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EN WAVES

Christopher C. Finlay

May 31, 2005

Author:

Christopher C. Finlay

Address:

Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics

School of Earth and Environment

University of Leeds, U.K.

Contact details:

Phone: +44 113 2335257

Fax: +44 113 3435259

E-mail: c.nlay@earth.leeds.ac.uk

Article details:

Medium length (2493 words), 1 black and white gure

1

ALFV

EN WAVES

Introduction and historical details

Alfven waves are transverse magnetic tension waves which travel along magnetic

eld lines and can be excited in any electrically conducting uid permeated by a

magnetic eld. Hannes Alfven (see Hannes Alfven) deduced their existence from

the equations of electromagnetism and hydrodynamics (Alfven, 1942). Experi-

mental conrmation of his prediction was found seven years later in studies of

waves in liquid mercury (Lundquist, 1949). Alfven waves are now known to be

a important mechanism for transporting energy and momentum in many geo-

physical and astrophysical hydromagnetic systems. They have been observed in

Earths magnetosphere (Voigt, 2002), in inter-planetery plasmas (Tsurutani and

Ho, 1999) and in the solar photosphere (Nakariakov et al, 1999). The ubiquitous

nature of Alfven waves and their role in communicating the eects of changes in

electric currents and magnetic elds has ensured that they remain the focus of

increasingly detailed laboratory investigations (Gekelman, 1999). In the context

of geomagnetism it has been suggested that Alfven waves could be a crucial as-

pect of the dynamics of Earths liquid outer core, and have been proposed as the

origin of geomagnetic jerks (Bloxham et al, 2002). In this article a description

is given of the Alfven wave mechanism, the Alfven wave equation is derived and

the consequences of Alfven waves for geomagnetic observations are discussed. Al-

ternative introductory perspectives on Alfven waves can be found in the books

by Alfven and F althammar (1963), Moatt (1978) or Davidson (2001). More

technical details concerning Alfven waves in Earths core, can be found in the

review article of Jault (2003).

2

The Alfven wave mechanism

The restoring force responsible for Alfven waves follows from two simple physical

principles:

(i) Lenzs law applied to conducting uids Electrical currents induced by the

motion of a conducting uid through a magnetic eld give rise to electromagnetic

forces acting to oppose that uid motion.

(ii) Newtons second law for uids A force applied to a uid will result in a

change in the momentum of the uid proportional to the magnitude of the force

and in the same direction.

The oscillation underlying Alfven waves is best understood via a simple thought

experiment (Davidson, 2001). Imagine a uniform magnetic eld permeating a

perfectly conducting uid, with a uniform ow initially normal to the magnetic

eld lines. The uid ow will distort the magnetic eld lines (see Alfvens the-

orem) so they become curved as shown in gure 1. The curvature of magnetic

eld lines produces a magnetic (Lorentz) force on the uid which opposes further

curvature as predicted by Lenzs law. By Newtons second law, the Lorentz force

changes the momentum of the uid, pushing it (and consequently the magnetic

eld lines) in an attempt to minimize eld line distortion and restore the system

towards its equilibrium state. This restoring force provides the basis for trans-

verse oscillations of magnetic elds in conducting uids and therefore for Alfven

waves. As the curvature of the magnetic eld lines increases, so does the strength

of the restoring force. Eventually the Lorentz force becomes strong enough to

3

reverse the direction of the uid ow. Magnetic eld lines are pushed back to

their undistorted conguration and the Lorentz force associated with their cur-

vature weakens until the eld lines become straight again. The sequence of ow

causing eld line distortion and eld line distortion exerting a force on the uid

now repeats, but with the initial ow (a consequence of uid inertia) now in

the opposite direction. In the absence of dissipation this cycle will continue in-

denitely. Figure 1 shows one complete cycle resulting from the push and pull

between inertial acceleration and acceleration due to the Lorentz force.

Consideration of typical scales of physical quantities involved in this inertial-

magnetic (Alfven) oscillation shows that the strength of the magnetic eld will

determine the frequency of Alfven waves. Balancing inertial accelerations and

accelerations caused by magnetic eld curvature we nd that U/T

A

= B

2

/L

A

A

is the time scale of the inertial-

magnetic (Alfven) oscillation, L

A

is the length scale associated with the oscilla-

tion, B is the scale of the magnetic eld strength, is the uid density and is the

magnetic permeability of the medium. For highly electrically conducting uids,

magnetic eld changes occur primarily through advection (see Alfvens theorem)

so we have the additional constraint that B/T

A

= UB/L

A

or U = L

A

/T

A

. Con-

sequently L

2

A

/T

2

A

= B

2

/ or v

A

= B/()

1/2

. This is a characteristic velocity

scale associated with Alfven waves and is referred to as the Alfven velocity. The

Alfven velocity will be derived in a more rigorous manner and its implications

discussed further in the next section.

Physical intuition concerning Alfven waves can be obtained through an analogy

between the response of a magnetic eld line distorted by uid ow across it

4

and the response of an elastic string when plucked. Both rely on tension as a

restoring force, elastic tension in the case of the string and magnetic tension in

the case of the magnetic eld line and both result in transverse waves propagat-

ing in directions perpendicular to their displacement. When visualising Alfven

waves can be helpful to think of a uid being endowed with a pseudo-elastic na-

ture by the presence of a magnetic eld, and consequently supporting transverse

waves. Non-uniform magnetic elds have similar consequences for Alfven waves

as nonuniform elasticity of solids have for elastic shear waves.

The Alfven wave equation

To determine the properties of Alfven waves in a quantitative manner, we em-

ploy the classical technique of deriving a wave equation, and then proceed to nd

the relationship between frequency and wavelength necessary for plane waves to

be solutions. Consider a uniform, steady, magnetic eld B

0

in an innite, ho-

mogeneous, incompressible, electrically conducting uid of density , kinematic

viscosity and magnetic diusivity = 1/ where is the electrical conduc-

tivity.

We imagine that the uid is perturbed by an innitesimally small ow u inducing

a perturbation magnetic eld b. Ignoring terms that are quadratic in small quan-

tities, the equations describing Newtons second law for uids and the evolution

of the magnetic elds encompassing Lenzs law are

u

t

..

Inertial

acceleration

=

1

p

. .

Combined mechanical and

magnetic pressure gradient

+

1

(B

0

) b

. .

Lorentz acceleration

due to magnetic tension

+

2

u

. .

Viscous

diusion

, (1)

5

b

t

..

Change in the

magnetic eld

= (B

0

) u

. .

Stretching of magnetic

eld by uid motion

+

2

b

. .

Magnetic

diusion

. (2)

Taking the curl () of equation (1) we obtain an equation describing how the

uid vorticity = u evolves

t

=

1

(B

0

) (b) +

2

. (3)

equation (2) gives

b

t

= (B

0

) +

2

(b) . (4)

To nd the wave equation, we take a further time derivative of equation (3) so

that

t

2

=

1

(B

0

)

_

b

t

_

+

_

t

_

, (5)

and then eliminate b using an expression for

1

(B

0

) (b/t) in terms of

obtained by operating with

1

(B

0

) on (4) and substituting for

1

(B

0

) (

b) from equation (3) which gives

1

(B

0

)

_

b

t

_

=

1

(B

0

)

2

4

+ ( + )

2

_

t

_

, (6)

which when substituted into equation (5) leaves the Alfven wave equation

t

2

=

1

(B

0

)

2

4

+ ( + )

2

_

t

_

. (7)

The rst term on the right hand side is the restoring force which arises from

the stretching of magnetic eld lines. The second term is the correction to the

restoring force caused by the presence of viscous and ohmic diusion, while the

nal term expresses the dissipation of energy from the system due to these nite

diusivities.

6

Dispersion relation and properties of Alfven waves

Substituting a simple plane wave solution of the form = Re {

e

i ( kr t )

}

where k = k

x

x+k

y

y +k

z

z and r = x x+y y +z z into the Alfven wave equation

(7), we nd that valid solutions are possible provided that

2

=

_

B

2

0

(k

B

0

)

2

k

4

_

i( + )k

2

. (8)

where

B

0

= B

0

/ |B

0

|.

Equation (8) is the dispersion relation which species the relationship between

the angular frequency and the wavenumber k of Alfven waves. It is a complex

quadratic equation in , so we can use the well known formula to nd explicit

solutions for , which are

=

i ( + ) k

2

2

B

2

0

(k

B

0

)

2

( )

2

k

4

4

. (9)

In an idealised medium with = = 0 there is no dissipation and the dispersion

relation simplies to

= v

A

(k

B

0

), (10)

where v

A

is the Alfven velocity

v

A

=

B

0

()

1/2

. (11)

This derivation illustrates that the Alfven velocity is the speed at which an Alfven

wave propagates along magnetic eld lines. Alfven waves are non-dispersive be-

cause their angular frequency is independent of |k| and the phase velocity and the

group velocity (at which energy and information are transported by the wave) are

equal. Alfven waves are however anisotropic, with their properties dependent on

the angle between the applied magnetic eld and the wave propagation direction.

7

An idea of Alfven wave speeds in Earths core can be obtained by inserting

into equation (11) the seismologically determined density of the outer core uid

= 110

4

kg, the magnetic permeability for a metal above its Curie temperature

= 4 10

7

T

2

mkg

1

s

2

and a plausible value for the strength of the magnetic

eld in the core, (which we take to be the typical amplitude of the radial eld

strength observed at the core surface B

0

= 5 10

4

T) giving an Alfven velocity

of v

A

= 0.004 ms

1

or 140 kmyr

1

. The time taken for such a wave to travel a

distance of order of the core radius is around 25 years. It should also be noted

that Alfven waves in the magnetosphere (where they also play an important role

in dynamics) travel much faster because the density of the electrically conducting

is very much smaller.

Considering Alfven waves in Earths core, Ohmic dissipation is expected to dom-

inate viscous dissipation but for large scale waves will still be a small eect in

that k

2

k

2

v

2

A

. Given this assumption the dispersion relation reduces to,

=

ik

2

2

v

A

(k

B

0

). (12)

and the wave solutions have the form of simple Alfven waves, damped on the

Ohmic diusion timescale of T

ohm

= 2/k

2

= Re {

e

i ( krv

A

(k

B

0

)t ) e

t

T

ohm

} (13)

Smaller scale waves are rapidly damped out by Ohmic diusion, while large scale

waves will be the longer lived, so we expect these to have the most important

impact on both dynamics of the core and the observable magnetic eld.

8

Observations of Alfven waves and their relevance to geomagnetism

The theory of Alfven waves outlined above is attractive in its simplicity, but

can we really expect such waves to be present in Earths core? In the outer

core, rotation will have a strong inuence on the uid dynamics (see entry on

Proudmann-Taylor theorem). Alfven waves cannot exist when the Coriolis force

plays an important role in the force balance; in this case more complex wave mo-

tions arise (see magnetohydrodynamic waves). In addition convection is occurring

(see core convection) and gives rise to a dynamo generated magnetic eld (see

geodynamo) which is both time dependent and spatially non-uniform, while the

boundary conditions imposed by the mantle and inner core are heterogeneous

these factors combine to produce a formidably complex system.

Braginsky (1970) recognised that, despite all these complications, a special class

of Alfven waves are likely to be the mechanism by which angular momentum

is redistributed on short (decadal) time scales in Earths core. He showed that

when Coriolis forces are balanced by pressure forces, Alfven waves involving only

the component of the magnetic eld normal to the rotation axis can exist. The

uid motions in this case consist of motions of cylindrical surfaces aligned with

the rotation axis with the Alfven waves propagating along eld lines threading

these cylinders and being associated with east-west oscillations of the cylinders.

Similarities to torsional motions familiar from classical mechanics led Bragin-

sky to christen these geophysically important Alfven waves torsional oscillations

(See torsional oscillations). Although the simple Alfven wave model captures the

essence of torsional oscillations and leads to a correct order of magnitude esti-

mate of their periods, coupling to the mantle and the non-axisymmetry of the

9

background magnetic eld should be taken into account and lead to modica-

tions of the dispersion relation given in equation (9). A detailed discussion of

such renements can be found in Jault (2003).

The last 15 years have seen a rapid accumulation of evidence suggesting that

Alfven waves in the form of torsional oscillations are indeed present in Earths

core. The transfer of angular momentum between the mantle and torsional oscil-

lations in the outer core is capable of explaining decadel changes in the rotation

rate of Earth (see decade variations in LOD). Furthermore, core ows determined

from the inversion of global magnetic and secular variation data show oscillations

in time of axisymmetric, equatorially symmetric ows which can be accounted for

by a small number of spherical harmonic modes with periodic time dependence

(Zatman and Bloxham, 1997). The superposition of such modes can produce

abrupt changes in the second time derivative of the magnetic eld observed at

Earths surface, similar to geomagnetic jerks (Bloxham et al, 2002). Interpreting

axisymmetric, equatorially symmetric core motions with a periodic time depen-

dence as the signature of torsional oscillations leads to the suggestion that geo-

magnetic jerks are caused by Alfven waves in Earths core. Further evidence for

the wave-like nature of the redistribution of zonally averaged angular momentum

derived from core ow inversions have been found by Hide et al (2000) with

disturbances propagating from the equator towards the poles. The mechanism

exciting torsional oscillations in Earths core is presently unknown, though one

suggestion is that the time dependent, non-axisymmetric magnetic eld will give

rise to the required uctuating Lorentz torque on geostrophic cylinders (Dumb-

erry and Bloxham, 2003).

10

Future progress in interpreting and understanding Alfven waves in Earths core

will require the incorporation of more complete dynamical models of torsional

oscillations (see, for example, Buett and Mound, 2005) into the inversion of

geomagnetic observations for core motions.

Christopher Finlay

Bibliographic References

Alfven, H., 1942. Existence of Electromagnetic-Hydrodynamic Waves. Nature

150, 405-406

Alfven, H. and F althammar, C.-G., 1963. Cosmical Electrodynamics,

Fundamental Principles. Oxford, University Press

Bloxham, J., Zatman, S. and Dumberry, M., 2002. The Origin of Geomagnetic

Jerks. Nature 420, 65-68

Braginsky, S. I., 1970. Torsional Magnetohydrodynamic Vibrations in the

Earths Core and Variations in Day Length. Geomag. Aeron., 10, 1-10

Buett, B. A. and Mound, J. E., A Greens function for the excitation of

torsional oscillations in Earths core. J. Geophys. Res., (submitted)

Davidson P. A., 2001 An introduction to Magnetohydrodynamics. Cambridge,

University Press

Dumberry M., and Bloxham, J., 2003. Torque Balance, Taylors Constraint and

Torsional Oscillations in a Numerical Model of the Geodynamo.

Phys. Earth Plant. Int. 140, 29-51

11

Gekelman, W., (1999) Review of Laboratory Experiments on Alfven Waves and

their Relationship to Space Observations. Jour. Geophys. Res. 104,

14417-14435

Hide, R., Boggs, D. H., and Dickey, J. O., 2000 Angular Momentum

Fluctuations Within the Earths Liquid Core and Solid Mantle.

Geophys. J. Int. 125, 777-786

Jault D., 2003 Electromagnetic and Topographic Coupling, and LOD Variations,

in Earths core and lower mantle In Jones, C. A., Soward, A. M. and Zhang,

K. (Eds). The Fluid Mechanics of Astrophysics and Geophysics 11, 56-76.

Lundquist S., 1949 Experimental Investigations of Magneto-hydrodynamic

Waves. Phys. Rev. 107, 1805-1809

Moatt H. K., 1978 Magnetic Field Generation in Electrically

Conducting Fluids. Cambridge, University Press

Nakariakov, V. M., Ofman, L., DeLuca, E. E., Roberts, B., and Davila, J. M.,

1999 TRACE Observation of Damped Coronal Loop Oscillations: Implications

for Coronal Heating. Science 285, 862-864.

Tsurutani B. T., and Ho C. M., 1999 A Review of Discontinuities and Alfven

Waves in Interplanetary Space: Ulysses Results. Reviews Geophys. 37, 517-541

Voigt J., 2002 Alfven Wave Coupling in the Auroral Current Circuit.

Surveys in Geophysics 23 335-377.

Zatman S., and Bloxham J., 1997 Torsional Oscillations and the Magnetic Field

Within the Earths Core. Nature 388, 760-763

12

Cross References

Alfvens Theorem, Core Convection, Decade Variations in LOD, Hannes Alfven,

the Geodynamo, Magnetohydrodynamic Waves, Proudmann Taylor Theorem,

Torsional Oscillations.

13

Figure Captions

Figure 1: The Alfven wave mechanism. In (a) an initial uid velocity normal

to the uniform eld lines distorts them into the curved lines shown in (b) giving

rise to a Lorentz force which retards and eventually reverses the uid velocity,

returning the eld lines to their undisturbed position as shown in (c). The

process of eld line distortion is then reversed in (d) until the cycle is completed

with the return to the initial conguration in (e).

14

Figure 1

(b) (e) (d) (c) (a)

Fluid velocity

Lorentz force

Magnetic field line

15

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