technology impact is changing the whole concept of how the work place and the workforce are managed. The technology can save everyone time and expense once your employees learn how to use it efficiently and effectively. Changing technology may require the company to install new software and machinery. For this purpose companies will train and guide the employees how to use it.

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Downsizing: Economic situation of a country might change or a company might go through losses which require the HR department to downsize. Downsizing, the planned elimination of positions or jobs, is a phenomenon that has affected hundreds of companies and millions of workers and companies. Training and development however, can figure out how to downsize. The more your employees are trained for future jobs the better a company can handle downsizing. HR department need to train their employees on different jobs on continuous basis in order to face downsizing. Changes in Rules and Regulations: Sometimes company introduce new rules and regulations that how the organization runs and the employees work. In order to make fit your employees to follow the new rules of company, HR department must give training to avoid dissatisfaction. In short HR department should make sure that the new employees moving to the new jobs have the required skills and abilities to perform that job. An organization should have the capacity to adapt and change with a changing environment. This means that as the employees need to accomplish new tasks, they receive the needed training for the new tasks and the development needed to prepare for the future.

Q: Explain why union membership is becoming more diverse. Union Membership becoming Diverse: Definition: - A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals like better working. There are many reasons why labor union is becoming more diverse and attracting employees to join it.

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Being in labor union labor would be having following benefits. Labor will be having bargaining power as unions have professional negotiators and advocates. Labor gets a contract. Employer cannot change policies and conditions of work whenever they feel like it. A negotiated union contract protects terms and conditions of employment. Labor union contract rights cannot be altered at your employer's whim. It is enforceable by a grievance and arbitration procedure. Increase job security. When crunch time comes, unions are often able to make sure that the experienced and committed workers are protected first. Unfair discipline can be removed; if labor is fired unjustly, he/she can have their job back. Respect and Fairness. A union won't stand for favoritism at work. In addition to monitoring and reporting exploitative working conditions, unions are also important in allowing employees to effectively bargain for their wages and to provide a support system for an employee should he or she suffer from any discrimination at work. Unions provide a check against employers who attempt to encroach upon the rights of workers. Labor unions are becoming more diverse due to the benefits it provides. Earlier labor union was known only for white male workers. Now women have made more than 45 % of the unionized workers. Asians made up 4.6% of the union workforce in 2008, an increase from 2.5% in 1989. Black workers were about 13% of the unionized workforce, a share that has held fairly steady since 1983. Immigrants made up 12.6% of union workers in 2008, up from 8.4% in 1994.

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Q: Discuss the type of development activities that you think middle managers are mosst in need of. Necessary Development Training for Middle Managers: Middle management is a critical element of any organizations structure as they serve as the link between Executives and Frontline Managers. More often than not, organizations have found that a highly skilled, well trained set of managers can help steadily drive the organization towards it objectives, financial and otherwise. Todays managers have to play more than just supervisory roles. Apart from playing the role of the leader and guide they also play the roles of facilitators, coaches, communicators and team members. Hence manager training is a critical component in todays organizational environment. Companies go for different development training for middle managers however we suggest the following ones. Motivational Training: It is important for leaders to know how to inspire and motivate the team when required. By being better coaches and trainers to their team, the overall work atmosphere would become positive, thereby helping organizations greatly improving its overall performance. Through motivational techniques, managers learn to tap into the underutilized capabilities of employees. They will learn the ability to improve the levels of motivation and improve existing talent.

Stress Management Training: In the current fast paced and globalized world, stress in the workplace is an increasingly important issue. It is costly to both individuals and organizations. Managers face pressure from multiple sources which affect all areas of life including family and career. The goal of stress management is to utilize proven stress management techniques to bring a sense of well being and relaxation into life, so that managers can handle

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daily stress in a manner that does not have any repercussions to their work or teams. Problem Solving Training: This training helps managers to consistently focus on the solution rather than the problem to successfully solve the business issue. Through this training managers will learn the tools and techniques that can be used to identify creative solutions. Presentation Skills Training: Effective presentation skills help a manager to restore the confidence of the staff and upper management in his/her abilities to lead and coordinate. By positioning ideas brightly and competently, the staff can be motivated and inspired to undertaken the tasks the manager allots. Through this training hence managers will be taught how to be a good presenter. Team Building Training: Team building training focuses on equipping managers with essential skills like team leadership and team management. Through this managerial training workshop, managers are enabled to achieve improved and optimized team functioning. Communication Skills Training: A manager is the touch point between the workforce and upper management. He/she stands between the two planes, hears grievances, settles conflict and performs a host of other important tasks. Through this training managers learn how to communicate effectively in the workplace to the company operations smooth.

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Q5:Evaluate the pros and cons of 360-degree performance appraisals and feedback.Would you like your performance to be appraised in this manner?Why or why not?

360 degree performance appraisal This represents the method developed to improve performance at our work pl performance appraisal is considered a human resources device to assess a companys hu Either simple or complex, methods are used to evaluate employees behavior, competencies and skills. What is 360 Degree Feedback? 360 Degree Feedback is a system or process in which employees receive confidential, anonymous feedback from the people who work around them. This typically includes the employee's manager, peers, and direct reports. A mixture of about eight to twelve people fill out an anonymous online feedback form that asks questions covering a broad range of workplace competencies. The feedback forms include questions that are measured on a rating scale and also ask raters to provide written comments. The person receiving feedback also fills out a self-rating survey that includes the same survey questions that others receive in their forms. Managers and leaders within organizations use 360 feedback surveys to get a better understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. The 360 feedback system automatically tabulates the results and presents them in a format that helps the feedback recipient create a development plan. Individual responses are always combined with responses from other people in the same rater category (e.g. peer, direct report) in order to preserve anonymity and to give the employee a clear picture of his/her greatest overall strengths and weakness.

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360 Feedback can also be a useful development tool for people who are not in a management role. Strictly speaking, a "non-manager" 360 assessment is not measuring feedback from 360 degrees since there are no direct reports, but the same principles still apply. 360 Feedback for non-managers is useful to help people be more effective in their current roles, and also to help them understand what areas they should focus on if they want to move into a management role. 360 Degree performance appraisal pros and cons 360 degree performance appraisal represents the technique developed to improve performance at our work spot. The 360 degree job performance review technique is mainly associated to human resources. Either easy or complicated, strategies are used to assess employees activities, competencies and skills. There is a particular method by which each worker can obtain anonymous feedback from colleagues, and this technique is referred to as 360 degree feedback. 360 degree performance appraisal as well includes a technique which is often called self-assessment.The answers are interpreted based on a scale and the consequence stands for the perception collaborators have on a certain employee.Regarding the performance of these techniques, there are both pros and cons and each may have a different opinion.You may verify the list below and make a decision on which side you are: * strength and weakness analysis 360 degree performance appraisal method is capable to highlight strengths and weaknesses of every worker at work. So, each member of staff can see precisely what it has to develop in order to expand the effectiveness at work.The 360 degree performance appraisal technique also includes preparation. * wide field of evaluation methods 360 degree performance appraisal methods are both conventional and new.The department who decides which technique must be implemented is the human resources one. In the conventional 360 degree performance appraisal, superiors are the ones who assess you.But this type of evaluation calls for a high degree of subjectivity.

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One of recent methods makes use of computer software applications specially developed to assist human resources department when they have to assess an amazing number of workers. When a company doesnt have a highly developed human resources department, they may subcontract the service because there are enough certified companies ready to be employed. * a more efficient technique for large companies For a large corporation is much more simpler and useful to use the 360 degree performance appraisal method than for a small company.On the other hand, little companies might find these kinds of evaluation strategies too costly or time consuming.The high degree of relevancy is exclusively for firms with an impressive number of workers * subjectivity versus impartiality This opposition causes lots of debates about 360 degree performance appraisal method. It is thought to have a high amount of subjectivity when superiors have to examine their subordinates but the highest amount seems to be on the same level in the hierarchy. Competition between coworkers make this evaluation not very objective.If confidentiality wouldnt be one of the main conditions, numerous conflicts and disagreements could appear. The 360 degree performance appraisal is incredibly important for companies and specially for managers.This method displays how effective are employees at work and how they are perceived by their colleagues.It is a development device for both collective and individual levels. Pros of 360-Degree Feedback Proponents of the process say it is a valuable performance enhancement and employee development tool.
y

Participants receive a much broader perspective than they would from hearing observations from their direct supervisors. Sometimes fellow team members or subordinates have important information that is not apparent to managers, and this information can help those receiving feedback with increasing personal effectiveness.

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y y

Organizations are also able to evaluate their talent pool, identify training or management gaps and assess if they are living up to their values and goals. It can help teams strengthen their rapport and work more efficiently together.

Cons of 360-Degree Feedback This evaluation system must be carefully planned, monitored and implemented for it to be well-received and successful.
y

y y

If it is not thoughtfully executed, it can result in severe backlash from employees, including emotions such as fear, anger, resentment and frustration. This type of feedback must be part of a well-defined performance management system. It can focus too heavily on weaknesses instead of emphasizing strengths, which can leave employees discouraged. It can be expensive, time-consuming and labor-intensive to implement.

360-degree feedback is an innovative way of evaluating performance within an organization, but it is not necessarily the right fit for every workplace.

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I would like to be appraised my performance through this method.Because this method involves multiple feedback that is from boss,coworkers,subordinates,customers and others.

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Q 2:Find websites of two companies that try to recruit new employees by means of world wide web?Are their approaches to recruitment through the world wide web are similar or different?What are the potential advantages of each of the approaches?What are the potential disadvantages? (Linked in & Premier pharmaceutical) E-Recruitment The buzzword and the latest trends in recruitment is the E-Recruitment. Also known as Online recruitment, it is the use of technology or the web based tools to assist the recruitment processes. The tool can be either a job website like naukri.com, the organisations corporate web site or its own intranet. Many big and small organizations are using Internet as a source of recruitment. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae (CV) through an e-mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CVs in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements. The two kinds of e-recruitment that an organisation can use is 1. Job portals posting the position with the job description and the job specification on the job portal and also searching for the suitable resumes posted on the site corresponding to the opening in the organisation. 2. Creating a complete online recruitment/application section in the companys own website. Companies have added an application system to its website, where the passive job seekers can submit their resumes into the database of the organisation for consideration in future, as and when the roles become available. Resume Scanners: Resume scanner is one major benefit provided by the job portals to the organizations. It enables the employees to screen and filter the resumes through pre-defined criterias and requirements (skills, qualifications, experience, payroll etc.) of the job. Job sites provide a 24*7 access to the database of the resumes to the employees facilitating the just-in-time hiring by the organizations. Also, the jobs can be posted on the site almost immediately and is also cheaper than advertising in the employment newspapers. Sometimes companies can get valuable references

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through the passers-by applicants. Online recruitment helps the organizations to automate the recruitment process, save their time and costs on recruitments.

Online recruitment techniques


y y y y

Giving a detailed job description and job specifications in the job postings to attract candidates with the right skill sets and qualifications at the first stage. E-recruitment should be incorporated into the overall recruitment strategy of the organisation. A well defined and structured applicant tracking system should be integrated and the system should have a back-end support. Along with the back-office support a comprehensive website to receive and process job applications (through direct or online advertising) should be developed.

It can be said that e-recruitment is the Evolving face of recruitment. Five steps to successful online recruitment Success in online recruitment depends very little on the vagaries of the internet and very much on careful planning and a clear recruitment strategy. There are five steps that every recruiter should take when thinking about recruiting online. Step 1: What job is it? You'd be surprised how many recruiters start on the process of trying to hire someone without having a clear idea of what vacancy they are actually trying to fill. It is this lack of clarity which leads to many recruiters realising, right in the middle of an interview with a candidate, that there is a lot more to the job than they realised. It can be a terrible waste of time for both you and the candidate. The easiest way to avoid this is to prepare properly. The first step in any recruitment process should be the preparation of a job specification. A job specification is a written document which outlines the duties of the job, skills required, personal aptitudes etc.

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A good job specification will help you see exactly what you are looking for rather than what you think you are looking for. A job specification will thus help you avoid hiring the wrong person and also help you avoid hiring for the wrong job. Read our article, 'First things first: write a Job Specification', for help on writing a job specification. And use our handy downloadable 'Job Specification Template' to write your job specification. Step 2: What person is running things? Decide who is going to do what, where and when in the recruitment process. For example, you will need to have someone choose the job boards, someone to post the ad online, someone to make initial replies to applicants, someone to review the CVs, someone to set up interviews etc. Clearly, all this requires careful management and resourcing. Individual tasks can be assigned to different people, but we would recommend that you assign overall responsibility for the entire recruitment process to one single person. As you know, splitting responsibility in any organization generally leads to failure. If you have one person looking after everything then that person will be able to take proper and effective responsibility and make sure everything happens when and where it is supposed to.

Step 3: What job site to use? Using the whatjobsite search engine above can help you find quality job boards quickly and easily. All the approved sites in our search results have been checked and meet our job board standards. So, you know you have quality sites. But if you use other ways to select job boards, such as a search engine, be sure to do proper checks on the sites you find. Being top of Google isn't any guarantee of quality. Make sure you check that the job board is a quality site and that it is the right one to advertise your job. For more help on choosing the right job boards, read our article 'How to choose a job site'. Step 4: What do you say in your ad? In talking to job boards we find that the one thing they all agree that recruiters most often get wrong is the ad copy. They complain that recruiters simply don't put in the effort to write good job ads. For recruitment success you have to make sure

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that candidates not only find your job but also that they want to apply for it when they find it. To do that you have to write good ad copy. Spend time on the job ad. Cutting and pasting a job spec simply isn't good enough. It's a job ad not a job specification and ads are about selling things. Luckily, writing a good job ad isn't rocket science and our article 'Writing job ads for job sites' will give you plenty of helpful tips. The important thing to remember is that you are writing a job advertisement: sell the job, sell the salary and benefits, sell the prospects, and sell your company. Make people want to apply for your job rather than a job in another company. Step 5: What about the response to the ad? First of all, be sure to respond to applicants quickly. There is nothing as frustrating for a candidate than being uncertain as to whether their application has been received or not. Let them know that it has been received and where they are in the recruitment process. More generally, if you are getting applications from wonderful candidates then you can sit back and thank the good Lord for the magic of the interweb. If, on the other hand, response is poor either in terms of the quantity or the quality of candidates, then try to figure out what is wrong and fix it. It could be that the salary is too low or that the ad is posted in the wrong sector on the job board. It could be one of many things but find out what the problem is and fix it. Talk to your job board client manager. They know about online recruitment and how to make the most of their site. And they want to help. Job seekers will come back to a job site the very next day, next week or next month to look for vacancies so you do, in a sense, you get a second chance. If you need that second chance, make sure you make the most of it. Online recruitment offers clear advantages over traditional recruitments methods. At the same time, however, one must remember that it is still recruitment. The fact that it is cheaper and quicker than other forms of recruitment does not change anything. It is still recruitment. So, no matter what size your company, make sure that you have the best possible recruitment process in place before you begin. If you do, you will have a much better chance of online recruitment success. The Advantages of Online Recruitment

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Online recruitment has advanced in leaps and bounds as technology has developed in South Africa. With the consistent and gradual enhancements made to internet usage and bandwidth access in the country, so the online recruitment industry has grown. 1: Greater Geographical Reach on Skilled workers All South African Recruiters are well aware that currently the South African Job market is lacking in the area of skilled workers in a very big way. With a high demand for skilled workers but unsatisfied by a poor supply, Recruiters need to find ways to locate the skilled workers remaining in the country, as few and far between that they may be. By advertising job adverts and searching online Job Seekers databases for such candidates', employers are able to tap into pools of candidates that ordinarily may not have been easy to locate. Not only do online Recruiters manage to locate actively skilled workers but through means of optimised job advertising and employer marketing, Recruiters are equipped to entice the passive job market to participate as well. In utilising online portals to seek and find skilled workers, international skills (global coverage) are too attracted to the South African market, thus injecting what could possibly be stale industry, with new talent and skills. With a greater reach on skilled workers, encompassing local and international geographical Job Seekers, Recruiters are soon able to locate relevant Job Seekers to fill job vacancies in niche industries where required.

2: Automated Recruitment Processes Traditional recruiting is intrinsically labour intensive. From composing no more than a 30 word newspaper job advert, anticipating the responses, physically sifting through applications and requesting one on one interview's is doesn't get more tiring than this. These few steps are in fact only the very surface of what conventional recruitment entails and traditionally there are quite a few more steps involved in placing a relevant candidate in the right role. When recruiting online and utilising the extensive tools available to e-cruiters (online Recruiters) the overall recruitment process is simplified in significant ways. Recruiting online allows for pre-screening questions to be posed to prospecting Job seekers, bulk

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short listing and regretting and ultimately quickens the time to hire. Online recruitment transforms what was previously a manual process into one that is automated, streamlined and proficient. 3: Improved Time to Hire Working hand in hand with implementing automated processes to that of a manual recruitment function, from beginning to end is also improved on. Placing ideal candidates in relevant roles is something that takes time and patience, as with making any perfect match in life. While this is true, time is also money in the South African employment market and should Recruiters hesitate in making accurate decisions, skilled candidates can be snatched up from right beneath their nose if not equipped to make such decisions. When recruiting on the internet, due to many processes having been simplified and enhanced, Recruiters are able to shortlist relevant candidates in half the time as what traditional recruitment allows for. Once shortlisted, the interview process commences faster and ultimately makes a final employment decision that much swifter than it ordinarily would be. 4: Cost Effective Some may argue that bandwidth costs and internet usage in South Africa is expensive and by no means a cost effective solution to streamlining a labour intensive business. While this may have been an accurate assessment to make a few years ago, as South Africa continues to convert to utilising web based applications, so bandwidth costs have become more affordable, internet access easier to tap into and a greater variety of options available for companies, small and large to exercise. By assessing the extent of your recruitment agencies needs, and facilitating internet resources in the most economically viable way, Recruiters that convert to facilitating the sourcing and placement of staff by making use of the internet will notice a cost effective kick back in more ways than one. Not only are internet expenses becoming more affordable, Recruiters need also remember that with the improved time to hire when recruiting online as well as prompt and efficient delivery on service level agreements, clients will convert to return customers, staffing tenders will become more frequent and 'customer loyalty' will display more sustainable guarantees for the future.

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Online Recruitment has brought about exponential growth to the South African employment market like no other. Those open to converting to the solutions that online recruiting offers are able to transparently track its multiple benefits and convert manual, labour intensive functions into a simplified, automated staffing function. The Disadvantages of Online Recruitment With the widespread availability of the Internet, more companies are making use of their corporate websites and Internet job boards to reach qualified candidates. According to Jobshout.com, as many as 70 percent of companies use the Internet as a recruiting tool. While this can help reach a wider array of candidates, there are also disadvantages to online recruiting. 1:Number of Candidates Since the Internet is available around the world, it can be difficult to limit the amount of applicants. As a result, recruiters can waste valuable time weeding through applications and resumes of people not qualified for the position. One way to combat this is to make the job description as specific and detailed as possible to discourage the unqualified from applying. 2:Specialized Jobs Some jobs require such specific skills that an employer might not be able to reach qualified candidates through Internet job posts. In these cases, it will likely require a more proactive approach such as the use of headhunters. This is especially true if the job needs to be filled quickly. 3:Additional Expense If a company plans to do a good deal of online recruiting, it might be necessary to hire additional staff, thus creating additional expense. If several positions are posted at one time, the sheer volume of responses can require having a staff member who is responsible for handling the screening process. If you locate ideal candidates who live in another part of the world, the expense of bringing them in for an interview could be prohibitive.

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4:Less Face-to-Face Contact Because of the distance involved, there might be a tendency to perform interviews by telephone instead of in person. While this might be better than relying on only a resume, the employer still may not get a good read on the candidate's personality or attitude without one-on-one interaction. 5:Candidate Dissatisfaction Despite the prevalence of the Internet, some candidates prefer more traditional methods of job hunting, such as networking or using employment agencies. If a company relies solely on online recruiting, it could miss out on some of the top candidates.

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1. How are people recruited and selected for this job? Are the recruitment and selection procedures that the organization uses effective or ineffective? Why? 1. Recruitment Process The following recruitment procedures are used: A job description is prepared for each position that specifies the roles and responsibilities of the position as well as the required experience and qualifications. a) In most circumstances, the position is advertised externally and posted in Caritas office(s). In order to apply for internal posts, an employee must have demonstrated good performance in his/her present position and must meet the minimum requirements of experience and qualifications. b) Caritas, however, reserves the right to proceed with direct, external recruitment. These decisions are at the discretion of the EPM/Executive Secretary. c) The position is advertised in the local/national newspapers, as well as to counterparts and the NGO community. d) The interviews of candidates for senior positions, such as Finance Manager, Emergency Coordinator, etc., involve the EPM/Executive Secretary, the immediate supervisor and other relevant Caritas personnel. Depending on the nature of the job, and with permission from the EPM/Executive Secretary, the supervisor of the department may lead the interview process but the interview is conducted with at least two senior staff present.

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e) Supervisors determine objective screening criteria (years experience, education, years experience with a PVO, etc) and screen initial candidates. EPM and supervisors review findings and approve shortlist. f) Supervisors create a job specific series of questions to be asked in the interview. They may also design a quiz or test (writing, typing, finance, driving) relevant to the job description to aid in the final selection process. The EPM, prior to implementation reviews both the questions and any tests. g) For external candidates, employment references are requested and contacted before hiring any new staff member. The results of these queries are communicated to the EPM/Executive Secretary in the form of a memorandum as per attached format that is guarded in the employees personnel file. 2. Equal Opportunity Employer 1) CARITAS PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE PROGRAMME ABBOTTABAD OFFICE is an equal opportunity employer and is committed to implementing all personnel policies and practices without regard to race, color, age, religion, gender, national origin, disability or handicap. 2)CARITAS PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE PROGRAMME ABBOTTABAD OFFICE strives to recruit qualified minority applicants whenever possible and appropriate. 3. Offer of Employment and Required Personal Information Offer of Employment Once a candidate is selected and has accepted the offer of employment. He/she signs a contract with CARITAS PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE PROGRAMME ABBOTTABAD OFFICE. This contract is signed by the Executive Secretary and specifies the following. Place of engagement (Where recruited) y Place of employment y Job title y Department

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y y y y y y

Supervisor and Supervisory responsibilities Starting date Duration of the contract Nature of the contract Base salary Fringe benefits available following the probationary period (for fixed term contract only)

Following the signing of a contract, an employee receives an official Letter of Appointment. Required Personal Information Each employee is required to provide the following information to the staff member in charge of the personnel files. Two recent passport size photographs y A completed personal information form for their employee file record y National Identification (ID) number. y A tax identification number if applicable.

4. Employment Categories 1) CARITAS PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE PROGRAMME ABBOTTABAD OFFICE has programmed focus on Health, Livelihood, Construction, Transitional Shelter and Administration. The employees will be working in the above sectors. 2) They have two types of categories fixed term with contract period of 6 months and above and Temporary with any duration less than six months. 5. Orientation Program 1. Each new staff member goes through an orientation program during the course of his/her probationary period.

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2. Caritas EPMO develops and maintains an orientation package contains Caritas Mission Statement, the latest version of general information on Caritas EP, relevant planning documents and progress reports. Ignorance of the contents of this manual does not excuse the employee from following Caritas procedures and policies. It is the responsibility of the employee to carefully read this manual. 3. In addition to the orientation package which each Caritas staff member must read, the new employee is given the opportunity to meet staff members for additional information or clarification on relevant issues. 4. The relevant department Head is responsible for the new employee's orientation program in collaboration with the Officer in charge of personnel and the employees immediate supervisor. 5. Any field-based staff must go through the general orientation program before s/he proceeds to the field for further job-specific orientation.

6. Job Description

1) For every post at Caritas, a job description is developed, which:  Describes the responsibilities of the post, the category and level of position, all of which ultimately serves to help determine the base salary for position  Assists in the recruitment by defining the objectives of the position and the required qualifications for the position  Informs the new employee of his/her roles and responsibilities and helps to familiarize the employee with the work of Caritas

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 Defines the functional relationship of the position to other positions within Caritas that helps to facilitate good communication  Identifies the level of authority and supervision of the position  Serves as the primarily reference point for elaborating the annual performance plan and for evaluating performance during any given period. 2) Each employee receives a detailed job description of his/her position at the moment of recruitment. It is the responsibility of the employee to ensure that s/he adequately understands the job description for each position. The supervisor assists the employee in understanding the position by asking critical questions and making him/herself available to answer questions. 3) The original job description is filed in the employees personnel file and a copy given to each new staff member for their reference. 4) All staff is encouraged to work with their supervisor to periodically review and if necessary, update job description to reflect any changes or additions to the duties included.

7. Probationary Period and Employment Contract Probationary Period 1) During the probationary period, either party may terminate the appointment with one week notice without assigning any reason. 2) Existing staff who have been promoted to a higher category or position may also place on probation for a period to be decided by EPM. 3) On successful completion of probation an employee will be entitled to the fringe benefits accrued during the probationary period.

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4) During the probationary period, an employee may be transferred to a position other than the one to which s/he was initially appointed if it is determined that the employee is better suited for the new position. 5) Caritas is an employer at will which means that it may terminate employment at any time for any and every employees due to funding constraints, restructuring and changes in the Earthquake programme.

2. What training and development do people who hold this job receive? Is it appropriate? Why or why not? Training and development

1. Efforts are made to pursue the staff development in systematic and professional manner through assessing capacity building needs and developing comprehensive HRD plan. Relevant information from performance appraisal is also included in determining the capacity development needs of the employees. Manager HR/Administration takes lead in staff development with necessary inputs from EPM and other managers and senior staff. In order to encourage the professional development of Caritas EPMO employees and to enhance their skills, Caritas actively seeks out or develops staff training opportunities. 2. Training is directly related to current or planned Caritas program activities, or to the more efficient operation of CARITAS PAKISTAN EARTHQUAKE PROGRAMME MANSEHERA OFFICE program . 3. All training assistance requests are subject to the availability of funds.

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I.

Assistance is provided only for training that is directly related to an employees current job or which would enhance an employees ability and potential to do other jobs within Caritas. Factors which will be considered by the EPM in approving requests for training assistance include but are not limited to: y The background of the candidate, including length of employment with Caritas current position, and the quality of an employees performance to date; y The qualifications, reputations and background of the organization conducting the training; y Indications of specific ways in which both the employee and Caritas will benefit from the proposed training; and y The costs associated with the proposed training, relative to the expected benefits.

II.

III.

Only employees who have successfully completed the probationary period and have been confirmed as regular employees of Caritas are eligible for training assistance. When an employee returns from Caritas sponsored training, he/she is required to make a presentation to the other employees of Caritas so that they too may benefit from the training. The employee is also required to submit a written report about the training to Caritas.

IV.

3. How is performance of this job appraised? Does performance feedback contribute to motivation and high performance on this job? Performance Appraisal The Emergency Program utilizes a performance management system which requires an annual performance appraisal. The system does require line managers to first establish core measurable objectives or targets with employees (during orientation phase) which can be monitored and measured in the annual performance appraisal. In a relief program a formal performance appraisal is

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undertaken annually. This does not prevent managers from undertaking more regular follow ups with their employees. Within a 12 month cycle, one full performance appraisal is undertaken for every relief employee to strengthen performance. In longer term rehabilitation development program bi-annual performance appraisals are activated at the discretion or direction of the in-country executive. Employee evaluations have a main objective 1)To establish a trusted relationship of feedback and capacity building, this leads to improved performance in achieving strategic and personal goals. 2)To inform and guide the employee in their performance of duties 3)To identify common goals and objectives and establish time frames for those.

a. A Performance Agreement: The employer and employee together agree on key objectives, targets and outputs which are to be achieved over a given time frame and which will be monitored for quality and performance. This initial performance agreement is undertaken during the orientation and briefing phase and should be documented and signed and placed on the employees personal file. b. A performance appraisal: A formal appraisal to assess performance against agreed targets and provide feedback to employee on organizational performance etc. A signed copy should also be placed on the employees personal file. At this time, the line Manager should make recommendations for promotion or salary adjustment / bonus as per HR policy. c. Agreement: both parties should agree with the performance appraisal and have a chance to feedback. Any dispute should be taken to the HR Manager and then forward to arbitration if a suitable agreement cannot be reached.

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The performance appraisal process is not used as a disciplinary activity but rather as learning and capacity building activity and as an opportunity for managers to guide their staff. Managers are advised to balance positive and negative feedback using clear examples of good work outputs and some examples of less than ideal outputs.

4. What levels of pay and benefits are provided for this job? Are these levels of pay and benefits appropriate? Why or why not? Salary Scale and Review SALARY SCALE AND REVIEW:

1) It is the responsibility of remuneration committee of SOA 32/05 to establish salary scales and benefits packages that are competitive within the local NGO market for all positions. 2) It is the responsibility of EPM, HR and MF to ensure that decided salary scales are adequately incorporated in the Financial Budget of SOA 32/05 Benefits and Entitlements 1. Overview of Benefits 1)Following is a list of basic benefits that Caritas provides to its employees: Sick Leave Annual Leave Maternity / Paternity Leave Group Life Insurance Medical Insurance Hardship Allowance OPD Festival bonus

      

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Holidays SELECTING HOLIDAYS

1) The Manager HR and administration, in consultation with senior staff, prepares the holiday list for each subsequent year and submits to EPM for approval. 2) Staff may request to take alternate religious holidays based on their own religious holiday calendar but only if requested to the EPM in advance. 3) Caritas honors additional national holidays as declared by the Government of Pakistan and notifies the staff of any changes to the original schedule. Annual Leave Annual or Vacation Leave 1) Leave is provided to Caritas employees for their mental, emotional and physical well-being. 2) Annual leave shall be accrued over the course of a full year, or such portions thereof as the member of staff shall have been in the service of Caritas. 3) In computing leave, Saturdays, Sundays and holidays observed by Caritas shall not be counted. 4) Each full-time employee is entitled to 24 working days of paid leave each year of employment, accrued at the rate of 2 days per month. 5) All staff should attempt to utilize all annual leave every year. If work schedule does not allow for staff to exercise this option, annual leave may be carried forward up to a maximum of ten (10) days and it is discretion of EPM to carry forward or not. 6) In case of termination or non-renewal of contract, all leave including

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accumulated leave, should, where possible, be taken within the period of notice of such termination or non-renewal. 7) Where possible each department should have an annual leave plan developed early in the year that should be approved by the EPM. 8) The minimum amount of leave that may be taken is a half-day. 9) All Caritas employees must apply for annual leave by submitting a Leave Request Form not less than 5 days prior to the days to be taken and must be approved by the immediate supervisor and Authorizing Official (EPM) 10) All vacation leave arrangements are subject to the circumstance prevailing at the time of leave, which may require employees to take their vacation leave at a time designated by the Caritas EPM. 11) During the probationary period, vacation leave is accrued, but an employee is not entitled to take vacation leave during the probationary period.

Sick Leave

Sick Leave 1) Sick Leave is available for all employees (full and part-time) who are unable to perform their duties due to illness or injury. 2) All Caritas full time employees are entitled to 08 sick days per year, accrued at the rate of .75 day per month from date of employment. 3) Employees must inform their supervisor within the first two hours of the work day in case of illness so that their responsibilities can be delegated accordingly. All Caritas employees must submit a Leave Request Form on the

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first day of return to work after their illness and this form must be signed by the supervisor. . 4) Employees on Sick Leave for more than 1 day will be asked to submit a physicians statement to their supervisor regarding the need to be absent from work. 5) An employee who, in the opinion of EPM the, is unfit for carrying out his/her responsibilities may be directed to take Sick Leave. 6) Extended sick leave requires a medical certificate from a registered and recognized medical practitioner and Caritas retains the right to request a second medical opinion. 7) In cases where sick leave is exhausted due to a major or terminal illness, additional sick leave may be granted and charged to unused annual leave. 8) If it is determined that illness is long term or recurring, Caritas reserves the right to review the position and end employment if necessary on grounds of incapacity.

Maternity Leave Maternity Leave 1. Female members of staff shall be granted maternity leave, with full pay, for a maximum of 48 working days. 2. This leave may begin four weeks before expected due day or earlier if the employee so requires. 3. The employee may use annual leave to extend the Maternity Leave period. The

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employee must request any additional time taken off in writing. 4. Following birth, breastfeeding staff will be allowed 1 hour per day for breastfeeding for an extended period after maternity leave. However, an arrangement for compensatory time should be established. 5. All employees who have worked for Caritas for at least one year prior to the anticipated date of delivery will be eligible for Maternity leave 6. Maternity Leave must be requested by submitting a Leave Request Form at least 60 days in advance of the leave and must be approved by the immediate supervisor and EPM. 7. Caritas will make every effort to return an employee to the same position as she worked before taking maternity leave, although this cannot be guaranteed.

Paternity Leave Paternity Leave 1. An employee who has worked for Caritas for at least one year prior to the date of the delivery of his child will receive full Paternity Leave of (10) ten working days with full salary and benefits. 2. This leave is intended to allow the father to help the mother with child care during this time and must be taken within the first month following the birth. 3. Paternity Leave must be requested in advance by submitting a Leave Request Form and must be approved by the immediate supervisor/ EPM.

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Leave without Pay and Unauthorized Leave 1: Leave requested by an employee who has used all possible leave days for the calendar year must be approved by both the immediate supervisor and the EPM and will be considered leave without pay. 2: At the discretion of the Executive Secretary, Leave without Pay may be granted for a maximum period of one month for such reasons as serious illness in ones immediate family, personal problems, etc. 3: Requests for leave without pay must be submitted to the EPM at least one week in advance of the intended leave period. 4: Benefit will not accrue during leave without pay. Unauthorized Leave 1. Any unauthorized absence for which information is not received within 24 hours shall be considered unauthorized leave. 2. Acceptable exceptions to this policy include political disturbances, natural disasters, or immediate threat to life.

Medical Benefits

1) It is Caritas intention to provide adequate basic health care to all staff and their dependants (spouse, children and dependent parents)

2) Caritas secures insurance through a private provider, and therefore the reimbursement policy is as per the rules and restrictions of the private provider. 3) Caritas policy also covers dependants that are defined as one legal spouse and all biological or legally adopted children under the age of 18 years. The employee and his/her dependants must be registered on the official Caritas Employee File Record and the Caritas Dependants Form. 4) Maximum limit of OPD reimbursement is Rs. 24,000 per year it is on actual basis. 5) An addition to the health insurance policy cover Caritas will also reimburse

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OPD medical expenses of its employees and their dependents shall include those mentioned in clause 4 of this section and parents of the employee if they have been declared dependent through submission of dependent form. 6) All medical reimbursement request shall be reviewed and approved Medical committee comprising Manager Finance, Manager Administration and Programme Manager Health (expatriate) which will recommend to the EPM for final approval 7) In cases where Caritas opts for reimbursement, the employee must provide clear and accurate receipts showing the actual procedures and laboratory tests performed and type of prescriptions purchased. Caritas will under no circumstances reimburse invoices (i.e., unpaid bills) for medical prescriptions, procedures, or laboratory tests. 8) In the case of medicines prescribed, Caritas retains the right to question the validity of the prescription and to ask for a second medical opinion. 9) Caritas medical policy covers medical, dental and vision related expenses. 10) Caritas will not cover the cost of non-medical interventions such as vitamins supplements or general (non-medical) remedies.

Group life Insurance

1. This coverage is provided to all staff Caritas EPMO staff. 2. Each staff member must fill out a death/dismemberment card upon employment with Caritas, ensuring that a beneficiary is listed in the event of death or an accident. 3. Coverage or any liability on behalf of Caritas or the insurance company expires upon termination of a staff members employment (not related to their illness or accident) with Caritas.

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4. To substantiate the claim, the EPM will be responsible for providing authenticated and documented proof of the cause of death or accidental injury, to the or the insurance company. After approval by the Insurance company payments will be made. 5. The coverage will be paid according to the following table:

In the Event of Natural death Accidental Death

Amount Paid* (based on salary on last working day) Rs 500,000 Rs 500,000

Paid To Designated Beneficiary Designated Beneficiary Employee Employee Employee

Permanent Total Disability Permanent Partial Disability Diagnosis of Terminal Illness*

Rs 200,000 As per schedule 50% of life sum insured

Hardship Allowance

In addition to the extra work and responsibilities associated with the emergency response, some staff may be experiencing hardship due to being required to work in an exceptionally difficult terrain. The amount of hardship allowance shall be determined by EPM on case to case basis. However, in case shall not exceed more than 20% of the salary.