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Edited by
Reprinted/rom" The Light 0/ the Dhamma"
The Venerable Mahlithera Ledf Sayadaw, AggamahlipG1:u!ila, D.Litt.
Known fo scholars of many countries, the Later, he toured in many parts of Burma
Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahiipat)Qita, for the purpose of propagating the Buddha
D.Lltt., was perhaps the outstanding Dhamma. In towns and villages he, visited
Buddhist figure of this age. With the he delivered various Discourses on the
increase in interest in Western lands, there Ohamma and established Abhidhamma
is a great demand for his Buddhist Discourses classes and Meditation Centres. He com-
and writings which are now being translated posed Abhidhamma rhymes or Abhidhamma
and reproduced in "The Light of the Sankhitta and taught them to his Abhidham-
rna classes. In some of the principal towns
Bhikkhu Nyat)a who was later known as he spent a Yassa imparting Abhidhamma and
Ledi Sayadaw was born on Tuesday, the Vinaya education to the lay devotees. Some
l3th Waxing of Nattaw, 1208 Burmese Era of the Ledi Meditation Centres are still
(1846 C.E.) at Saing-pyin Village, Dipeyin existing and srill famous. During his
Township, Shwebo District. His parents itinerary he wrote many essays, letters; poems
were U Tun Tha and Daw Kyone. Early and manuals in Burmese. He has written
in life he was ordained a siimanera and at the
age of 20 a Bhikkhu, under the patronage of more than 70 manuals*, of which eight have
Salin Sayadaw U Pat:\c;licca. He received his been translated into English and published
monastic education under various teachers in "The Light of the Dhamma". Vipassana
and later was trained in Buddhist literature Dipani (Manual ofInsight) was translated by
by the Venerable San-kyaung Sayadaw, his disciple Sayadaw U Nyat)a, Pathamagyaw
Sudassana Dhaja Atu!iidhipati Siripavara Pauhiinuddesa Dipani (A conc1se exposition
Mahiidhamma Riijiidhi-riija-guru of Man- of the Buddhist Philosophy of Relations)
dalay. was originally written in Pali by the late
He was a bright student. It was said of
him:-" About 2000 students attended' the
the lectures delivered daily by the Ven'ble
Sankyaung Sayadaw. One day the Venera-
ble Sayadaw set in Pali 20 questions on
Parami (Perfections) and asked all the
students to answer them. None of them
except Bhikkhu NyaQa could answer those
questions satisfactorily." He collected all
these answers and when he attained 14 Vassil
and while he was still in San-kyaung monast-
tery, he published his first book, "ParamI
Dlpani". Manual of Perfections).
During the reign of King Theebaw he
became a Pali lecturer at Mahil Jotikarama
monastery in Mandalay. A year after the
capture of King Theebaw, i.e. in 1887 C.E, he
removed to a place to the north of Monywa
town, where he established a monastery
under the name of Ledi-tawya Monastery.
He accepted many bhikkhu-students from
various parts of Burma and imparted
Buddhist education to them. In 1897 C.E.
he wrote Paramattha Dipani (Manual of
Ultimate Truths) in Pali.
Ledi Sayadaw and translated by Sayadaw
U Nyat:\a. Niyama Dipani (Manual of
cosmic Order) was translated by U Nyal)a
and Dr. Barua and edited by Mrs. Rhys
Davids. Sammaditthi Dipani (Manual of
Right Understanding) and Catusacca DIpanJ
(Manual of the Four Noble Truths) were
translated by the Editors of "The of
the Dhamma." Bodhipakkhiya Dlpani
(Manual of the Factors Leading to Enlighten-
ment) was translated by U Sein Nyo Tun,
LC.S. (Retd.), and Maggailga Dipani
(Manual of the constituents of the Noble
Path) was translated by U Saw Tun Teik,
B.A. B.L., and revised and edited by the
English Editorial Beard of the Union Buddha
Sasana Council.
He was awarded the title of Aggamaha-
paQQita by the Government of India in 1911
C.E. Later, the University of RangcOIl
conferred on him the degree of D. Litt.
(Honoris Causa). In the later years he
settled down at Pyinmana where he died in
1923 C.E. at the ripe age of 77.
--------------_ . . _-------
Below are some of the TIkas, Manuals,
essays and letters written by the Venerable
Ledi Sayadaw:-
Itt Pii!i:
1. Paramattha DipanI(Manual ofUltimatt
Truths) or Abhidhammattha SaIigah ..
Mahii TIka.
2. Nirutti Dipani or Vuttimoggallana Tika.
3. Anu-dipanL
4. Vibhatyattha TIka.
5. Vaccavacaka Tika.
6. Sasanasampatli DipanI.
7. Sasanavipatti DipanL
8. Patthanuddesa Dipani.
9. Sammaditthi Dipani.
10. London Pa!i Devi Questions and
II. Exposition of Buddhism for the West.
12. Padhana Sutta (Paji and word for
word meanings).
13. Anattavibhiivana.
14. Yamaka Pucchii Visajjana.
15. Niyama Dipani.
16. Vipassana DipanL
In Burmese:
17. Rupa Dipani (Manual of Material
Qualities) .
18 LakkhaQa Dipani (Ma;mal of Character i-
stics of existence).
19. ParamI Dipani (Manual of Perfections).
20. Vijjamagga Dipani (Manual of the Way
to the Holy-Path-Knowledge.)
21. Nibbana Dipani (Manual of Nibbana).
22. Mahasayana Dipani (Manual of Great
Lying Down).
23. Uttama Purisa Dipani (Manual of the
Real Superman).
24. Paticcasamuppada Dipani (Manual of
Dcpendent Original ion) .
25. Ahara Dipani (Manual of Nutritive
26. Anatta Dipani (Manual of Impersona-
Ii t y).
27. Anatta DipanI (New).
28. Kammanh1ina Dipani (Mnnunl of
29. AQapana DfpanI (Manual of I:xltnling
and Inhaling).
30. Catusacca DJpanI (Manual of the Four
Noble Truths).
31. Bodhipakkhiya Dipani (Manual of the
Factors Leading to Enlightenment).
32. Somanassaupekkhii Dipani (Manual of
Joy and Equanimity).
33. Bhiivana Dipani (Manual of Mental
34. Sukumara Dipani.
35. Saccattha Dipani.
36. Sasanadayajja DipanI.
37. Rogantara DJpani.
38. Dhamma DipanL
39. Danadi Dipani.
40. Maggailga Dipan (Manual of the Consti-
tuents of the Noble Path).
41. GOQasura Dipani.
42. Niyama Dipani (Manual of Cosmic
43. Silavinicchaya Dipani.
44. Virati-silavinicchaya DipanJ.
45. Il)aparibhoga-vinicchaya DipanL
46. Dighasana-vinicchaya Dipani.
47. AsaJikhara-SasaJikhiira-vinicchaya
48. Sikkha-gahana-vinicchaya Dipanl.
49. Cetiyai:Jgal)a-vinicchaya Dipani.
50. Upasampada-vinicchaya Dipani.
51. Decision on Ajivatthamaka Sila.
52. Decision on Vikalabhojana-sikkhiipada.
53. SaraQa-gamaQa-vinicchaya DipanL
54. Paramattha Sailkhitta.
55. Vinaya SaIikhitta.
56. Sadda Sal'lkhitta.
57. "Alphabets" Sankhitta.
58. Prosody Sailkhitta.
59. AlaJikii Sailkhitta.
60. Spelling SnIikhilta.
61. Paramntlha Sankllltta.
62. Chnpter on Mntcrial QU:llitic. (in brief).
63. Nlbbiina-visnjjnna M:lnu:ll.
64. Lcdi Quest ions and An
65. Quesllons on l'tap:lllna.
66. Sas:ln:wiscdhani. Vol.. 1. II & 111.
67. G:1nlhhlra-kab);'\ok):l1l d
Profound Yl .
68. Ort'n letter for ,lh"(l"IlIion frl. molin,

69. Ldter of reply to U Ba Bwa. Town-
ship Officer of D.!dayc, saying that
he could not go on a pilgrimage to
Ceylon that year.
70. Admonitory letter to U Saing, Head-
man ofSaingpyin Village for absten-
tion from taking intoxicants.
71. Admonitory letter to the inhabitants
of Dipeyin Township for abstention
from taking intoxicants.
72. Admonitary letter prohibiting Lotteries
and Gambling.
73. An Advice to hold a Lighting Festival
at the Bo Tree within the precincts of
Ledi Monastery, Monywa.
74. Letter to U Hmat, a Ruby Merchant
of Mogok.
75. Inscription at Si'hataw Pagoda, written
by the Ven'ble MahiHhera Ledi
Sayadw at the request of U Hmat.
76. Epic on Sarhvega.
Th T h r ~ ~ ViP,lIlAs:t
The Three t\ lannan;}
The T\\o Abhiniycsa
The! Two Bhiimi or Stages
The Two Gati -
Ka D:l kaccha pa-Sutta
The Two Saccas or The Two Truths
Twenty- Ight kinds of Material Phenomena
Fifly.four-kinds of Mental Phenomtna
Fiftv-two kinds of Cetasika
The Four Mahabhiitas or The Four Great Essentials
The Six Bases
The Two Bhavas or Sexes
Jivita-Rupa or the Material Quality of Life
Ahara-Riipa or The Material Quality of Nutrition
Goeara-Rupas or The Four Sensc-Fields
Akasa-Dhatu or Material Quality of Limitation
The Two Yififiatti-Riipa or modes of Communications
The Three-Vikara-Riipas or the Three Plasticities
The Four Lakkhar;a-Riipas or the Four Salient Features
The Four Producers or Generators of Material Phenomena
Causes or Origins
The Two Abhififii'inas or the Two Super-Knowledges
The Three Parifiiias
Exposition of 1 iral).a-Pariii5a
Hetu-Paccaya or the Relation by way of Root
ArammaDa-Paccaya or the RelatIOn of Object
Adhipati-Paeeaya or the Relation of Dominance
Anantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Contiguity
Samanantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Immediate Contiguity
Sahaiata-Paecaya or the Relation of Co-Existence
Afifiamafina-Paccaya or the Relation of Reciprocity
Nissaya-Paccaya or the Relation of Dependence ...
Upanissaya-Paecaya or the Rdation of Sufficing Condition
Purejata-Paecaya or the Relation of PI e-Existencc
Pacehiijata-Paccaya or the Relation of Post-Existence
Asevana-Paccaya or the Relation of Habitual Recurrence
. - --
. . . . --
. .'
--.- y--
Kamma-Paccaya or thc Rclation of Kamma
Vipaka-Paccaya or the Relation of Effect
Ahara-Paccaya or the Relation of Food
Indriya-Paccaya or the Relation of Control
Jhana-Paccaya or the Relation of Jhana
Magga-Paccaya or the Relation of Path
SarhpaYlltta-Paccaya or the Relation of Association
Vippaylltta-Paccaya or the Relation of Dissociation
Atthi-Paccaya or the Relation of Presence
Paccaya-Sabhago or the Synthesis of Relations
. - -
The Synchrony of Relations ...
Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness not accompanied by hetu
Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral class of Consciousness
Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mtnd
Synchrony of Relations in the of Material Qualitie.s
Part I. Three Kinds of Wrong Views
Refutation of Pubbekata-hetu View
Refutation of Issaranimmana View
Refutation of Ahetuka View
Three Wrong Views
Refutation of Pubbekata-hetu View
Exposition of the word-" Kammassaka -,
Three Great Spheres
Exposition of" Kammassaka etc."
Part II. Refutation ofTssaranimmana View
Refuta tion of Ahetu ka View
Further Explanation of Kammassa kata-Vada
Exposition of Atta-Dinhi
Benefits Derived from the Total Destruction of Atta-Dittbi
Part III. Alta and Anatta ..
Pictorial Ideas and Concept of Continuity
Asamikat thena-Anatta
A vasa"attanatlhena-Anatta
Brief Exposition of Altaniya
Five Kinds of Sammu-ditthi
Example of an iron bowl
How to acquire namarOpa-pariggaha-fiul)a
How to attain Insight-Wisdon
L Of the Fivefold NiY;-l1na (Cosmic Ordcr)
II. Of thc Two Standards of 'I ruth
III. Expo itions Of Jreat Periods of Time
IV. Of 'J hin not within the of Thought
1 he nature of the fl; ult of flCtlO1l (K amm'!)
V. Of the Three Worlds
VI. 0(' Caus d {, n' i
()haIlllllll.Niy.lllI(\ (A Di II sioll)
ole 011 Dh 11Il1lli! Iy 1111,\

1 rt
Th \\ h' :atan:!' (btls s)
I r:, ,It -phy -j at E\cml!nt
1 h me.lnin' l1f 16 of Truths
Th Hurd '\1 f Dukkhtl in thl! Brahm:! World
Th Hurd 'n of Dukkha in I!VIl World ...
Th H\lrtkn f Dukkhu in Human World
'1 h' Burdn of Oukkha in th Planes
Hl)\\ 'in" hayc to wonder in the Round of Rebirths
Part Two
Thl' E\.po,ition of the meaning of Samudaya Sacca
The Four Inttrprctations of magga-sacca
Translator's Preface
Three Types of Individuals
Necessary Conditions of Practice for Neyya an'd Padaparama
Two Classes of Ind.ividuals
Vijja ( Knowledge), and Caral).a ( Conduct)
The Essential Point ' ... . ..
Order of Practice and those who Await the next Buddha
Loss of Opportunity to attain the seed of Vijja Through ' Ignorance
of the Vale of the Present times
Adhika.ra (Assiduous and successful practice)
Chapter I The Bodrupakkhiya Dhammas
Chapter II Tht; Four SatipaHhanas
Chapter III The Fgur Sammappadbanas
Chapter IV The Four Iddhipadas
Chapter V The Five Indriyas
Chapter vr The Five Balas (or Balanis)
Chapter VII The Seven Sambojjhailgas
Chapter VIII The Eight Maggatigas
Chapter IX How to practise the Bodhipakkhiya Dhammas
Chapter X Heritage of the S5.sana ..
Kammassakata Sammaditthi
Samma Sailkappa
Samma Vaca
Samma Ajiva
Samma Vayama
Samma Sati
Samma Samadhi
Exposition of the 3 kinds of Sammaditthi
Analysis of the Good and Bad kammas
The Result of Present kamma
The Result of Past kamma
-- -------- ............ . . . , - - - - - , ~ , ~ - - ---
Sabbe satta kammassaka
Sabbe satta kammayonI
Sabbe satta kammabandhu
Sabbe satta kamml! ppatisaral)ii
Exposition on Dasavatthuka Sammadighi
Appendix 1,2 ...
The Exposition of Right understanding of the Four Noble Truths
Right Understanding of the Truth about Suffering
Oppression through Kamma activities
Oppression through Instability
Oppression through 11l of SufTering
Oppression through Burning ...
Right understanding of the truth about the cause of suffering
Right understanding of the truth about the cessation of suffering
Right understanding of the truth about the real path leading to the
cessatton of suffering
The Exposition of Right Thinking
The Exposition of Right Speech
The Exposition of Right Action
The Exposition of Right Livelihood
The Exposition of R iglit Effort
The Exposition of Right Mindfulness
Four Applications of Mindfulness
The Exposition of Right Concentration
Three kinds of Vatta
Interrelations Between Magganga and Vattas
The First, Second and Third Stage of Dinhi (Wrong Views)
To the First l"ibbana ...
Match-box, match-stick and nitrous surface
Forming the Noble Eightfold Path Into Three Groups
To destroy the three stages of sakkayadi(thi
How to Establish the Morality-Group of the Eightfold Path
How to take and Practise Ajlvatthamaka siia
The kinds of nicca-siia (Permanent Morality)
Ingredients of the Seven kinds of wrong doing
How to Establish the Concentration-group of the
Noble Eightfold Path
Anapana Practice
Let the mindfulness be constant
How the mental restlessness can be got rid of
When to establish Pannakkhandha (Wisdom-group)
How to establish the Wisdom-Group of the Eightfold Path
,. Increase "-udaya; "Decrease "-Vaya
Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta
Sakkayadinhi and the Head '"
Know: note: think: see:
Because they do not understand
M u ~ t be persistent
To become" Bon-sin-san " undividuals
A Short Explanation of the Establishment of the
Noble Eightfold Path
Understanding reality whenever contemplated
nj( y i n ~ the three kinds of Happiness ...
Fi," kind: of 'tark Ignorance and five kinds of Light
K:un111:l-':l.mtnoha and Kammassakatunana
ot understand inQ Katllll1a '
LH understanding the resultant of Kamma
Understanding Kamma and its resultant
The Light of the W o rid
tark ignorance of Ohamma and the Second Light:
Stark Ignorance of Causation and the Third Light
Karaka-diqhi, Paccaya-va vatthana-iW lJa,
Pubbekata-hetu-ditt hi
CD!a Sotapanna ..
Stark Ignorance of Three Characteristics of life and the
Fourth Light
Six kinds of dhiitu (elements)
Analysis of Pathavi
Proof by means of characteristics
Analysis of Apo
Analysis of'Iejo
1. Five Questions on Kamma
II. AnaWinisamsa-A Concise Description of the Advantages
Arising Out of the Realisation of Anatta
Translated into English by
Edited by
Reprinted from" The Light of the Dhamma ..
Vol. I, No.4, (pp. 16-21)
Vol. II, No. I, (pp. 7-14)
Vol. II, No.2, (pp. 14-18)
Vol. II, No.3, (pp. 19-31)
The late Venelable Ledi Sayadaw, D. Litt.,
Agga Mahii. PaI)c;lita.
, .' -...lIo.. '--
Transl'lI,'" into English by U NYQno, Patamagyaw of 'Masocyein Monastery, Mandalay.
The fact that a reliable compilation of the
materials which one who enters upon the
practice of meditation ought to be in possess-
ion of before commencing the Practice of
E.: ercises of Insight (vipassana-kamma H-
hMa) is much needed by the Buddhists of
the West, has been duly taken into conside-
ration by the Venerable Ledi Sayadaw,
AggamahapaQcjita. To supply such a need
he has written the Vipassanil-Dipani
(Exposition of Insight), first in Pith and
afterwards in Burmese, (the latter only
being sent to me for translation; the former,
I am told, not being yet revised), treating of
the fallowing subjects :-the Vipallasa, the
Maiiiian1, the Abhinivesa, the Bhumi,
the Gati, the the causes of
phenomena, the Abhifi.fiii, and the Parififia.
Each of these subjects is fully expounded
and furnished with brief illustrations, some
of which are drawn from the Pfili Text,
while others are the product of the
Mahathera's own mind and pen.
The purpose of Vipassan1i or the Exercise
of Insight is to resolve into the three salient
. characteristics of Anicca, Dukkha and
Anatta the illusory "Soul" (Att.\) or
imaginary "Self-principle" which
time out of mind has been held to eXIst III
living beings by all Puthujjanas (ordina.ry
unenlightened people) both BuddhIst
and non-BuCldhist, the idea of ,. Soul"
arising from simple ignorance, or uncon-
sciously or through direct error.
Before the meditator begins his task, it is
necessary that he should know how and
through what this is forI?ed
and maintained; and why and In what It IS
so deeply rooted, as not to be eradicated or
even disturbed no matter what may be done
to try to correct it ; and what is the destiny
of those who take their stand upon this
platform of Soul-belief.
The first five sections a re intended to
serve this for it will be that
the belief in Soul IS formed by the
that self-esteem is maintained by the
Maiiiiana, and that it is not firmly rooted
in the soil of the Puthujjana-bhumi because
of the Abhincvasa; and that the Putthuj-
jana-gati, the "dispersion of is the
destiny of all those who take theIr stand on
the platform of Soul-belief.
Under the heading of Sacca and Cause, it
will be shown that Att:\ in the sense of" self"
or personal identity, mayor may not exist
according as we treat of the matter from the
standpoint of ordinary every-day speech,
or from that of actual truth or fact, and that
from a genuinely philosophical point of
view, a living being is no more than a
location of phenomena, mental and materIal,
produced by causes, the classifications of
which under categories, are methodically
and fully given in detail. The meditator,
then, keeping these facts in view, should
begin his exercises bearing in mind that
phenomena never abide even for a moment,
but are continually arising and' again dis-
To see things thus is what we call" seeing
things as they are", namely, in accordance
with their three inherent characteristics of
impermanency, infelicity, and non-substan-
tiality .
Under the headings of Abhiiiiia . and
Pariiii'ia, the classification of knowledge
pertaining to Insight is dealt with, the
specific meaning of each being adequately
explained; and how each is developed, when
each arrives at perfection, and how the final
goal is won, also are shown.
In concluding, the Mah:i,thera, faithful
to the Master's words: " viriya-vato bhikk-
have kim nama na sijjhati" "Brethren, a
man of energetic perseverance, why should
ne not succeed in anything at all." Sums up
with the encouraging counsel that a meditator
ought never to give up the exercises, but
continue to practise them until he gains the
Paths; for while it is true that some are more
highly virtuous than others and are naturally
endowed with the power of penetrating into
the nature of things in respect to their im-
permanence, infelicity and unsubstantiality,
while others are otherwise: nevertheless the
f<lithful and persistent practiser is sure to
gain the Paths either in this life or in the one
immediatcly following; and the Insight of
the Dhamma, moreover, cannot be acquired
in any perfection save by long and continuous
Turning to thc details of the actual trans-
lation, the expositions being a blend of
metaphysics and ethics, I have venturcd to
confine every word to its main or original
import, and to steer a mean course betwcen
the dangers of being too literal on the one
hand and too free on the othcr.
Repetitions of words and small groups of
nearly synonymous words have a tendency
to spread themselvcs, as it were, in the
obligation I am under to follow the peculiar
style adopted by the Malnthera.
Notwithstanding all the pains I have
bestowed on this translation, 1 am well aware
of its falling far short of the degree of
excellence that might be attained; and
therefore in a rendering of this kind, where
perfection lies at so great a distance, l have
thought it best to limit l""Y ambition to that
moderate share of merit vvilich it may claim
in its present form, trusting to the indul-
gence of those for whose benefit it is
The terms are explained in the body of
the work. Meantime, the following brief
may be helpful:
maiiiiana - fantasies, consciously feigning
things to be that which they
are not.
abhinivesa - firmly rooted beliefs, basic
stages of consciousness from
which other states develop.
gati stage of going, re-newing,
faring on.
saeCii truth, relative and absolute.
abhifiiia - supernormal knowledge.
parifina - profound insight.
Aggamahapao<jita is a title of honour,
meaning" Chief Greal Pundit n.
The Vipassana Dipani Or The
Exposition Of Insight
Vipallasa means hallucination, delusion,
erroneous observation, or, taking that which
is true as being false, and that which is false
as true.
There are three kinds of Vipallasa, to
I. Safiiia-vipallasa: hallucination of
2. Citta-vipalla sa hallucination of
3. Ditthi-vipallasa : hallucination of views.
Of these three, hallucination of perception
is fourfold, thus:
(i) It erroneously perceives impermanence
as permanence;
(ii) Impurity as purity;
(iii) III as good; and
(iv) No-soul as soul.
The same holds good with regard to the
remammg two vipallasa, i.e. those of
thinking and viewing.
All these classifications come under the
category of " This is mine! This is my Self
or living Soul!" and will be made clear
The three Vipalilisa may be illustrated
respectively by the simi lies of the wild deer,
the magician, and a man who has lost his
This is the simile of the wild deer to
illustrate the hallucination of perception.
In the middle of a great forest a certain
husbandman cultivated a piece of paddy
land. While the cultivator was away, wild
deer were in the habit of coming to the field
and eating the young spikes of gro\\ ing grain.
So the cultivator put some straw together into
the shape or a man and set it up in the middle
of the field in order to frighten the dc'r
away. lie tied thc straws together with
fibres into the r,-,semblance tt body,
with head, hands nud legs; und with white
lim' painting l'n a pot the lincament s or ,I
human face. he sd it on the top or thl! hody.
He also L'o\ercd tl\l' artilkial mall with
:;l'Il1C old clothes such as a coat, and so
forth, and put a bow and arrow into his
hands. Now the deer came as usual to cat
the young paddy; but approaching it and
l:atehing sight of the artilkial man, they
took it for a real one, were frightened and
ran away.
In this illustration, the wild deer had seen
men before and retained in their memory
the perception of the shape and form of men.
In accordance with their present perception, .
they took the straw man for a real man.
Thus their perception of it was an erroneous
perception. The hallucination of percep-
tion is as here shown in this allegory of
the wild deer. It is very clear and easy to
understand. This particular hallucination
is also illustrated in the case of a bewildered
man who has lost his way and cannot make
out the cardinal points, East and West, in
the locality in which he is, although the
rising and setting of the sun may he distinctly
perceived by anyone with open eyes. If
the error has once been made, it establishes
itself very firmly, and is only with great
difficulty to be removed. There are many
things within ourselves which we are always
apprehending erroneously and in a sense the
reverse of the truth as regards Impermanence
and No-soul. Thus through t le hallucina-
tion of perception we apprehend things
erroneously in exactly the same way that the
wild deer take the straw man to be a real
man even with their eyes wide open.
Now for the simile of the magician to
illustrate the hallucination of thought.
There is a pretended art called magic by
means of which when lumps of earth are
exhibited in the presence of a crowd, all who
look at them think they are lumps of gold
and silver. The power of the magical art is
such as to take from meil their ordinary
power of seeing and in its place put an extra-
ordinary kind of sight. It can thus for a
time, turn the mind upside down, so to
speak. When persons are in command of
themselves they see lumps of earth as
they are. But under the influence of this
magical art, they see the lumps of earth as
lumps of gold and silver with all their quali-
ties of brightness, yellowness, whitel1l!ss,
and so forth. Thus, thcir beliefs, observa-
tions, or ideas, become erroneous In the
same way our thoughts and arc in the
haillt of wrongly taking false as true
and thus we dl.:iude oursl.:ives. For instance,
at night we arc orten deceived into thinking
we sec a man when it is really the stump of a
tree that we are looking at. Or, on seeing
a bush, we imagine we arc looking at a wild
elephant; or, seeing a wild elephant take it
to be a bush.
In this world all our mistaken ideas as
to what comes withil1 the field of our obser-
vation, are due to the action of the hallucina-
tion of thought which is deeper and more
unfathomable than that of the perception,
since it deludes us by making false things
seem true. However, as it is not so firmly
rooted as the latter, it can easily be removed
by investigation or by searching into the
causes and conditions of things.
Now for the simi le of the man who has
lost his way, to illustrate the hallucination of
There was a large forest haunted by evil
spirits, demons, who lived there building
towns and villages. There came some
travellers who were not acquainted with the
. roads through the forest. The demons
created their towns and villages as splendidly
as those of Devas, or celestial beings and
themselves assumed the forms of male and
female Devas. They also made the roads
as pleasant and delightful as those of the
.Gevas. When the travellers saw these, they
believed that these pleasant roads would
lead them to large towns and villages, and so,
turning aside from the right roads, they went
astray following the wrong and misleading
ones, arriving at tbe towns of the demons
and suffering accordingly.
In this allegory, the large forest stands for
the three world of Kama-loka, Riipa-Ioka
and Ariipa-Ioka. The travellers are all thos'e
who inhabit these worlds. The Right Road
is Right Views; and the misleading road is
Wrong Views. The Right Views here spoken
of' arc of two kinds, namely, those that
pertain to thl! world, and those pertaining
to EnligilleJ1Jl1ellt. or these two, the former
is meant to connote this right \"icl\' : .. All
beings arl! the oWIH.:rs of tl1cir deeth; and
every deed, both moral and immoral, com-
mitted by oneself is one's own property and
rollows (Inc throlle,I\(lllt thc wholc ll'ng
COllr,l! (If lik" whil7; the latter mcant 10
connote the knowledge of the Doctrine of
Causal Genesis, of the Aggregates, of th e
Ayatana (Bases), and No-Soul. Of these
two views, the former is as the right road to
the round of existences. The worlds of the
Fortunate) i.e. the abodes of human beings,
Devas, and Brahmas), are like the towns of
good people. The erroneous views that
deny moral and immoral deeds and their
results or effects, and come under the names
of Natthikadit t hi, Ahetuka-di Hhi, and
Aldriya-ditthi, are like the wrong, misleading
roads. The worlds of the Unfortunate
which are the abodes of the tortured, of
Animals, Petas, and Asuras, are like the
towns of the demons.
The right view of knowledge which is one
of the factors of Enlightenment, is like the
right road that leads out of the round of
existence. Nibbana is like the town of good
The views" My Body!" and" My Soul !"
are also like the wrong and misleading roads.
The world comprising the abodes of human
beings,. Devas, and Brahmas, or the ceaseless
renewing of existences, is like the towns of
the demons.
The aforesaid erroneous views are known
as the hallucinations, such being deeper and
more firmly established than that of thought.
Mafifiana means fantasy, egotistic e ~ t i
mation, high imagination, or feigning to
oneself that one is what one is not. Through
nescience hallucination arises and through
hallucination fantasy arises.
Fantasy is of three kinds, to wit:
(I) tal).ha-mafifiana: fantasy by lust
(desire of the
(2) mana-mafifiana: fantasy by
(3) diHhi-mafifiana: fantasy by
error. (i n beliefs)
of these, "fantasy by lust" means the
high imagination: " This is Mine!" "This
is my OWIl !" in clinging to what in reality
js not "Mine" and "My Own". ]n
strict truth, there is no " I "; and as there is
no " I ", there can be no " Mine ., or " My
Own". Though indeed, it is the case that both
personal and impersonal (external) objects
are highly imagined and discriminated as
" This is Mine, that other thing is not mine,"
artl " This is My Own; that other thing is
not my own ". Such a state of imagination
and fanciful discrimination is called "fan-
tasy by lust ".
Personal objects mean one's own body and
organs. Impersonal or external objects
means one's own relations, such as father,
mother, and so forth: and one's own possess-
" Fantasy by cenceit " means high imagina-
tion of personal objects expressed as "I ",
"I am". When it is supported or encouraged,
so to speak, by personal attributes and im-
personal objects, it becomes aggressively
haughty and fantastically conceited.
Here, attributes means vigour or
plenitude of eyes, ears, hands, legs, virtue,
intuition, knowledge, power a;;,d so forth.
Impersonal objects means plenitude of
families, relations, surroundings, dwellings
possessions and so forth.
"Fantasy by error" means over-estimation
of personal objects as "My Frame-work;
My Principle; My Pith; My Substance;
My Soul; My Quintessence." In the ex-
pressions : " earthern pots" and "earthern
bowls", it is understood that earth is the
substance of which these pots and bowls are
made, and the very earth so made, so shaped,
is again called pots and bowls. In the
expressions "I ron pots" and "iron bowls",
and so forth, it is also understood that iron
is the substance from which iron pots and
bowls are made, and the very iron, so made,
so shaped is again called pots and bowls. In
exactly the same Way that in these instances
earth or iron is the substance from which
the vessels are made, so, assuming the Element
of Extension, the earth-element which per-
tains to the personality or the substance of
living beings, of the" I " this fanciful estima-
tion of the facts of the case arises:
"The Element of Extension is the living
being: the Element of Extension is the" I ".
What is here said in connection with the
Element of Extension is in like manner to be
understood in connection with the Element
of Cohesion, the liquid element, and all
other elements found in a corporeal existence.
This over-estimation or fantastic imagination
will be expounded at greater length further
Thes kinds of fantasy arc also called
thl! three Gahas, or thrcc Ilolds, to illdil'ate
pt)wer ()i' holding tightly alld Ii I'1ll Iy.
lIlec abo tlh.'Y lllultiplv CITOI1COUS, mistakcn
which telld graLi"ually bul COllti.1UOlhly
to lllcreasl.: past all limits and ncver illclinc
to ceaSl" thcy arc abo called thrce P:lpancas
or Tlnce :Multipliers.
The Two Abhiniv('''a
.Abhinivesa means strong belicf set in the
mllld as firmly and immovably as door-
posts, stclIle pillars, and monuments so
that it, cannot be moved by any mean's or
expenditure of effort. It is of two different
kinds to wit :-
I. Talfhabhinivesn: Firm belief induced
by lust.
2. Dit t hibhinivesa: Firm belief induced
by error.
Of these, tanhabhinivesa means the firm
and unshakable belief in what is not my own
body, head, hands, legs, eyes, nose and so
forth, as being my own hody, my own head
and so forth, throughout a Ion\! succession
of existences.
Diq hibhinivesa means the Ii 1'111 and un-
shakable belief in the exi stence of the Soul
or Self or Separate tife in a perSOl or creature
which is held, in accordance with this belier'
to be an unchanging thing that
governs the bocly. These two kin-ds of
belief are also called tanhalissaya a,id
ditthinissaya respectively. They may also
be called the Two G re:tt Rerosers upon the
the Five Aggregates, and on Body-and-Mind;
or as the Two Great R("ting'pLlccs of
puthujjanas or ordinary men of the world,
Bhumi means the stage where all Ci'catures
find their footing, generate aild grow. It
is of two kinds, to wit:
1. Puthujjana-bhum i
2. Ariyabhiimi,
Puthujjana-bhiimi is the stage of a put-
hujjana, an ordinary or Ilormal heing, anri,
speaking in the scnse of ultimate truth, it
is nothing but the hall'lci;',ation of views.
All creatures of the ordin:.ry worldly kind
live in the world making this Dit t hivipall;
or erroneous view their resting place, their
main their standing ground:
is in 1l1l; or in my body something
til;lt IS I'crmaIH.:nt, good and essential."
I he Dit. t :1' [i or fantasy through
error, the i)lt or elTOllCOUS hold, the
Ditt hi-papaiku or nlL'ltiplier of error, and
the Dillhi .. :tbhil1ivcsa or strong belief in-
d ueed by error, arc also the landing stages,
the supports, the resting places, and the
stanciinp: grol!nds of all puthujjanas. Hence
they will ncver be released from thc state or
existence of a puthuijal1a, so long as they
take their lir:n stand on the ground of the
said many-titled error.
As (0 the Ariya-bhiimi, it is a state of an
Ariya, a noble and sanctified being, in whom
is eradicated. 1t is, speaking
111, the ult,lmate sense, nothing but this Right
View, thiS Right Apprehension, the Right
Understanding: "There is in me or in
my body \1othi::g permanent, good, and
essential ". As an Ariya lives making Right
View his main footing, this Right View may
re the stage of the Ariya. Upon
attainment of this Right View. a being is
s,nd to have transcended the Puthujjana-
bhii ni, and to have set foot 0.1 the Ariyan .

Amol,lg the i,lnumerab
e ordinary beings
(PutIHlJpna ', ) \\ho have treading the
groLI'ld of Puthujjallaship during cou71tless
,lllat have no known beginning;
If a ccrl,ll n PCi"OIl trying to eradicate the
.of error to implant the Right
wllhlll on a certain day succeeds
111 hiS attempts, is said to have set foot
tInt self-s,lllle day upon the ground of the
AriY;1, and to have become an Ariya, that is
a sJnct!fieJ bei'lg. Even if there should
remain t:1C liallucin<,tions of mind and per-
ception In some of the Ariyas, they would not
commit sue!: evil deeds as would produce
for them evli effects 111 the worlds of mis-
for they have eradicated the weighty
of error. The two remaining
halluclnallOns w()uld mercly enable them to
enjoy such worldly pleasures as they have
lawfully earned,
Gati mcans transmigration. (Here it does
not mean th8t 'Transmigration of Soul'
so called, which is current in non-Buddhist
philosophies. I have adopted the word
" transmigration" for Gati which literally
means" going ", merely in order to indicate
- -
- - -' .: -. :.-
- - -
. - - : - - . ---=-- - -
the idea while dealing with it from the stand-
point of Buddhist philosophy.) It is the
change of existences. It is of two kinds :
I. Puthujjana-gati.
2. Ariya-gati.
Of these two, the former is the transmi-
gration of the ordinary person which is
Vinipa tana or dispersive. That is to say:
one cannot transmigrate into whatever
kind of existence one might but is
liable to fall into anyone of the 31 kinds
of abode or existence, according as one is
thrown by one's past kamma. Just as, in
the case of the fall of a coconut or of
a palm-fruit from a tree, it cannot be
ascertained beforehand where it will rest;
so also in the case of the new existence of
a Puthujjana after his death, it cannot be
ascertained beforehand whereunto he will
transmigrate. Every creature that comes
into life is inevitably laid in wait for by
the evil of death; and after his death he is
also sure to fall by " dispersion" into any
existence. Thus two great evils of death
anci dispersion are inseparably linked to
every being born.
Of these two, "dispersion of liCc" after
de:lth is worse than death, for the four realills
of misery down to the great Avici Hell,
stand wide open to a Putliu!;an<l who
departs from the abode 01" n". en, like
space without any obstruction. As soon
as the term of life he Illay fall into
any of the Nirayas or realms of misery.
Whether far or near, there is no intervening
period of time. He nlay be reborn as an
animal; as a Peta, a wrdched shade;
or as an Asiira or Titan, an enemy ofSakka
the king of the gods, in the wink of an eyelid.
The like holds good if he dies out of any of
the upper six realms of the Kamavacara
Devas. But when he expires from the
worlds of R iipa-loka and Ariipa-loka, there
is no direct fall into the four realms of misery,
but there is a halt of one existence either in
the abode of men or in those of Devas,
wherefrom he may fall into the four worlds of
Why do we say that every being fears
death? Because death is followed by dis-
persion to any sphere of existence. If there
were no "dispersion" as regards existence
after death, and one could take rebirth in
any existence at one's choice, no one would
fear death so much, although, to be sure,
sometimes there may be thirst for death when
a being after living a considerable length of
time in one existence, desires removal to a
new one.
By way of showing how great is the
dispersion of exi stence which is called
Puthujjana-gati---the Nakhasikha and 1.1 a-
kacchapa Suttas may be cited. However,
only an outline of each will here be
, Brethren, I will teach you the All. Do you listen to it. And what, brethren,
IS the All ?
It is eye and visible object: ear and sound: nose and scent: tongue and taste:
body and tangibles: mind and ideas. This, brethren, is called the All.
Now, brethren, he who should say, " Rejecting this All, 1 will proclaim some
other All, "---such might be the substance of his talk, but when que 'tioned he would
not be able to make good his boast, and he would come by disappointment besides,
What is the cause of that? Because, brethrcn, it would be beyond his power to do so.'
S. N. il. 15.
- Jr-.:-T - - _ _
'" . ",. ...... . '- -- '. - .. : ... : '. . -.=-:-.. .", .' . . .
. (By of showing how great is the disper-
of which is called Puthujjana-
gat!, the Nakhaslkha and Kanakacchapa SLit-
tas here be cited. However, only ,Ill
outlme of each will here be produced. )
Nakhasikha-Sutta. "At one time the
Buddha, showing them some dust whieh he
had taken upon the tip of his finaer-nail add-
ressed the disciples thus: "J f, ''0 Bhik'khus,
these few grains of dust upon my finger -nail
and all the dust in the universe were compared
in quan.tity, which would you say was less,
and whlch more?" The disciples replied:
" Lord, the dust on your finger-nail is less,
and that of the universe is more. Surely,
Lord, the dust on your finger-nail is not
worthy . of mention in comparison with the
dust of the universe." THen the Buddha
continued; "Even so, Bhikkhus, those who
are reborn in the ahodes of men and Devas
whence they have expired, are very few even
as the few grains of dust on my finger-nail ;
and those who are reborn in the four realms
of misery are exceedingly many, even as the
dust of great universe. Again, those who
have expired from the four mi sera ble worlds
and are reborn in the abodes of men and De-
vas are even as the grains of dust on my
finger-nall ; and those who are repeatedl y
reborn in the four miserable worlds are
innumerable, even as the grains of dust of the
great universe."
What has just been said is the substance ot
the Nakhasikha-Sutta. But, to say nothing
of the beings of all the four realms of misery
the creatures that inhabit the four
oceans alone will suffice to make evidenthow
great is the evil of Vinipatana-gati, that is, the
dispersion. the variety of possible kinds of
existence after death.
Kii1)llkacchapa-Sutta. "At one time the
Buddha addressed the disciples thus: "There
is, 0 Bhikkhus, in the ocean a turtle, both
of whose eyes are bliRd. He plunges into the
water of the unfathomable ocean and
swims ahout incessantly in any direction wher-
ever his head may lead. There is also in the
ocean the yoke of a cart which is ceaselessly
floating about on thl! surface of the watef, alld
is carried away in all difections by tide, cur-
rent and wind. Thus these two go on thfough-
out an incalculable space of time: perchan-
ce it happens that in t he course of time the
yoke arrives at the precise place and t ime
where and when the tUft le puts up his head,
und yokc:s on to it. Now, 0 Bhikkhus, is it
possible that such a time might come as is
said?" .. Tn ordinary truth, 0 Lord,"
replied the Bhikkhus " it is impossible; but
time being so spacious, and an aeon lasting so
long, it may be admitted that perhaps at some
time or other it might be possible for the two
to yoke together, as said; if the blind tortoise
lives long enough, and the yoke does not tend
to rot and break up before such a coincidence
comes to pass. "
Then the Buddha said, " 0 Bhikkhus, the
occurrence of such a strange thing is not to he
counted a difficult one; for there is still a
greatef, a harder, a hundred times, a thousand
times more difficult than this lying hidden
from your knowledge. And what is this?
Jt is, 0 Bhikkhus, the obtaining of the oppor-
tUIiity of becoming a man again by a man
who has expired and is reborn once in any of
the four realms of misery. The occurrence
of the yoking of the blind tortoise is not worth
thinking of as a difficult occurrence in compa-
ri son therewith. Because those who perform
good deeds and abstain from doing bad alone
can obt ain the existence of men and Devas.
The beings in the fouf miserable worlds can-
not discern what is virtuous and what vicious,
what good and what bad, what moral and
what immoral , what meritofious and what
demeritorious, and consequently they live a
life of immorality and demerit, tormenting
one another with all their power. Those crea-
tures of the Niraya and Peta abode in parti-
cular, live a very miserable life on acco unt
of punishments and torments which they
experience with sorrow, pain and distress.
Therefore, 0 Bhikkhus, the opportunity
of being reborn in . the abode of men is a
hundred times, a thousand times harder to
obtain than the encountering of the blind
turtle with the yoke. "
According to this Sutta, why those creat ures
who are born in the miserable pbnes are far
. ".The way, Cunda, to get quite and rid of those false views and of t he domains
111 whIch arlse and crop up and obtain, is by seein
wi th right comprehension
that t here IS no 'mine' no 'this is I .' 110' this is myself. ';, ,
Sallekha- S"utta.
from human they nevcr
100" up but always look down. And what
is meant by looking down? Thc igrorancc
in thcm by degrees becomes greater and
stronger from one existence to anoUlI!r;
and as tile water of a river always flows down
to thc lower plains, so also they are always
tending towards the lower existences; for
the ways towards the higher existences are
closed to them, while those towards the lower
existences are freely open. 1111S is the
meaning of "looking do\\-n ", Hence, from
this story of the blind turtle, the wise appre-
hend how great, how fearful, how terribly
perilous are the evils of the-Puthujjana_
gati, I.e. the .. disperslor. of existence ".
What has been said is concerning the
Puthujjana-gati. Now what is Ariya-gati?
It is deliverance from the dispersion of
existence after death. Or it is the dis-
appearance t.hat of existence"
which is conJollled WIth tne destIny of In-
evitable death in every existence". It is
also the potentiality of being reborn in
higher existe.nces or .in existences
to one's chOICe. it IS also not ltke the lall
of coconuts from trees; but it is to be
compared to birds which fly through the aIr
to whatsoever place or tree on whieh they
may wish to perch. Those men, Devas
and Brahmas who have attained the Ariyan
state can get to whatever better eXIstence,
i .c. ;s men,- Devas, Brahmas, they may wish
to be reborn into, when they expire from the
particular existence in which the) have attain-
ed such Ariyan state. Though they cxpire
unexpectedly without aiming to be reborn
in any particular e:ostence, th.c) are d.estllled
to be reborn in a beller or hIgher eXIstence,
and at the same time are entirely free from
rebirth Into lower and miseracle existences,
Moreover, if they are reborn again in the
abode of men, they never become of the
lower or poorer classes, nor are they fools or
heretics, but beccme quite otherwise. It is
the same in the abodes of Devas and Brahmas
They are entirely set free from the Puthu-
Jjana-gau .
What has been said is concerning the coursc
cf Anyas. Now wc will explain the two
Galis side by side. When a man falls frcm
a tree he falls like a coconut because
he has no wings with whIch to fly in the air.
In precisely the same way when men, Devas
and Bn:hmas who are Pullhujjana, rivetld
to thl: halluclIlatlOn of wrong vIews and
having IHI wil'gs of the Noble l:.ightfold
- -
Path to make the sky their resting-place,
transmigrate after the dissolution of their
bodies into new ones! they fall tumb-
llIlg Into the bcnds of the eVIls of dispersIOn,
In tIllS wc,rld ordinary men who climb up very
high trees fall tumbling to the ground when
the branches which they clutch or try to
make theJr resting place break down. They
suffer much pain from t];e fall, and sometimes
death ensues because they have no other rest-
ing-places but the branches, neIther have
they wings wherewith to fly in the aIr, It is
the s?me with men, Devas and Brahmas who
have the. of Wrong Views,
when theIr restll1g-place of Wrcng Views as
regards self is broken down, they fall tumb-
ling into the dispersion existence. For their
resting-places are only treir bodies; and they
have neither such a resting-place as Nlbbana,
nor such strong wll1gs as the Noble Eightfold
Path to support them. As for the birds,
though the branches they rest on may break,
they never fall, but eastly fly through the air
to any other tree. For the brancl:es are
not their permanent resting places but only
temporary ones. They entirely rely on
their wings and the air. ]n the same way,
men, Devas and Brahmas who have become
Ariya and are freed from the hallucination of
Wrong Views, neither regard their bodies as
their Alta or Self, nor rely upon them. They
have in their possession permanent resting
rlaces, such as Nlbbana whIch is the entire
cessation of all 1t!mbling existence. They
also the very mighty wings of the
Noble Eightfold Path which are able to bear
them to better eXIstences.
What has been said is concerning the
distinction between the two Gatis, i.e., the
Puthlljjana-gati and the Ariya-gati.
Sacca or Truth is the constant faithfulness
or concordance of the term whIch names a
thing, to or with that thing's intrinsic nature.
It is of two kinds, to wit ;-
1. Sammuti-$:\cdi. cOI;n:ntional or
relative truth.
2. Paramatthasacca, or ultimate Truth.
Of the two, comentional truth is thl'
of the customary terUls used by
the great majority of people, such as .. 'elf
eXIsts ", .. a living Sl ul e. Isb " .. men c. 1St ".
... - .
DeL t", .. 'akkas it.... elep-
hant i,t ", .. hend exist .. and'so on.
Thi 'Il\ ntionnl truth is the opposite of
untruth. and so ca n 0\ efcome it. It is not a
Ii Of \1\ untruth when people say:
"There [Tl hably exists an immutable,
continuous self or living soul
WI11C.h IS neIther momentarily rising nor
pas l11g away throughout one existence"
ft),r this is the customary manner of
?t the. great majority of people who have no
lnten110n whatever of deceiving others. But
according to ultimate truth, it is reckoned a
Vippallasa or hallucmation which erroneous-
ly regards impermanent as permanent and
as. self. So long as this erroneous
new remalllS undestroyed, cne cal, never
e cape from the evils of Sams2ra the wheel
of life. All of the foregoing alike holds good
when people say" a perscn exists " and
so on.
Ultimate truth is the absolute truthfulness
of assertion or negative in full and complete
accordance with what is actual, the elemen-
tary, fundamental qualities of
Here stating such truth in aftirmatlVe form,
on.e may say: "The element of solidity
eXIsts", ,< The element of extension exists",
.. the element of cohesion exists ", "the
element of kinetic energy exists", "mind
exists" "consciousr.ess exists ", "contact,
feeling and perception exist ", "matenal
exist" and so on. And express-
mg such truth in a negative form, it can be
"No self exists "," no living wul
eXIsts ", .. no person exists ", "no being
exists", "neither does an elephant exist"
"nor do hands, nor legs, nor any members cf
the body exist "," neither docs a man exist
nor a Deva" and so on. In saying here:
.. No self exists" .. no Jiving soul
we mean thar there is nc such ultimate entltv
as a self or living soul which persists UI{-
changed during the whole term of life, without
momentarily coming to be and passing away.
In the expression: "No being exists"
and so forth, what is meant is that nothing
actually exists but material and mental
elemer.ts. T.hese elements are neither per-
sons nor beIngs, nor men, nor Devas etc.
Therefore there, is no scparate being or person
apart from the elements. The ultimate truth
is the diametr:cal oppcsite of the hallucina-
tion, and so can confute it. One who is thus
able to confute or reject the hallucination can
escape from the evils of Sa,nsara, the evolu-
tion of life.
According to conventional truth, a person
exists, a being eXIsts; a person or a being
continually trantimigrates from one exbtence
to another in the ocean of lIfe. But
to ultimate truth, neither a person nor a being
exists, and there is no one who transmigrates
from one existence to another. Here, it
may be asked: "OG' not these two truths
seem to be as poles asunder?' Of course
they seem to be so. Nevertheless we may
bring them together. Have we not said:
.. According to conventional truth" and
" according to ultimate truth"? Each kind
of truth accordingly is truthful as regards
its own mode of expression. Hence if one
man should say that there exists a person or
a being according to conventional truth,
the other to whom he speaks ought not to
contradict him, for these conventional terms
describe what apparently exists. And like-
wise, if the other says that there exists neither
a person nor a being, according to ultimate
truth, the former ought not to deny this, for
in the ultimate sense, material and mental
phenomena alone truly exist and in strict
reality they know no person or being. For
example: Men dig up lumps of earth from
certain places, pound them into dust, knead
this dust with water into clay, and from this
clay make various kinds of useful pots, jars,
and cups. Thus there exist various kinds of
pets, jars and cups in the world. Now
when discussion takes place on this subject,
if 11 were asked: "Are there earthen
pots and cups in this world?" the answer,
according to the conventional truth should
be given in the affirmative, and according to
the ultimate tr uth, in the negatIve, Sll1ce this
kind of truth admits only tbe positive exis-
tence of the earth cut of which the pots and
so forth were made. Of these two answers
the former requires no explanation inasmuch
as it is an answer acccrding to the established
usage: but as regards the latter, some explana-
tion is needed. In the cbjects that we
called" earthen pots" and " earthen cups ",
what really exists is only earth; not pots ncr
cups, in the sense of ultimate truth: because
the term <. earth" applies proj:erly not to
pots and cups but to actual substantIal earth.
There are also pots and cups made of iron
brass, sIlver, and gold. 1hese cannot be
called earthen pots and cups, since they are
not made of earth. The terms .. pots"
and "cups" also arc not terms descriptive
of earth bu t of ideas derived from the appear-
ance of pots and cups, such as their circular or
spherical shape and so on. 1 his IS obvious.
because the terms "pots" and" cups"
are not applied to the mere lumps of earth
which have no shape cr form of pots and
CL'pS. Hence it follows that the term" earth"
is not a term descriptive of pots and cups, but
of real earth; and also the terms .. pots'
and ., cups" are not terms descriptIve of
earth but of pictorial ideas (santhana-pannati
which have no separate elementary substant.e
other than the dust of clay, but are mere
conceptions presented to the mind by the
particular appearance, form, and shape of
the worked-up clay. Hence the negative
btatement according to the ultimate truth,
namely, that "no earthen pots and cups
exist" ought to he accepted without question.
Now we come to the analysis of things in
the ultimate sense. Of the two kinds cf
ultimate phenc mena, material and mental,
as mentioned above, the former is of twenty-
eight kinds:
(1) The four great essential elements, viz:
(I) The element of solidity
(2) The element of cohesiC'n, or the
holding, the fluid.
(3) The element of kinetic energy.
(4) The element of motior.
(II) The six bases, viz:-
(5) The eye basis
(6) The car basis
(7) The nose basis
(8) The tongue basis
(9) The body basis
(10) 1he heC1ft basis.
(Ill) 1hc two sexes, viz :-
(II) The male sex
(12) The fenlale sex.
(lV) One species of material quality of
life, viz:-
(13) the vital force.
(V) One species cf material quality of
nutrition, viz :-
(14) Edible food
(VI) The four sense fields, viz :_
(15) Visible form
(16) Sound
(17) Odour
(18) Savour.
_ These eightecn specics <lrc called hta-
rllp;i111 or genclic material qualities, (1S they
thl.! powcr of production.
(VII) One species of material quality
of limitation, viz :-
(!9) Tl:e element cfspacc.
(VlIJ) The (\\0 communications, viz.
(20) I ntimation through tIle bcdy
(21) Intimatien thrcugh speed.
(IX) The three plasticities, viz:-
(22) Lightness
(23) Pliancy
(24) Adaptability.
(X) Th fct;r salient viz:
(25) Integration
(26) Contil1l!apce
(27) DW1Y
(28) Imper mu nenec or death.
TI:cse last ten species are callcd Ajata-
riipani or non-geret:c materiel qualities,
as they do not the power of pro-
There :,re 54 kinds of mental phenomell(J.
Citta: mind or consciousness;
Cetasika : mental properties or concomi-
tants, fift)-two in r.umber and
Nibbana: Getting out of the cilcle cf
(Nibbana is here reckoned (lS a mental
phencmenon, 110t from the subjective, but
frem the objective point of view. Tr)
Citta me211S the faculty of investigating 11n
object (aram8na) or the faculty of taking
possession of an object, or the faculty of
knowing an ubject, or the faculty cf being
conscIous of 211 object.
Cetasikas are characters of conSCIOusness,
cr mental properties born of mind. or ccn-
comitant, of mind.
Nlbbana" means freedom from every kind
of infelicity.
(I) CONSCIOUSNESS is divided into
,ix c1asses:-
I. Cocsciollsncs> 01'
2. " sound
3. .
4. ., taste
5. " tOllch
6. .. nllnd.
$ r 10 __ __
. . . . .
. .' . '. .
1: fhe COil Clousncss ansltlg at thc e)c-
ba'l$ IS Ca lied the consciousness of sight, and
has (he fUllction of 'ccing.
2. The Con 'cic-usness arisirg at the car-basis
i- called the consciousness of and has
the function of hearing.
3. The Consciousness arising at the nose-
is called the consciousness of smell,
and has the function of smelling.
4. The Consciousness arising at the tongue-
basis is called the consciousness of taste,
a nd has the function of tasting.
5. The Ccnsciousness arising at the body-
basis is called the consciousness of touch.
and has the function of touchil'g.
6. The consciousness arising at the heart-
basis is called consciousness of mind. ln
the Arupa-Icka, however, mind-conscious-
ness arises without any basis. The mind-
is again subdivIded into four
(a) Kama-consciousness
(b) Rupa-consciousness
(c) Arupa-consciousness
(d) Lokutt,l[a- onsc1ousness.
(I) Of these, is that
which lies within the jurisdiction of desire
prevailing in Kama-Jolia (Kamu-tal)ha and
it is fourfold, thu,.: Moral (kusaJa)
Immornl (akusala), Resc1t znt (vipaka, and
Inefrective (kriya).
(b) Rilpn-cGnscious ness is the jhanic or
ecstatIc mi nd wbch has become free from
Kama-desire but still remains within tte
jurisdiction of the c1esire prevailIng in Rilpa
loka (Rilpa-taDh5). and i( is threefold, thus:
J neffective.
(c) Arupa-consciousness is also the jhanic
or ecstatic mini wr.ich has become free from
R upa-desire, hut still remains within the
jurisdiction cf the prevailing in the
(Arupa-taQh3), and it also is
three fold, thus:
(d) Lokuttara, or transcendental conscious-
ness is the noble mind (Ariya-citta) which
has become free from the tl'reefold desire,
and has transcend -d (hc tllfee rlanes, Kama,
Rupa and Ariipa. It is of'two kinds, thus:
Noble consciousness in the Path, and Noble
consciousness in tlie fn itlon.
Mental properties are of 52 kinds.
(u) The Seven Common Properties (Sabha
cittaka), so called on account of being
common to all classes of consciousness,
1. phassa (contact)
2. vedana (feeling)
3. san. fi a (perception)
4. cetana (volition)
5. ekaggata (concentration of mind)
6. jivita (ps)chtc life)
7. manaslkala (attenlion).
(b) The SIX Particulars (pakinnaka) so
called because they invariably enter into
composition with conSCIOusness, viz:
1. vitakka (initIal applicatIOn)
2. vicara (sustained application)
3. vlri) a (effort)
4. piti (pleasurable interest)
5. chanda (desire-te-do)
6. adhirr:ekkha (deciding).
The above thirteen kInds (2) and (b) are
called Mixtures (vimissaka), or better, as
rendered by Shwe Zan Aung "Un-morals",
as they are cemmon to both moral and
immoral consciollsneess in composition.
(c) The fourteen Iml110rals (papa-jati), viz:
I. lobha (greed)
2. dosa (hate)
3. moha (dullness)
4. ditthi (error)
5. (ccnceit)
6 issa (env))
7. macchariya (selfishness)
8. kukkucca (worry)
9. ahirika
10. anottappa (recklessness)
II. uddhacca (distractIon)
12. thina (sloth)
13. middha (torpor)
14. viciklccha
(d) The twenty-five Morals (kalayana-
,iatika) viz:
J. alobha (disinterestedness)
2. adosa (amity)
3. amoha (reason)
4. saddha (faith)
5. sati (mindfulness)
hiri (modesty)
<>ttappa (dIscretion)
tatramajjhattatii (balar:ce of mind)
kayiipassaddhl of mental
10. cittapassaddhi (composure of mmd)
],,1. kayalahuta (buoyancy of mental
]2. cittalahuta (buoyancy of mind)
13. Kayamuduta (pliancy of mental
14. citta mud uta (pliancy of mind)
15. kayakammaiiiiata (adaptability of
mental properties)
16. cittakammaiiiiata (adaptability of
17. kayapaguiiiiata (proficiency ofmen-
tal properties)
18. cittapaguiiiiata (proficiency of
19. kayujkata (rectitude of mental
20. cittujukata (rectitude of mind)
21. sammavaca (right speech)
22. sammakammanta (right action)
23. sammaajiva (right livelihood)
(the immediately preceding three
are called the Three Abstinences)
24. karuna (pity)
25. mudita (appreciation)
(The last two are called the two
Illimitables or Appamr.n fia.
1. Phassa means contact, and contact
means the faculty of pressing the object
(arammana), so as to cause the agreeable or
disagreeable sap (so to speak) to come out.
So it is the main principle or prime mover
of the mental properties in the uprising.
If the sap cannot be squeezed out, thcn all
objects (arammana) will be of no usc.
2. Vedana means feeling, or the faculty
of tasting the sapid flavour thus squec/cd
out by the phassa. All creatures arc sunk
in this vedana.
3. Saiiii a means perceptioll, or the act or
perceiving. All creatures become wise thro-
ue this perception, if they perceive things
WIth sufficient clearness in accordance with
their own ways, custom, creed, and 0 forth.
4. Cetani! means yolition or the fa(;ulty
01 determining the activities of the mental
coacomitants so as to bring them into har-
mony. In the common speech of the world
we are accUitomed to say of one who uper-
... piece of work that he i the perfor-
... AutboroCthe work. W u.ually y:
tIdI work RI doDO by So-and- 0 ".
or .. This is such and such a per:;on's great
work ". It is s9m.ewhat the same in con-
nection with the ethical aspects of things-
The volition is called the doer
(kamma), as it determines the activities of
the mental concomitants, or supervises all
the actions of body, of speech, and of mind.
As every kind of prosperity in this life is the
outcome of the exertions put forth in work
performed with body, with speech and with
mind, so also the issues of new life or exis-
tence are the results of the volition (a,ynch-
ronous volition is the name given to it in the
Patthana, and it is known by the name of
Kamma in the actions of body, speech and
mind) performed in previous existences.
Earth, water, mountains, trees, grass and so
forth, are all born of Utu, the element of
warmth and they may quite properly be called
the children or the issue of the warmth-
element. So also all living creatures may be
called the children 01 the issue of volition, or
what is called Kamm<l-dhiitu. as they are all
born through Kamma.
5. Ekaggata means concentration of
mind. 11 is also called Right Concentration
(samadhi.) It becomes prominent in the
Jh:inasamzp,ltti the atlainme.1t of the
supernormal modes of mind called Jhjna.
6. J
vita means the life of memal pheno-
mena. It is pre-eminent in pre,; the
continuance or mental phenomena.
7. l\1anasik:ira means attentil)n. Its fun-
ction is to brin!! the desired obiect into view
of consciousIH:;S.
Thcse sc\cn rador; lIC calkd S.lbba-
cittika. Uni\ crsal Prl'pcrtie..;_ :IS
enter in\l' \ he comp()silion pf .111 ClHlscious-
properties are not
classes of consciousness,
enter into their composition.
they are called Pakinnaka or Particul-
ars. They make thirteen if they are added
to the Cqmtnon Properties ; and both, taken
together are called Vimissaka (mixtures)
as they enter into composition both with
moral and immoral consciousness.
14. Lobha ethically means greed, but
psychically it means agglutination of mind
with objects. It is sometimes called TaQha
(craving), sometimes Abhijjha (covetousness)
sometimes Kama (lust) and sometimes Raga
(sensual passion).
15. Dosa in its ethical sense is hate, but
psychically it means the striking of
mind at the object. It has two other names
i.e. Patigha (repugnance), and 8yapada
16. Moha means dullness or lack of
understanding in philosophical matters. It
is also called Avijjha (nescience), An nana
(notknowing) and Adassana (not-seeing).
The above three just mentioned are called
the three Akusalamfda, or the three main
immoral roots ,as they are the sources of
all immoralities.
17. Ditthi means error or wrong seeing
in matters' of philosophy. It takes imper-
manence for permanence, and non-soul for
soul, and moral activities for immoral ones;
or it denies that there are any results of
action, and so forth.
18. Mana means conceit or wrong
estimation. It wrongly imagines the
name-and-torm (nama-rupa) to be an "I",
and estimates it as noble or ignoble accor-
to the caste, creed, or family, and so
on, to which the person belongs.
19. Issa means envy, or disapprobation,
lack of appreciation, or absence of
to congratulate .others upon
in life. It also means a
find fault with others.
means selfishness,
unwillingness to share with
32. Satl means constanr mindtulness In
good things so as not to forget them. It is
a lso called (Retention), and Utthana
33. Hiri means modesty which connotcs
hesitation in doing sinfui acts through shame
of heing known to do them.
34. Ottappa means discretion which
connotes hesitation in doing sinful deeds
through fear of self-accusation, of accusation
by or of punishments in spheres
of mIsery (apayabhaya).
35. Tatramajjhattata is balance of mind
that is to say, that mode of mind which
neither cleaves to an object nor repulses it. .is called Upek.kha-brahmavihara (equ-
anImIty of the Subhme Abode) in the cate-
gory of Brahmavihara ; and Upekkhasam-
bojjhanga (equanimity that pertains to the
factors of Enlightenment) in the BO.ijhanga.
36. Kayapassaddhl means composure of
mental properties.
37. Cittapassaddhi means composure of
mind. By composure it is meant that the
mental properties are set at rest and become
cool, as they arc free from the three Immoral
(P:ipa-dhamma I which cause annoyance 111
doing good deeds.
38. Kaya-Iahut5 means buoyancy of
mental properties.
39. Citta-lahuta means buoyancy of
mind. By buoyancy it is meant that the
mental properties become light. as they
are free from the Immorals which weil!h
against them in the doing of good ueeds. ' It
should be explained in the same manner as
the rest.
40. Kaya-ll1uduta means pliancy of
mental opprerties.
41. meal!> pliancy or mind.
42. Kaya-kamm, i'ii'i aLI me-ans fltnes, of
work of mental properties.
43. means the fitness
of the mind 1'01' work.
44. Kaya-pagurlilat:i means proficicncy
of mental properties.
45. Citta-pagun natd mea ns proficiencY
of mind. Proficiency here means 'kilfulness .
46. K;;yujukata mean, rectitude of
47. Citt2jLlbta means rectitude of mind.
48.. Samma-v:Jc3 me.lns Right Speech.
that IS abstl11cnce from the fourfold sinful
modes of spo::ech i.e. lying, slandering,
abusive language and idle talk.
49. S:1mmakammanta means Right
Action, that is abstinence from the threefold
sinful acts, i.e. killing, stealing, and
50. Samm:Hijiva means Right Livelihood.
These three Samma-vaca, Sall1ma-kamman-
ta and Samma-a jiv:1 'are called the Triple
Abstinences. .
51. Karul)a meatts pity, sympathy, com-
passIOn or wishing to help those who are in
52. Mudita means appreciation of, or
congratulation upon or delight in the success
of others.
53. These two are respect:vely called
Karul)a-brahmaviha ra and mudita-brahma-
They are also called Appaman n a
(IlhmJlables according to the definition
. Appam2nesu sattesu bhav3 ti Appa-
manna", that is: "Appam,nna is so called
because it exists without limit among
living beinl!s."
. Nibbana nlay be classified into three kinds,
VIZ:- First Nibb2na. Second Nibbana and
Third Nibba na.
Freeing or deliverance from thc plane or
Inlscry IS the first
Freeing or delivernnce from the plane of"
Kama-Ioka is tile Second Nibb:ina.
Freeing or deli\uanee from the planes of
Rflpa-Ioka and Arflpa-loka is the Third

ConscioLl<;I1CSS one, Mentztl Propenies fifty-
two, Nibb:;na one, altogether make up fifty-
fOLlr Mental Phenomena. Thus the twenty
cight material phenomena and 54 mental
phenomena m:1ke up 81 ultimate things \\hieh
are called Ultimate Fact5. On the other hand,
Self, SOLlI, Creature, Person and so forth
arc COI1'.'entional Facts '
. , Ceasing and abstaining from Evil.
Refraining from into;xieatinl! drink
Vigi lance in righteolls acIS: ,
This i<; the n")st 1l1lSriciollS Performance'"
.)'1/1111- '" i[l:\lII .
lhl' Four i\ I:lh:lbhiitlls or th(' Four (.n'at , .... l'lItials.
1.111.1 \,h ii \'1 1\\1';\11$ II)
I) 1 h' l'kllh'1I1 l,r t hc ck'ml'lIt
,f '.Irlh : Ih,lt is, till' fllnd,1t\wl1tal principle
'r f IIl1d,Hil)" l'j' m.\tll'r. 1t C\lsts in
t',)Il, t' mallY k.1I1(1$, as, morc
I .Ihhl''':', sllI1'llcss. 1111 rc lifTl1css,
lh'rl' ",fine,s, pliability. III rc pliability, and
111 ..
(2) The clemen I of cohesion is the clement
r \\;\Icr, Ihat is, the cohe ive power of
n:1I1'n:11 qualitie \\ hereby thcy form into
'1.10;: I r bulk. or lump. Tilerc are apparently
'l:lny kinds of cohesion.
l:) The element of heat is the element of
tire. th:\! i , the power to burn, to inflame,
and to mature the material qualities. This
maturative quality is of two kinds, namely,
the maturative quality of heat and the
maturative quality of cold.
(4) The element of motion is the element
of wlIld, that is, the power of supporting
or re ' isting. It is of many kinds,
as supportive, resistive, conveying,
vibratory, diffusive, and so on. From these
four great Elements all other forms of matter
are derived or are born. Or, expressed in
another way: All matter is a combination,
in one proportion or anNher, of these four
elementary properties.
The Six Bases.
Basis is that where consciousness generates,
arises, develops, or that whereupon it
(5) The eye-basis is the element of the
sensorium within the eye,ball where con-
sciousness of sight is generated; and the
consciousness of sight connotes the power of
seeing various kinds of colours, appearances,
forms and shapes.
(6) The car-basis is the element of the
;;ensorium within the organ of the ear where
consciousness of sound is generated, and the
consciousness of sound connotes the power
of hearing various kinds of sound.
(7) The nose-basi, the clement of the
Within the organ where
consciousness of smell is generate(l, and the
consciousness or smcll connotes the power or
smelling diDcn:nl kinds or odours.
(8) The tongue-basis is the clement of
the sensorium upon the surface of the tongue
where consciousness of taste is generated,
and the consciousness of I aste connotes
the power of tasting many kinds such as
sweet, sour, and so forth.
(9) The body-basis is the element of the
sensorium locating itself by pervading the
whole body within and without from head
to foot, where consciousness of touch is
generated, and the consciousness of touch
connotes the power of feeling or sensing
physical contacts.
(10) The heart-basis a kind of very fine,
bright, subtle matter within the organ of
heart where mind consciousness, comprising
sixty-nine classes of the same in number is
From these six bases all classes of con-
sciousness are generated and arise.
The Two Bhavas or Sexes.
Bhava means production or productive
(11) The rtthi-bha va or the female sex
is a certain productive principle of matter
which produces several different kinds of
female appearances and feminine characters.
(12) The Pum-bha va or the male sex is
a certain productive principle of matter which
produces several different kinds of male
appearances and masculine characters.
The two sexes respectively locate themselves
in the bodies of male and female, like the
body-basis pervading the entire frame, from
the sole of the foot to the top of the head
within and without. Owing to their pre-
dominant features the distinction between
masculinity and femininity is readily discerned.
"I have preached the truth without making any distinction between exoteric and
esoteric doctrine; for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the Tathiigata has no such thing
as the closed fist of a teacher who keeps something back."
M ahiiparillibbiilla SWla
.T\vita-RUpa or Material Quality of Life.
(13) J,vita means life, that is, the vital
force which controls the material qualities
produced by Kamma and keeps them fresh
in the same way that the water of a pond
preserves the lotus plant therein from decay
and so informs them as to prevent from
withering. The Common expressions of
ordinary speech, "a being lives" or "a
being dies" are descriptive merely of the
presence or absence of this material quality
oflife. When it ceases forevc.r with reference
to a particular fOl m, we say" a being dies"
and we say" a being is living." so long as it
continues to act in any particular form.
This also locates itself by permeating the
whole body.
Ahara-Riipll or . the Material Quality of
(14) Ahara-rupa means element of
essential nutriment that chiefly nourishes or
promotes the growth of material qualities.
Just as the element of water that resides in
earth or that falls from the sky, nourishes
trees or plants or mainly promotes their
growth or helps them to fecundate, develop
and last long; so also this material quality
of nutrition nourishes or mainly helps the
four kinds of bodies or matter produced by
the four causes, namely, kamma, mind,
temperature and food, to fecundate and
grow. It is the main supporter of the mate-
rial quality of life, so that undertaking
various kinds of work in the world for the
sake of getting one's daily food, is called a
man's living or livelihood.
Gocara-Rupas or the Four Sense-Fields.
Gocara means sense-field or object of the
five senses.
The object "visible form", is the
quahty of colour or of shape of various
(16) The object" sound" is the quality
of sound itself.
(17) The object" odour" is the quality
of scent or smell.
(18) The object" savour" is the quality
of savour or taste. Mention is not nUll'e
of touch or the tangible, it consists
In the Great Essentials or Elements. It is
of three kinds, Viz., Pathavl-potthahba or
extension tangible, Tejll-potthahba or
temperature tangible. Viiyo-potthabba or
movement tangible. Counting in the t:\I1-
gible aiso we thus get five sense-fields in all.
Of these, visible form is the object of eye:
sound, of ear; odour, of nose: savour, of
tongue; and the tangible, of body.
Akasa-Dh:-ltu or Material Quality of
(19) Akasa-dhatu means the element of
space. 'In a heap of sand there is a space
between each particle of sand. Hence we
may say that there are as many spaces as
there are particles of sand in the heap; and
we can also distinguish the particles of sand
from one another. When the heap is
destroyed the particles of sand are scattered
about, and the space enclosed between them
disappears also. Similarly, in very hard
lumps of .stone, marble, iron, and metal,
there are JIlnumerable atoms and particles
of atoms which are called kala pas or groups.
Into every finest, smallest particle of an atom
there .enter.s at least these following eight
qualities of matter, i.e., the Four Essentials
and colour, odour, savour, and nutritive
essence. And each group is separated by
the element of space which locates itself
between them. Therefore there i1' at least
as much of space as there is of the matter of
the lump. It is to tile existence of
this space that lumps of stone and iron can
be broken up, or cut int0 pieces, or pounded
into dust, l)r melted.
The Two Yiniiatti-Riipa or "lodes of
Vinnatti-rupa means mode of communica-
tion or sign employed to communicate the
willingness, intention. or purposc. of ('nc
person to the understanding of anL1ther.
(20) K1iya-\iMlatti is that pc,'uliar n1l1\'e-
ment of body by which one's purpl'se I'
made known to others.
(21) VacI-vinii;lIti is that peculiar n1<)\','-
ment of sounds in speech by which
purpose is made known tl) L1t her. .
Those who canlllll sec the m111ds l,r ,)ther,
know the purPl)SC. the intention. thl' \\
ness, of others thnHlgh tIll' USt' ,)f thest'
two modes of l'PllIllIunil'ati,)n \'r Viiii'uui-
ril pas. Tht'st' two arc <'mplt))t'd I1I1t \ml) III
comnlllllicntint\ nne's purP\'St \)1' int 'nti\,,, tl'
th.: understand in ' l)f ;I Illlt her, hut ,lis" III
mo\'ing the parts llf tht' ht)dy whill'
and so (\)rth. al'Cortiing 1\' 1'\1 n \\ ill :
IS al 0 VI h:arning by heart. t ' <'n ,-
self, 'Intl \1 forth.
rht:' fhrt't:'-Yiklira-Rupas or the Three
YI\...i\ra means the peculiar cxprcssion or
condition of the Jata -r upas, thc
genetic material qualities:
(22) Lahutii IS the lightness of the
material qualit).
(23) l\1udut:i is the pliancy of the material
4ualit) .
(24) Kammaiio.ata is the adaptability of
the two media of communication. When
one of the Four Great Essentials falls out
of order and becomes disproportionate to
the rest in any parts of the body, these
parts are not light as usual in applying them-
selves to some work, but tend to become
heavy and awkward; they are not pliable
as usual, but tend to become hard, coarse
and rigid; they are not as adaptable as usual
in their movements in accord with one's
wilJ, but tend to become difficult and strained.
Likewise when the Essentials are out of
order, the tongue, the lips, are not adaptable
according to the wish in speaking, but
become firm and stiff. When the Four
Great Essentials are in good order and the
parts of the body are in sound health, the
matter of the body (rupa) is said to be in
possession of these qualities, i.e. lightness,
pliancy, and adaptability, which are called
I he. three plasticities (vika ra-ru pas).
The four Lakkhal;a-Rupas or the Four
Salient Features.
Lakkhana means salient featurc Dr Illark
bv means which it is decisively kncwn that
all material and menta! qualities are subject
tll impermanence.
(25) Upacaya-rupa means both integra-
tion and continuance of integration, of which
two the former may be called Acaya (initial
integration) and the latter Upacaya (sequent
(26) Santati-rupa means continuance.
From the cessation of sequent integration
10 the commencement of decay the pheno-
menon continues without any inc-ease
or decrease. And such a continuous state
of material phenomenon is called Santati ' or
Pavatti (Prolongation). The produclion
(jati) of the groups of material qualities alone,
is described by the three of Acaya,
Upacaya and Santati.
(27) J<lrata is Ihe of growing old.
of" decliJle, of" maturity. (in the
of being ready to fall), decayedness. cadUCity.
rottcnness, or corruption.
en) Aniccata mcans impermanence,
death, termination, cessation, brokenness:
or the state of disappearing. (It is our Ledl
Sayadaw's style in writing to express an idea
by means of as many synonymous terms as
he can collect, and a translator, such as I.
who has not fully attained the mastery of
the language in which the treasures of Bur-
mese literature are to be deposited, can WIth
difficulty furnish the translation with a
sufficient number of appropriatc terms).
A pIa nt has five periods, the Acaya period.
the Upacaya period, the Santati period, tht'
Jarala period, and the Aniccata period. It
is first generated then grows up gradually
or develops day by day and after the cessa-
tion of growth it stands for sometime in the'
fully developed state. After that it begins
to decay and al last it d.,es and disappears
leaving nothing behind. Here the prlmar\'
generat ion of the matenal qualities is called
amra period; the gradual growth or d.:\clop
mei1t, the upacata period: and their standiJlY-
in their fully developed state, the .Iwl/uli
period. However, during these three
periods there are momentary decl) S I khal}lka
jarata) and momentary (khaf)lbt-
aniccata), hut they arc not
The declining t,r til..: plclJlt is calkd t
pcriod. Durinf: the periud or tiler,-
arc momcntar\, and
momentary hlil
they are -also inconspicllolls
(Thc COIllI1lCnt,ltO!' of the Dhll11ll1<\sal.-
!!.C1n\" in his Athasidin\. e\flf:lillS this <111
illustration of a well ' illl!. our nn the ..
of a river. The first gushing Ollt of water
in the well. )1(' j, lIke the .'\c,lva PI" the
material phenomcnoll : the Aushilig up or
the gradual incre,1sing or tile rising up of
water to the full. is like the Lfpacaya : and
the flnociing Iikc the S:lntati. Tr.)
The death of thc plant :Int! the tinal
appearance of all its con'titu-.:nt called
the alliecal :1 period. Durin,,- whal we call
death there arc 1ll0111l'l1l<1ry births dl1d
decavs bUI tlte\' invisihk. Till' fih'
,llIotled "10 \\ hat i, I,") th-
vicwarc shown here only in llrd:r tn he!"
ont' to grasp the idea 01" i akklt'lT.u r\1p:I'. '
In a'similar manner we mav divide. in the
life of a fruit tree, the branches, the Je,lI'cs,
the buds, the flowers. and the fruits into five
.periods each. A fruit can be divided into five
periods thus: the first period of appearance,
the second period of growth or development
the third period of standing, the fourth
period of ripening and decaving:, and the fifth
.period of falling from the stem or total
destruction or final disappearance.
Just as we get five periods in the life of
plants so is it with all creatures and also with
all their bodily parts, with their movement s
or bodily actions such as going, coming,
standing, sitting, with their spcech and with
their thought. The beginning, the middk.
and the end are all to be found in the exi.,tence
of every material thing.
The Four Producers or Generators of Material
There are rour kinds of producers which
produce material phcnomena :--..
l. Kamma,
2. citta,
3. utu,
4. ahiira.
Kamma means moral and immoral aclions
committed in previous cxistences.
Citta means mind and mental cOllCOlllitants
existing in the present life.
Utu means the two states or Tejo-ci hli t lI.
the fire-element, i.e., heat (unha-te!p) and
cold (srta-tejo).
Ahara means the two kinci,. 0' nulriti\ 'e
essence, internal nutriment that obtains from
the time of conception and nutri-
ment that exists in edible food.
Out of the twenty-eight species (,r
qualities, the nine species, i.e., the ,!X bases,
two sexes, and life, are produced only by
Kamma. The two media of cOllllllunica-
tions are produced only by Citta.
SOllnd is produced by Citta apd lItu.
The three plasticities arc produced by Citta,
lItu. and Aha ra. Of the remaining thirteen.
excluding Jarata (decav) and - Aniccata
(impermanence), the 'eleven -(l\mprising
the Four Great Essentials, nutriment, visible
form, odOllr, savour. tile elelllcnt or space.
and continuance arc produced
by the four causes These cleven ,t/ways
severally to the four classes of
phenomena produced by the {our
There are no phenomena that enter into
composition without these. Material
phenomena enter into composition with
these, forming groups of eight, nine, and so
ferth, and each group is called Rupa-KaHipa.
As to the two salient features, decay and
impermanence. they exclude themselves rrom
the material qualities born of the four causes
as they di sorganise what has been prqduccd.
Of these eighty-two ultimate thing' ,
Yihblillu. as it lies outside the
scope of birth (.Iati), does not need any
originiltor for its arising: neilher does it
need any cause LOr its maintenance since it
also does not come within the range of decay
and death (Jara-Maraf)a). Hence Nibhlillll
is unconditioned and unorganized. BUI,
with the exception of Nibbana, the eighty-one
phenomena , both mental and material.
being within the spheres of birth, decay and
dt'ath, a re conditioned and organized things,
Among the four causes already dealt with
in connection with the material qualities,
KOl)ill1a is merely an originator and Cilia
(mind) is simply a stimulus. The physic;;!
body develops, stands, and is maintained by
the power of the warmth-element called U/II
and by the power of the essence of nutriment.
I f the forces of the latter two come to an end,
the forces of the former two also can no
longe:' operate but cease simultaneously
. In thG ose of trees, for example, the seeds
arc only their They grow, develop.
and arc maintained hy means of the clements
of earth and water. If these two
fail them, the power 01' the seed also
along with them. Here the physical body
is like the tree: K(//1/lI1a is like the seed:
the warmth-element, or what is called LIlli
is like the earth; the nutritive essence is like
the rain-water, which falls regularly at proper
seasons: and mind is like the
and the heat of the sun, both of which give
support from outside.
With regard to the causes or mind and
lI1ental properties, three things needed
for the ;Irising ur Resultants; a past "alllllla,
a basis to depend upon. and an object. rhe
lirst is like the seed of the tr;;c. the hasis i,
like the carth. and thc object is like thc rain-
--------__ ----__ --______ .. ..
Two things are necessary for the arising of
each of the mental phenomena of the Morals,
the Tmffiorals and the Ineffectives, :- a basis
to depend upon, and an object. However,
to be more detailed, full rational exercise
of mind (yollisomanosikara) is needed
for the Morals, and defective irrational
exercise of mind (ayoniso-manasikara) for
the lmmorals. The 1 neffectives which have
apperceptional functions have the same
causes as the Morals. As for the two classes
of consciousness called" Turning towards,"
if they precede the Morals they have the same
causes as the Morals, and if they precede
the Immorals they have the same causes as
the Immorals. Here yoniso-manasikara
means proper exercise of reason, and ayoniso-
manasikara means improper exercise of
reason. These are the of the
two classes of consciousness called Avajjano,
"Turning towards." On seeing a man, if
the manasikara be rationally utilized, moral
consciousness arises; and if the manasikara
be irrationally utilized, immoral conscious-
ness arises. There is no particular object
which purely of itself will cause to arise only
a moral consciousness, or only an immoral
consciousness. The process of the mind
may be compared to a boat of which the
Avajjana-citta or "Turning-towards-thought
is the helmsman. As the course of a boat
lies entirely in the hands of the helmsman,
so also the occurrence of the moral and the
immoral consciousness lies entirely in the
hands of Avajana.
What the seed is to the tree, that the
Manasikara is to the Morals and the Immorals
What the earth is to a tree, that their "Basis"
is to the Morals and Immorals. While
what the is to a tree, that their
" object" is to the Morals and Immorals.
We wiII now set forth the causes in another
Each of the six classes of consciousness
has four causes. For the arising of the
consciousness of sight there is needed
Cakkhu-vaHhu, Ruparammana, A/oka and
Manasikara. Of these, Manasikara is the
name of the Avajjana-citta which turns the
process of mind in the direction of the object
of sight. Aloka means light. Unless there
is light, the function of seeing will not take
place, nor the process of cognition. Cakk !1lI-
vatthu means eye-basis; and Rurarammona
means object of sight, literally, form-object.
For the arising of the consciousness of
Sound, there is needed Sota-vatthu (ear-basis)
Sadda-rammana (object of sound), Akiisa
and A[ollasika.l:a. Here Akasa means the
space th rough which sound communicated
to the ear. The function of hearing can
take place only when it is present; the process
of ear-door cognitions also occurs onlv when
hearing takes place. -
For the arising of the consciousness of
smell, there is needed Ghand.-vatthu (nose-
basis), Gandh"9.rammaQa (object of smell,)
Vafa and Manasikara. Here' Vafa means
the air in the nose or the inhaled air. If
this is not present, odours cannot come into
contact with the nose-basis, and consequently
the function of smelling and the nose-door
cognitions cannot taKe place.
For the arising of the consciousness of
taste, there is needed .1\ vha-vatthu (tongue-
basis), Rasarammana (object of taste), Apa
and Manasikara. Here Apa means wetness
of the tongue. If the tongue is dry, the
savour or sapidity cannot come into contact
with the tongue-basis, and consequently the
function of tasting and the tongue-door
cognitions cannot take place.
For the arising of the consciousness
of touch, there is needed Kaya-vatfhu body
basis). Photthabbarammana (object of touch),
Thaddha and Manasikara. Here Thaddha
means the quality of the object of touch, i.e.,
the degree of coarseness of it. Only a some-
what coarse touch can make an impression
upon the body-basis. If the object of touch
is too subtle, it cannot impinge upon the
body-basis. And unless there is impinge-
ment, neither consciousness of touch nor the
body-door. cognitions can arise.
For the arising of the consciousness of
mind, there is needed Hadaya-vatthu (heart-
basis), Dhammarammana object of thought)
Manodvara (mind--door), and Manasikara.
Of these, Dhammarammana means all objects
comprising all material qualities other than
the five-fold objects, all mental qualities, all
ideas, and Nibbana. As a matter of fact,
the nve-fold objects (form, sound, smell,
taste and touch) are also the objects of
consciousness of mind, but in order to set
forth what is not related to the five doors.
or five senses, only thought-objects are
mentioned here. Mano-dvara or mind-door
means the continuum of sub-consciousness.
Though the heart-basis is the place where
consciousness of mind arises, since it does
not possess the appropriate kind of sensuous
organs, the impressions of objects cannot
appear in it, hence they have to appear in the
mind-door only.
The Two Abhinnanas or THE TWO
Abhiiinana means super-knowledge, or the
faculty of knowing pre-eminently beyond that
of nrdinary mankind. I t is of two kinds,
SO/llallta-abhinn 'ana and Dhaml11a-abhi-
nn 'alia.
SWllalha-abiiin ~ n a means super-knowledge
acquired through the carrying out or the
exercises in Calm (SaIJlQ;ho). It is of five
difi"erent kinds :-
l. Jddhil'idha-ahhinn an:1.
2. Dihbosola-abhiii n ana.
3: Celopariya-ahhinnana.
4. Puhbellivasa-abhinn alia.
5. Yalhakammupaga-ahhinn alia.
The lirst is the supernormal power, ni'
p a s ~ i n g through the air, sinking into the earth,
by oneself creating wonderful things, trans-
forming oneself into different personalities.
The second is extreme sensitiveness of
hearing sueh as is possessed by Celestial
The third is the supernormal knowledge of
others' thought.
The fourth is the supernormal knowledge
of previous existences.
The fifth is the supernormal knowledge of
living beings and of the kUlIIlJla,l' in accordance
with which they are thrown down into the
various spheres of existence; it resembles
such supernormal vision as is possessed by
Celestial beings.
DholJlma-abhin fiana means the insight by
which are discerned all the things or ultimate
truth mentioned in the sect.ion 011 the Truths,
together with their respective characteristics
beyond the range of conventional truth.
It is divided into three kinds:-
I. Sutoll1aya-nana, knowledge acquired
by learning.
2. CinrufIlaya-nana, knowledge acqui-
red by reasoning.
,. Biz a ranalltaya-n a /la, kllowkdgc: ac-
qUired by contemplation.
The last of the three is again subdivided
into two :-
I. Anubodhu-n ana.
2. Pativeda-nana.
Of these last two, the rormer is the triple
insight into Impermanence, Infelicity, and
No-soul, or it is the insight into things with
all their characteristics as they truly arc.
The latter is the transcendental knowledge
of the Four Paths. By this knowledge, which
can dispel the darkness of the defilements
(ki/esa) such as error, perplexity, and so
forth, those who have attained the Paths are
brought into the light.
The Three Parinnas
Pllrinna Illeans profound knowledge. It is
of three kinds, viz :-
I. );ftla-parinna (Auto logical know-
2. Tirana-parinn a (Analytical know-
3. Pahfrna-parinn'5. (Dispelling know-
:t\:ata-pari?ii'ia means a profound and accu-
rate discernment of mental and material
phenoillena with all their proximate causes,
and also of Nibbana, as shown in the previous
sections on the Truths and the Causes.
J t discerns things deeply by means of Dha-
mma-ahhi?in. ana (philosophical knowledge)
in their ultimate aspects, dispelling all merely
pictorial ideas or representations (sanlhana-
pan?ia/li) such as hair, hair of the body, and
so forth. Even if all of these are not dis-
cerned, ir only the Four Great Essentials
out of the twenty-eight mat"rial phenomena
are discerned accurately in the aforesaid
manner, it may be said that the function of
N;ila-parinna as regards Rupa (rOfm), is
accomplished. As regards Nama, the mental
side, ir only rour of the mental things, i.e.,
mind, feeling, perception, and volition, are
thoroughly discerned in the aforesaid
manner, it may also be said that the function
of Kalapari1i na as regards .",'al11a is fulfilled.
Jf NibMlliI can also be discerned as shown
abuve till: i'ullctiOLl or Naltl-parinna would
be fully n:ali/ed.
'Thus monks, the Tathagata, being such an one in things seen, heard sensed, cognised.
is "such". Moreover than "He who is such" there is none other greater'or more excellent,
I declare.'
Anguttara Nik1iya. ii, 23. IV, lIt. 24.
'II j',II/'I-/'clrtil:i ,\ a a lid
:l(l ur:lIl.' llr phello-
lll(ll In ('lh melltal and \\ Ith Illsil..dlt
illtll \\,I\ill!,!. and \\aninC!, b\ sh.ilrull"
til:!,!. Il le I.'pnlinuil\ llr and in:Ilerlals
l \Ilil/a and /'UpcI}- illio momentary ultimates.
It is l1! three h.inti<. :-
All icca-/Je/r,fl n a. 2. Dill, k I/(/-/illri-
3. AlIllll([-llarin n a.
or these three, . llIicca-/i([l"Inna means either
a rer\Cd or a qualified kllowkdge or the law
of death (1I111/"{/QU). Here by de:lth Illeant
the t\\U kinds of the same, conventional
death ( .I(llIllIlllliIlW/"{IQ([) and ultimate death
(flllrGIIICllI/wIIWntoa). or these two terms,
by conventional death we mean that kind or
ueath conccrning which we are accustomed
to sa), according to the conventional truth,
"to die some time is unavoidable 1'01'
":\CI") living person or every living creature."
l3y ultimate death we meall the momentary
ueath of mental and material phenomena
\1 hich innull1erable tillles even in one
u'ly. The ronnel' neither the real
salient ICalure vI' Impermanence, nor docs it
lic properly \litI1in the domain or UllicC(J-
jJllJ"inn a, hut only or the n t:allection of'
death (lIIuJ"(Joallllssuli). In it is only
the lattel, ultimate death, which exhibit:, the
salient feature of Imperillanence, and lies
within tile uOll1ain or Allic('([-l'
Duk/,/w-fJurinn.a means either a perrect or
a qualitied kllowledge or tile illtrinsie cilar,tc-
telistic III or infelicity. lIere III is or twu
kinds :-
j 11).
Vcd([.I"ila-dll/,;;'h!l (Pain-feeling ill).
B/1I/.1"([1 t/w-duk/, II([ (I :C<I r-prod uci ng
Of these two, hy Vedoyilu-dllkk/IU, bodily
and mental pain, arc meant; anti hy bodily
pain is meant the unbearable, unpleasant
that comes to the various rarts of" the
hody; while l11ental rain means pains
a'; Soka (sorrow), ParidCl'{/ (lamentation),
j)oll/anassCl (grief), (despair), "hich
arc experienced by mind. Blwm!/ha-dukk-
flus are those pains which rail within
the sphere oi Bhu)'f/-n. ana (knowledge of
things as fearful), an J of the Adi lIara-n. ana
(knowledge of things as d?ngerou<): J2li-
dukkha (ill of birlr), J(!Jd-dukkha (ill of
decay), Marary.a-duf.:Uw (ill of death).
.<';ul1khara-dukkha (ill of conditionality), anc!
I if!ariIl21I1a-dukkha (ill of" changeability),
v, hich will bc explai.1ed afterwards.
Ilefe is <In illustration to thL:
difference betwn:n till' vec!ayiw-t/ukkllil and
b"UI'(/tI/IIH!Il/,!,//(/. A man has a dangerous
disease. I!e Iws to live on a simple dict, slich
as vegl'lables and rruit, so as to kL:ep hil11seli
healthy and the disease in a subdued
condition. II' he takes rich diet, such as
poultry, fish, meat, and confectionery, evcn
though a sense or comrort and enjoyment
may accompany such a dainlY l11L:al, ancr
or it he will suffer all110st deadly
pain for the whole of that day or maybe for
many days from indigestion, which will
cause to arise again in full force the disease
thal was subsiding. The more dainty the
meal was, the longer will he suITer. Now
suppose that a rriend of his, with a view
to acquiring merit, brings him some nicely
cooked, buttered rice, lowl ,nsh, and meat.
The 111 a 11, fearing the agony of pain which
he will have to undergo if he eat
of thc l11eal so well prepared, though only
for a lew 1110l11cnts, has to thank fricnu
but decline it, telling him that thc l11eal is too
rich lor him, and that should he partake of' it
he would be sure to sutler. In this instance,
the richly prepared food is, or course, the
pleasu ra ble object (l'cdayiluslIklw- valthu), for
it will probably furnish a nice savour to the
palate whilc it is being ealen, which feeling of
pleasurc is called Vct/al'itasukha. But to
him who that it will causc him
pain as may break down his health, thi s sal11e
food is really an unpleasurablc object. I-k
shrinks 1'1"0111 and rears it, ror he knows that
the better the savour the longer he must sulkr;
hence the pleasure his palate will derive rnlln
the luod is to hil11 a real lear-producing iI!.
In the world, he who has not got rid or the
error or Ego ,1 nd become salC agai nsl the
danger or the dispersion or life (vinipa/ww-
hhayo), and its pas,age to realms or misery is
like the aforesaid man who h;ls
disease. The n;stel1ces or mel1, Devas and
Brahmas, and the pleasures experienced there-
in, are like the richly prepared rood al1d the
lCeiing or pleasure deri\ed rrom it. .] he
state or being reborn ill dilTerelll e\i,tcncc:,
after death is like the agon) 'Ahieh the man
has to suffer aner the enjoyment of the food.
Here Veda.rila-C/ukkha is synonymous with
Duk/,!7a-,('dol.a which is present in the
Triad at' ,)'lIkhaya-l't?dallaya-.I'([III/Ja_
.1/llIa -d"rlllllll 'J , Dllk I, kfJ yo - I'edallaya-.\{/III/'(/-
.1 1111 a -dhClI1/1l/rl, and Adllkk//(/IIIII.llIkhu 1"11_
l'cc!Cll/a)"i1-.lwlljlU)"IlIlU - ii/iii III III a . j]llII)"a lIill/o
. .
. _. ..:'. . .
----..,.- -
duld/III is synonymous with /)lIl-kh(/-.I'(/('('(/1ll
and with DIII,klwlII, which is present in th..:
three salient features, Anicca, DIII,kllU, anti
Hence, the perreet as well as the qualified
knowledge of the intrinsic nature of the ill
or the existences of men, Devas and Brah1l1as,
as of the pleasures experienced therein, is
called the Dukkha-parinn ii.
Anatta-parinn a means the perfect or the
qualified know\t:dge or things mental and
material as possessing the characteristic
of" No-soul." By thi, knowledge or things
as no-soul, the Allal/a-nana, all the mental
and material phenomena that belong
to the ultimate truths are discerned as having
no-soul. By it also is discerned the non-
personality of the" person" of conventional
truth. Neither are persons and creatures
discerned as the soul or personality of mental
and material phenomena; nor is it discerned
that there exists, apart from these, a soul or
personality which ncvt:r dies hut transmi-
grates 1'1'0111 ont: existencc to another. I f this
knowledge attains to its highe,t degree,
it is called Allal/a-jiarinn 2. The triple Pari-
nn ;-1 (of Allicca, Dllkkl/(/, and Anal/a), is
called Tiralla-parill//(/.
Pah:itw-jiarinn a means the perfect or the
qualified knowledge which dispels hallucina-
tions. It dispels the three N!cca-l'i/!pal/asa.l
by means of the acquired through the
contemplation or Im[1crmancnee, the three
SlIklw-l'ippal/a,ms and the thrce Suhlw-I'ippal/-
asas, by means or the insight acquired through
the contemplation or JII, and !he t\tree
Al/a-vippal/asas by means or the insight
acquired through the contemplation or
(NOlI' Ii.!' Trall.l'lalor.---Here the three
Nicca-vippalla.m.\ arc :-
1. Anicce niceanti vippallaso,
2. Anic:ce nie('{/I//i cillal'iPlwll5. \()
3. A niece nic('(Int i dih! t il'lil/'tl/I':LI'U
That is to say: Impermanence is crJ'll-
neousJy perceived, thought and viewed as
The three SIII,lw-I'il'/,{dlJ.
aI''' :-
J. Dukkl!e .I'I/I,I/{/Illi wdi [I :11'lfII'(lII;1 In,
2. Dukkl/(,
.Ill" llil/If I I'i/la I'i/'jl{dlh In,
3. Du""I!e .\lI/..lulI/l i dit. tIll VII,/wlhISO.
1 is to say: III i<; perceiv-
ed. thought, and viewed as pleasure.
T:.e three Suhlw-vippallasas are:-
J. AsuMe suhhanti san n a vippallaso,
2. A sliMe sllhhanti cillavippal/aso,
3. Asubhe sllhhanti dit thivippal/aso.
That is to say: I mpurity is erroneously
perceived, thought and viewed as purity.
The three If lIa-l'ippallasas are:-
!. Anal/ani aUdt! oiann avippa/laso,
2. Anattani ullati cil1al'ippal/aso,
'3. Anallalli II/tali Ii! (hivippa/laso.
That is to No-soul is erroneously
pl:rceived, thought, and viewed as souL--
End of Note By Translator.)
Here Atta or is the 'Llpposed under-
lying essence cr a rictoriul idea (srllltha/w-
I'(,nnal/il, and ljva or lifc is the sllpro,eli
undcrlying essence of an aggregate-idca
(yallial i-p(,n ila II i)
Of these two delusions, the former may
bc got rid or by a knowledge or thc two kinds
of trllth, the ultimate and the conventional;
but the latter can be got rid of only when the
Anic('(/-Ilarinna rcaehcs its summit.
Here, by Santali is meant the cOl/tinuulII or
aggregates orthc kind, and by Nallii.-
sail/ali is meant the cul/lilllla of aggregates
of different kinds.
This sal/lati is or two kinds mental and
Ill<ltcrial. And the con/inlllllll of the material
variety or aggregate is again sub-divided
into rour classes, namely, into those pro-
duced by Kamma, by mind, b) temperature,
bv food. Each of thc e four kinds of
C;'lllillua is liablc to change ir the respective
causes of each changes. When ehanlZt:s
take place, the change of the contillUl;/11
of the class is not apparent
but that 0" the mind-produced class is \Cry
apparent. In the one act of sitting
dO\\n onl), many mo\cmcnts of tht' ditferen't
p.lrts or the body arc to be obsel'\'Cd. The c
movements and actions nothing but the
change, In the ('()llIil/l/(/ or aggrL,gates. In
each <Jggregate there are tinCt' pL'fit)ds:
birth. gl'llllth:Inddl't'<IY, and J . til. Birth
is c;tlled .Iuli, grn\\th-anddL'l'<l\ i, called
.lara. alld tk;lth IS t\tlkd ,I/ol'lln;/ 1n L'ach
,tep III the :Itt llr \I;ilkmg Pl1stllll',
theft.: ,lfe begllllling, lludtlk. ,lilt! end. IlleSt
, ...... -<' - ....
. " '., ': ... ::.'.. ". .' : ., . .:' :.-.-.:. .'- .. - .
. . . ,
- - - - -- -
:11' l't,ti\l'J" birth.
and dl'ath, I1i'lll!!h \\'t' .. a ,t..:p," tllis
C\)nlllltl'S thl' whok h\)d" : tint is to S;I\,
thl' ",Iwl..: hod\ lInlicru,lcs chan!!.l" tlie
.lggl'l'gates or the whole 110dy n,'w
hirths, new 1!rnwth-and-deca\s, :tlhi new dc-
aths, II' a hundred stcps or thousand sll:r
taken in thc coursc or a walk, then. a
hundred or a thousand nCII hirth" Ill!\\' growth
-and-decays, and nell deaths take pi:tr.e in tilt!
\vhole body, A step may also be divided
into two, as, the lirting-llp aggrepatc and the
laying-down aggregate or the root. \nd
in l'ach ingle step, birth, growth-and-ch!cay,
and death must be noted, The same h,)ld,
good with regard to ,111 the posture" or the
body, such as standing, sitting, cleeping,
stretching out, drawin?: in, nnl\', what is
to be here is that - all tired,
wearied. inflammatory. irritative, iilflictive,
painful states are changes in the ('olltillua
of aggregates produced by temrer:!lul'c,
Both in exhaling and inhalIng, hcginninw"
middles and ends are all discernible, The
phase or continuance, or stability in the
e\btence or the aggregates, is
followed by decay which, in connection Ilith
such matter. is called exhaustion or
11 is produced by inflammatory and irritative
mattcr, and through it unbearably painrul
feelings arise, Then, through painrul
feelings, people become awarc that cxhaus-
tion is present: bUl they do not apprehend
the perpetual growths-and-decays of' the
cOfllinua, Weariness is indeed thc name
applied to the growth-and-decay of the
cOlllinua of aggregates which at first spring
up strongly <tnd cheerf'ully; while thc end or
each of these aggregates is thc death of the
conlillullll1 (.I'anlali-II1{/J'{/n' I), I n the samc
man ncr it is to be that thcre arc
middles, and end, in eVl'ry
aggregate produced by !du,!!htcr, smiling,
gladness, joy, grier, sorrow, lan1('ntation,
groans, sons, greed, hatc, raith, lovc, and \(l
forth. In speaking also it is ob,iotls thal
every word has its beginning, its middle, and
its end, which arc respecti\'e1y thl!
birth. growth-and-deC:IY, and death lli
With rcgard to mattcr produced by kill-
peraturc, aggrcgates arise and ,It
every strokc (II' our 1;ln WilCll, in hot II (,;,tit('l.
we lilll ourselves In 1!\<1ctly tlh' ,,'n1<' I' .li',
whik IH: ;Irr h<ltltllll! litnc ;111,l' 11111 I.'CelSl'
eacit i'lIlle w:: jll'ur \',dtel nlll
I ired, faligued, ,dling
gates, generally speaking, arc changes in tll:
t ,'IIII)l'I; It u: l' -P I'l HIIIl'1'( I ('Oil I ill/lll, ' I it Illllgh
hllt alld cold rood, WI.: ohsl.:rvc dillcrenl
Ch:lllgC., ill tite nod\' which arc somctimes
duc tll temperature (11111), The arising, the
il1l'l'e:l"ill1,!. amI thc c'.Irillg of' dbeases hy
IInsultablc or suitahll' rood and medicines,
,ire a"o due 10 temperatllre, Even in the
mind-produced ,Iggrcgatcs, therc may abo
he many ch:lngcs which ;Ire duc to tcmpera-
turc. With rl!gard to the aggrcgates rro-
dlll'cd by nutritlvc esscncc, povc,-ty or
or flesb , or derect
of vital f'orcl' must be taken into account.
Bv or ,ital rorcc, we mean that
as soZ)n ,1, the rond takcn has cntered the
stomach, the vital force which pcrvades the
whole body hecollle" I igorous and is strcng-
thened, Thererore, the nccessary thing
ror all crelture, is to prevent the vital
force from and to promote it.
What wc call gelling a living in the world
is nothing ebc but getting regular suprlics
of food f'or the l1laintepance of the vllal
forces, If' neorle holcl that it IS or !!rcat
importance to rCI11:lin in life, it \\ill be
Obliolls to them that a sulTicient supply or
food is al,o a matter oi' great impor-
tance. It is more to surply rood
than to increase the blood; 1'01' if the suprly
of' food to thc stomach IS reduced, all olood
and Hcsh in tht: body will gradually decreast:.
Thc lirc of thc Kamma-produced material
qualities, as the eye, the ear, and so
rorth, is the ia rill/-f U 'I(I, \11' the vital rorce
which upon the supply or food.
Jr the suppl) ()f rail" the whole body,
togethcr I'.ith the vilal lorce, If'the
,uppl: ()r rrcsh rood is su.,pendcd 1'01' six or
sCI'en day", thc \iwl force and all tite Kal11ma-
pruducl!d l1l<lt;:riab, comc to thei' enos.
-r hCIl it i, '"liel thdt a being die .. , i\ow it is
not nccc, .. to tlh: ciLtnge, (I.C"
tlK birth, the g.n1,\th,-and-deca), the death)
or the "1!!!rCL;'!(CS or thc rood-produced
materials, li)r thc) ;Irc appMcnl to cvery onl.:
or themsellc",
What has been shown is the growth-and-
decay and the death of the cOlltillua of
material aggregates.
Now come the conlinua of mental pheno-
mena. They arc also very numerous, Everv
, one knows his own mind. There are continua
of various kinds of greed, of various kinds
of bate, or va rious inds of dullness, of
various kinds of faith, of various kinds of
love, In the single act of sitting only, the
arising of various kinds of countless thoughts
- . '..:: '. - . -' " .. . . .
- --- - -- --
is recognised by everyone. Ench process of
thought has its birth. decJ),. 8nd death.
Everyone knows oneself thus: "Greed is
rising in me now," or "Ibte is rising in
me now',; or "Greed has ceased in me";
or " Hate has ceascd in n1c." But it cannot
be said that it has' ceased forcycr or thnt it
has come to its tin:ll end, for this is only
the tempornry cessation or tk8th of thc
process or continuufI1 of thoughts. If circulll-
stances are favourable, thcy will rise again
instantly. What has just been said is in
exposition of the decay and dcath of thc
mental continuulI/.
]\J"ata-parianna is relevant to T; ralla-
parinnB., which in.turn is relcvant to Pallalla-
irarnna the one sole necessary thing.
Exposition of Tirana-parinna.
The three sJlient marks or features are:
I. Anicca-lakkhalla: The Mark of
2. Dukk/w-Iakkhalla: The Mark of
3. Analla-Iakkhana: The Mark of
Anic('(/-lakl,/IOIIO or the Mark of Impcr-
mJl1encc, is the characteristic of the ,p:lere
of ipariliB.m(/ and of An [wllaNifJ. ro.
menns metastasis, that is, a
radical change in nature; a change from the
present state inl0 that which is not the present
state Anii athf1hhal'a means subsequent change
of mode. If the spheres of Vipurillalila and
arc exposed to the view of thc
mind's eye, it will be distinctly discerncd that
the mental and material phenomena which
are within the spheres of these two, Vipar-
illama and are really imper-
manent things. Therefore wc have said:
"The {/Ilicca-Iak" hana or the 1\1 a rk of
impermanence, is the characteristiL of the
spherc of Vi/vJrinal11a and of I'll.
When we closely observe and analY/c in
mind the flame of a lamp burning at night,
we take note of the !lame together with its
five salient features, i.e. birth, growth,
continuance, decay, and death. We notc
that the fire is momentarily arising. This is
thc birth of a l11ateri,il phcnomcnon: but
it is not lirc. We (lhserve that the !lamc
aftcr arising, is constantly devcloring. This
is the growth of the material phenoillenon:
but it is not fire. We observe that the flam"
is uninterruptedly continuing in its normal
state. This is the continuance of the
matcrial phenomenon; hut it is not fire. We
observe that the !lame is dying down. This
is the decay of the material phenomenon;
but it is'not fire. We observe that the flame
is dying away. This is the death of the
material phCntllllenon: hut it is not fire.
The pronerty of hotness is, of course, tire.
The flame quivers merely on account of the
presence of these five salient features.
Sometimes it may quiver when the lamp is
removed, and in that case it may be said that
thc quivering is due to wind. These five
salient features are therefore the sub-
sequent changes (a'i'.nath'abh'ava) of the flame,
called the Marks of Impermanence. By
observing and taking note of these five
salient features, it can be understood that
the flame is an impermanent thing. Simi-
larly it should be understood that all moving
things arc impermanent things.
The mobile appearances of the most
delicate atoms of matter which are not
discernible by the human eye, are discovered
by the help of that clever revealer of nature's
sccrets, the microscope. Through the dis-
covery of these moving appearances, it is be-
lieved nowadays by certain Western people-
I eibnitz and Fechner, for example - that
these material phenomena are living cratures.
But in truth they are not living creatures,
and the moving appearances are due only to
the reproduction of the material phenomena
through the function of the physical change
((Ill). By reproduction we here mean the
Acara-rlipa. I n some organisms, of course,
thcre may be living creatures in existencc.
When wc look at the flowing water of a
river or a stream, or at the boiling water in
the kettle. we discern moving appearances.
These are the reproductions of material
phenomena prod uced by physical cha ngc.
And in water which seems still or quiet to
the nakcd eye, moving appear:lnees will also
be seen with the help of a miscroscope.
These two are reproductions of materi.l1
phenomena produced by physical changc.
Here, .. reproductions" mean the constant
i;llegration of new phenomena which arc
called l3y discerning the in-
tegrations or new phenomena. the SlIbscqucnt
deaths or disappcarances of the old pheno-
mena which are called the 4I1iccIIIlI-riil'lIs.
arc "Iso When integr;lIi,)t)
.. ...
. ,-'.,
. . - " ".<> ..... -....
of new matter and the death of the old matter
tak place side by side, the Sanlati-rupa is
di. cernible. When the reproduction is ex-
ce i e, the Apacaya-rftl'a is discernible.
When the death of old maHer is C'xcessive,
theJaral9.-rUpU is discernible. We have shown
above that in every tree, root. branch, leaf.
prout, flower, and fruit there arc these five
. alient marks. So, when we look at them
with the aid of a microscope, we see that they
are full of very infinitesimal organisms moving
about as if they were living creatures; but
in fact these are mere reproductions of
matter produced by physical change.
As regards the bodies of creatures or
persons, these five salient marks are also
discernible in every member of the body,
such as, hair. hair of the body, fingernails,
toe-nails, teeth, the inner skin, the outer
muscles, nerves, veins big bones, small
bones, marrow. kidney, heart, liver,
membrane, lungs, intestines, entrails, undig-
ested food, digested food. and the brain.
So, when we look at them with the help of
a microscope, moving organisms like very
small creatures are seen. These are the
reproductions of matter produced by Kamma,
mind, food, and physical change. There may
of course be microbes in some cases. Thus,
if we look with the mind's eye, the mark of
impermanence in all the matler of the whole
body will clearly be discerned.
What has just been expoupded is the mark
of impermanence in the matter.
In mental phenomena, i.f!., mind and its
concomitants, the mark of imrermanence
which has two distinct features, the radical
change (l'ipllriI12I11a) and the subsequent
change (anna!haf>hava), is no less clearly to
be seen. I n the world, we all know that
there are many different terms and expressions
which are applied to the different modes and
manners of the elements of mind and body
which are incessantly rising and ceasing.
For instance, there are two expressions,
.. seeing" and" not-seeing," which are used
in describing the function of the eye. Seeing
is the term assigned to the element of sight-
consciousness; or, when we say" one sees."
this is the term applied in describing the
arisir1g of sight-conSCiousness from the
conjunc(ure of four causes, namely, eye-basis,
visual-form, light, and attention. And when
we say," one does not see," this is the
phrase we use in describing the non-existence
of !ught-consci6umesll. When, at night in
the dark, no source of light is praent,
sight-consciousness does not arise upon the
eye-basis; it i!j temporarily suspended. But
it will arise when the light from a fire, for
instance, is introduced. And when the light
is put out, sight-consciousness abo again will
ccase. As there arc five salient marks present
in the the flame, if the light comes to be,
seeing also comes to be, sight also arises
If the light develops, seeing also develops.
I f the light continues, seeing also continues.
If the light decays, seeing also decays. And
jf the light ceases, then seeing also ceases. In
the day-time also, these twin terms "seeing ..
,. not-seeing" may be made use of. If
there is no obstruction, one sees; and if
there is obstruction, one does not see. As
regards eyelids, if they are opened, one
sees; and if they are shut, one does not see.
Whut has Just been expounded in the Jlipa-
rinal1la and Ai1nathabhflva of sight-conscious-
ness through the occasioning cause, light.
] n cases where the destruction of the eye-
basis occurs after conception, sight conscious-
ness also is lost for ever. I f the visual form
is taken away out of view, sight-consciollsness
also ceases. While sleeping, as there is no
attention, so sight-consciousness subsides
for some time. The genesis of all classes of
consciousness that take part in the process
of eyedoor is to be understood by the term
.. seeing"; and the suhsidence of the same
to be understood by the term" not-seeing:'
Similarly in each function of hearing.
,melling. tasting, and touching, a pair of
expressions or otherwise) is obtain-
able, and these must be dealt with as to
their impermanency, i.e., Vipr/rinfJma and
AnnatMthh'J\,{/, in the same way as sight-
consciousness. With regard to mind-cogni-
tion, it has many difTerent modes, and each
is apparent in'its nature of Viparin2111a and
through the changes of the
different kinds of thought.' Among the
mental concomitants, taking feeling for
example, the changes of pleasure, pain, joy,
grief. and hedonic indifference, are very
evident. So also, the changes of perception,
initial application, sustained application,
from good to bad vice versa, are very
obvious. It may be easily noticed by anyone
that in the single posture of sitting alone
greed, disinterestedness, hate, and amity,
are each rising by turns.
What has just been e pounded j
impermanence of mental phenomen
much for the Mark of Impormal .. t_ ..
Of The Mark or III
Briefly speaking, the marks of imper-
manence 111 Viparinalll(/ and An n athfthh3 I'a
may also ?e called the Mark of III, for they
a'r. to be feared by the wise in SG/I/I'ftra, the
evolution of life. Why arc they to be feared
by the wise 'I Because, in the world. the
dangers of decay and death are the dangers
,nost to be feared. Viparinallla is nothing but
momentary decay and death; it is the road to
death. and to Vinapalalla (the dispersion of
life into different spheres). All creatures
remain alive without removing to another
eXlstencc only because they are sustained by
of prcservation. Vljlarillama
IS also to be feared on account of the dis-
<tdvantages which may bll on ourselves.
Acaya, Upacol'G and Sall/ati which are the
features of Ann atliabM ra, may also bring
many disadvantages. They Ill<ty establish
in the phy:;ical body many kinds of disease
and ailments. They may establish in the
mental continuum many kinds of afliictions
(Ki!esa), many kinds of hallucination, and
many other disadvantages. Every material
phenomenon possesses these two marks of
impermanence; and also evcry mental
phenomenon pertaining to Ki5tma-loka
R Ii pa-Ioka and Arupa-!oka has the same two
marks of Impermanence. Therefore the
existences, or the bodies ((comprising the
menta Is <lnd materials) or men, Devas, and
Rrahmas arc al[ suhject to 111. The two
marks of impermanence being always present
then: are arrroximately three different marks
of III. to wit: Dukk!wdllkkhata, Sank-
hJradukkhata, and Viparillamadukkhate.
/)/I!""wdllkk!wta means both bodilv
(karika) and mental (cC'lasii.:a) pains. San-
khara-r{ukf..hata is the Slate of things (i.e.
material and menta! phenomena) which
exists only if they are always determined,
conditioned, and maintained with a great
deal of exertion in every existence. -The
existences or the bodies (khalldas or the sum
total of ,i being) of Brahmas have a great
amount of Sankharadukkha. Hardly one
out of a hundred, who has abandoned all
sensual pleasures, renounced the world. and
practised the "Stations' without regard
to his own life, hereafler attains the c:xi,tence
of a Brahma. Though pe(1rle know that
such existence is a very !!ood thing. they do
not venture to rractise them, for they take
them to be very hard, dillicult and pain-
giving. When .thaI/ad/WillII/O.\" and surer-
normal intellections arc attained, they mllst
be maintained with gre(lt care and trouble .
for if not, they are liable to recession in a
moment upon the most trifling occasion.
Viparinamadukkhata is the state of destruc.-
tion, or the state of death after conception,
if circumstances are favourable to the same
at any time, day or hour. The existences,
or the bodies, of men, Devas and Brahmas
a re the real Ills, since they are severally
subject to the said three marks of Ill.
Speaking broadly, there are eleven marks
of III :-
J. lati-dukkha: III of birth.
2. Jara-dukkha: III of decay.
3. Marana-dukkha: III of death.
4. Soka-dukkha: III of sorrow.
5. Parideva-dukkha: III of lamentation.
6. Kayika-dukkha: Bodily ill.
7. Cetasika-dukkha: Mental ill.
8. Upayasa-dukkha: III of despair.
9. Apiyasampayoga-dukkha: III due
to association with enemies.
10. Piyavippayoga-dukkha.' III due to
separation from loved ones.
11. !ceha vighfl ta-dukkha: III due to
nonfulfilment of wishes.
Of these, Jati means birth or reproduction.
It is of three kinds, to wit;- Kilesajati:
birth of defilements, Kammajati: birth of
actions, and Vipakajfiti: birth of effects.
Of these three, Kilesajati is the birth or
the reproduction of defilements such as,
greed, hate, dullncss, error, conceit, and so
Vipakajati is the birth or reproduction uf
different kinds of diseases, different kinds of
ailments, and different kinds of painful fee-
lings in the body, or the reproduction of
mean and low existence such as those of
birds and animals, and so forth. Among
the Kilesajatis, greed is very fierce and violent.
It will rise at any time it finds favourable
circumstance, like fire fed with gunpowder.
When it rises it can with difficulty be sup-
pressed by any means whatever; it will
develop in volumes in an instant. Hence.
it is a real "Ill," since it is very much to bt:
feared by all Ariyas. The like should be
understood in connection with hate. dullness.
and so forth, which ethically are one thousand
and five hundred in number. Just as a hill
which is the abode of very poisonou ser-
pents is feared and no one dares to approach
it. so also the existences of men, Devas lind
Rrahmas arc feared; and no Ariva dare
approach them with the views: . My'elf"
ano" My body." lor they arc the birth-places
of the said uc!Hcments. Therefore
arc rcal .. Ills" that arc to be feared.
... >; ... ;.;"" ...
. .
Of the Kar"",aifi fi, immoral actions of
d., Sl (ch. and thought arc the develop-
TIl nt or the defilements. Therefore they
ar equally as fierce as the defilements.
Hence thi:; I\ammaia/i is also a real" III .,
to he feared by ;\11 Ariyas. Just as the
villages where thieves and robbers take up
their quarters arc feared, and good people
do not \enture to approach them, so also the
existence. of men, Devas and Brahmas arc
feared, and no Ariya dare approach them
with such views as .. Myself" and .. My
body:' ror they are the birth-places of the
said Kammajali.
Of the I ipakaja/i, owing to the dreadful-
ness of Kilesa;ali and Kal1ll11a;ali, Vipakajati
the rebirth into the planes of misery is
likewi5e always a terrible thing in the revolu-
tion of existences.
Therefore the existences or men, and so
forth, to which the Vipakajafi together with
the Kilesa;ati and the Kamajati are joined,
are real .. 111." The moral actions and
the fortunate realms furnish food for the
defilements, fuel for the flames of the defile-
ments, so that the birth of moral actions
and the birth of results therefrom, are all
obtainable in the Kilesaiali. So much for the
Jatidukkha. .
Concerning the Jaradukkha and Marana-
dukkha: these are the momentary decays
and deaths which follow a being from the
moment of conception, and are at all times
ready to cause him to fall in decay, death, or
unfortunate realms whenever opportunities
for the same occur. They also ohtain in
connection with Viparinamadukkha; and
since they dog the steps of all living beings in
t!very existence from the moment of concep-
tion, the existences of men, Devas and
Brahmas are real" III ". So much for the
Jaradukkha and Maranadllkkha.
,<"'okaduf..kha, Paridel"adukkha, Kayi/,adu-
kkha, Cctasikadukkha, and l 'paya.laclllkk/w,
always rollow the existences of men and
Devas, ready to arise whenevcl an opportu-
nityoccurs. The realms of the Nira)'a and
the Peta worlds are the realms of sorrow.
lamentation, pain, grief and
So much for the five kinds of f)ukkha.
To come into union with persons, creatures,
things, ob.iech with which one does not wish
to unile or doc'; nol wish evcn to sec,
Sepl1r,llioll from persons, creatures, things
and objects which one always wbhc\ to meet
or be united with, from which OIlC never
wishes to he parted in Iifc or by death-
this is PiYlIvippayogaduf.. kilo.
To strive hard, but all in vain, to obtain
anything is Icchavi1: Hatadukkha.
These" Ills" or Dukkhas are very numer-
ous and very evident, and arc frequently
met with in the world. Hence the existences,
or the bodies of men, and Brahmas
are real" Ills." Of these eleven varieties of
Dukkha, birth, decay and death, are the most
So much for the Mark of .. 111."
The mark by which mental and material
phenomena ilrc to be understood as No-soul
is called the Antltta-Iakkhana or the Mark
of No-soul. In considering the word Allalfa,
the meaning of ' Itt a ought-first to be under-
stood. Atta in 0rdinary sense means essence,
or substantiality. Ry essence or substantia-
lity is meant, as we have already explained in
connection with Ultimate Truth, the earth
which is the essence or the substantiality of
pot. The word " POL" is merely the name
by which is indicated a certain pictorial
idea (santh'dnaf/(dio.atti); it is not a name for
earth. And a pictorial idea possesses no
essence or substantiality as an ultimate thing;
here earth alone is ultimate thing and
possesses essence or substantiality. -If the
question is asked: " Does such a thing as pot
exist in the world?" those who are un:lhle
to differentiate between the two kinds of
truth, tdtimate and conventional, would
answer that the pot exists. These should
then be asked to point out the pot. They will
now point to an earthen pot ncar at hand,
saying: .. Is not that a pot?" But it is not
correct of them thus to allege that earth is
pot; it is a false allegation. Why is it a false
allegation? Simply hecause earth is an
ultimate thing and has essence or supstan-
tiality; while pot is a mere conception
having '10 essence or substantiality. and
thus, like space, \()id. To allege of carth
that it is pot, is in effect to try to makt
out Ihat essential earth constitutes the essenl'e
or substantiality of pot, whil'h is actual lal't.
seeing that pot as a mere representation 01
the mind, possesses no suhstantial
whatever. Here, what actually is non-exi,-
tent pot hecollles c\istent pot, and earth al,o
nccomes Alfa or the earth, S\1 that and
pot become onc and thc thing, th'
- ...
- - '.-
. """- ----- '""""" --
iuentlty or 1he o ill' is With tile
idenlitv of the orh",r. ror this rea,nll it i,
that we call this a false allegatioll. In this
.. earth" corresponds with th.:
five Aggregates or their constituents, mate-
rial and mcntal phl'llomella ; while .. pot ..
with pcrsons and living creatures.
us becomes the es,ellce of pot in
the staknlcnt that tile earth is the pot; Sl)
also the Fivc Aggregates or their
become the A IIl1 or the essence or perSOI1S
and creatures, when it is said that thl' Aggrt'-
gates are persons and creatures. This is til,'
meaning of Alia.
Now' for AI/Il11a. I n the expression
"earthern pot"; if one is able to uiscern thar
earth is one thing, and pot another, and
that earth is an ultimate thing and pot a
Illere conception of the mind; and again,
that earth is not pot, and pot is not earth:
anu also that it is false to call earth a
pot, and to call pot, earth: then the earth
becomes not the essence or A IIa of the not.
but becomes Allalla: while at the same time
also, pot is seen to he void like space, since
jt is a mere conception of forl11. A like
result is ohtained if on(' is abie to cIisccrn the
Five Aggregates and the material and l11ental
phenomena thus: The Fivefold set of
Aggregates are ultimate things; persons and
creatures are ideas derived from the forms
and the continua; hence the phenomena are
not persons and creatures; and persons and
creatures are not the phenomena. If the
phenomena are called persons and creatures.
this is a false naming of them: and if persons
and creatures are called the phenomena, this
is false too. Accordingly the phenomena
become, not (he essence of persons and
creatures, but become Anal/a, or the reverse
of suhstantial essence. And also, persons
and creatures become quite evidently void
and empty. inasmuch as they are mere ideas
derived from the forms and continua of the
What has just been said is in exposition
of the meaning of Analla.
The marks of Impermanence and III
expounded in the foregoing pages are also
the marks of No-soul (Anal/a). How?
It is supposed that the ideas (panuatti) of
persons and creatures are eternal and immor-
tal both in this existence and in those that
fOllOW, and it has been explained that the
phenol11ena are not eternal since they are
subject to momentary decays and deaths
which are the marks of impefln:lllenCl' ; ;tlld
also becaus(.' they arc wnstalllly cC:lsing and
bein)! reproduced many times beyond possi-
bility of bting numbered, even ill olle day. the
which i, the mark of that killd of imperman-
e!lce known as Annathlibhava.
In Buddhist philosophy there are three
things which are" eternal and immortal ",
in the sense in which that phrase is here used
ill the text. These three things ilre called in
lhe Plili,pannalti (plural, pan1i,atliyo), iikasa,
and nihbana; that is : Concepts (or ideas),
Space and that which supervenes when
Craving, Hate and Delusion are completely
wiped out. Of these three things it is held
that their existence is something which has
nothing whatever to do with time, never
enters time, is never limited by time The
law of Rise-and-fall, of arising and ceilsing.
which applies to all things else, does not
apply to them. They exist independent of
whether any particular being thinks them or
not. I n other words: they are eternal and
immortal and the independent of time, not
in any sense of being unbrokenly continuous
in time. Nibbana is distingllished from
the two other "eternal and immortal" things
in that it has Santilakkhana or it is
Santibhliva, a word which may' be rendered
qllite accurately in English (if not literally.
at least in accord with its spirit) as "The
Great Peace" and all that this implies. (Trb,)
Bl!t in the ideas (pafin atti) of persons and
creatures no marks of Viparinama and
Ann athli hha va are to be seen. If such marks
were to be found in the ideas (pafiii atti) of
persons and creatures, then, of course, the
ideas of Pann. attiyo would also be subject
to births, decays, an deaths, and would be
and decay and die many times even
in one day. But. these marks are not 10 be
found in the Pann atti or ideas: we discern
these marks only in the mental and material
phenomena. Therefore it comes to
the mental and material phenomena. that is,
Nli ma-ru pa-dhamlllB. are not to be regarded
as the essence or substantiality of persons
and creatures. It is in this way that the
mark of " No-soul" becomes the mark of
impermanence, in accordance with the Text:
" A.I'lirakallhena analta," or . On account of
being without a core, the word Anatta is
How does the mark of 111 become the mark
of Impermanence? The marks of III are
vcry evil, very disadvantageous, and very
: and all crcatures desire to be
ill good state', to be prosperous, and to be
satisfied. If mental and material phenotlwna
arl' thl' true cSSl'nCl' of )X'rSlltlS and
- - --- ------- --
1!.'P )SlllON 01' PARINNA 29
I' 'I '1111 Illuq I':' o Ill'
,1111' \Ild If Ihl' lw., I, IIl,.,ill: ..
I ' \111' ,II1d Iltl' ':IIIll' : 1":11 i" Ihl'
I r I' ill'n"'''1 abn 1'1' 1":11 III' IIH' phl'llo-
IIllll,l, .1I1d 1/( ,'-1', I \/1, Bill if Ihi, i, nol '0,
th 'n l'adl 11111 .. 1 b a Ihl'll! "':1';11 11(' rrcill Ihl'
th'r, Ikll' b\ ' I'('r,nll s dt''Irl'" Wl' 1111';111
(111 'd and Desire'l\) dn ,1'11,11111,1) :
alld hy .. th.: lil',ire or phen0l111'11;1," Ih.:
h,lJ I 'nil1g or Ihin!!, ill :Iccnrdancl' wilh
C.lU,l'. "main characten,llc or (11'!"lll1' and
C' t':\Imcs i:; the cra\'ing ror hapriIH s, or mind
and hody: and an kalurl' nr
I hl'lllln1t'na is Iheir ullirormil\ wilh Ihl'ir
C:IlIl' or condilioning Ihings : Ih<1t is, the
,lIlsinl! and the ccasing of pllcnollwna arc
sui ieci to CIUSCS, :1no nc\cr el1lirely ill ac('ord-
:I ncc \\ it h t hc desi res of person .. in dcfia ncc
ot'c:lu e ... Forc\nmple: is wanted
the callc thai rroduces musl he
0ught oul : or if ('oldne .. s wa-lIed, Ihe
L',llI !: that produces ('old ness !TIU,t he soughl
llUt. If long life is wanted, Ihe conditionillg
GIll .. e, a of 5uil:lbie food daily, l11u , l be
.. ought out, for no man c;'n live long merely by
\\i hing to li\e long. And if rebirth in the
world' of the Fortu'llate i5 wanted, then the
cause of Ihis, moral or \ i rtllous deeds, mllst be
!>ought out. for no one can get to Ihe worlos of
the Fortunate merely by wishing to be reborn
there. It is sometimes erroneoL\',ly thoughl
or belic\ed that onc can be wh,llcver onc
to be, upon occasi0ns \\ hen somc-
thing one wished for is later on rulfilled,
although the actual faci is thai il has collle
about only in a<.:cordance with a Ihal
has !Jeen ,>ought out and hrou!!ht
into play. It is f:lbel) thought 01 bclic\cd
many people that one can mainl<lin onl:\elr
according to wi,h when in sound health
or at case in any of Ihe fOllr bodilv pmlure .. ,
the fact thai the cause, 1111' partaking
of food on previous days, \\as soughl 0111 hy
them and hrought into play. They :11'0
mistakenly think Ih<lt Iheir wishes :lrl'
fulfilled, whcn they find Ihemsl'II'l's living
happily in buildings previously in t'xi\lenLe.
But in truth, if one looks aboul him in Ihls
world and sees how greal and how numerous
are thl! husine,w', affairs, occupation ... and so
forth, of men in all their c"tenl and variely,
he will soon discern with Ihe mind's eve Ihal
the S(JflkhiJr(Jdukkh(J, thc f)lIkA lUI assol'iated
with the S(Jflkhar(Js, is great and manirold
in precisely Ihe same measure ,IS mCIJ's
activities, Ano this f)lIkkh(J is due to Ihe
begetting or the estahllshing of Ihl' callses
necessary to the acquiring of the effect', de-
Sill d : rill I hl' pit 110111ell:l l,llI lin l'l I ccnille:
I' aCII) ,til Ihal h 'III II1<1V wi h Ih"11l II' he,
"I' may IIi\"( "lill'lS Ihll Ihev <lfl' If) I ",
'I hll'" sllllply ill 11l'IHlldllll' 11ll' 1110111 s or
\'11111, h'I((/III1!. /, IlIIlrl ,til ;t!)(1111 liS, il hcc')ll1c<;
nidl'IlIII,:11 pII\'110111"11'1 do llolC,lllrOllllllll'lIl-
s('h,:, III I he dl',i!l" or lIlId l'11:al III l.'S,
:ll1d hl'llCl' IlIl'Y .lIl' Ilot lilcl;' 01 .,,, b-
In :ldd111011 :n Ihi\ it i, abo!o b" Ilotcd wl'll
ho\\ lllll'P;l'IIIHI, -, IlOIl ,uhS1.lntialiIY 1\ ilh
n:l!a,tI 10 /)111 "'/{/{IIII,klllll ... , Villllrillallltl-
rllI/, I, ;"/1,1. h.I/lILlI, I, I/{/, .Il1r:tdllk /,1/(/, At IIIWIt/-
(/,d"h:/, ,Inti "(' forth.
111!ll'h r('r the 111;,1'1, or AllfllI!/ rrom Iht:
qa nd poi nl or Dill," ha.
The threc kl1owlednc" pen:linin/! to Ihe
Insighl which lully thc meaning (If the
Three Marks, arc c:.Jkd F,I'UI1(1-I/{/linna.
These Ihree knowledge!> pertail1ing to
I n<il!:ht are :-
, I. A II ice ana: I nsigh t-
knowledgc in cOlllemplating "Imr>ermanellce"
2. ';,I/CIS know-
ledge in contemplating: "111."
3. alia: I nsi/!-ht I-:no\\ l-
edge in contemrlating" o-,oul."
OJ' these three Kno\\iedl!e'> Ihe last-men-
tioned must be acquired as it must also
he acquired in fullnc,o;, in orckr to <ii'prl
errnr or \0\.1 doclrinc. And in to
ohtnin r,,!1 acqui' iliC111 (II' Ihis lasi-mcntiolled
l,nO\\ ledge, Ihe fir .. tl11lr..[ he inlrod-
uced ror, ir Ihc firsl is \leil disccrned, Ihe last i,
ea,dyacquired. A, (',' .. the .. ecund, it dol" n,11
culminate Ihro:lgh the :tcql,i.,itinn Ill' Ihl' fir,\.
I! i., owilll.! 10 il11perreCIIOIl ill nbLljpilH! Iht"
second Ihal Ihl' tr.IIl,,cIHI;.'Il1.tI
Palh ha .. loul ,'ratles, :111\1 til.!II",1 ,llId lIllle','il
leI" llenl".' Inn'l illIP'''!-
:lnl thinl! 1'01' 13'llkll'"" 10 (Ill I' 1(\ Ile'L' illl'lll-
selves ('IL)[11 the A/',1Iar/II/,I,h" Ihl'
III., orlhe Realm, or 1'vli'l'r\'. Ther,' i, il\' \\:1\
0(' escaping rrom Ihe .fpa.1'{/(ILlI./,I:1I , pe'll 10
men when I he I eat'h i nl.! Ill' 111L' Blldd ha \;\
rrom the world, I\lId' 10
1/(/ means In rul :IW:IY all immoral :lIld
erroneolls Anti 10 Pili all
enoneOIl, vic\\'\ mean\ to pul awa) 1I11l'r1)
the view 01 .. Soul" Tht'rernre in Ihal
in which we :Ire fUl'llinale a, tIl enl'pllllll'r
the Rl'ligioll 01 Ihl' l3uddh:l, we ,1m,'
'0 10 cOlltl'nlpl<lle or medilall' "111111 IIIl'
in1pennanelll'L' \ll" Ihill!!" :1, 10 bnn!' III !tdl-
Ile,s Ihl' III In
confirmalion 'lr tlti" IIC'I(' I' ,l llllllt:I111,)tl 1'1 1111
the 1 ext ;-
" Aniccasann ina Meghiya anallasai'infl
sanllia Ii anattasann ina samugxhiitam papunati
ditthe'I'a clhamma Nibbanam." "To him, 0
Meghiya, who comprehends 1mpermanence,
the comprehension of No-soul manifests
itself. And to him who comprehends No-
soul, the fantasy of an' I ' presiding over the
Five Aggregates is brought to destruction;
and. even in this present life he attains
Nibbana." There is no need for us to
expatiate upon the truth of text for we
have already shown how the mark of Imper-
manence can become the mark also of
The Insight exercises can be practised not
only in solitude as is necessary in the case of
the exercise of Calm or Samalha, but they
can be practised everywhere. Maturity of
knowledge is the main, the one thing required.
For, if knowledge is ripe, the J nsight of
may easily be accomplished
while listening to a discourse, or while living a
householder's ordinary life. To those whose
knowledge is developed, everyting within and
without oneself, within and without one's
house, within and without one's village or
town, is an object at the sight of which the
Jnsight of Ipermanence may spring up
and develop. But those whose knowledge
is yet, so to speak, in its infancy, can accom-
plish this only if they practise assiduously the
exercise in Calm.
The consideration of the momentarv deaths
which occur innumerable times even' during
the wink of an eye, are only required in
upon A bhiclhamma. Rut in meditat-
ing or practising the exercises in I nsight, all
that is needed is consideration of the San-
la/ivip"rinama and 1 he San/a/iunn mhaMfJ. I'll,
that is, of the radical change and of the sequ-
ent change of the coa/inua, things which me
visibly evident to, and personally experienced,
by, every man alive.
The exercises in Insight that ought to be
taken up are first, the Four Great
Elements from among the material qualitics,
and the six classes of cognition from among
the mental qualities. If one can discern the
arisings and ceasings ofthc Four Elements in-
numerabe times in one clay alone. tht: changes,
or the risings and ceasings of the rest (i.e ..
the derivativt: material qualities)
are also discerned. Of the mental qllalities
also, if the changes of consciousncss art:
disccrned, those of the mental concomitants
are simultaneously discerned. In particular.
feelings, perc;eptiollS, volitions. and so I'ort h.
from among the mental qualities, amI forms,
odours, and su lonh I rom among the m,ltl'riai
ljualities, which are eXlraordilHlI'y may he;>
taken as objects for the c as they will
quickly enable it meditator to acquire with
case the In,ight of Impermanence.
However, from the philosphical point 01
view, the Insight is acquired in order to dispel
such notions as "creatures," "persons,"
"soul," "life ", " permanence, .," pleasures,
and to get rid of hallucinations. The acquisi-
tion of Insight also mainly depends on a
sound grasp of the Triple Marks. which ha ve
been sufficiently dealt with already.
So much 1'01' the exposition of Tiranllpari-
nil a.
1n Buddhist philosophy there are five kinds
of Pahana which it is necessarv to deal with:-
I. Tadangapahana, .
2. VikkhamabhanapaMna.
3. Samucchedapah'dna,
4. Palipassaddhipahalla,
5. 'Vissaranapahana,
In order to make them clear, the three
periods of the Defilement!> which are called
Bhumi must here be mentioned.
They are :-
1. A nllsayuhh umi,
2. Pariyullhanubhu,im
3. Villikkamuhhumi,
or these three, Anusal'ablrllmi means the
period during which the ' Oefilements do not
come into existence as mental properties re-
presenting themselves in the thrt:e phases of
time, i. e., nascent, static, and arrested, bur lie
latent surrounding the lire-continuum.
Paril'UllhallahhulJli means the period at
which ' the Defilements come into e>..istence
from the latent state as mental at
tht: mind-door when any object which has
power to wake tht:111 up produce, perturb:1nce
at nne of the six doors.
" ' j likka/}/(/bhUIlii means the period at which
the Defilements becomt: so fierce and un-
governable that they produce sinful :lclions
in deed and word. rhus, in the revoilltion of
e,istcnces that have no k \lown heginning.
every Greed that follows a creature's IIfl'-
contiulll1l has three bhuillis. Similarh. thl'
rest of the Dcflicll1cnh. crror. tllI'!lIll>".
conct:it, and rorth, have three periods l"ll'h.
In BlIddhist ethiCS, there an: three .\'iJ...J...hill.
namely, Sl/lll'ikJ.../lII. the training or
the training or ecstatil'
thought: and l'tl11rlll-.I'iA J... 1111. the trailllll!-' of
Insight. or these three, the first training. th,\!
is the training or moralily. is able 10 dbpcl
or put :l\\ay only the thild (I i lildllll/(//JIJIIII/i)
the Ddilemenh. As thl.'ll.' Il.'lIlain two
Bhtllllil lIndispdlcd. the Defilelllcnts wllicll arc
got rid of by ,\'iill would "gain (lrisl' and
fill up till tht:y reached till.' I Illkl\(//lllIhln-lIl1i.
Therefole. the pUlting :Iway hy .\'1 III is called
the liICllIlIgllflll!tfwlI. wllidl IllI."lIh tht' tempo-
rary pUlling away.
The training, that is, the training of
ec. tatic thought in thc first Jhiina, thc second
Jhallu. and so rorth, is able to dispcl or put
away only the the Parirullhanu-hhllllli
of the Defilements which have 'been lert \Indis-
pelkd by SUa. As there still remains the
An uS{fya-hhumi undispelled, thc Defilements
which were put away by J17al::1 would SOOI1
arise and fill up till they reach the V1tikkal71a-
bhumi if obstacles to the JhfJlla were enco un-
tered, Therefore the putting away by SUII/a
dhi is called VikkhaJl7plwna-paMJlla, which
r11eanS the putting away to a distance. Here
Jhana can dispose of the Defilements for a
considerable lime so that they do aris\!
again ror it is ecstatic moral culture and
more powerrul than the sf/a.
The third training, that is, the training in
the Knowledge that belongs to lnsight and in
the Knowledge that pertains to the Trans-
cendental Path, is able to dispel or put away
the first of the Defilcl11enh
that have been' left undispelled by SI/a :.lnd
Sall/adhi. The Defilements that are entirely
got rid of throu.flh thc said knowledge, le,l\ ing
nothing hehind, will never rise again. Therc-
fore the putting away by Panna is called the
Samucchedapahi1l1a, which means. literallv,
the "Cutting-off, Putting-away." The know-
ledge that pertains to Transcendental Fruit-
ion puts the Defilements away by tranquilli7-
ing the same Defilements that have heen put
away by the knowledge that pertains to the
Transcendental Path, and this putting away
is called the Palipassaddhi-pahalla. The put t-
ing away by entering NihhfJna is called the
Nissarana-pahana,which means the utter re-
linquishment of an escaping from, the ties of
ex.istences for ever and ever. Now we have
that knowledge is of three kinds. Know-
ledge of Insight, Knowledge pertaining to the
Transcendental Path and Knowledge pertain-
ing to Transcendental Fruition. Of these.
though the Knowledge of Insight is able to pul
away the Anusaya-hhllmi, it not able to put
it away completely. Only the knowledges
pertaining to the Paths are able to put :lway
all the Dclilclllcnls that respectively belong
to eacil Path, '1 ill' knowledge pCltaining to
till' the First Path, di\pels
IIllcrly alld eradicates all erroneous views and
pl'I'p/exllies. II also dispels all immoral
actions which would result in lifc in the real-
ms of misery, so that they do not rist;! agalll.
TIle knowledge that pertains to Slikadagami-
IIIl1l.{g(f, the second path, all coarse
I ust a nd hate. 'r hc knowledge periailllllg
to AII'dgallli-lJwgga, the Third Path, dispels
all subtle lust and ill-will whieh have been
lert undispelled hy the Second Path. To him
(the Never-Returner) the
link of kinship with the world is broken, and
lhe Rrahma-Ioka is the only sphere where he
may take rebirth. The knowledge pertaining
to the Arahalla-lIIagga, the Fourth Path,
dispels the Defilements which are left undls-
pelled by the lower paths. And he (the
Aru/tatla-pligga/o, one who kills all Defile-
ments), becomes the Ara/twli, and escapes
from the three or worlds. In our
Buddhist Religion. this Samu(,cheda-pahana
is the chief' thing to be accomplisht;!d.
So much for the Pahana-parinn a.
Now I will indicate the main points neces-
sary to those who practise the exercises of I n-
Of t!le three of Insight.
the knowledge or Impermanence must first
and foremost be acquired. How'? If we
carefully watch the cinematograph show, we
will see how quick are the changes of the nu-
merous series of photographs representing
the wonderful scene, all in a moment or time.
We will also see that a hundred or more photo-
graphs are required to represent the scene of 3
moving body. These are. in fact, the func-
tions of liparil1ama and AnnathaN/al'a.
or the representation or Impermanence or
Death, or cessation of movements. If we care-
fully examine the movements in a scene, such
as the walking, sitting, sleeping.
bending. stretching, and so forth, of Ihe parts
of the body during a moment of time. we will
see that these are fui! of changes, or full of
Impermanence. Even in a moment of walk-
ing. in a single step taken with the foot, there
are numerous changes of pictures which may
be called Jmpermanence or death. It is also
the same with the rest of the movements. Now
we mllst apply this to ourselves. The I mper-
manence and the death of mental and material
phenomena are to be found to the full ill our
bodies. our heads. and in every part of the
body. If we are able 10 c1earlv those
of impermancnce and' death
which an: always operating in our bodies,
we shall acquirc the I nsight of the Destruct-
i,)I1. the bre:lking-up, falling-off, cessation,
and ehanges of the various parts of the body
in each second. in each fraction of a second.
That is to say, we will discern the changes of
every part of the body small and great, of
head, of legs, of hands and so forth and so on.
If this he thus discerned, then it may he said
that the exercise on the contemplation of
impermanence is well accomplished. And if
the exercise on the contemplation of imper-
manence is well accomplished, then that of
the contemplation of Non-sou-! also accom-
plished. If this is thus discerned, then it may
be said that the exercise on the contemplation
of Impermanence is well accomplished. By
the word . accomplished, "it is meant that
the exercise has oeen properly worked out
so as to continue a permanent possession,
during the whole term of life: but i: is not
meant that the knowledge of the Path and of
Fruition, has been attained. The attainment
of the knowledge of the Path and Fruition,
however is quick or slow, according to opport-
unity or lack of opportunity, in the practice
of higher virtues. It is also very difficult
correctlv to become aware of the attainment
of the Path and or the Fruits. In fact, even
the Ariyan who has attained the First Path
hardly knows that he has become an attaincr
of the Path-or-the-Stream. Why'? Because
of the unfathoillablencss of the latent period
of the Defilel11cnts. Those YOllis or medita-
tors who do not know the unfa'i homabJeness
01 the latent pel iod of the Defilements, some-
think to be atlainersof Path-
of-the-Stream, while as yet, their erroneous
views and perplexity are only pClrtially. but not
completel'l, put away. Iferror _,nd perplexity,
wi!h all their latent states. are eradicated by
the Samuccheda-pahana, they wOlild become
the real allainers of the Path-of-the-Stream.
The meditators or practisers of I nsighl. how-
ever, for the whole term of life, must gladly
continue in the exercise on the contemplation
of Impermanence until the exercisc IS
matically worked out. Even the do
not give up these exercises for the securing of
tranquillity of mind. Jf meditators practise
these exercises for the whole term of life, their
knowledge will be developed till they passed
beyond the Puthujjana-bh5mi and arrive at
the Ariya-bhumi either before death or at
the time of death, either in this li1C or in
the life following, in which laller they
will be reborn as Devas.
Here the concise Vipassall?i-di pani, or the
Outline of the Exercises of Insight ror the
Buddhists of Europe, co Illes to a close.
It was written in Mandal<lY, while I was s()-
journing in !he Ratanasiri Monastery, where
the allnual meeting or the Society for Propa-
gating Huddhism in Foreign countries took
place; and it 'Was on the 14th waxII,g
or Taboung ill the year 245); H.F .. corres-
ponding to the 26th Fehru<I ry, 1915 C. E.
,.. --..
t. .' .' ':.'
. .
. . . . -
- - - -- - - -- . "-.... .
-_ .....
Translated into English by
Edited by
Reprinted from" The Light of the Dhamma ..
Vol. II, No.4, (pp. 27-34)
Vol. III, No. I, (pp. ll-15)
VoL III, No.2, (pp. 21-27)
Vol. 111, No.3, (pp. 1-14)
nu: PA'\ Tll\ 'UDDESA nlPA ,\/1 OR TilE BUDDHIST PHI Lose PIIY
B\ \l\l\\-IIlFR\ U:DIS\\ \D\W. D. L1TT.,
rransh,tl'd into English hy U Patamag)aw, of
1\ laso)cin 1\ 1\ I andalay, Burma.
Pr:/uc(' 10 l/re pllhllI/recl houk (1/(111 0111 0/ /J/'IIIII.
B lI)I)IHS\1 \lC\\ S the \\ orld, \\ ith the C\CCP-
tit)n l)i' Ibb:\nil and Pai'lIlatti, to he Il11per-
lIable to suffering, and \\ithout ,oul-
essence 0 Buddhist philosophy, to elaborate
the impermanency as applied to thc Law of
Perpetual Change, has rrom the outset
Ji,sohed 'all things, all phelH)fllena both
p ychical and physical, into a continuolls
of happenings, or states (sabh[\\'a)
'or mind and matter, under the Fivefold L\\\
of Order (Ni yallla) . And the
happenings are determined and determining,
both as to their constitlJent states and as to
other happenings, in a \'ariety or ways, whieh
Buddhist Philosophy e\presses by the term
'paccayas' or 'relations'. One comple\
happening of mental and material states,
with its three phases or time gene is or birth,
cessation or death and a static interval
between, is followed by another happening,
wherein there is always a causal series or
relations. Nothing is casual and fortuitous.
When one happel;ing by its arising, persisting,
c;!ssation, priority, and is
determined by and determining another
happening by means 01' producing !janaka),
supporting (upathambhaka), and maintaining
(anupalana): the former is called the relating
thing(paccaya-dhamma), the latter the related
thing (paccayuppanna-dhamma): and the
determination, or the inRuence, or the specific
function, is called the correlativity (paccaya-
salti). As the various kinds of innuence are
apparently known, the relations are classified
into the following 24 specie,:
(I) Hefu condition or root.
(2) AramJnWIG-object.
(3) Adhipali dominance.
(4) AI/anta/'ll contiguity.
(5) S(Jmallal//(/ra .. immediatc contiguity.
(6) Sahajil/i
(7) Aiiiirimaiiiia reciprocity.
(X) lI.;iHa \CI dependence.
(9) ('pal/issa,ra sufncing condition.
(10) P!ll'ej(ila pre-existence.
(II) PUC( /',ijliltl cau,al relallon or po,t-
eriorll\ In tll11e.
(12) /\('\,ww habitual recurrence.
(13) Kal/ll//{{ k;\l11ma or action.
( 14) I.iPli/\{[ effect.
( 15) I/llira food.
(16) /I/ilrimcontrol.
(17) J/llil/a jhana or cc,tacy.
(IX) Magga path.
(19) Salll/1ul'lIl/aassociation.
(21) AI/hi presence.
(22) Val/hi absence.
(24) continuance.
These or are extensively
:Ind rull) expounded in the seventh and last
or the analytical in the Abhidhamma
Pitaka or the Buddhist Canon, called the
Pa'qhana 'the Eminence', or the MahJ-
Pakarana 'the Great Book'.
The \\ell-kno\\ n Ledi Savada\\ Mahathera,
D. Lilt., has \\ ritten in
Pali a concise e.\po,ition of these relations
known as Paqh;lnudesa-dTpan!, in order to
help those \\ 110 \\ ish to study the Buddhist
philosophy or relations expounded in that
Great Boo". In introducing these relations tn
the studenl \)1' research before
he takes the opportunity of ma"ing himsL:!f
acquainted \\ ith the methodological elabpra-
tion or correldtions in the Paqhana. the
El11inent Great B(1o", the M;\hathera deals
\\ith the subject under three heads:
(I) The Paccayattha-dip.lna or the
Anal) tical l)i' Relations
\\ ith their denotations and conllota-
(2) The or the
S\ Ilthesis ;)1' -
(3) ['he 0 or the
Synchron) of Rclatiom.
r he follo\\ing translation has been under-
taken \\ith the- hope or renderIng. the Ledl
Sayada\\'s work intelligible to the English
student. If the present Translation makes
any contribution to the Advan::ement of
Learning and Knowledge, in the matter of
apprehending the general scheme of causal
laws in terms of 'relations' in the field of
Buddhist philosophy, the translator will deem
himself well rewarded for his labour. It n13.V,
however, be necess:l.ry to mention here that
the original form, sense, and meaning of the
Venerable Author are, as far as po:>sible,
cautiously preserved; hence the literal
character of the translation-it' it app::ars
so-- in some places. Nevcrt.heless, the
translator ventures to hope that any
discrepancy that may have crep' in, will be
accordingly overlooked.
I n conclusion, it is with great pleasure that
I express my indebtedness to U Aung Hla,
M. A. (Cantab.), Barrister-at-Law who has
very kindly, amidst his own many duties,
taken the trouble of revising the manuscript,
and has also helped me in getting it through
the press and in the correction of the proofs;
my thanks are also due to Saya U Ba, M.A.,
A. T. M., for his valuable assistance, and to
the Printers fer their courtesy and co-
Last, but not least, I must gratefully
acknowledge the timely help frolll U Ba Than
:lIld Daw Ti n Tin, of Rangoon, who have
voluntarily and so generously undertaken to
meet the cost of pUblication of one thousand
coipes of the book, which but for their kind
suggestion, would not have materialised in
this form.
Masoyein Monaster)',
Mandalay West,
February, 1935.
1. Hetu-Paccoya or the Relation by way of
What is the Hetu-relation? Greed (lobha),
hate (dosa), dullness (moha), and their
respective opposites, viz., disinterestedness
(alobha), amity (adosa), intelligence (amoha),
are all hetu-relations.
What are the things that are relatyd by
these hetu relations? Those classes of mind
and of mental qualit;es-that are in co-
existence along with greed, hate, dullness,
disinterestedness, amity, and intelligence-
as well as the groups of nl1terial qualities
which co-exist with the same, are the things
that are so related. All are called
he/upaccayuppanni since they arise
or come into existence by virtue of the hetu-
In the above exposition, by "the groups
of material qualities which co-exist with the
same" are meant the m3.terial qualities
produced by kamma at the initial moment
of the hetu-conditioned conception of a new
being, as well as such material qualities as
may be produced by the helu-conditioned
mind during the lifetime. Here by "the
moment of conception" is mcant the
nascent instant of the rebirth-conception,
and by "the lifetime" is meant the period
starting from the static instant of the rebirth-
conception right on to the moment of the
I n what sense is he/u to b? understood?
And in what sense, paccara? Hetti is to be
understood in the sense of root (lilli/arrha) ;
and paccayo in the sense of assisting in the
arising, or the coming to be, of the
paccayuppannii dhammii or upakt'irallha. Of
these two, nnila!{ha is the state of being a
root of the root, greed-and so on, as shown
in" Miila-yamaka." We: have illustred this
m{:tlaf{ha in the" MOla-yamaka-dipani" by
the simile of a tree. However, we shall deal
with it here again.
Suppose a man is in love with a woman.
Now. so long as he does not dispel the
lustful thought, a II his acts, words and
thoughts regarding this woman, will be co-
operating with lust (or greed), which at the
same time has also under its control the
material qualities produced by the same
thought. We see then that all these states
of mental and material qualities have their
root in lustful greed for that woman. Hence,
by being a hetu (for it acts as a r,)ot) and
by a poccaya (for it assists in the
arising of those states of mind and body),
greed is he/LI-paccara. The rest may be
explained and understood in the same
manner-i.e., the arising of greed by way of
desire for desirabk things; the arising of
hate by way of antipathy against hateful
things; and the arising of duEness by way of of knowledge respecting dull things.
No/e. Wherever the verb "relate" is used as 'relates to," etc., it should be understoo:l in
the sense of "is related to," "are related to, " etc., respectively.
Coming now to the bright side-suppose
the nun sees danger in sensual pleasure, and
gives up that lustful thought for the woman.
In doin'! so, di interestedness as regards her
arises in him. Before this. there took placC'
impure act. words and thoughts having as
their rOOl, illu ion; but for the time being
these are no longer present and in their stead
there arise pure acts, words and thoughts
having their root in disinterestedness.
Moreover. renunciation, self-control, Jhiina-
exercise or higher ecstatic thoughts also
come into berng. Disinterestedness (alobha),
therefore,. known Irelll-paC'ca)"a it being
a he/u because it ae as a root, while it is a
paCC:lJ'O bec;ause it assi t i" 'he arising of
the concorMtal1t. The I13rt1e explanation
appl. to the renullnder of disinterestedness
atKI t and which
Of 11'-' ha and

da Inl re ledne . It
d ir bl lh.nss nd
sr wilt f the e nee
greed it cheri he the coricolmitluit eltrtrt.,,,
with that e scnee till
and joyful that even the
Jhunic-, Path-, or ruition-plea ure.
lady, amity and inteUigencc re pecl.vely
hate and ignorance with regard to
and dull thing and promote the growth of'
the es ence of plea ure void of hate and
dullne s. Thus the operation of the threc
clements (aloMa, adosa, and amaha) lasts for
a long time, making their mental con-
comitants happy and joyful. The con-
comitant clements also become as they are
operated upon, while the co existent group
or material qualities are affected in the same
Here, the word
is a compound of the words 'Iohha'. 'I'il'eka',
'sukha', and 'rasa', Viveka is the state of
being absent. Lohhavil'eka is that which i'
from greed. or, is the absence of greed.
Lobhal'iveka-sllk/IO is the pleasure which
arises from the absence of I!reed. Hence the
whole compound is defined thus: Lob!ral'il'e-
kasukllarasa is the essence of pleasure which
is derived from the ahsence of greed.
What has just been expounded is the Law
of Paphiina 10 the Abhidhamma. Turning
to the Law of Suttanta- the two elemen! of
dullness and greed, which are respccti ely
termed nescience and craving, are the entire
roots all t he three rounds of mi. ery'*', A
to hate, it, being the incidental con. equence
of greed, is only a root of evil. The two
elements of intelligence and di int;!re tedne
which are respectively termed \\ i dom .,nd
the elc!ment of renunciation, are the entire
roots for the dissolution of the round (\1'
misery. A to amity, it, being the incidental
con equence of disintere tedne ,i onl a
root of good. Thu the. i root become 'the
causes of all the state of mind and bOd
which are eitherco-e i tellt or non-eo- i tilt.
Now what ha been .aid I the Ln f
- . -. . .
- -'. . - . -- - . - .-
- --_...-----=--
2. or the Relatio:l of
- ....
What is the Aram-nln:l-relation? All
classes of cOn)::iousness, all 'states of mental
concomitants, all kinds of mlterial qualities,
all phases of nibbana, all terms expressive of
concepts, are aramm:il).a-relations. There is,
in fact, not a single thing (dha'11"YZ:Z) whi::h
does not becom'! an obje:t of mind and of
the mental elements. St'lted con::isely, object
is of six different kinds. visible obje::t, audible
object, odorous obje::t, slpid obje:t, tlngible
object, and cognizable object.
Which are those things that are related by
the arammal11-relations? All classes of mind
and their concomitants are the things th:tt are
related by the arammll).a-relations. There is .
indeed not a single class of consciousness
that can exist without its having an existing
(bIn/lena) or non-existing (aahu/eM) obje::t.
CBhulena' and 'abhtitenCi' m'ly also be
rendered here as 'rea!' and 'unrel!', or,
as 'present' and 'non-present', respecti vely).
Here the visible obje:::t is the
arammal).a-pacClya, and is causally related
to the two classes, good and bld, of
consciousness of sight. Similarly, the present
audible object is causally related to the two
classes of consciousness of sound; the present
odorolls object, to the two classes of
consciousness of smell; the present sapid
object, to the two classes of consciousness of
taste; the present three classes of tangible
object, to the two classes of consciousness of
touch; and the present five objects of sense,
to the three classes of consciousness known
as the triple element of apprehension. All
these five objects of sense, present, P1st or
future, and all objects of lhought, present,
past, future or outside time, are aramm11).a
pacC'ayas and are causally related, severally,
to the seventy-six classes of consciousness
known as mind-cognitions (or elements of
comprehension ).
In what sense is "arammana" to be
understood, and in what sense ,,' pacC1ya "?
, Arammana" is to be unde;'stood in the
sense of "iilambitabba", which means that
which is held hemg upon, so (0 by
mind a'1d elem?nts. ., Pacc:lya" is
to b:: understood in the of "upakiiraka"
which th'lt which assists or renders
help (in arising of p:iCC.lyupp:tnna-
dhamm:t). **
Concerning the word' alambitabb:t', the
function of the' ala-nbln1' of minds and
their factors, is to iake hold of, or to
atta:ch to, obje:t. For instance, there is,
in this physical world, a kinl of metal which
receives its mm:: of 'ayokantaka' (literally,
iron-desire), lodestoae, on account of its
app:trent desire foriron. When it gets near
a lump of iron, it slukes as though
desiring it. Moreover, it move, itself i'orlv.lrd
and attashes itself firmly to the iron. In other
Clses, it attract> the iron: anJ so the iron
sh:tkes itself, appr01chc, lodestone, and
attaches itselF firmlv to it. Here we see the
power of the todest;ne, w:,ich 1ll1y t:lken
as a striking representation of the alambll)J.'
of mind and the mentll fdctors.
They (mind ,1;1d it, concomitants) not
only att:lch them,elves to objects, but, ;,t
the stage of their coming into existence
within a pcrson:li entity, rise and Ce1se
every moment, while the objects rennin
present at the avenues of the six doors. **-
Thus the rising and ceasing is just like that
of the sound of a gong, which is produced
only at e:tch we strike its surface,
followed by immediate silence. It IS also
like that of the sound of a violin, which is
producecl only whilc we strike its strings
with the bow and then Immediately cease,.
To a sleeping m'ln, - while the life-
c3ntinu,1 are flowing (in the stream or
thought )-ka'l1 'lI:7, the sign oC kWI1I11:7 and
the sign of the de,tiny awaiting him in the
succeedincr life- which had distincti)' entered
the of six doors at the time of
approaching de:lth in the preceding existence
-are ar,lmmlna-reiations, and are causally
related to (thc nineteen classes of)
conscio:Jsness known as th.: lire-continuum .
End of the Aramma!la-relation.
* See Compendium of Philosophy, page 108, n. 3.
** In this relation, 'paccaya' is generally known as 'aranllnal.1a' ;:: hanger' (as a
pothook) = object'; and 'paccayuppanna' is known as 'iirammanika' = 'hanger-on
subject'. - Trans/alor.
*** The six doors of the senses--mind, in Buddhist Philosophy making the si\th . sense '.
3. \dhiputi-Pul.'l.'uyu or the Rt'latioll of
The relation or uominance is or two kinds,
the objecti\e dl)minancc and the c(\-
uI)ll1inance. or these two, what is
the rd.llion or objectivc dominance? Among
the objects dealt \\ith in the section on the
Aramnlal.1a-relation there aie some objects
\\ hich are most agreeable, most lovable, most
pleasing and most regardable. Such objects
nhibit the relation of objective dominance.
Here the objects may, naturally, be either
agreeable or disagreeable; but by the word
.. the most agreeable objects" only those
l)bjects that are most highly esteemed by
this or that person are meant as exhihiting
this relation. bcepting the two classes of
consciousness rooted in aversion. * the two
classes of consciousness rooted in ignorance
and the tactual consciousness accompanied
by pain, together with the concomitants of
all these, it may be shown, analytically, **
that all the remaining class(>s of Kama-
consciousness, ROpa-consciousness, Arupa-
consciousness and Transcendental conscious-
ness, together with all their respective
concomitants and all the most agreeable
material qualities, are paccaya-dhamma.
Of these, Kama-objects are said to exhibit
the causal relation of objective
onl y when they are highly regarded, other-
wise they do not. But those who reach the
* See Compendium of Philosophy, page 83.
Jhana stagl.!s arc never lacking in high
for the sublime Jhfln:lS they have obtained.
Ariyan disciples also never fail in their great
regard for the Transcendental Dhallll11as Hit
they have obtained and enjoyed.
What are the things that are relatcd by
this relation? The eight of conscious-
ness rooted in appetite (lohha), the eight
classes of Kama/oka moral consciousness,
the four classes of in-operative Kama/oka
consciousness connected with knowledge,
and the eight classes of Transcendental
Consciousness- tllese are the things related
by this relation. Here the sixfold mundane
objects **** are causally related to the eight
c1as<;es of consciousness rooted in appetite.
The seventeen classes of mundane moral
consciousness are related to the four classes
of moral Kiima-consciousness disconnected
from knowledge. The first three pairs of
the Path and Fruit, and Nibbana, together
with all those classes of mundane moral
consciousness, are related to the four classes
of moral Kama-consciousness connected
with knowledge. The highest-the fourth
stage of the Path and Fruit of Arahantship-
together with Nibbana are related to the
four classes of inoperative Kama-consciou's-
ness connected with knowledge. And
Nibbana is related to the eight classes of
Transcendental Consciousness.
** Note by Translator. Dhammalo is equal to vallhulo or sarupalo or pahhedato. Cil/up-
pac/a has three aspects of meaning.
Firstly, it means' consciousness', as in-
. TesaJiz cillm'irullana,,'I, Yathayogam ira paralil,
Cillu p padesu paccekaliz Sam pci.rogo pavuccali." (See Part II Sangaha).
Secondly, it means' genesis of thought', as in-
" Vilhicillilni safl'eva: Cittuppiidii calwldam;
Calupal1//asa rilllz//{!rii Pancadvare Yathiirahalil. (See Part IV, Sangaha.)
Thirdly, it means 'mind and its concomitants " as in-
.. Cillup{J(ic/allalll' icc' el'ali! Kalvii saligahalll' ullaz"Olil,
Blllllllipugga/ahhedena Puhhiipara niyamilalil. (See Part I V Sangaha. )
I n each of these instances, the construction of the compound' fil Iu p pacla' should also be
noted. In the first instance, it is constructed as follows:-Uppajjatili uppado. Cilfam'el'fl
uppac/o cillupp(!do: in the second instance, Cillassa uppcido ciIIUPP(ldo; in the thIrd instance,
Up paj jali elem!' Ii u fI p(ldo, dhalllllwsamLiho. Cillaii co up pado ca cillu p pado.
*** Note by T::anslator. are here meant, i.e., the four pairs made up of
the four stages 01 the Path WIth the Frlllt of the same and Nlbbana.
**** Sights, so unds, odours, savours, contacts, ideas.
" .. _. "
- ....... ...- ..
In wha t sense is to be
It.! lderstood, and in what sense Adhipali?
-4 rallll/wua is to be understood in the sense
of ci/ambilahba (cL and
atllli pali in the sense of adhipaccallha. Then
what i adhi paccaflha? Adhi paccallha is the
potency of objects to control those states of
mind and mental qualities by which the
objects are highly regarded.. It is to be
understood that the relating things (paccaya
tlhammo) of iiramrnan6dhi pali resemble the
overlord, while the related things
( pacca .I'll p panlla-dhamma) resem ble the
thralls. in human society.
In the Sutasoma Jataka, Porisada, the king
owing to his extreme delight in human flesh
abandoned his kingdom solely for the slke
of the taste of human f1csh and lived a
wanderer's lire in the forest. Here the
savour of human flesh is the paccayadhamma
of iiramllla(ltidhipati; and King Porisada's
consciousness rooted in appetite is the
paccayuppannadhamma. And again, King
Sutasoma, having a very high regard for
Truth*, forsook his sovereignty, all his royal
ramily and even his life for the s:lke of Truth,
and w;::nt to throw himself into the hands of
Porisada. I n this case, Truth is the
paccaradha'11Y1/Q and King Sutasoma's moral
consciousness is the pacca)'up pal1J1adha/1"?7:r.
Thus must we understand all objects of sense
to \\ hich great regard is attached.
What is the relation of co-existent
dJl11inance') Intention or desire-to-do,
mind ** or will, energy or effort, and reason
or investigation, which have arrived at the
dominant state, be:ong !o this relation.
What are the things related by this
relation? Classes of mind and or mental
qualities which are adjuncts of the dominants,
and material qualities produced by dominant
thoughts are the things that are related by
this relation.
In what sense is sahajiila to be understood,
and in what sense adhipali? SClllajeila is to
be understood in thesenseorsalluppcitlanallha,
and adhipali in the sense of ahhibhClI'Cllla{!!;CI.
Here, a phenom:!non, when it appears
not only appe;}rs a lone, but simultaneously
causes its adju ncts to appear. Such a
causal act ivity of the phenomenon is
termed the sahuppadalla!!ha. And the term
'abhibhavana!!ha' means overcoming. For
instance, King Cakkavalli by his own power
or merit overcomes, and becomes lord of,
the inhabitants of the whole continent whom
he can lead according to his own will. They
also become according as they are led. In
like manner, those four influences whieh have
arrived at the domimnt stage become lord
of, and lead, so to speak, their adjuncts 10
be at their will in each of their respective
functions. Theadjuncts also become accord-
ing as they are led. To take another
example:- In each of these m.lsses,
earth, water, fire, and air, we see that the
four elements-extension, cohesion, heat, and
motion-are respectively predominant, and
e1ch has supremacy the other three
components and mlkes them conform to its
own intrinsic nature ***. The other three
members of the group of four' elements' also
have to follow after the nature of the
predomim.nt element. fn the same way,
these four dominants, which have arrived at
the dominant stage through their power,
make the adjuncts conform to their own
intrinsic nature. And their adjuncts also
have to follow after the nature of the
dominants. Such is the melning of
a hibhavana. Here some might say: ,. If
these things le3.ving out intention, are to be
called dominants on of their over-
coming the adjuncts, also o.lght to be
called a don"1inant, !'or 0bviously It possesses
a more overwhelming p::l\ver over the
adjuncts than intention." But to this we
may reply: is. indeed, more power-
ful than intentio:l, but only with ordinary
unintelligent men. With the \\ise, intention
is more powerful than greed in overwhelming
the adjuncts. If it is a sumed that greed is
more powerflll, then how should people, who
are in the hands or greed, gi\'e up the
repletion of their happy e\istencc and wealth,
* Truth here means the sincerity of the promi e he had giv<.'n. TI'tII,sl.,IOl'.
** Mind, here refers to one of the apperceptions which arc fifty-livc in aIL but 11\
this connection we must exclude the two classes of dull ;IS wcll a' ae$thetic
plca,ure. 'I he other three dominunts are their own concnmitants. Tralls/alol'.
*** In no rna, ., or curth, water, fire, or air, do thc\e . demcnts' e\ist ill a sLlte l)f abs\,llutt'
purity, '1 he other' clements' ,Ire always present, but In u wry subordinute propllrtion.
\Hlt thl: lildhl)ds \)l' renunciation. lind
Illllll thl.: cirel' \,1' misery'? But,
h 'au: intef tion is more IJl)\\'cI:ruI IIHin
grl:l'd. therdcre tlwse people will) arc in Ihc
hand: \11' grl.: 'd arc ahle 10 give up the replc-
tj\ln \If happ) existence and wealth, rulfil thc
ml'ans \ll' renunciation. and cscape from the
l'ir'le llf misef\. Hence, intention is a truc
d 'minant. Ih)! greed. Thc like should
he bMne in samc when
intenllon is contrasted with hate, and so
Let us e\.plain this more clearly. When
there arise great and difficult manly
enterprises, the accomplishment of such
enterprise necessit.1tes the arising of these
rour dominants. How? When iII-inten-
tioned people encounter any such enterprIse,
their intention recedes. They are not willing
to undertlkc it. They leave it, having no
inclination for it, and even say: "The task
is not withon the range of our ability". As
to well-intentioned people, their intention
becomes full of spirit at the sight of such a
great enterpris::!. They are very willing to
undertake it. They m:tke up their mind to
accomplish the task, saying: "This has
been set within the orbit of our ability," A
person of this type is so persuaded by hi
intention that he is unable to give up the
enterprise during the course of his under-
taking, so long as it is not yet accomplished.
And since this is the case the task will some
day arrive at its full accomplishment even
though it may bc a very great one.
Now, let us turn to the case of men of the
indolent class. When they come facc to
face with such a great task they at once
shrink from it. They shrink from it because
they foresec that they will have to go through
great hardships and also undergo bodily and
mental pain if they wish to accomplish it.
As to the industrious man, he becomes filled
with energy at the sight of it a nd wishes to
set himself to it. He goes on through thick
and thin with the performance of the task
for any length of time. He never turns
hack from his exertions nor does he become
disappointcd. What hc only thinks about
is that such a grcat task cannot be
accomplishcd without unswcrving cfforts
every day and cvery night. And th is heing
the casc the grclt task will ccrlaillly rcach
its Cl1U olle day.
Let us lake the case 0(' the fl:chlc-minocd.
They also turn a way when thty scc such a
great task. Thcy will ctrtainly ncver think
of it again. But it is quitc differcnt with
the strong-mindcd person. Whcn he sces
such a task he becomes highly intcrcstcd in
it. He is quitc unable to dispcl thc thought
of it. Hc is all the timc wrappcd up in
thoughts about the task, and at its bidding
sets himself to it for a long time, enduring all
kinds of bodily and mental pain. The
remainder should hereaftcr be explained in
the same manner a, Ihe dominant intention
Again a few words about unintelligent
men. Whcn they are confronted with such
a task they become blinded. They know
not how to begin nor how to go on with the
work nor how to bring it to its end. They
feel as if they h:td entered the dark where
not a single light ot' in::linJtion towards its
performance has becn set up to guide them.
On the other hand-to take the more
intelligent case- when a person of this type
has to tackle such a gre:lt task he feels as if
he were lifted up to the summit of his
intellect, whereupon he discerns whence to
start and whither 10 end. He also knows
what advantagc and blessing will accruc to
him from its p;!rformance. He ill\ents
many devices ('or its easy accomplishment.
He continues on with thc "\ork for a long
time; and so on and so forth. The rest
should be explained in the same manncr as
the dominant effort-only inscrting the
words' with an enormous amount or inycs-
tigation' in place of ' unswerving etforts '.
Thus, whcn there arise greal and dillicult
manly enterprises, these fOLlr dominants
become predomin,lI11 among the means l)f
thcir accomplishmcnt. 0\\ ing ttl the
existence of these fllur dominant> there e\IS(
d isti ngu i shed or d ign i lied perSl)I1S (per'llJ1:l
such as the Omniscient Buddh,ls. -th<.'
- ,--.-_. - - - - ..
Pacc<!ka Buddhas*, rhc most emil1<!nt
disc.iples, the grcilt disciples and the
ol:ullwry disciples. Owing to the appearance
01 slich personages, there also appear, for
lI!e gencral prosperity illlU welfare of m"Il-
killd numerous *. arts and sciences, as well
as general articles of furniture to suit and
,crve human needs and wants under the
canopy of civilization.
End of the Adhipati-relation.
4. Anantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Contiguity
What is the Anantara-paccaya? All being thus indistinct, there generaIly arise
classes of consciousness and thei.r only such classes of consciousness as are
mental concomitants, which have just conjoined with perplexity.
ceased (in the immediately preceding After two months or so from the time of
instant), are llIrantara-paccayas. Which are impregnation, during which period the
these that are related by this paccaya? All individual is gradually developing, the
classes of consciollsness and their mental controlling powers of the eyes, ears, etc.,
concomitants, which have just arisen (in the complete their full development. But there
immediately succeeding instant), are related being no light, and so on, in the womb of
by this paccaya. the mother, the four classes of cognition-
1n one existence of a being, the rebirth- visual, auditory, and so on-do not arise.
consciousness is related to the first Ii fe- Only the tactile cognition and the mind-
oontinuum. by way of contiguity, and the cognition arise. . The child suffers much
first life-continuum IS again related to the pain and distress at every change of the
second life-continuum; and so on with the mother's bodily posture, and much more
rest. so while he is being born. Even after he
Now with reference to the Text, .. When has come into the outer world, he has to
the second unmoral consciousness arises to lie very feebly on his back till the delicate
the Pure (those of Pure abode, i.e. Suddhii- body becomes strong enough (lit., reaches
vasa), etc.," which is expounded in the the state of maturity) to bear itself. During
Dhamma-Yamaka, the ninth chapter of the this period, he cannot cognize present
Sixth Book of Abhidhamma, we understand objects, but his mind generally turns towards
that, as he becomes aware of his new body, the objects of his previous existence. If he
the first process of thought which occurs to comes from the hell-world, he generally
a being in his new life is the process of presents an unpleasant face, for he still feels
unmoral thought accompanied by a strong what he had experienced in the hell-world.
desire to live the new life, with the idea: If he comes from the abode of Devas, his
"This is mine; thi:; am J; this is Myself." pleasant face not only shines with smiles,
When this process is about to occur, the but in its joyous expression of laugh, as it
life-continuum vibrates first for two were, he shows his happiness at some
moments. Next comes the mind-door thought of the objects of the Deva-world.
apprehension, and then follows a series of Furthermore, the members of his body
seven apperceptives, accompanied by a steadily become strong, and his sense-
strong desire to live the new life. Thf're- impressions clear. So he is soon able to
after, life-continua begin to flow again. play joyfully in his own dear little ways. A
In fact, this being" does not know happy life is thus begun for him; and he
anything of his present new life. He lives, begins to take an interest in his
reffecting what he had in the He takes to and imitates his mother's speech.
previous existence. The basis of mind, He prattles with her. Thus his senses
however, is too weak, so that the object also almost entirely turn to the present world;
cannot be clearly reflected. The object and all his reflections of the previous life
That is one Who attains Nibbana unaided .
Here, Science, Arts, and Handicrafts are meant
.... Lodi SayaJaw here to explain lir;: ,,,rro of" wOIllb-born being.
fade away. That is to say, he forgets his
previous l'xistcnce.
po all beings forget their previous
eXIstences only at period of life'? No,
not nil heings. Some who are very much
oppressed with the pain of conception,
forget their previous existences during the
period of pregnancy; some at the time of
birth: some at the aforesaid period; some
during the period of youth; and some in
old age. Some extraordinary men do not
forget for the whole of their lifetime; and
even there are some who are able to reflect
two or three previous existences. They are
called 'Jc7iissarasattas', those gifted with
the memory of their previous existences.
Now, to return to our subject. Though
the six-door processes of thought begin to
work after the child has been born. yet the
six-door processes work themselves out in
full action only when the child is able to
take up present objects. Thus, in every
process of thought, every preceding con- that has just ceased is related to
every succeeding consciousness that has
immediately arisen, by way of contiguity.
And this relation of contiguity prevails
throughout the whole span of the recurring
existences of an individual, right from the
untraceable beginning, with unbroken
continuity. But only after he has attained
the Path of Arahantship and has entered the
Khandha-Parinibhiina (i.e. the final extinc-
tion of the Five Aggregates), does this
continuum break, or, more strictly speaking,
ceases for ever.
Why is anantara so called, and why
paccaya? Anantara is so called because it
causes such states of phenomena as are
similar to its own, to succeed in the
immediately following instant. Paccaya is
so called because it renders help. In the
phrase < similar to its own', the word
'similar' is meant to express similarity in
respect of having the faculty of being
conscious of an object. And' S(lrammar J '
means a phenomenon which does not oc . '
without the presence of an object. So it
has been rendered as .. similar in respect of
baving the facuIty ", and so forth.
Also the phrase " Dhammantarassa
up piidanatthena" expresses the following
meaning :-" Though the preceding thought
ceases, the conscious faculty of it does not
become extinct until it has caused the
succeeding thought to arise."
Here it should be borne in mind that the
series of paccrz)'a-t1hammas of this relation
resembles a series of preceding mothers, and
the series of
resembles a series of succeeding daughters.
This being so, the last dying-thought of an
Arahant should also cause the arising of a
rebirth-consciousness. But it does not do
so, for, at the close of the evolution of
existence, all activities of volitions and
defilements (Kamma-kilesa) have entirely
ceased, and the last dying-thought has
reached the final, ultimate quiescence,
End of the Anantara-relation.
5. Samanantara-Paccaya or tbe Relation of
Immediate Contiguity
The classifications of the paccaya-dham-
mas and paccayuppanna-dhammas of this
relation, are, all of them, the same as those
of the anantara-paccaya.
In what sense is samanantara to be under-
stood'? Samanantara is to be understood in
the sense of 'thorough immediateness'.
How? In a stone pillar, though the groups
of matters therein seem to unite into one
mass, they are not without the material
quality of limitation or space which inter-
venes between them, for matter is substantial
and formative. That is to say, there exists
an element of space, called mediary or
cavity, between any two units of matter.
But it is not so with immaterial qualities.
There does not exist any space, mediacy or
cavity, between the two consecutive groups
of mind and mental concomitants. That is
to say. they (groups of mind and menta!
concomitants) are entirely without any
mediaey, because the mental state is not
substantial and formative. The mediacy
between two consecutive groups of mind and
mental concomitants, is also not known to
the world. So it is thought that mind is
permanent, stable, stationary, and immut-
able. Hence, ' Samanafltara' is to be
understood in the sense of thorough imme-
diateness'. Analltara{!ha has also explained
in the foregoing relation as " Attana allan tare
attasadisassa dhammantarassa uppiidanat-
theI)Q;" that is because it causes such
states of phenomena as are similar to its
own to succeed in the immediately folIowing
instant. This being so, some such sugges-
tion as follows might be put forward :-" At
the time of ' sustained cessation' * (Nirodha-
samapatti), the preceding consciousness is
that of Neither-Consciousness-Nor-Uncon-
sciousness, and the succceding consciousness
is that of the Ariyan-Fruit. Between these
two classes of consciousness, the total sus-
pension of thought occurs either for one
day, or for two, or three, ............... , or even
for seven days. Also in the abode of
unconscious beings, the preceding conscious-
ness is that of decease (culicitta. the dying-
thought) from the previous Kamaloka; and
the sllcceeding one is that of rebirth (pa{i-
sandhi-c(lta) in the following Kamaloka.
Between these two classes of consciousness,
the total suspension of thought of the uncon-
scious being, occurs for the whole term of life
amotmting to five hundred kappas or great
reons. Hence, is it not correct tol say that
the two classes of preceding consciousness
are without the faculty of causing to arise
something similar to themselves in an
immediately following instant? The reply
to this is: No, they are not without this
faculty. The faculty has only been retarded
in its operation for a certain extended
period, through certain highly cultivated
contemplations and resolutions made.
When the preceding thoughts cease, they
cease together with the power, which they
possess, of causing something to arise similar
to themselves. And the succeeding thoughts,
being unable to arise in continuity at that
immediate instant, arise only after the lapse
of the aforesaid extent of time. It can not
be rightly said that they (the preceding
thoughts) do not possess the faculry of
causing to arise something similar to them-
selves, or that they are not awntara-relations
only because of a suspension of operation
of the faculty. For, we do not speak of a
king's armies when they are not actually in
a battle or in the very act of fighting, or
while they are roaming about, not being
required to fight by the king, who at such
times may say, "My men, it is not the
proper time for you yet to fight. But you
shall fight at such and such a time." We
do not then say that they are not armies or
that they have no fighting qualities. In
precisely the same way, the relation between
the two aforesaid preceding thoughts is to
be understood.
Here some might say: It has been just
said in this relation, that both the relating
and the related things, being incorporeal
qualities having no form whatever a?d
having nothing to do with any
quality of limitation (space) mterveDing
between, are entirely without mediacy or
cavity. If this be so, how shall we believe
the occurrence at every moment, of the
arising and ceasing of consciousness, which
has been explained in the arammQ/Ja-paccaya
by the illustration of the sound of a
and of a violin? We may answer this
question by asserting the fact, which is quite
obvious in the psychical world, that. the
various classes of consciousness are m a
state of continual flux, i.e., in a continuous
succession of changes. It has also been
explained, in detail, in the essays on Citta-
End of the Samanantara-relations.
6. Sahajata-Paccaya or the Relation oi
The classifications of the paccaya and
paccayuppanna-dhammas of this relation
will now be dealt with. All coexistent
classes of consciousnes and their mental
concomitants are, each, mutually termed
paccaya and paccayuppanna-dhammas. So
also are the mental rebirth and
the basis of mind, which coexist with rebirth;
and so also are the Great Essentials,
mutually among themselves. All the material
qualities born of Kamma at moment 0f
rebirth and all the material qualities which
are born of mind, during life, at the nascent
instant of each momentary state of con-
sciousness (which is capable of producing
material quality), are merely termed the
paccayuppallna-dhammas of that coexistent
consciousness. All the material qualities
deroived from the Great Essentials are,
however, termed the paccayuppanna-
dhammas of the Great Essentials.
I n what sense is sahajala to be understood;
and in what sense, paccaya? Sahajata is to
be understood in the sense of coexistence;
and paccaya, in the sense of rendering help.
Here, coexistence means that, when a
phenomenon arises, it arises together with
its effect; or, in other words, also causes its
effect to arise simultaneously. Such is the
meaning of coexistence implied here.
For example, when the sun rises, it rises
together with its heat and light. And when
* been rendered as 'sustained ccsntion. Here the cessation is that not only of consciousness but
also of mental concomitants and mental qualities, born of mind. (Translator.)
. i- burning, it burns together with
1t: he'll .uld light. So also. this relating
thing. in arismg. with related
In :hi cample, the sun is like each of the
mental states: the sun's heat like the
coe.-isting mental states: and the sun's light
is like the coexisting material qualities.
Similarly, the sun is like each of the Great
Essentials; its heat, the coexisting Great
Essentials; and its light, the coexisting
material qualities derived from them. In
the example of the candle, it should be
understood in a similar way.
End of the Sahajiita-relation.
7. Aiffiamaiiiia-Paccaya or the Relation of
What has been spoken of the paccaya-
dhammas in the classifications of the
relation of coexistence, is here (in this
relation) the paccaya as well as the
paccayuppannadhammas. All states of
consciousness and their mental concomitants
are, reciprocally, the paccaya and the
paccayuppanna-dhammas; so are the
coexiting Great Essentials; so are the mental
aggregates of rebirth; and so is the basis of
mind or heart-basis which coexists with
the mental aggregates of rebirth.
As to the sense implied here, it is easy to
understand. However, an illustratIOn will
not be uninteresting. When three sticks are
set upright leaning against one another at
1heir upper ends, each of them depends on,
and is depended on by. the other two. As
long as one of them remains in such an
upright position, so long will all remain in
the same position. And, if one of them
falls, all will fall at the same time. Exactly
so should this relation of reciprocity be
Here, if anyone should assert that the
mental properties are not able to arise
without consciousness rendeJing them service
as their base, we would acknowledge that
this is so. Why? Because the function of
knowing is predominant among the functions
of contact, and so forth, of the mental
properties, and, in the Dhammapada, as
expounded by the Omniscient Buddha,
"mind is predominant" (Manopubbangama
Dhamma, etc ........ ). And again if anyone
bolds that consciousness also is not able to
arise without the mental properties as a
wrrdative. we will support this view. They
(menta I properties) arc concomitant factors
of conseiollsness; therefore consciousness
al$o is not able to arise without its accom-
panying mental properties. In a similar
way are the four Great Essentials to be
understood. But the mental qualities derived
from them should not be counted as
concomitant factors, for they are only
derivatives. Then, are the material qualities
of life and those born of food, not con-
comitant factors, seeing that they can
exercise, individually, the causal relation of
control and that of food? No, they are not.
They may be taken as concomitant factors
only when the development is in full swing;
but not when things are only at the state of
genesis. In this relation of reciprocity the
arising of concomitants at the stage of
genesis is a necessary factor.
End of the Afifiamafiiia-relation.
8. Nissaya-Paccaya or the Relation of
The relation of dependence is of three
kinds, 'coexistent dependence,' 'basic pre-
existent dependence', and' basic objective
pre-existent dependence.'
Of these, what is the relation of' coexistent
dependence'? The relation of 'coexistent
dependence' embraces all those that are
already comprised in the relation of coexi-
stence. Hence the classifications of relation
and related things ought here to be under-
stood in the same way as those that have
already been set out in the section on the
relation of coexistence.
And what is the relation of' basic pre-
existent dependence' ? There are six bases
-eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and heart.
These six bases, during life, are causall)'
related, by way of 'basic pre-existent
dependence', to the seven elements of
The material base itself pre-exists and
serves as a standing ground or substratum,
and it is therefore called 'basic pre-existent
dependence'. Here,' basic' is so called
because of its being a standing ground or
substratum for mind and mental properties.
'To pre-exist' means to exist beforehand-
one thought-moment than its related
Here the rebirth consciousness arises in
dependence upon the heart- basis * that
coexists with it, for there is no pre-existent
physical basis at that moment. And the
first life-continuum arises in dependence
upon the same heart-basis which coexists
with the rebirth-consciolJsness. The second
life--continuum arises also in dependence
upon the heart-basis which coexists with the
first life--continuum, and so on with the
rest; that is the third life-continuum arises in
dependence upon the heart basis [hat ::oexists
with the second life-continuum; and so on
and on, until comes the moment of death.
Thus should be understood the 'basic pre-
existent dependence' which relates to the two
elements of cognition, the element of appre-
hension and the element of comprehension.
Just as a violin sounds only when tbe
violin-bow strikes its strings, and not other-
wise; so also the five senses awake only
when the five kinds of sense-objects enter
the five avenues known as 'five bases', and
not otherwise.
The impression is possible only at the
static period of the object and of the basis.
On account of the impression, the life-
continuum vibrates for t" 0 moments. And,
on account of the vibration of the He-
continuum, apprehension occurs. On
account of apprehension, thc five sense-
cognitions are able to arise. Therefore, the
five sense-bases (eye, ear, etc .. ), which have
arisen at the nascent instant of the past sub-
consciousness, are the 'basic pre-ex iste!)t
dependences' of tht> five elements of sense-
Now, at the time of death all the six bases
come into being only at the nascent instant
of the seventeen! h sub - consciousness,
reckoned backward from the dying-conscious-
ness. No new bases occur after fhat seven-
teenth sub-consciousness_ So, at the time
of death, all sub-consciousness, all six-door-
process-cognitions and consciousness of
decC<1se arise in dependence upon these, their
respective hases that came into being
together with the seventeenth sub-conscious-
ness which has arisen previously to them.
This is the causal relation of 'basic pre-
existent dependence'.
What is the causal relation of 'basic
objective pre-existent dependence'? When
one is reflecting and holding the view: "my
mind locates itself in dependence upon the
matter \\ hich is mine, or myself, ormy alta",
through craving, conceit, and error; or when
one is reasoning or speculating thus: "my
mind locates Itself in dependence upon
malier which is Impermanence, III, and
No-soul", there arise mind-door cognitions,
such as determining, and so forth. During
that time, each of the material bases
becomes the standing ground for, and also
the object of, each of the mind-door cogni-
tions. Therefore, such and such a heart-
basis is causally related to such and such a
consciousness and its concomitants, by way
of basic objective pre-existent dependence.
This is the causal relation of' basic objective
pre-existent dependence', Hence the relation
of dependence is of three different kinds.
Here, the dependence by way of Suttanta
sho\jld also be mentioned. We know that
men, animals, trees, and so forth, stand or
rest on the earth; the earth, in turn, on the
great mass of air; and the air, on the limit-
less empty space underneath. We also know
that men establish themselves in houses;
bhikkhus, in viharas or monasteries; devas,
in celestial mansions; and so on with the
whole universe. Thus ,hould we understand
that everything is causally related to some-
thing: else by way of dependence.
End of Nissaya-Relation.
" Here ( hadaY,lm) is the se1t of l ci!ta, ) t h : > ~ ; h t .
T he of s.ullking: condi.tion i:-.
tlm::c KlI1ds--' obJective sut1lcmg condI-
tion ", .' contiguous sliJlking condition" and
., natural sufficing condition." or these three
the first is the same as objcctivc dominance:
and the second as contiguity.
What is "natural sufficing condition" ?
All past, present and future, internal and
external, classes of consciousness together
with their concomitants, all material qualities,
Nibbana and concepts (panilalli) , are natural
sufficing conditions, severally related-as the
case may be-to all the presenl classes of
consciousness and their concomitants.
Here, the Buddha who passed away and has
entered Nibbana, His Dhamma, the Frater-
nity of His sanctified disciples, and the succes-
sions of the recognized Fraternity, are causal-
ly related to us, of later generation, by way of
natural sufficing condition, for the cultivation
of good. In the same way, our forefathers,
in their respective capacities as parents,
teachers, wise monks and brahmins, cminent
philosophers, and powerful and august kings,
are also causally related to the succeeding
generations by way of natural sufficing condi-
tion, either for the cultivation of good or of
evil, or for the experience of pleasure or of
pain. For which reason, they established or
propounded various laws and sayings, moral
and immoral, and also worldly institutions-
both for the welfare and otherwise of the
succeeding generations. The future genera-
tions also follow their paths and adopt their
customs by doing acts of charity, by observ-
ing the precepts, and so forth; by practising
the moral and social laws of the world; by
adhering to various religious beliefs; by
taking up various kinds of occupations; by
st udying various branches of arts and science;
by governing hamlets. villages and towns ; by
being agriculturists in the field and on the
farm, by digglllg pond" .. 1:<1 welis ; by
huildillg huuses; by making carri,lges :lnd
cart;,: by build ing bLlhte,. steamers and ships;
and by seeking for and accumulating wealth,
such as gold, prccic'lJs STone" peads
and so forth aild so on. Thus the world has
dcveloped unceasingly.
The future Buddh;1 (I\fctteYY:1), His Dham-
ma and His Fralt::rnity are natura! sufficing
conditIons, being causally related to the
present generation, for thc acquirement of
virtues, and the gaining of merit. Supremacy,
wealth, power, prosperity-which are to be
gaincd in the fUlure--are also natural suffi-
cing conditions, related to the present genera-
tion for the putting forlh of efforts of all sorts.
The acquirement of happy existence and
wealth and the attainment of Path, Fruition
nd Nibbana, which an: to be cnjoyed in the
ruture, arc aL,o natur.:tl sunlcing conditions,
related to the present generation of men for
the develormcnt of SLlch forms of merit as
charity, virtue and so on. With the hope of
reaping crops in winter. men tili the soil and
sow seed, in the rainy season; or do
variolls kinds of work, which incLlr labour
and intellect, with the hope of getting
moncy upon their completion of the
work. Now, the crops to be reaped and
thc money to be got, are future natural
sufficing conditions, related to the acquisition
of crops and money. Tn the same manner,
most people in the present life do many good
deeds, realizing that they will reap the fruits
of their deeds in some life hereafter. In this
casc, the fruits which will be reaped in future
are future natural sufficing conditions, related
to the deeds done in the present life. Deeds
done before are also past natural sufficing
conditions, related to the fruits which are to
bc reaped in the future. Thus we see that the
future natural sufficing condition is as large
and wide as the past.
" Just as a stick, brethren, thrown up into the air, falls now on the hutt-end, now
on its side, now on its tip, even so do beings, cloaked in ignorance, tied by craving
running on wandenng, go now from this world to the other world, now from the othe;
world to this."
- San'IYlltta-lIikiiya, xv, 2-11.
_ . 4. .
- .
- - .' -' .
. . . , .....
The living Buddha, His Dhamma, and so
on, are present natural sufficing conditions,
being related to the present living men, Devas
and Brahmas; and so are living parents
to living sons and daughters, and so on. The
present natural sufficing condition is thus
obvious and easy to understand.
Internal natural sufficing conditions are
those that exist in an animate person, such as
the Buddha, and so forth_ External natural
sufficing conditions are conditions, such as
lands, mountains, rivers, oceans and so on,
which serve as resting places for the existence
of life (sentient beings); or such as forests,
woods, trees, grasses, grains, beans and so
forth; or such as the moon, the sun, the
planets, the stars and so on ; or such as rain,
fire, wind, cold, heat, and so forth, which are
useful and advantageous to life in one way or
other. All these are the more powerful
sufficing conditions, either for the accomplish-
ment of good or for the spreading of evil:
either for the enjoyment of pleasures or for
the suffering of pains.
Those with an earnest desire to enter
Nibbana in the present life, work out the
factors of enlightenment. Those with an
ardent hope to enter Nibbana in the lives to
come when Buddhas will appear, fulfil the
perfections. Here, Nibbana is the more
powerful sufficing condition for the culti-
vation of these tasks.
A large variety of concepts or names-and-
notions, commonly employed, or found in
the Tipitaicas of the Buddha,are also sufficing
conditions for the understanding of many
In fact, all conditioned things here come to
be only when there are present causes or
conditions for the same; and not otherwise.
And they stand only if there are presen(
causes for their standing; otherwise they do
not. Therefore, causes or conditions are
needed for their arising as well as for their
maintenance. However, Nibbana and con-
cepts are things, unconditioned, without birth
and genesis, everlasting and eternal; there-
fore, no causes are nee<ted for their arising
and maintenance. *
The Moral is causally related to that which
is moral by way of sufficing condition. A
clear exposition of this is given in the
Panhana, where it is said: "Through faith
one gives charity, observes the precepts
and so on." Similarly, that moral is causally
related to immoral-and unspecili:d ** or
unmoral to unmoral-, by way of sufficing
condition, is made clear by these exposi-
tions :-" Through lust one commits murder,
theft and so on" and" Through sui table
climate and food, one enjoys physical health
and so forth." The Moral is also causally
related to that which is immoral by way of
more powerful sufficing condition. This is
to be understood from the following exposi-
tion:- "One may give charity, and there-
upon exalt oneself and revile others. In the
same manner, having observed the precepts,
having attained concentration of mind, and
having acquired learning, one may exalt
oneself and belittle others."
The Moral is also causally related to that
which is unmoral by way of more
powerful sufficing condition. All good
deeds done in the four planes (these
four planes are the spheres of Kama, Rupa,
Anlpa and Lokuttara), and all actions con-
nected with doing good, are related, by way
of more powerful sufficing condition, to un-
morals of the resultant kind, producible at
a remote period. Those who practise for the
Perfection of charity, suffer much physical
and mental pain. Similarly, those who
practise for such other Perfections (Parami-
tas) as of morality, abnegation, wisdom,
perseverance, patience, sincerity, resolution,
love, and resignation, suffer the same. It is
likewise with those who practise the Gourse of
Jhana and Magga (" supernormal thought ..
and the Path).
Immorals are also causally related, by way of
more powerful sufficing condition, to morals.
For instance, some on this earth, having done
wrong, repent their deeds and better them-
selves to shun all such evil deeds, by cultivating
such moral acts as giving charity, observing
the precepts, practising Jhanas and Maggas.
Thus the evil deeds they have done are
* That is to say, Nibbana and concepts (or more properly, concept-terms) do not enter time, and therefore
are not subject to time's nature, change. They do not" arise"; therefore they do not .. cease". They are
.. everlasting and eternal" in the sense of being extra-temporal, not in the vulgar sense of being endlessly
continuous in time.
*' Here abyakata is rendered as "unspecified" or "unmoral". It is explained in the commentary as
Kusala-akusalabhavena akathita, annabhavcna kathita; i.e., not to be called as moral or immoral, but to
called as .. apart-from-both"; i.e_, unmoral or The ahyakatadhammas are---<\11 of
resultant and inoperative consciousness and all material qualities, as well as Nibbana. -Translator,
w 'of:tnn rsuflicingcondition.
h) th III )r.l\ lcts th y cultivate tater.
hnllll raL Me also causally related. by way
f III rc.; sutlking condition, to
\lnm h)r instance. many people in
this \\ l)r1d. I\:\\ ing bt:l'n guilty Qf evil deeds,
rt J':lined h) fall into l)ne of the fQur planes
l,f nl1:ery. and undergo pains of sutf!!ring
\\ hich prc\ ail there. E,en in the present life,
through their own misdeeds or the
mi:deed' of others. have tQ bear a great deal
f cli:tress. Some. however, enjoy a large
.... uiety of pleasures with the money
the\ earn by their misconduct. There are
also manv who suffer much on account of
lust. hate: error, conceit, and so forth.
l.:nmorals are also causally related by way
of more powerful sufficing condition to
morals. Having become possei>sed of great
wealth, one gives charity, practises for the
perfection of good morals. fosters wisdom,
and practises the religious exercises in a sui-
table place, such as a monastery, a hollow
place, a cave, a tree, a forest, a hill, or a
village, where the climate is agreeable and
food is available.
Unmorals are also causally related by way
of more powerful sufficing conditions to
immorals. Being equipped with eyes, many
evils are born of sight within oneself. A
similar explanation applies to our equipment
with ears, etc.; so also as regards hands,
legs, swords, arms, etc. It is thus, that
ing condition is of three kinds.
Sufficing condition by way of Suttanta,*
may also be mentioned here. It is found in
many such passages in the Pi takas as,
" Through intercourse with virtuous friends,"
"Through association with sinful compa-
nions," "By living in the village," "By
dwelling in the forest" and so forth. In
short, the five cosmic orders (panca-niyama-
dhamma) are the stronger sufficing conditions
relating to the three worlds-the animate
world, the inanimate world, and the world
of space, to go on unceasingly through reons
of time. This also has been expounded at
length by us in the NiyamadipanL**
Why is iirommw:zupanissaya so called? It
is so calIed because the dominant object acts
as a main basis for subjects (iirarnmw:zika).
Why is mwraflipolliu(J),(J so called ? ft is
calkd hcc(tllse the preceding (;OnSClOll<;ncs
acts as a main hasis for the arising of jtll
immediate succecding conscioll,ncss. Thl:
preceding consciousncss is ju<,t like the
mQther ; and the sUl'ceeding one, the son.
Here, just as the mother givl:s birth to the son
who owes his existence to her in particular, so
also the preceding consciousness gives birth to
the succeeding one which owes its existence
particularly to its predecessor.
Why is pakatupanissaya so cailed? It is
so called because it is naturally known .to
the wise as a distinct sufficing condition.
Here, something further requires to be said.
The influence of a sufficing condition in con-
tiguity, pervades only its rmmeCliate succes-
sor ; but that of a natural sufficing condition
can pervade many remote ones. Therefore,
what in this present life has been seen, heard,
smelt, tasted, touched and experienced in
days, months, years, long gone by, takes form
again at the mind-door, even after a lapse of
a hundred years, if a sufficient cause is avai-
lable. And so people remember their past,
and can utter such expressions as "I saw it
'before ", "I heard it before ", and so on.
These beings, whose birth is apparitional ***,
also remember their former existences;
likewise, some among men, who are gifted with
the memory of their former existences, can do
so. If one out of a hundred thousand
objects experienced before, be met with after-
wards, many or, it may be, all of them reap-
pear in the process of thought.
End of the Upanissa-Rclation.
10. Purejata-Paccaya or
Tile Relation of Pre-ExistcBce
The relation of pre-existence is of three kinds
-basic pre-existence, objective pre-existence.
and basic objective pre-existence.
Of these, the first and the last have already
been dealt with, under the heading of N issaya.
in the foregoing section on the N issaya rela-
Objective pre-existetlce is the name given to
the present eighteen kinds of material quali_
ties of the determined class (nipphanna). Of
"That is "sufficing condition" as set forth in the manner of tne s.uttas or general discourses of the
Buddha as dislmguished from the maoNr in whic.;h it is dealt with in 'he AbhJdhanmla section of the Scriptutes.
was written by the late Yen. Lcdi SaY,idaw and translated IlllO tnglish by \'en. U
and Dr. I:larua .
...... whose coming into existence takes place in any other mode than the ordin,try one of hirth fn'nl
parenb: what occidentals might call .. supt.:rnatural ", though not all of trn.-m arc to bl' Ulldl'Ntl)0<.\ as
superior to man, in any vItal rC'lpec.t. M.any are IDfertor to man; If! power and f.tculty. well as III tlK'
opportunities open to them of WIIVlIIg N,bbana. - TraD6la.-or.
these, the present five objects (visible form,
sound, and so forth) are causally related,
always by way of objective pre-existence, to
those thoughts which are capable of taking
part in the five-door processes. Just as the
sound of the violin only arises when it is play-
ed with a bow, and the sounding necessitates
the pre-existence of both the violin strings and
the violin bow; so also those thoughts, whIch
take part in the five-door processes, spring
into being, owing to the presentation of the
five objects of sense at the five doors, which
are no other than the five bases. The pre-
sentation is possible only when the door and
the object are in their static stages. Those
five objects not only present at the
five doors of the five senses at that statIc peflod,
but they also present at the .mind-
door. On this account, the lIfe-contInuum
vibrates for two moments, and then ceases;
and the cessation of the life-continuum gives
rise to a consciousness-series. This being so,
the consciousness-series in any process cannot
arise without the pre-existence of the objects
and of the bases. The eighteen kinds
of determined material qualities are either
past, because they have ; or future,
because they have not yet ansen ; or present,
inasmuch as the are still existing. All of
,lem without IDay be objects of
tie cognitions. But, among them,
.)nlv the present objects act as objective pre-
xistence. And if a thing in any distant
place, or concealed from itself existing,
becomes an object of mmd, It also may be
called a present object.
End of the Purejiita-Relation.
11. Pacchijita-Paccaya or
The Relation of Post-Existence
Every posterior consciousness
",Ito being, causally relates to the stIll eXIstIng
grf'up of prior corporeal q.ualities b?rl! of the
Four Origins* (Kamma, cllla, utu, ahara), by
way of post-existence, in helping them .to
develop and thrive. For example, the ram-
water that falls every subsequent year, renders
service by way of post-existence to such
vegetation as has gr0'.'m up in previous years,
in promoting its growth a.nd devel?pment. "
Here, by " every postenor
are meant all classes of conSCIOusness begm-
ning from the first life-continuum to the final
dying-thought. And, by "prior
qualities" are meant all corporeal qualItIes
born of Four Origins starting from the
of material qualities born of kamma, whIch
co-exist with the rebirth-conception.
The fifteen states of the life-continuum
starting serially from the first
which has arisen after the rebirth-conceptIon
causally relate by way of post-existence to
.he group of material qualities.born of,
which co-exist with the
As to the rebirth-conception, it cannot be a
causal relation by way of post-existence; for
it co-exists with the group of corporeal
qualities born of kamma. Similarly, the
sixteenth life-continuum cannot become a
causal relation by way of post-existence; for it
comesintoexistc;lce only when that group of
material qualities reaches the stage of dissolu-
tion. Therefore, these are" the fifteen states
of the life-continuum" which causally relate
as above.
At the static moment of the rebirth-con-
ception, there spring up two groups of
material qualities, born of kamma, and born
of temperature**; and the same at the arrested
moment. But at the nascent moment of the
first life-continuum, three groups spring up :
that born of kamma, that born of tempera-
ture, and that born of mind. When oja (the
nutritive essence) of the food eaten, spreads
all through the body, the corporeal nutritive
essence absorbs the stimulant, and produces
a group of material qualities. From that
time onward, the groups produced by the
Four Origins spring up incessantly, like the
flame of a burning lamp. Leaving out the
nascent moment, so long as these groups
stand at their static stage, everyone of the
posterior fifteen classes of consciousness
renders them help by way of post-existence.
Vuddhivirulhiyii means "for the gradual
development' and progress of the series of
corporeal qualities born of the Four Origins."
Therefore, if they, the four kinds of corporeal
groups, are repeatedly related by (lit. do
repeatedly obtain) the causal relation of post-
existence, then they leave behind them, when
their physical life-term has expired, a power-
ful energy:-an energy adequate to produce
the development, progress and prosperity of
the subsequent series of groups.
End of the Pacchijita-Relation.
the - origi"ns of material qualities are meant. The word" Origin" is used in the sense of Darwin
as in the .. Origin of Species."
.* Here, utu ( lit, season ) re!ldered ... It may also be rendered by popular
acceptance, as ., physical change, calOrIC energy, heat and cold, etc.
12. Asevllna-Pllccaya or The Relation. of
Habitual Rccarrcoce
Th kinds of mundane apper-
ceptions comprising the twelve classes of
immoral consciousness, the seventeen mun-
dan..: classes of moral consciousness, and the
eighteen classes of inoperative consciousness
(obtained by excluding the two classes of
called ., Turning towards",
iiraii(lIIG. from the twenty), arc here termed
the causal relation of habitual recurrence.
\\'11":11 anv one of these arrives at the apper-
ceptiona.!" process (i.e., the sequence of seven
similar states of consciousness in a process of
thought) every preceding apperception
causally rel:.!tcs itself .by of
recurrence to every succeedll1g apperceptJ.on.
The related things, paccayuppanna-dhammas,
comprise the succeeding apperceptions as
above, as well as the Four Paths.
1 n v. hat sense is the term iisevana to be
understood? [t is to be understood in the
sense of habituating by constant repetition
or of causing its paccayuppalll1a-dhammas to
accept Its inspiration, [or them to gain greater
and greakr proficiel1cy, energy and force.
Here Pa<TlIlla.bhilva means profiClency of
the appercertional thoughts in
their apperccptive [unctions and stages ;)ust
as one who reads lesson many times
becomes more proficient with each new
literally means perfumin.g, or
inspiring. Just as a silk is perfumed
wi th sweet scents, so also IS the body oil
thought, so to speak, perfumed, or .inspired,
with lust. hate, and so f011h ; or wLth disIn-
(amijaJ!a),amity (adussmla), and
so 011. ,\/though the preeeding appercep-
tion cease.-. its appcrceptimaal force does nDl
cease; that is. its force puvades the
ing thought. Theref<;Jre,. every . succeedltlg
arrerception. on commg Into be-
comes more vigorous on account of the for-
ma's habituation. Thus the immediate
thought habituates, or its
immediate successor to accept Jts habltuallon.
However, the process of habitual recurrence
usuallv ceases at the seventh thought; after
whieh' either resultant thougbt-momli:l'lts OJ.f
retendon follow. or subsidence into the tife-
continuum takes pLace.
Here habitual recurrence, dealt with in
the Suttanta, ought to be mentioned also.
Many passages are be found in. several
of Pl!aka. " are
"Satipu{fhiinnfll bhii,VlZtl,. ,?f.1e
the carJ:lcst applicatIons l.D mi.a.dfulaess ;
.. Samntappadhiinarn bhaveti." .. one culti-
tivate:s the supreme effort ;" .. Sati-samboj-
jhai&gafil bhaveti, " "one cUiltivates mindful-
ness, a factor of Enlightenment ;"" Dhamma-
-sambojjhai1!(arh bhaveti," .. one cul-
tivates the' investigation of truth, 'a factor of
Enlightenment; " " Sammaditthilh bhaveti, "
" one cultivates the right view;" "Somma-
sank a p pmn Maveti, " .. one cultivates right
aspiration; " and so on. In these passages,
hy " bhiiveti" is meant, to repeat the effort
either for one day, or for seven days, or
for one month. or for seven months, or for
one year, or for seven
MOLm and immoral actions, which have
been repeatedly performed or cultivated, Of
many times done in former exist(nces,
causally relate by way of habitual recurrence,
to moral and immoral actions of the present
ey,;istence, for their. greater improvement and
worsening respectively.
The relati(i)n which effects the improvement
and the worsening respectively of such moral
and immoral a ('tions , at some other distant
time or in some future existence, is called
sufficing cl)udition; but the one which
effects t bis only during the apperceptional
process, is called habitual recurrence.
In this world.,. there are clearly to te seen
always. many incidental results or con-
sequences following upon great achievements
in art, science, literature, and so forth, which
have bee" carried out iu thought, word,
and deed, continuously, and
As such a relation o[ habitual r .. C'lrrence
is found among all transient phenomena,
manly zeal and drort, exertcd for a long
period oj" tillle, have to stich a high
degrec th<11 many great and difficult labours
have reached complete accomplishment and
that even Buddha-boud has been attained.
End of Asevana-relation.
13. Kamma- PaCCa}3, or
Tlu! of KamAla
The reialion of kamma is of two kinds,
coexistent kamma and asynchronous kamma.
or these two all volitions, m0ral, immoral,
and unmoral. which consist of three tin'J:-
phases, constitute the callsl1 relation of
coexistent kamma.. Their related things are:-
All classes of comr;iousness and their menl' 1
concomitants i,u 'Jc,istence wi[h volition;
material born of Kamma, which
arise simultaneously with the rcbirth-coIlCt;p-
lion and material qualities produced by
mimd during. tile of life.
. .' . :. -. .
. . - .. - - .. :
Past moral and immoral volitions constitute
the causal relation of asynchronous kamma.
Their related things are the thirty-seven
classes of mundane resultant consciousness
and their mental concomitants, and all the
material qualities born of kamma.
Why is kamma so called? It is so called
on account of its peculiar function. This
peculiar function is nothing but volition
(or will) itself, and it dominates every action.
When any action of thought, word, or body,
takes place, volition (or will) determines,
fashions, or causes its concomitants to per-
form their respective functions simultan-
eously. For this reason, volition is said to be
predominant in all actions. Thus leamma is
so called on account of its peculiar function.
Or, to define it in another way, kamma is that
by which creatures do (or act). What do
they do then? They do physical work,
vocal work, and mental work. Here, by
" physical work," is meant standing, sitting,
and so forth; stepping forward and back-
ward, and so on ; and even the opening
and the shutting of the eye-lids. Vocal
work means producing vocal sounds.
Mental work means thinking wisely or badly;
and, in short, the functions of seeing, hearing,
and so forth, with the five senses. Thus all
the actions of beings are determined, by this
volition. Therefore it is called kamma.
Sahajiita is that which comes into being
simultaneously with its related things.
Sahajiitakamma is a coexistent thing, as well
as a kamma. Sahajiitakamma-pacciiya is a
causal relation standing (to its effects) by way
of coexistent kamma.
NiiniikklzanikGiiz is a thing differing in point
of time from its effects. That is to say, the
time when the volition arises is one,
and the time when its effects take place is
another' or, in other words, the volition is
asynchrdnous. volition
is a volition that differs 111 pomt of ttme from
its effects. So NiiniikkhGfJikakamma-
pacciiya is a causal relation standing (to its
effects) by way of asynchronous kamma.
The volition which coexists with the Ariyan
Path,. only at the m?ment of its ceasing, im-
mediately produces Its effect, and so It also IS
Here, a moral volition such as predomi-
nates in charity, for instance, is causally
related to its coexistent mind and mental
qualities, together with the ,?aterial quali-
ties produced by the same mll1d, by way of
coexistent kamma. It IS also causally related,
by way of asynchronous kamma, to the
resultant aggregates of mind and material
qualities born of that kamma, which will be
brought into existence at a distant period in
the future. Thus a volition, which is trans-
muted into a course of action entailing moral
and immoral consequences, is causally related
to its related things by way of two such
different relations, at two different times.
In this asynchronous kamma rdation, the
kamml signifies quite a peculiar energy. It
does not cease though the volition ceases, but
latently follows the sequences of mind. As
soun as it obtains a favour&ble opportunity,
it takes effect immediately after the dying-
thought has ceased, by transmuting itself into
the form of an individual, in the immediately
following existence. But, if It does not obtain
any favourable opportunity, it remains in the
same latent mode for many hundreds of
existences. If it obtains a favourable oppor-
tunity, then what is called" sublime kamma,"
takes effect, upon the next existence in the
Brahmii-loka, by transmuting itself into the
form of a Brahma Deva; a nd it is so matured
that it exhausts itself at the end of this second
existence, and does not go any further.
End of Kamma-Relation.
14. Viplika-Paccaya or The Relation
of Effect
Thirty-six classes of resultant consciousness
and their concomitants, are the relation of
effect. As they are mutually related to one
another, the related things embrace. all of
them, as well as the material qualities born of
kamma at the time of conception, and those
produced by the resultant consciousness
during life.
In what sense is vipaka applied? It is
applied in the sense of vipaccana, which means
a change of slate from infancy or youth to
maturity. Whose tenderness and maturity
are meant? What is meant of the former is
the infancy of the past volition, which is
known as asynchronous kamma. By
maturity, also, is meant the maturity of the
same kamma.
Here, it should be understood that each
volition has four avatr/ziis, or time-phases
-celaniivattha, or the genesis of volition;
kalllllllil'atrhii. or the continuance of volition;
nimittiil'art/za, or the representation of YO lit ion,
and vipakiivattllli. or the final result.
Here. although the volition itself ceases, its
peculiar function dl)CS not cease, but latently
follows (he series l)f thought. ['his is l'allcd
kammcivarthii, or the continuance of volition.
\\ h nil d : lill n f:l\l)lIl\lhk oPPMlunily
(i rfruili )11. th !....\ll1m.1 rq)rl'SI'llls ilsdfll)
1 1.1'11 Ib ul II' di,'. lhal is tl) say, he him-
,lit, 'Is ,\, if hI.' \\l'I'I' gh illg charilY, or obsl:rv-
In, Ih I'f "I'h, ,)1" perhaps killing some nea-
tm:. 1r l.:.lmma fails to rcprl:scnt itself,
.1 mbl,1 1'1 il is reprl'senkd. That is to say,
h him:df fcds as if he were ill possession of
Ih' the gifts, the weapons, and so on;
M ,IllY thing with which he had committed
'u('h kamma in the past. Or, sometimes,
ther(, is 1'1 presented to him the sign of the next
('isten(" where he i' destined to open his new
life. Th,lt is to say, such objects as the
abL1dl'$ or palaces of the Devas, or the fires of
the I ira) a-\\ orlds, or what-not; which-as
it will be hi." lot to obtain, or to experience,
such in the existence immediately following-
enter the fields of presentation through the
six doors. These are called nimittiivatthii,
the representation of the volition.
Now, how are we to understand the
).j riikiirarrhii? If a person dies with his
attention fixed upon one of these three
classes of objects. either on the kamma itself
or on the sign of it, or on the sign of destiny;
it is said that kamma has effected itself, or has
come to fruition, in the immediately new
existence. It has transmuted itself into a
personality, and appears, so to speak, in the
form of a being in the new existence. This is
called the vipiikiivatthii, or the final result.
Here, in the first three avatthiis, the volition
is said to be in the state cfinfancy or youth.*
------- -----------
The last one shows that the volition ha!;
arrived ill maturity, and can effect itself.
Therd'on:, as has becn said, viparrana means
a change of state from infancy or youth to
maturity. Thus vipaka is the name assigned
to the states of consciousness and their con-
comitants, which are the rcsults of the voli-
tions ; or to the matured volitions themselves.
Just as mangoes are very soft and delicate
when they are ripe; so also the resultant
states are very tranquil, since they are inactive
and have no stimulus. They are so tranquil
that the objects of sub-consciousness are
always dim and obscure. On reviving from
sub-consciousness, one has no consciousness
of what its object was. For this reason,
there is no possibility of occurence of a process
of thought, which can reflect the object of the
sub-consciousness thus: " Such and such an
object has been met with in the past existence,"
-although, in sleep at night, the sub-con-
sciousness takes for its object one of the three
classes of objects (kamma, the symbols of
kamma, and the symbols of one's future
destiny), which had been experienced before,
at the time of approaching death, in the imme-
diately preceding existence. Hence, it is,
that one knows nothing about any object from
a past existence, either in sleep or in waking.
Thus the mutual relationship by way of
inactivity, non-stimulation, and tranquillity,
is termed the function of Vipiika.
End of Vipiika-Relation.
* Ledi Sayadaw has not explained the cetanavattha. But it is easy enough to understand, since it is the
commission of-the initial volition or kamma.
15. Ahiira-paccaya
or the Relation of Food.
THE relation of food is of two kinds-
material and immaterial. Of these,
material food connotes the nutritive essence
(or what is called edible food), which again is
subdivided into two kinds-internal and
All the natural quaiities born of the Four
Causes*, pertaining to those creatures who
live on edible food, are here the paccayup-
panna-dhammas related to the two kinds of
material food.
As to immaterial food, it is of three
different kinds;- contact, volitional
activity of mind, and consciousness. These
kinds of immaterial food, or paccayadhammas
are causally related to the coexistent proper-
ties, both mental and material, which are
their corresponding paccayuppanna-dhammas.
In what sense is ahara to be understood?
Ahara is to be understood in the sense of
holding up strongly', which means" caus-
ing to exist firmly". That is to say, a relating
thing nourishes its related thing so as to
enable it to endure long, to develop, to
flourish, and to thrive, by means of support.
Though the causal relation of food possesses
a producing power, the power of support is
predominant here.
Here, the two material foods are called
iihara, because they strongly hold up the
group of internal material qualities born of
the Four Causes, by nourishing them so that
they may exist firmly, endure long, and reach
uncurtailed the bounds (or limits) of their
Contact is an ahara also, because it strongly
holds up its coexistent things, and enables
them to stand firmly and endure long by
nourishing them with the essence extracted
from desirable and undesirable oqjects.
Volitional activity of mind, or (in a ward)
will, is an ahara in that it furnishes courage for
the execution of deeds, words, and thoughts.
And consciousness is an ahara also, inasmuch
as .it predominates in all thinking about an
object. These three immaterial foods, in
supplying nourishment to the coexistent
mentals, also affect the coexistent materials.
Ahara here, may also be explained after the
Su;tanta method. Just as birds. ascertaining
where their quarters are, fly with their wings
through the air from tree to tree and from
wood to wood, and peck at fruits with their
beaks, thus sustaining themselves thr.Qugh
their whole life; so also beings-with the
six classes of consciousness, ascertaining
objects; with the six kinds of volitimtal
activity of mind. persevering to get something
as an object; and with the six kinds of-contact,
making the essence of objects appear-either
enjoy pleasure or suffer pain. Or, solely
with the six classes of consciousness. com-
prehending objects, (hey avail themseives of
forming, or becoming, body and mind. Or,
solely with the contacts, making 0bjects
appear in order that feelings may be aroused
through the same, they cultivate craving. Or,
committing various kinds of deeds through
craving accompanied by volitions. they
migrate (so to speak) from existence to
existence. Thus should be understood how
extensive the fUllctioning of the different
foods is.
End of the Ahara-Relation.
* The Four Causes arc (1) Kamma, (2) Citla (Consciousness), (3) Utu (Temperature) and (4) Alnlra
thOIUg):lt : "1-
.... ,,. ....... 'thcJh!ht . I-hlve-known."
their coexi-
stent mental and material.
- l'b.e paccaya-d/J4l1imos of the kind
are the live sent,ient or-gans-the eye, the ear,
the nose, the and the body. The
are the five senses
together with their coneomitants.
The paccaya-dhamma of the third kind is
only one, namely physical life itself. And all
kamma-born, material qualities, with the
Cl{.ccption of phySIcal life itself, are its
A &
Ii t
, unc lonmg IS be tbat
of .mainta.ining; for if A did not exist B'.
prolongation would be hampered and its
continuity would also be brok:n. The
functioning of physical life will illustrate this.
Now, the two sexes dEl not execute anyone
of the said three functions. Therefore they
are I}ot taken as a paccaya-dhamma in this
relation of control. If this be so must they
still be called controls? Yes, must be
called Why? Because they have
somethmg of power. They
the body In Its sexual structure (linga),
10 Its appearance (nimitta), in its characters
and in its dispositions
(iikappa).. Therefore, at the period of con-
cel?tlOn, If, the female sex is produced in a
bemg, all Its personality, i.e., the five aggre-
gates produced by the Four Causes (kamma,
and so forth), tends towards femininity. The
body, indeed, displays nothing but the
femmme. the feminine appearance,
the femmme character, and the feminine
outward disposition. Here, neither does the
female sex those qualities, nor sup-
port, nor mamtam them. But, in fact, when
(i.e. the five aggregates) has come
mto eXistence, the sex exercises control over
it as if it (sex) were giving it the order to
become so and so. All the aggregates also
become in conformity with the sex and not
out of conformity. Such is the
power of the female sex in the feminine
structure. In the same manner the male sex
exercises control in the masculine structure.
!bus the two sexes have controlling fu.nction
ill the structures, hence they may be called
17. Jhii na-Paccaya
or the Relation of Jhiilla.
The seven conslituents of jMilla arc thc
pacca)'a-dhall1mas ill the reIa lion of jhal1a.
They are: - Vilakka (Initial Application),
vicara (Sustained Application). pili (l)lea-
surable fnter.::sl). sOll1anassa (Joy). dOlllclI1a.'"sa
(Grief), lIpC'kkha (Hedonic IndiJTerencc) and
ekaggata (Concentration in the scnse of
capacity to individualise). All classes of
consciousness (with the exccption of five
senses), their concomitants and material
qualities in coexistence with the scven con-
stituents, are the paccayuppal1!1a-dhammas
In what sense is iMina to be understood?
Jhana is to be undcrstood in the sense of
viewing or actively looking at; that
IS to say, going close to the object and looking
at it mentally. Just as an aicher-who from
a distance is able to send or thrust an arrow
into the bull's eye of a small target-holding
the arrow firmly in his hand, making it steady,
directing it towards the mark, keeping the
target in view, and attentively looking, or
rather aiming at it, sends the arrow through
the bull's eye or thrusts it into the latter; so
also, in speaking of a YogI or one who
practises fhiina, we must say that he, directing
his mind towards the object, making it stead-
fast, and keeping the kasi(w-object in view,
thrusts his mind it by means of these
seven constituents of fhiilla. Thus, by
closely viewing them, a person carries out his
action of body, of word, and mind, without
failure. Here, "action of body" means
going forward and backward, and so forth ;
"action of word" mealls making vocal
expressions, such as the sounds of alphabets,
words and so forth; "action of mind"
means being conscious of objects of any
kind, So no deed, such as giving charity or
taking life, can be executed by a feeble mind
lacking the necessary constitucnts of filclna.
It is the same with -all moral and immoral
To have a clear understanding of its mean-
ing the salient characteristic mark of each
constituent of jhana should bc scparatcly
explained. Vitakka has thc characteristic
mark of dirccting thc concomitant [)ro[)crties
towards the object, and it. thereforc, fixes the
mind firmly to the object. Vice/m lias thc
charactcristic mark of revicwing thc object
over and ovcr, and it attachcs the mind
firmly to the object. Pili has the characteris-
tic mark of creating interest in the object, and
makes the mind happy and content with it.
The three kinds of vedana i.e. joy, grief and
indifference, have the characteristic marks of
feeling the objcct, and they also fasten the
mind as regards experiencing the essence of
desirable, undesirable and neutral objects.
Ekaggatii has the characteristic mark of
concentration and it also keeps the mind
steadfastly fixed on the object.
End of the Jhiina-Relation.
18. Magga-Paccaya
or the Relation of Path.
The twelve path-constituents are the
paccaya-dhammas in this relation of Magga.
They are :- Right Views, Right Aspiration,
Right Speech, Right Action, Right Liveli-
hood, Right Endeavour, Right Mindfulness,
Right Concentration, Wrong Views, Wrong
Aspiration, Wrollg Endeavour, and Wrong
Concentration. There are, however, no
distinct mental properties to which to assign
the terms, Wrong Speech, Wrong Action and
Wrong Livelihood. These are but other
names for the four immoral aggregates
(akusa/a-khandha), which appear under the
names of .1.ying and so forth. Therefore they
are not taken as distinct path-constituents.
All classes of consciousness and mental
concomitants conditioned by hetu, and all
material qualities in coexistence with the
hetu-conditioned mind, are paccal'uppanna-
In what sense is Magga to be understood?
It is to be understood in the sense of path,
that is, as the means of reaching the realm of
misfortune or the realm of Nibbiina. The
eight path-constituents (Right Views. and so
on) lead to Nibbana. The four \\'fong path-
constituents lead to the realm of misfortune.
Now the functioning of fhiilla is to make
the mind straight, steadfast, and ecstatic * in
the object. "Ecstatic mind" means mind
that sinks into the object. and so forth,
like a fish in deep water. The functioning of
Magga is to make kammic volition in the
" way-in" to the circle of existence and
bhii1'anic volition in thc "way-ollt" of the
circle, straight and steadfast, issue in a course
of action. develop, flourish and prosper. and
reach a higher plane. This is the distinction
betwecn thc two relations.
"Standing out of'. 01' going beyond. its nOlIllal J1ltllic.
Mere. th kammic volition which can
pradu a rebirth- ince it has worked out
1ft moral and immoral acts such as taking life,
and so forth-i spoken of as kammapalha-
ptlttd. And the bI/(il'allic volition, which
anives at the higher stages, that is, proceeds
from the sensuous stage to the transcendental
one, through a succession of higher and
higher stages. by the power of an orderly
succession of training-practices (hhiil'atla-
nukamma), even within the brief period
occupied by one bodily posture, is spoken of
as bhummantarapatta.
To understand this relation; the charac-
teristic mark of each of the path-constituents
should also be separately explained in the
manner shown in the Relation of Jhana.
End of the Magga-Re]ation
19. SampayuttaPaccaya
or the Relation of Association.
The relations of assoc'ation and dissocia-
tion form a pair. So also do the relations of
presence and absence, and of abeyance and
continuance. These three pairs of relations
are-not special ones. They are only mentioned
to show that, in the foregoing relations some
paccaya-dhammas causally relate themselves
to their paccayuppanna-dhammas, by asso-
ciation, and others by dissociation; some
by presence and others by absence;
by abeyance and others by continuance.
Here also in such passages as : " Atthi ti
Idw, Kacciina, ayam eko anto ; natthf ti klzo
dutiyo anto Ii, ,,** the words atthi and natlhi
are meant to indicate the heretical views of
eternalism and annihilationism. Therefore,
in. order to prevent such interpretations, the
last pair of relations is mentioned.
All classes of consciousness and mental
properties ,mutually relate themselves to
oue another by way of association. In what
SC/li.e is sampayutta' to be understood ?
"Sampayutta' is to be understood in the
sense. of association, or through coalescence,
oy the four associative means, namely,
simultaneous arising, synchronous cessation,
mono-basic, and mono-object. Here, by
ekibJiavam galo (or coalescence), it is meant
that the consciousness of sight coalesces with
mental properties so throughly that
they aU are unitedly spoken of as sight. These
eight mental 'states arc no longer spoken of
by their special for it is indeed a
difficult matter to know them separately.
The same explanation applies to the other
classes of consCiOllSlll!SS.
End of the Sampayutta-RelatioJl
20. Vippayutta-Paccaya
or the Relation of Dissociation.
The relation of dissociation is of four
different kinds, namely, coexistence, basic
pre-existence, basic objective pre-existence,
and post-existence. or these four. the paccaya
and paccayuppalllla-dhammas of the coexi-
stent dissociation may be either. mental or
physical in accordance with what has been
shown in the relation of coexistence. There-
fore a mental is causally related to a physical,
by way of coexistent dissociation, and vice-
versa. A" mental", here, when spoken
of as a paceaya, means the four mental
aggregates, namely, sensation, perception,
mental functionings and consciousness, dur-
ing life; and a "physical", when spoken
of as paceayuppanna, means material qualities
produced by mind. Again a "physical",
when spoken of as a paeeaya, means the
heart-basis at the moment of conception, and
a "mental ", when spoken of as paccayup-
panna, means the four mental aggregates
belonging to rebirth.
The remaining three kinds of dissociation
have already been explained.
End of the Vippayutta-Relation
21. Atthi-Paceaya
or the Relation of Presence.
The relation of presence is of seven different
kinds, namely, coexistence, basic pre-exis-
tence, objective pre-existence, basic objec-
tive pre-existence, post-existence, material
food, and physical life-control.
Of these, the relation of coexistent presence
is that of mere coexistence. A similar
interpretation should be made for the remain-
ing six, for which the equivalent relations
that have already been explained are to be
referred to. The classifications of relating
and related things have already been dealt
with, above, in each of the relations con-
* .. Certainly 0 KaccAna, '( The Soul) exists' is the one extreme, and' (Thi! Soul) docs not exist' is th e
second extreme."
This is a passage where the problem of Soul, Self or Ego is discussed as to its existence or
as a real personal entity.
TIle Relation of Abeyance,
Relation of Absence,
The Relation of Continuance.
The relation of absence is entirely the
relation of contiguity; so is the relation of
abeyance. The relation of continuance is
also the sltme as the relation of presence.
The words" atthi" and " avigata " have the
same meaning; so also the words " natthi "
and .. v;gata " .
End of the Natthi-, the Vigata, and the
The synthesis of relations will now be
The relation of saJtajiita (coexistence) may
be specified as being of fifteen kinds-i.e.,
four superior sahajiitas, four medium saha-
Jiltas, and seven inferior sahajatas. The four
superior sahajiitas comprise ordinary
sahaj!ta, sahajatanissaya (dependence-in-
coexistence), sahajatatthi (coexistent pre-
sence), and sahajiita-avigata (coexistent
continuance). The four medium sahajlitas
ai'\i'lamanna (reciprocity), vipaka
(association), and saha-
and val.mtl-purCJal'tl-avlgaus.
maJ}.apure-jatas are, IIOme
arammaJ}.8, some arammaJ}.adhlpatJ, soqae
purejiitatthi, and iirammal)a-purejata-avigata.
The words .. kiilci" and .. koci" in kiilci
arammanam and so forth, are used in order
to take i"n only the present nipphanna-riipas
(material qualities determined by kamma and
environments). The five vattharammalJa-
purejiitas are vattharammal)a-purejata, vattha-
rammalJ.a-purejata-nissaya. vattharammalJa-
jatatthi, and vattharammal)a-pureJata-
The relation of pacchiijata or post-
existence may be specified as four kinds;
pacchajiita pacchajata-vippayutta, paccha-
jatatthi, and pacchiijiita-avigata.
The relation of anantara (contiguity) is of
seven kinds-anantara, samanan!ara, anan-
tarupanissaya, asevana, anatara-kamma,
natthi, and vigata. Of these, anantara-
kllmma is the volition which appertains to the
Ariyan Path. It produces its e!fect, i.e., the
Ariyan Fruit. immediately after It ceases.
There are five relations which do not enter
into any specification. These are: The
remaining arammalJa, the remaining
I)iidhipati, the remaining
all pakatupanissaya, and the remalmng kind
of kamma which is asynchronous kamma.
Thus the relations expounded in the Great
Treatise (PaUhina), are altogether fifty-four
kinds in all.
Of these relation all speci of purejlta;
all species of pacchijata, material
and physicallife-contr 1 are
All species of ananla
art .,..t
Th Dhammas-Nibbllna and
i'Ii'\ tti (n pt)-are both tertr. d
ap Q) a ( id f causal relation), asank:'ola
un nditi ned)*. Why'l Because the' are
.tb dut 1 \' id of Becoming. Those tl'ings
r h n mena which have birth or ge lesis
arc 1 sappaccaya (related thillgs),
d7ll1d11t<l (conditioned things), and :Iat;cca-
S 1II1U1'P IUlOS (things arising from a clmjllnl;;-
lure of circum'tances). Hence th.:'! tWI)
dh,Hnma, being void of becomir and
happening are truly to be termed app(' coyas
.and a:a"klrmm.
1110ng things related and conditioned,
there is not a single phenomenon which is
p 'rmanent, lasting. eterna I and unchangeable.
In fact. all are impermanent, since they are
liable to dissolution. Why? Because, in
coming into existence, they are related to
some causes, and their causes are also not
Are not Nibbana and concept paccaya-
1l1mmas or relating things? Are they not
permanent and lasting? Yes, they are so ;
but no phenomenon happens entirely through
Nibbana or concept alone as sole cause.
Phenomena happen through, or are produced
by, many causes which are not permanent
and lasting.
Thos'e things which are not permanent are
always distressing and hurtful to beings with
the three kinds of afflictions. Therefore they
are looked upon as ill by reason of their
being dreadful. Here the three kinds of
afflictions are" dukkha-dukkhatii" (ill due to
suffering). " sankhiira-dukkhatii" (ill due to
conditioning), and "vipari/:ziima-dukkhatii"
(ill due to changeability). All things are
impermanent, and are dissolving at every
moment, even while occupying one posture**.
Therefore, how can there be any essential self
or core in creatures and persons, even though,
all their life through, they imagine them-
selves to be permanent? Everything is also
subject to ill; therefore, how can there be
any essential self or core in creatures and
persons-who are under the oppression of
ills, and who nevertheless yearn for happi-
ness? Hence all things are void of self by
reason of the absence of a core.
To sum up. By expounding the twenty-
four relations, the Buddha reveals the follow-
ing facts :- All conditioned things owe their
happenings and becomings or, existence to
cau e and conditions; and none to the mere
desire or will or command of creatures. And
umong all the things subject to causes and
conditions, there is not om: that comes into
being through few causes; they arise, indeed,
only through many. Therefore this exposi-
tion reaches its culminating point in reveal-
ing the doctrine of No-self or No-soul.
End of the Synthesis of Relations
or the Synchrony of Relations.
The synchrony of relations will now be
The concurrence of causal relations in one
related thing is called synchrony of relations
or paccaya-gIJa{anii. All phenomena are called
sa-paccayii (related to causes), sankha/(,i
(conditioned by causes), and paliccasamup-
panna (arising from a conjuncture of circum-
stances) ; because, in arising and in standing,
they coexist with, or have, or are conditioned
by, these twenty-four causal relations. What
then are those pLenomena? They are :-
One hundred and twenty-one classes of
fifty-t wo kinds of mental
properties, and twenty-eight kinds of material
Of these, the one hundred and twenty-one
classes of consciousness may be classified
into seven, under the category of dhatu
('Iements), namely,
(1) element of visual cognition;
(2) element of auditory cognition;
r" element of olfactory cognition;
('+) element of gustatory cognition;
(5) element of tactile cognition;
(6) element of apprehension;
(7) element of comprehension.
Of these,-
the twofold classes of sight-consciousness
are called the elements of visual cogni-
tion ;
the twofold classes of sound-conscious-
ness are called the elements of auditory
the twofold classes of smell-conscious-
ness are called the clements of
olfactory cognition;
Here, the word appaccaya is not a Kammadhliraya Compound but of the B.lhubbihi N,ltthi
paccayil etesam ti appacaya. Asankhata is a Kammadharaya Compound -thus: S.ll1lkariyantc ti sankhnt:l ;
Na sankhat4 ti asankhatli.
** There arc (our postures for all beings. namely, sitting. standing. walking and lying down.
the twofold classes cf taste-conscious-
ness are called the elements of
gustatory cognition;
the twofold classes of touch-conscious-
ness are called the elements of tactile
" the adverting of mind towards any of
tbe five doors" (paiicadw'irGvajiana)
and the twofold classes of "accept-
ance of imprcssions" (sampaticchana)
are called the elements of apprehen-
the remaining one hundred and eight
classes of consciousness are called the
elements of comprehension.
The fifty-two kinds of mental properties
are also divided into [our groups, namely,
(1) seven universals;
(2) six particulars;
(3) fourteen immorals ;
(4) twenty-five radiants.
Of the twenty-four relatiol1s,-
fifteen relations are common to all the
mental states, namely, aramal)a,
anantara, samanantara, sahajata,
anna manna, nissaya, upanissaya,
kamma, ahara, indriya, sampayutta,
atthi, natthi, vigata and avigata.
There is not a single class of consciousness
or mental property which arises without the
causal relation of (object).
The same holds good as regards the remain-
ing causal relations of anantara, samanantara,
sahajata and so on,
Eight relations only-h.::tu, adhipati,
purejata, asevana, vipaka, jhana, mugga and
vippayutta-are common to some mental
states. Of these, the relation of hetu is
common only to the classes of consciousness
conditioned ' by hew; the relalion of
adhipati is also common only to the appercep-
tions (javallas) coexisting wilh dominance
(adhipati) ; the n::latio!l of purejata is com-
mon only to some classes of mind; the
relation of asevana is common only to
apperceptive classes of moral, and
inoperative conSCiOusness; the relatIOn of
vipaka is also common only to the
classes of mind; the relation of Jhana IS
common to those classes of consciousness
'and mental concomitants which come under
the name of clements of apprehension and
comprehension; the rdation of magga is
common to the classes of mind c(,lldilioned
by hetu ; the relation of is not
common to the classes of mind III Al'lipaloka.
Only one particular relation of pacchajata
is common to material qualities.
Here is the exposition in detail. The
seven universal mental properties are:-
Phassa (contact), vedanii (sensation), sannii
(perception), cetanii (volition), ekaggatii
(concentration in its capacity to individualise),
jivita (psychic life) ancl manasikiira (atten-
Of these,-
Consciousness may be the relation of
adhipati ; it may be the relation of ahara;
and it may also be the relation of indriya;
Contact is the relation of ahara alone;
Sensation may be the relation of indriya,
and may also be the relation of jhana ;
Volition may be the relation of kamma,
and may be the relation of ahara;
Ekaggata may be the relation of indriya ;
it may be the relation of jhana; and it may
be the relation of magga also;
Psychic life is the relation of indriya
The two remaining states-perception and
attention-do not become any particular
Consciousness by way of sight, obtains
seven universal mental concomitants, and
so they make up eight mental states. All of
them are mutually related to one another by
way of the seven relations, namely, four
superior sahajati\,s and three of the medium
sahajatas excluding the relation of dissocia-
tion. Among these eight mental states,
consciousness causally relates itself to the
other seven by way of ahara and indriya.
Contact causally relates itself to the other
seven by way of ahara; feeling to the rest by
way of indriya alone; volition, by way of
kamma and ahara; ekaggata, by way of
indriya alone; and psychic life to the other
seven, by way of indriya. The basis of
eye causally relates itself to these eight states
by way of six species of vatlhupurejata. The
present visual objects, which enter the aveoue
of that eye-basis, causally relate themsel\'es
to those eight by way of four species of
arammaQapurejata. Consciousness which is
called turning-towards-the-five-doors at the
moment of cessation, just before the arising
of sight consciousness, causally relates itself
to these eight mental states by way of fhe
species of anantara. Moral and immoral
deeds which were done in formcr births,
causally relate themselves to these eight
resultant states of good and evil respectively.
by way of asynchronous kamma. Nescience
," -, '
. . .
rUif;. craving and grasping
i I ilia) -which co-operated with volition
l\alll1l/a) in the pat existence, and dwellings,
se;lsons. foods and so forth, of this
present life, causally rclate themselves to
these eight tates by way of pakatiipanissaya
(natural sut11cing condition). The six rela-
tions-hetu. adhipati, pacchiijata, asevana
jhana and magga-do not take part in this
class of consciousness, but only the remain-
ing eighteen relations take part. Just as the
six relations do not take part-and only the
eighteen relations do-in consciousness by
way of sight; so do they in consciousness 'by
way of hearing, smell, and so on.
End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Five
Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness not
Accompanied by hetu.
There are six mental properties termed
Particulars (pakiI,1ryaka), - vitakka (initial
application), victira (sustained application),
adhimokkha (deciding), viriya (effort), pili
(pleasurable interest), chanda (desire-to-do).
Of these, initial application takes part in the
relation of jhana and in the relation of
magga. Sustained application takes part
that of jhiina alone. Effort takes part In
the relation of adhipati, in the relation of
indriya, and in the relatio!1 of
Pleasurable interest takes part In the relatIOn
of Jhiina. Desire-to-do takes part in the
relation of adhipati. Deciding does not take
part in any particular relation.
The ten concomitants, namely, seven uni-
versals initial application, sustained appli-
cation: and deciding from the part!culars-
obtain in the five classes of conSCIOusness,
i.e. turning-towards-the-five-doors, the two-
fold class of acceptance, and the twofold
class of investigation accompanied by hedonic
indifference. They form eleven mental
stat;s in one combination. Jhanic
obtains in these three classes of conscIOus-
ness. Sensation, ekaggata, initial applica-
tion and sustained application perform the
fun;tion of j hana relation. Consciousness
(turning-towards-the-five-doors) belongs
the inoperative class, and so does not obtalO
in the relation of vipaka. Asynchronous
kamma serves in place of upanissaya. So,
leaving out jhana from, and inserting vipaka
in the relations which have been shown
above as not obtainable in the five senses,
there are also six unobtainable and eighteen
obtainable in the consciollsness, turning-
towards-the-five-doors. As for the remain-
ing four resultant classes of consciollsness,
by omitting vipaka, five relations are un-
obtainable; and, by adding vipaka and jhana,
nineteen are obtainable.
Investigating consciousness accompanied
by joy, obtains eleven mental concomitants,
namely, the above ten together with pleasur-
able interest. With the consciousness
(turning-towards-the-mind-door), eleven con-
comitants coexist, and they are accompanied
by effort. They make up twelve mental
states together with the consciousness.
Twelve concomitants, i.e., the above ten
together with pleasurable interest and effort,
coexist with the consciousness of aesthetic
pleasure. They make up thirteen mental
states in combination with the consciousness.
Of the three classes of investigating consciollS-
ness, the one accompanied by joy has one
more mental property (i.e., pleasurable
interest) than the other two, in respect of the
jhfrna factors: therefore, the unobtainable
nve and the obtainable nineteen relations <11:
the same as in the two classes of investigating
consciousness accompanied by hedonic indif-
ference. In the consciollsness (turning-
towards-the-mind-door), the predominant
property is merely' effort', which performs
the functions of indriya and jhiina, but
not the functions of adhipati and magga.
This consciousness, being of the inoperative
class, does not obtain the vipaka relation.
Therefore, the unobtainable six including
vipaka, and the obtainable eighteen including
jhana, are the same as in the consciollsness
(turning-towards-the-fivc-doors). The rela-
tion of vipaka is also not obtained in the
consciousness of aesthetic pleasure, since
it belongs to the inoperative class. But
being an apperceptive class, it obtains in the
relation of asevana. Therefore fi\le rcla lions,
including vipaka, are not obtainable; and
nineteen relations, including asevana, arc
End of tbe Syru:hrony of Relations in
Consciousness not Accompanied by betu.
Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral
Class of Consciousness.
There are twelve classes of immoral COIl-
sciousness, thus: two rooted in nescience,
eight rooted in appetite; and two rooled in
hate. There are fourteen immoral nWI1t;1l
properties, namely, moha (dullness), ahirika
(shamelessness), anottappa (recklessness of
conseq.uences), and uddhacca (distraction),-
these four are termed the moha-quadruple ;
loMa (greed), diUhi (error), and mana
(conceit)-these three are termed the lobha-
triple; dasa (hate), issii (envy), macchariya
(selfishness), and kukkucca (worry)-these
four are termed the dosa-quadruple ; thina
(sloth), middha (torpor), and vicikicchii
(perplexity)-these three arc termed the
pakil),I.laka triple.
Of these, the three roots-greed, hale, and
dullness-are hetu relations. Error is a
magga relation_ The remaining ten mental
properties do not become any particular
Here, the two classes of consciousness
rooted in dullness are :-- Consciousness
conjoined with perplexity, and consciolls-
ness conjoined with distraction. With the
first of these two, fifteen mental concomitants
coexist. There are the seven universals,
initial application, sustained application,
effort (from the particulars). the moha-
quadruple, and perplexity (from the
immorals). They make up sixteen mental
states in combination with consciousness.
In this consciousness, i.e., the consciousness
conjoined with perplexity, the relations of
hetu and magga are also obtained. That is,
dullness acts as the hetu relation; initial
application and effort as the magga; and,
as to ekaggata, as its function would be
interfered with by perplexity, it does not
perform the functions of indriya and magga,
but it does the function of jhana. Therefore,
the three relations (adhipati, pacchajilta.
vipaka) are not obtainable; and the re-
maining twenty-one are obtainable in this
con!;ciousness which is conjoined with per-
plexity. In consciousness conjoined with
distraction, there are fifteen mental
properties-omitting' perplexity' and adding
, deciding'. They also make up sixteen
mental states together with the consciousness.
In this consciousness, ekaggata performs lhe
functions of indriya, jhiina and magga.
Therefore, three relations are not obtainable;
whereas twenty-one are obtainable.
Seven universals, six particulars, the moha-
quadruple, the lobha-triple. sloth and
torpor-altogether twenty-two in number
severally coexist with the eight classes of
consciousness rooted in appetite. Among
these. the two roots-greed and dullness--
are hetu relations; and the three mental
states--desire-to-do. consciousness itself
. - --... _. - - .
and effort-are adhipati relations. Aram-
maQadhipati is also obtained here. Volition
is the relation of kamma. The three foods
are the relations of ahara. The five mental
states: mind, sensation, ekaggata, psychic life
and effort-are relations of indriya. The
five jhana factors, i.e., initial application,
sustained application, pleasurable interest,
sensation, concentration, are jhana relations.
The four magga constituents. i.e., initial
application, concentration, error, and effort,
are magga relations. Therefore only the two
relations (pacchajata and vipaka) are not
obtained. The remaining twenty-two are
End of the Synchrony of Relations in the
Immoral Class of Consciousness.
Synchrony of Relations in the States of
There arc ninety-one ' radiant' classes of
consciousness. They are twenty-four
, radiant' classes of kama-consciousness,
fifteen classes of rupa-consciousness, twelve
classes of arupa-consciousness and forty
classes of transcendental consciousness. Of
these the twenty-four 'radiant' classes of
Kama-consciousness are :- Eight classes of
moral consciousness, eight classes of
, radiant ' resultant kind. and another eight
classes of ' radiant' inoperative kind.
There are twenty-five kinds of sobhana
(' radiant ') mental properties, namely,
alobha (disinterestedness), adosa (amity),
amah a (indligence)-these three are termed
moral hetus ; saddhii (faith). sali (mindful-
ness), fliri (prudence), allappa (discretion),
tatramajhallalii (balance of mind), kiiyapas-
saddM (composurc of mental properties),
cittapassaddhi (composure of mind), kiiya-
lahutii (buoyancy of mental properties),
cilfa-lahul(1 (buoyancy of mind), kiiyamudlltii
(pliancy of mental properties), cif(a-lI1udlitii
(pliancy of mind), (fitness
of work llf mcntal properties), cittil-kam-
mill/iiat(1 (fitn.::ss of work of mind), kilyn
p(lglliiJ1atii (profiei,'llcy llf mental properties).
cit t<1-p(lgllliilmii (proficicncy of mind).
k(7),lIjllhl/(i (r.:ctitude of mental properties).
citrlljukat(1 (rectilude of mind). SGmma-l"ticii
(rigllt SlIl11l11t:-k,lIllinallta (right
action). sal/lll1ii-lilll'll (right livelihood)-the
lasl thrcc are called the threc abstinenc s ;
(wmpassion) and muditii (,>ym-
appreciation) these last two arc
calkd the two illimilables.
1i1Jll:-.J11\' right action, right
magga relations. The
n n mental states are not
pUticolar relations.
Thirty-eight mental properties enter into
mbination with the eight moral classes of
kimao(X)nsciousness (Kama = sense desires).
They are :- Seven universals, six particulars,
and twenty-five sobhana. Of these, pleasura-
ble intere t enters into combination only
with the four classes of accom-
panied by joy. Intelligence also enters into
combination with the four classes connected
with knowledge. The three abstinences enter
into combination only when moral rules or
precepts are observed. The two illimitables
arise only when sympathising with the
suffering, or sharing in the happiness, of
living beings. In these eight classes of
consciousness, the dual or triple ropts are
hetu relations. Among the four kinds of
adhipati, i.e., desire-to-do, mind, effort, and
investigation, each is an adhipati in turn.
Volition is the relation of kamma. The three
foods are the relations of ahara. The eight
mental states, i.e., mind, sensation, concentra-
tion, psychic life, faith, mindfulness, effort
and intelligence are relations of indriya. The
five jhana factors, i.e., initial application,
sustained application, pleasurable interest
sensation and concentration are relations of
jhina. The eight path-constituents, i.e.,
investigation, initial application, the three
abstinences, mindfulness, effort and concen-
tration are relations Therefore,
OIIlythe two and viJ)Aka)
ar6': l1dt classes of
as existing in
If this be so, then why are
consciousness more aupreme
dental than the KAma-consciouaneu 1
Because of the greatnesa of They
are fashioned by marked exerciaes, and 10
asevana is superior to them ; for this reaaon,
indriya, jhiina, magga and other relatioDl
also become superior. When these relationa
become supreme-each higher and higher
than the other-those classes of consciousness
also become more supreme and transcen-
dental than Kama-consciousness.
End of the Synchrony of Relations in the
States of Mind.
Synchrony of RelatiOWl in the Groups of
Material Qualities.
The synchrony of relations in the groups
of material qualities will now be stated.
There are twenty-eight kinds of material
qualities ;-
(A) Four essential material qualities-
(1) the element of solidity (pathalli) ;
(2) the element of cohesion (dpo) ;
(3) the element of kinetic energy (tejo);
(4) the element of motion (vdyo).
the tangible (phollhabba): this
material quality is composed of
three essentials, namely, the ele-
ment of extension, the element
of kinetic energy and the element
of motion.
(B) Five sensitive material qualities-
(1) the eye (cakkhu) ;
(2) the ear (SOIa) ;
(3) the nose (ghana) ;
(4) the tongue (jillhd) ;
(5) the body (kdya).
(C) Five material qualities
tE) One material quality of life (jlvita).
(F) One material quality of heart-base
(0) One material quality of nutrition
(H) One material quality of limitation
( I) Two material qualities of communi-
cation- .
(1) intimation by the body (kaya-
vififiatti) ;
(2) intimation by speech (vaci-
(J) Three material quali'i;!s "r plasti-
(1) Lightness (lahuta) ;
(2) Pliancy (mudutii) ;
(3) adaptability (kammaiiiiatii).
(K) Four material qualities of salient
(I) integration (upacaya) ;
(2) continuance (santati);
(3) decay (jaratii) ;
(4) impermanence (aniccatii).
Of these, six kinds of material qualities-
viz., the four essentials, the material quality
of life, and the material quality of nutrition-
causally relate themselves to the material
qualities. Here also the four essentials
are mutually related among themselves by
way of five relations :-sahajata, afifiamafifia,
nissaya, atthi, and avigata; and they are
related to the coexistent material qualities
derived from the latter by way of four rela-
tions (i.e., excluding afifiamaiiiia in the above
five). The material quality of life causally
relates itself to the co-existent material
qualities produced by kamma, by
way of indriya. The material quality of
nutrition causally relates itself to both the
coexistent and the non-coexistent material
qualities which are corporeal, by way of
Again, thirteen kinds of material qualities
causally relate themselves to the mental
states by some particular relations. These
material qualities are :- The five kinds of
sensitive material qualities,. the seven kinds
of sense-fields, and the heart-basis. Of
these, just as a mother is related to her son
so also the five kinds of sensitive material
qualities are causally related to the five
sense-cognitions by way of vatthu-piirejiita,
by way Elf vatthu-piirejiitindriya, and by way
of vatthupurejiita-vippayutta. And just as
a father is related to his son, so also the
seven sense-fields are causally related to the
five sense-cognitions and the three elements
of apprehension by WilY' of iirammal)a-
purejiita. In the same way, just as a tree is
related to the deva who inhabits it, so also
the heart-basis causally relates itself to the
two elements of apprehension and
comprehension by way of sahajatanissaya
at the time of rebirth, and by way of vatthu-
purejata and of vatthu-purejata-vippayutta
during life.
There are twenty-three groups of material
qualities. They are called groups, because
they are tied up with the material quality of
production (jiiti-ritpa) into groups, just
as hair or hay is tied up with a string. Of
these, the eight kinds of material qualities,
such as, the Four Essentials, colour, odour,
taste, and nutritive essence. make up the
primary octad of all material qualities.
There are nine groups produced by kamma,
namely. the vItal nonad. the basic-decad,
the body-decad, the female decad, the male-
decad, the eye-decad, the ear-decad, the
nose-decad, and the tongue-decad. Of these,
the primary octad together with the material
quality of vitality, is called the vital nonad.
This primary nonad together with each of
the eight material qualities. i.e., heart-basis
and so forth, makes up analogously the other
eight decads, i.e., base-decad, and so forth.
Here the four groups, namely, vital nonad,
body-decad, and twofold sex-decad, locate
themselves in a creature, pervading the whole
body. Here vital nonad is the name of the
maturative fire (piicakaggi) and of the bodily
fire (kiiyaggi). Piicakaggi, or maturative
fire, is that which locates itself in the stomach
and matures or digests the food that has been
eaten, drunk, chewed and licked. Kiiyaggi,
or the bodily fire, is that which
locates itself by pervading the whole body,
and it refines the impure bile, phlegm, and
blood. Through the inharmonious action
of these two elements, creatures become
unhealthy, and by their harmonious action
they become healthy. It is this dual fire
(or that vital-nonad) that gives life and good
complexion to creatures.
Ledi Sayadaw here makes the number of groups twenty-three instead of twenty-one. as in the Compen-
dillPl. cr. Compendium. page 164. He also makes the groups or material qualities produced by thought
number eight instead of six. as in the Compendium; thus they are here increased by two. cr. Paramattha-
cUpanI, page 273'. -Translator.
b( d 1Illlkcs !1\!Iil:lbk pka-
llnd ",linCul ('()Illact. IIhl' t\\'ll!l)ld
oil '.lds Ill,l].;., ,I\!Iil:lhk all till' fcrnininl'
'h r,l 'I 'ri:ti', tl) f m,l! 'S and !III tilt: m:1SCU-
I.'h,lr,lct 'rislics t() nl.lks. The femainine
t1\ d 'ads arl' termed partial decads. or
th", th hl':lrt-dccad, locating itself
in th C,l\ ity ,)1' the heart, makes available
lll11n) \'.lri,)US kinds or moral and immoral
th ughts, 1 he four d 'cads, i.e., cyc-decad
:lnd :) forth, locattng themselves respectively
III tht eye-ball, in the interior of the ear, in
th' interior of the nose, and on the surface
of the tongue, make available sight, hearing,
m'lI, and taste.
There are eight groups produced by
mind-namely, the primary octad, the sound-
l1onad, the nonad of body-communication,
the sound-decad of speech-communication. '
Taking these four together with lightness,
pliancy and adaptability, they make up
another four-namely, the undecad of
plasticity, the sound-dodecad of plasticity,
the dodecad of body-communication together
\yjth plasticity,and the sound-tre-decad of
speech-communication together with plasti-
city. The last four are termed plastic
groups, and the first four are termed
primary groups.
Of these, when the elements of the body
are not working harmoniously, only the four
primary groups occur to a sick person, whose
material qualities then become heavy, coars,e
and in adaptable ; and consequently it be-
comes difficult for him to maintain the bodily
postures as he would wish, to move the
members of the body, and even to make a
vocal reply. But when the elements of the
body are working harmoniously-there being
no defects of the body, such as heaviness and
so on, in a healthy person-the four plastic
groups come into existence. Among these
four, two groups of body-communication
occur by means of mind or by moving any
part of the body. The other two groups of
speech-communication occur also on
of mitld, when '0 ;
but when non-verbal sound is produced
through laughing or crying, only the two
ordinary sound-groups occur. At other
times the first two groups, the primary
octad and the sound nonad, occur according
to circumstances.
There are four groups produced by. phys-
ical change, namely, the two primary groups
(i.e., the primary octad and the sound nonad)
and the two plastic groups (i.e., the undecad
of plasticity and the sound dodecad of
plasticity), Now this hody of ours maintains
itsdr right on throughout the whole life,
throlll'h a long of bodily postures.
Hence. at every moment, there occur in this
hody tile harmonious and inharmonious
workings of the clements, through cbanges
in the postur<:s; through changes in its
temperature; through changes of food,
air, and heat; through changes of the
disposition of the members of the body; and
through changes of one's own exertion and
of . others. Here also, when working
harmoniously, two plastic groups occur;
and when working inharmoniously, the other
two primary groups occur. Of the four
groups, two sound-groups arise when there
occur various kinds of sound other than
that produced by mind. .
There are two groups produced by food
-the primary octad and the undecad of
plasticity, These two groups should be
understood as the harmonious and inhar-
monious occurences of material qualities
produced respectively by suitable and unsuit-
able food.
The five material qualities, namely, the
element of space and the four salient
of matter, lie outside the grouping. Of these,
the element of space lies outside the grouping
because it is the boundary of the groups.
As to the material qualities of the salient
featmes, they are left aside from grouping,
because they are merely the marks or signs
of conditioned things, through which we
clearly know them to be really conditioned
These twenty-three groups are available
in an individual. The groups available in
external things are only two, which are no
other than those produced by physical
change. There are two locations of ma.terial
qualities, the internal and the external. Of
these two, the internal location means the
location of a sentient being and the external
location means the earth, h111s, rivers, oceans,
trees, and so forth. Therefore have we said
that. in an individual, twenty-three groups,
or all the twenty-eight kinds of material
qualities, are available.
Now the rebirth-conception and its mental
concomitants are causally related to the
groups produced by kamma at the moment
of concepti-on, by way of six different rela-
tions ;-the four superior sahajatas, the
vipakas, and vippayutta. But to the heart-
basis alone, they are causally related by
seven relations, that is, the above together
with the relation of annamanila. Amona the
Translated from Piifi into Burmese by
Translated into English by
Edited by

kamma). This is known as Ahetu-
2. Refutation of Pubbekata-betu View.
In the Ali.guttara Nikaya, Tika-nipata, we
have the Omniscient buddha's words :-
"Monks, of these three views, there are
some samanas and brahmans who
hoid and set forth the following
'All bodily and mentally agreeable
sensations, all bodily and mentally
disagreeable sensations and all
indifferent sensations enjoyed by
beings in the presem existence are
caused only by the volitional
actions done by them in their past
existences l'
I approach them and ask: "Friends, is it
true that you hold and set forth this view:
'That all bodily and mentally agreeable s e n s a ~
tions, all bodily and mentally disagreeable
sensations and all indifferent sensations
enjoyed by beings in the present life are
caused only by the volitional actions done by
them in their past existences ?".
To this those samaJ)as and brahmans reply,
"Yes, Venerable sir."
Then [ say to them: "Friends, if that be the
case, therc will be persons who, conditioned
by volitional actions done by them in their
past existences,
(1) will kill any living being;
(2) will steal;
(3) will tell lies;
(4) will indulge in immoral sexual
(5) will slander;
(6) will use harsh language;
(7) will foolishly babble;
(8) will be avaricious;
(9) will maintain ill-will against others;
(10) will maintain wrong views."
'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who
confidently and solely rely on the volitional
actions done by beings in their past existences
and hold this view, there cannot arise such
mental factors as chanda (desire-to-do) and
viiyama (effort), as to differentiate between
what actions should be done and what actions
should be refrained from.'
'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who
cannot truly and firmly differentiate between
what actions should be done and what actiuns
should be avoided, and live whithout the
application of mindfulness and self-restraint,
there cannot arise righteous beliefs that are
conducive to the cessation of defilements.'
'Monks, this is the first factual statement
to refute the heretical beliefs and views
advanced by those samaJ)as and brahmans
who maintain that all sensations enjoyed by
beings in the present life are caused and condi-
tioned only by the volitional actions done by
them in their past existences.'
3. Refutation of Issaranimmana view.
The Buddha declared:
"Monks, of these three views, there are
some samaJ)as and brahmans who hold and
set forth the following view:
'All bodily and mentally agreeable
sensations, all bodily and mentally
disagreeable sensations and all
indifferent sensations enjoyed by
beings in the present existence
are created by a Supreme Brahma
or God.'
I approach them and ask: "Friends, is it
true that you hold and set forth this view:
'That all bodily and mentally agreeable
sensations, all bodily and mentally disagree-
able sensations, and all indifferent sensations
enjoyed by beings in the present life are
created by a Supreme Brahma or God? "
To this those samaJ)as and brahmans reply,
"Yes, Venerable sir."
Then I say to them: "Friends, if that be the
case, there will be persons who, owing to the
creation of a Supreme Brahma or God,
(1) will kill any living being;
(2) will steal;
(3) will tell lies;
(4) will indulge in immoral sexual
(5) will slander;
(6) will use harsh language;
(7) will foolishly babble;
(8) will be avaricious;
(9) will maintain ill-will against others;
(10) will maintain wrong views."
'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who
confidently and solely rely on the creation of
a Supreme Brahma or God, there cannot
arise such mental factors as desire-to-do and
effort, as to din'crentiate between what
actions should be done and what actions
should be refrained from:
this is factual statement
rt'full' the bclil'fs and views
ndvnllet.'<l by those samanas and brahmans
who mnintliin that all selisations enjoyed by
jngs in the present life arc created by a
Supreme Brahma or God:
4. Refutation of Abetuka View.
The Buddha declared :
"J\lonks, of these three views, there are
some samanas and brahmans who hold and
set forth the following view :-
'All bodily and mentally agreeable sensa-
tions. all bodily and mentally
disagreeable sensations and all
indifferent sensations enjoyed by
beings in the present life come into
existence of their own accord and
without the intervention of Gen-
erative or Sustaining kammas:
I approach them and ask : "Friends, is it
true that you hold and set forth this view:
'That all bodily and mentally agreeable
sensations, all bodily and mentally disagree-
able sensations and all indifferent sensations
enjoyed by beings in the present life come
into existence of their own accord and not
due to the Generative and Sustaining kam-
mas ?' "
To this those samaI).as and brahmans reply:
"Yes, Venerable sir."
Then T say to them: "Friends, if that be the
case, there will be persons who, without any
cause or condition,
(1) will kill any living being;
(2) will steal;
(3) will tell lies;
(4) will indulge in immoral sexual
(5) will slander;
(6) will usc harsh language'
(7) will foolishly babble;
(k) will be avaricious;
(9) will maintain ill-will against others;
(10) will maintain wrong views."
'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who
confidently and solely rely on the "Uncaused-
ness anti Um:onditionnlity" of existence,
tlll,'rc C/lllllot lIrISC such mental fuclors as
desire-to-do and effort, as to differentiate
between what should be done and what should
be avoided:
'Monks, indeed, in the minds of those who
cannot truly and firmly differentiate between
what should done and what should not be
done, and live without the application of
mindfulness and self-restraint, there cannot
arise righteous beliefs that arc conducive to
the cessation of defilements.'
'Monks, this is the third factual statement
to refute the heretical beliefs and views
advanced by those samaI).a!; and brahmans
who maintain that all sensations enjoyed by
beings come into existence of their own
accord and not due to the Generative and
Sustaining kammas'."
5. Three Wrong Views.
In the world there are three evil views.
They are:-
(1) Pubbekata-hetu-diHhi:
(2) Issaranimmana-hetu-ditthi; and
(3) Ahetu-apaccaya-diHhi.
These three wrong views have already
been explained and were also expounded by
the Omniscient Buddha in the Anguttara-
Nikaya, Tika-nipata-DutiyapaI)J}.asaka-
Dutiya-vagga, First Sutta and in the Panna-
sanipata-Mahiibodhi-paribbajaka Jataka.
In some 0\ the Suttas, the Issaranimmana
View is known as IssarakaraI).a-vada (View
that a Supreme Brahma or God has perform-
ed all these) or Issarakuttikavada (View that
a Supreme Brahma or God has arranged all
these). The Omniscient Buddha refuted
these three wrong views in conform.ity with
the Truth.
I shall therefore explain these three wrong
views serially, in detail and more completely.
6. Refutation of Pubbekata-hetu View.
(a) (View that the past volitional actions
of beings are the sole causes)
Beings enjoy all bodily and mentally
agreeable sensations, al\ bodily and mentally
disagreeable sensations and all indifferent
sensations. They enjoy such sensations as
relate to inferiority, superiority, foolishness,
cleverness, to one's influence being great or
to one's influence being negligible. Those
who hold the Pubbekata-hctu view maintain
as follows:
created by a Supreme Brahma or
God. They reject all past and
present kammas of beings, So this
view is known as Ubhaya-pakkha-
hinavada (the view which is
deprived of both sides, i.e. both
past and present kammas of
(3) Those who hold the Ahetu-apaccaya
view maintain that all Pleasures
and Sufferings experienced by
beings in this life come into
existence of their own account, and
reject all causes whatsoever. As
this view reiects all causes of exis-
tence, it is 'known as Sabba-hlna-
vada (the view which is deprived
of all, i.e., all kinds of causes what-
Of these three, the Supreme Buddha
desiring to refute the Issaranimmana-vada
(the view that all sensations in the present
existence are created by a Supreme Brahma
or God) and ahetuka-vada (the view of the
and Unconditionality' of
existence) declared: "Kammassaka maQ.a-
vasatta kammadayada."
Another way of Explanation
The Buddha, in a general manner, declared:
"Kammassaka satta kammadayada" and not
specificaUy as "Pubbekata kammassaka satta
Pubbekata kammadayada". Here, kammas-
saka and kammadayada mean both past and
present kammas of beings. If we truly
interpret in this way, "kammassaka" will
mean "past and present kammas of beings".
8. Three Great SI,heres.
Here I shall explain the Past and the Pre-
sent kammas. There exist three Great
(1) Kammasadhanlya-thiina,
(Sphere in which Kamma operates)
(2) VlriyasadhanlY<Hhana,
(Sphere in which Energy operates)
(3) Panniisadhaniya-thana,
(Sphere in which Wisdom operates)
or these, Kammasiidhaniya-thiina (Sphere
in which Kamma operates) is subdivided in
to two parts:-
There arc four k of Rebirths. rhev arc:
(a) Anta-kammasadhaniya-thana,
(Sphere in which Past Kammas
(b) Pacuppana-kammasadhanlya - thana.
(Sphere in which Present Kammas
(a) Atlta-kammasiidhanfya-thiina
The following resultant effects being caused
and conditioned by the volitional actions
done by beings in their past existences are
called auta-kammasadhanlya-thana :-
(1) Rebirth in the Happy Course of
Existence or in the Woeful Course
of Existence through the medium
of any of the four kinds of pati-
sandhi. *
(2) Rebirth in a noble family or in an
ignoble family even in the Happy
Course of Existence.
(3) Presence or absence of any of the
sense organs, such as eyes, ears, etc.
(4) Endowment with Wisdom, or lack
of Wisdom at the conception-
(5) Deformity or non-deformity.
The actions performed by beings in the
present life cannot cause such effects. The
beings reborn in the Happy Course of
Existence by virtue of their past wholesome
kamma cannot transform their bodies into
those of the Woeful Course of Existence by
dint of their present actions, such as wisdom
and energy without the dissolution of their
bodies of the Happy Course of Existence.
In the same way, the beings who are reborn
in the Woeful Course of Existence by virtue
of their past kamma cannot transform their
bodies into those of the Happy Course of
Existence by means of their present kamma
without the dissolution of their bodies of the
Woeful Course of Existence. No man, Deva,
Brahma or God, by means of present kamma,
such as Wisdom and Energy, is able to restore
the eye-Sight of a being whose optical organs
have been impaired from the very moment of
conception owing to that being's past un-
wholesome kamma.
Again, when a being's optical organs which
he obtained by virtue of his past kamma are
utterly destroyed by some dangeruus causes
(I) Uplpattipatisalldhi (SpnntancollsIYmanil'csting bt:ings) ;
(2) (Molstlln:-born bt:ings):
0) (heings born fr->1Il t:ggs). lind
(4) Jal:ibuja.patiqandhi (beings born from a womb).
in the present life. no man, Deva Brahma
or God is able to restore his lost by
means of the man's, Deva's Brahma's or
's wisdom and energy exercised by him
III the present life. The same principle holds
good for the audible organs etc. that come
into existence owing to the past kammas of
(b) Paccuppanna Kamma Sadhaniya-
Sphere in which the present kammas operate
Here, I shall first expound the paccupanna-
kamma (present kamma). Briefly speaking,
all bodily, verbal and mental actions perform-
ed by beings in the present life for their
happiness or misery are all paccuppanna-
Broadly speaking, there exist such actions
as agriculture, cattle breeding, sheep-farming,
trade and commerce. There also exist
branches of study, such a& various types of
arts, Grafts, etc. Besides, there exist the
following arts :
Bhiirni-vijja (the art of determining whether
the site for a proposed house or garden is
. suitable or not), angavijja (the act of character
reading from marks on the body), nakkhatta-
vijja (astronomy), sutamaya-paiifia (know-
ledge based on learning), cinta-maya panna
(knowledge based on thinking-philosophy);
and bhiivana-maya-panna (knowledge based
on mental development). Those actions,
crafts, arts and knowledge mentioned above
are called paccuppanna-kamma (present
volitional actions). Apart from the above-
mentioned actions, there also exist a count-
less number of evil actions, stupidity and
negligence which cause the destruction of
life and property; injury to health; defamation
and libel; injury to mprality; and hindrance
to progress of knowledge. All these actions
are present kammas. So, there really exist
various kinds of actions, some of which are
profitable and others disadvantageous in the
present life. These two kinds of actions are
within the paccuppanna-kammasadhaniya-
thiina (Sphere in which the present kammas
Composite method of exposition
Past kamma is subdivided into thre.t
(1) Mahanta (Major k'.mma);
(2) Majjhima (Medium kamma);
(3) Appaka (Minor kamma).
Present kamma is also subdivided into
three kinds:
Vuddhibhagiya (kamma that will
lead to one's prosperity);
Thitibhagiya (kamltla that will keep
. one in stability);
Hanabhiigiya (kamma that will lead
to one's decrease.)
(1) Mahantatita-kammamiilakatika
Three types of persons who are conditioned
by their past major kammas.
Conditioned by their past major kammas,
some people are reborn in the families of
kings, wealthy people and rich people. Of
these, some people perform vuddhibhagiya-
paeeuppana-kamma (present kammas that
will cause one to prosper). They are pros-
perous with worldly riches and authoritative
powers. They rise up from the position
they first attain and do not go down to a
lower position.
Some pople perform thitibhagiya-paccup-
panna-kamma (kamma that will keep one in
normality). Their wealth and glory will be
at a standstill; they neither rise up nor go
down from their normal position.
Some people perform hanabhiigiya-
paecuppanna-kamma (kamma that will cause
their wealth and position to decrease). They
lose their property and glory ;they are not
able to keep their position at normality, nor
are they able to improve their status.
(2) Majjhimatita-kammamiilakatika
Three types of persons who are conditioned
by their past medium kammas.
Conditioned by their past medium kammas,
some people are reborn in the families of
moderately rich people. Of these, those wb':.'
perform vuddhi -bhagi ya -paccu ppanna -ka m-
rna are prosperous with wealtb and glory in
the present life.
Trose who perform thitibbiigiya-paccup-
panna -kamma will be in ormal posi-
tion without having any progress or decrease
in wealth and standing.
Those who perform hanabbiigiya-paccup_
panna-kamma will lose their wealth and
honour, unable to keep themselves in normal
position, let alone improve their slatus.
(3) A ppakakatita -Kammamiila k ali k a
Three types of who are conditioned
by their past minor kammas.
(All beings arc the descendants of their own
(d) Kammabandhll
"Kammam-:vabandhu yesanti kamma-
bandhii." (Kamma alone is the real rela-
tive of all
Everyone has relatives and friends. They
cannot be called the true and real friends,
because thcy are so only temporarily.
Kamma alone is, thercfore, the only real
relative of all beings.
(e) Kamlllappa!i.l'saralJii
People gJ for rcfuge to various Gods who
are called (Refuge). To
those wilO gJ for refuge to Vishnu, Vishnu is
their To those who go for
refugc to Ramel, Rama is their
To those wllJ go for refuge to the Triple Gem,
the Triple Gem is their
yesanti kam-
mappatissaral).a" .
(Kamma alone is the real Refuge of all
beings) Whatever wholesome or unwhole-
some actions are done by beings bodily,
verbally, or mentally, they become the
heirs of that kamma.
So-called gods like Vishnu, Rama etc. arc
called because people go for
refuge to them and rely on them, but they
cannot be real refuges, for they themselves are
not permanent.* In [act, volitional actions
done by and which accompany their
life-continua for 110wcver many world-
they may wander mol'':: in tillS ROlud
of Rebirths and not any "God" whatsv..:ver
are the only real refuge. This statement
is true. People go for rcfuge to the
Buddha. They do so to acquire wholc-
some merit and also to acquire the r..:sult of
pailiHi-patisamyulla-kamma (volitional ac-
tions connected with wisdom). In r..:ality,
only puiilH-kamlll<L (Illcrit of deeds) and
pai'iiiiikamma (result of acti,)ns eonnccted
with Knowledbe or Wisdom) which arc
attained by b(:ings in taking n::fllge in the
Buddha arc their real Rcfllge.
(f) Kammassakii etc. in relation to pre-
sent kamm{ls
As regards present kamma: in the present
life all people earn their livelihood by per-
forming such actions as trading, agriculture
etc. These pre3eilt actions of the people being
their properties, the people are called
"Kamassakii". As they inherit this present
kamma, they are called their heirs (Kamma-
diiyada). As the present kammas are the
root-causes of "the Modes of Generation",
are called "Kammayoni". As these
present kammas are tlleir relatives, they
are called "Kammabandhii". As these
present kammas are their Refuges, they
are called
When the Buddha expounded kamma as
a fundamental thing, that exposition covers
the explanations ot" such other auxiliary
causes as kalYiil)amitta (friendship with the
good and virtuous), pal)<;litasevana (associa-
tion with the wise) and dl1ammapatipatti
(practice according to the Teaching of the
Buddha), all of wnich are conducive to the
accomplishment of kamma.
A scientific explal1(1/ ion :-
By th; D.xlar"l.ioll "Kammassakii satta
kammaduyauu", the Buddha also meant
the following: "" Wholesome and unwhole-
some act lOllS performed once by a being
during his lifetime, may ripen after a lapse
of hundrds or thousands of c\istenccs or
worI-i-cycies or even a IO:lgCr Thus
the wlu)lesol1lc k-\,nl11:l lhal giy.:s r.:sullant
elfect of su\';ila (l1.ap[1I11<:s5; and u:l\\;1<)k,l)I11C
kamma tllat givcs woeful rcsult always
accompany thc lifc-contlnUlll11 of a bcing ..
Olle SllOlIld I hcrcl",)rc lovc and cstccm
'Good Cl)nduct' mM': than OIlC'S l)Wn lifc
a nu pn:serv..: II well. As r.:gards 'Evil COIl-
duct', one should drc';ld it Ilwre than the
,)I\kath and rdrain il dceds.
* AnJ appilcs or .:uursc tu all llnJ.:r thcyarc w.HslllPP<.'J anll whateVllI'
powc:rs arc allributc:d to Ihem by Ihe more devout or thcir fulio",'"
Notion of a Creator:
In the Ekaccasassata-viida (Eternity-belief
with regard to some, and Non-eternity-
belief with regard to others) of the Brahma-
jala Sutta. Digha-nikaya; Brahmanimantana
Surta. Mulapal).lJasa, Majjhima-nikaya; and
the Brahma Samyutta of the Samyutta
Nikaya, mention is made of the Great
Brahma who first resided in the First
Jhana Plane. This Great Brahmii may be
regarded as the Supreme Being for the
purpose of explaining this Issaranimmiina
Those who hold this Wrong View maintain
as follows:
'Indeed this being, the Brahma, the Great
Brahma, the Conqueror, the One who cannot
be conquered by others, surely is All-seeing,
All-powerful, the Ruler, the. Creator of the
three worlds-Okiisaloka, Sattaloka and
SalJkhiiraloka*-, the Excellent, the Almighty
the One who has already practised Calm, the
Father of all that are and are to be. And he
has created us.'
This Issaranimmiina -View exists in this
world on account of those samanas and
brahmans who held the
the view held by those Brahmas who having
fallen from the Brahma Planes are reborn in
the planes of men and Devas, and are able
to remember their last existence. This
Issaranimmiina-viida has been clearly
expounded in the Brahmajala Sutta. Before
the rising of the Omniscient Buddha, this
Wrong View was maintained by many
brahmans. When the Buddha arose, He
fully refuted all Wrong Views, and this
Wrong View of Issaranimmiinaviida had no
chance to thrive well in India.
---------, --- ---- - -- -
Those who believe in the creation of a
Supreme Being or God arc called Issaranim-
miina- viidi.
(The three modes of refutation of this
Issaranimmiina View are the same as those
in the case of Pubbekata View.)
(b) One's own action only is one's own
Those who hold this Issaranimmiina View
totally reject the Right View expounded in
the phrase "Kammassakii satta kammadayii-
da". Though they reject this Right
View, yet they do not realise that they have
unconsciously entered into the spheres of
"Kammasaka" and "Kammadayiidii." This
statement is tr'ue. Those who believe in
the creation of a Supreme Being or God also
become the "Owners of their kammas" and
"Heirs of their own kammas." I shall clarify
the matter.
In the matter of Paccup pannakammasii-
dhaniya (Sphere in which present kammas
operate), those who maintain the Issaranim-
mana View earn their livelihood by cultivat-
ing the lands. Simply by the act of cultivat-
ing lands themselves they become the
'owners of their own properties-actions
done by themselves.' It means that they
have their properties in the form of 'Cultiva-
tion.' Some of them earn their livelihood
by trading. By thc act of trading by
themselves they become the 'owners
of their properties-act of trading performed
by themselves.' It means that they have
their properties in the form of 'act of
trading.' Some of the rest earn their
living by serving under a government.
Simply for their actions in serving under the
government, they become the '0\\ ners of
their properties-act of serving undcr
government perrormed by themselvcs: [t
means that they have their propertics in Ihl.:
* Okasaloku.: World of space.
Satlaloka: World of beings.
Sal'lkharaloka: World of formations.
form of 'government service.' The same
principle holds good for other spheres of
actions, such as arts, sciences, etc.
There are some people who believe in an
Almighty God and take refuge in him.
They are able to acquire wealth and glory
only when they work for themselves in
various walks of life. On the other hand, by
simply having faith in the Almighty God,
they will not be able to acquire such wealth
and glory.
There are others who do not believe in God
and also repudiate him. They also will have
to work for their livelihood and thus acquire
wealth and glory. So the wise understand
that only those actions performed by beings
themselves can bestow wealth and glory
and that no God can give anything
whatsoever to them.
(c) HOII' beingsnre saved by their own kammas:
Those who believe in God, take refuge in
him, have faith iff' him, and revere him
throughout the whole of life. They believe
that only those who have faith in God will
be saved by him when they die, and that non-
believers in God will not be saved whim.
Hcre, it is clear that only those who believe
in God, have faith in him and take refuge
in him will be saved by him, and not other-
\\ise. This interpretation of /ssarallimmiina
View is perfectly clear. So. it is evident that
only their actions in the form of 'believing
in God,' 'taking refuge in him' and 'revering
him' can save them, and the Almighty God
cannot save them. This meaning is quite
(d) Furtitcr explanation:
In this very world, all people believers and
non-believers in God alike, have to follow
various pursuits of life and earn their liveli-
hood. There is no difference for anyone
in the 'Sphere in which present kammas
operate.' Thus we see with ollr naked eyes
that people work for thcnm:lves to earn their
li\in!!. thus themselves becoming the 'owners
own kammas in the fori';; of volitional
actions ill the prescnt life. '
In the in which past kammas
;;iso. thne is no whatso-
e .. .:r. \Vt; SI:C with our naked cves that con-
d!l:"i,cd by their P;lst kall1ll1a" 'they also!; \0 maintain Ilk. We havc
noticed that any otlH:r specific bcnefit comcs
into .:\i;tG!ice by thl: agency of God
and without the operation of either past or
present kammas.
(e) Evil rules the world:
In the world there are the following types
of beings : well-bred people; low-bred people;
wealthy people; poor and neeedy people; long-
lived creatures; short-lived creatures; beings
who seldom contract diseases; beings who
often contract diseases; beautiful creatures;
ugly creatures; moral people; immoral
people; educated people; uneducated people;
wicked people; insane people; thieves; robbers
leprous people; blind creatures; deaf crea-
tures; dumb creatures; persons who commit
matricide; persons who commit patricide;
murderers; thievish persons; persons who are
in the habit of indulging in sexual miscon-
duct; people who tell lies; people who
slander; people who use harsh language;
people who talk flippantly; avaricious people;
people who have ill-will against others; and
people who hold Wrong Views. So, in this
world there are very few people who are
righteous; but there are many who are base
and mean.
(f) Right Views of those who believe in
Kamma and its result:
Those who believe in both past and present
kammas and their resuitant effects maintain
as follows :-
'Relating to the sphere in which past
kammas operate, because beings have
performed wholesome actions in their past
existences, they now enjoy the resultant effect
in the form of becomi,ng superior types of
people; and because they have performed
unwholesome actions in their past existences,
they suffer the resultant efTect of becoming
inferior types of people. Again, as regards
the sphere in which present kamm<ls operate,
because beings work well in the prese,ll life,
they become superior types of people; and
because they perform evil deeds, they become
inferior types of people.'
11. Refutation of Ahetuka View
(a) (The View of the UnCGusedness of Existcnce)
Those who hold this Ahetuka Vicw main-
tain as follows:
'rvcr) thing in this world slIch as the
corrupt1H:ss or of b,ings is
by fate, :tnd not hy pa'it or P",',,'nt J...ammas
and cllcrg\' and kn(lwkdgc, and all L)j' this
has in tllc ehapll'!" un the
refutntion of Pllbiwkala View, Or in other
wI)rds Iwld that l'\'l'rythill" in tIll' world
.., D
Int\, of itsd!' and is llcitlll'r
':1l1Sl'd ,111'1" CI'HditiOlll'd hy pnst kammas,
",t'm'ratl"" b11lllln and sustainl'd kamma.
rhe \,ari\)\ls physical and psychical phcno-
of c.\istCl1CC cOI1\'cnli-onally lermcd
PI'rsl'lla1it\" t-.tan, Woman, Al1ill1al, ctc.
.lrC :l 11l,'rc play of blind chancc, and not the
)Utc,)nH.' of causcs ami conditions. They
CI'I11C. into c\istence of their own accord with-
ut bcing created by a Crcator, nor caused
and l'onditioncd by gcnerative and sustained
knmmas. Such things as 'richness,' 'poverty'
'compIacenc),' 'destruction,' 'wickedness,'
'cleverness: etc. come into existence of their
0\\ n accord and not due to any cause or
condition whatsoever.'
(The three ways of refuting the Aheluka
View are the same as those in the case of
Pubbekata View.)
(b) No action can arise of its own accord:
Before the rising of the Omniscient Buddha,
this Ahetuka Wrong View was held by such
heretical teachers as GUT.lakassapa as men-
tioned in the Narada Jataka. During the
lifetime of the Buddha, this fatalistic 'View of
Uncausedness' of existence was taught by
Makkhali-Gosala and Acelaka of India.
Those who maintain this Ahetuka Wrong
View reject the Kammasakata View-
"Owners of their kammas are beings"- which
is the Word of the Buddha. Although they
reject this Kammasakata View, they are not
aware of the fact that they themselves thereby
become the holders of the Kammasakata
View- "Owners of their kammas are the
beings." If, according to this Wrong View,
all physical and psychical phenomena of
existence be a mere play of blind chance and
not the outcome of causes and conditions,
then there will be no difference between the
'Sphere in which past kammas operate' and
the 'Sphere in which presl'nt kammas operate.'
Also there will be no difference whatsoever
whether one commits small offences, or grave
offences, or whether one acts wickedly, or
cleverly, because all volitional actions are not
the outcome of causes and conditions, but
they come into existence of their own accord
or as a general rule.
(c) Different characteristics of kamma, niit:Za
and viriya :
According to this Ahetuka View, all
Desire-lo-do, Energy and Volitional Actions
will he rendered useless and unproductIve,
because howl'ver lof'ly acts heings might
perform. they would not obtain any specific
resultant effect. It would he just the same as
if they remained idle and did nothing at all.
In rcality, these Dhammas-Volitional
Actions, Knowledge and Energy-arc not
barren and unproductive. They arc the
Dhammas that will surely givc resultant
ctTccts. It is apparcnt that the greatncss or
smallness of present kammas depends on the
degrees of Desire-to-do, Energy and Wisdom
exercised by the people.
Owing to the variety of these kammas there
exist a variety or resultant etTects.
In regard to this matter, the wise people
maintain this Right Vie'.v in this manner:
'In the sphere where present kammas
operate, actions leading to "complacency".
"destruction," "richness," or "poverty"
experienced by beings ill the present life
are termed the "root-conditions". This
state of affairs is quite evident in the
present world, and in the future existence
also, Desire-to-do, Energy and Wisdom which
cause the richness, poverty complacency
and destruction of beings, and good
conduct and evil conduct will not remain
unproductive. In fact, they will give appro-
priate resultant effects. As these mental
factors are not barren and will surely give
results, in the matter of the "Sphere in which
past kammas operate," beings, conditioned
by their various past kammas will attain
the various kinds of resultant effects in their
future existences.'
(d) To determine the root-causes by seeing the
For example, by seeing the various kinds
of plants and vegetation we can determine
that they have different kinds of secds. In
the same manner by seeing the various
positions of beings. such as complacency,
destruction, richness and poverty. we
should be able to judge the various kinds of
kammas committed by them in their past
The Tathiigata knew all thcse. He had
realised and seen face to face the functioninQs
of all kammas in regard to the spheres in
which past and present kammas opcrate, and
also the resultant eO'ects. such as richness and
poverty-thc vicissitudes of life. For these
to View that all en by in the present existence arc caused and conditioned onty hy
the volitional actiong dono by them in lht:ir past existences. '
reasons He was able to refute this Ahetuka
12. Further Explanation of Kammasakii-Viida
(<1) Three callses or conditions:
The phrase: "Kalllfllasakii" has been
expounded in the chapter on 'Pubbekata-
veda-lliggaha' (Refutation of the Pubbekata
View,) Now, I shall explain those things
which 11:1\'C been left unt!xplained in that
chapter. There are people who cultivate
the lands. For thc fructification or the
destruction of their cultivation, there are
causes or conditions. Theyarc:-
(I) Hew (root-condition),
(2) Paccaya (su;)porting condition) and
(31 Sambhiira (component conditions),
Of these three causes.
(1) Paddy seeds and cultivators are
Hetu causes:
(2) The nutritivc essence (o}a) contained
In the soil of the land where cultiva-
tion takes place is Pacca;va condi-
tion: a lid
(3) The foilowingare Sambhdra causes:-
Rainfall; drainage; rivers and creeks
10 Feed thc fields; clouds, moisture-
laden wind, sun. moon and constella-
tion: and moral practices exercised
by the people residing in the country.
(b) Concrete {'.\amp!.:!:
Here, if thc seeds are pure, the
cUltiV:ttIO'l will be successful and the required
crop will be obtained, If from the beginning
the he impurc or inferior, the cultivation
will not be successful and a poor crop will
result. if the seed be pure and full of
pIth, the can be complete and
sliccessful only when the cultivator knows
when to break thc clods, till the soil, sow
the in the nursery, transplant the
young phwls do all that is necessary for
cultiv'lti(}n. Altliouidlthc cultivator docs al\
that required rur 'the cultilatiun, a good
rainfitll IJrings a good and a bad
rainf,t11 a bad IwrYest resulting in the
destruClion or ti:-: cultivation. EWlI if the
rainC.tll he food. if tllere he 110 drainage or
to feultlie lields wltll 1I':lter wilen
rcquir.-d :tnd to lei olll the \\at(:!' when the
field!; lire flooded. tht: !.'ulliv;ltion cannol hc
and will b;; llahle tl' he destroyed.
In the c(lse or tile field, wbkh :11'1: irrigated by
river w:ltcr. the cult ivrll (II' nllist kllow when
to irrir,ate thc land, whe:ll1ot to, Other-
wise the crops will be destroyed. The
water in the river has to depend on the amount
of rainfall that takes place in the mountains
in the up-country. If there be no rainfall
in the up-country or at the source of the
river, the water in the river cannot rise.
Rain can fall only when the necessary causes
and conditions are fulfilled; otherwise no
rain can fall.
(c) Kammas and the above example
We now notice that even in the matter of
cultivation, there are thousands of causes
and conditions either for the complete success
of cultivation or its destruction.
The above is the brief explanation of what
is actually happening in the world.
(d) Primary effect and Secondary effect
Past kammas that cause the pleasures and
sufferings of beings in the next existence may
have two kinds of effects, primary and
secopdary effects.
(e) Presefrt kammas and two kinds of effects
In this respe"' ct I shall first explain present
kammas. For example, a person learns a
great art or craft. Until and unlcss he
finishes thii course of training, he will have
to undergo various kinds of suffering on
account of this art or craft. But at times
during the course of his training he may come
across happiness. When he is successful in
his training, he will earn plenty of money, or
may be able to enjoy a high position in the
Government service. He will then acquire
various kinds of happiness and wealth.
Dcpending on this one man who is well learn-
ed, his other relatives and friends also will
be able to enjoy various kinds of pleasures.
(f) Secondar), e.oeCI
The amount of suffering which a person
expericnces before the completion of his
training, and the benefits enjoyed by his
fricnds and relatives on account of his art are
not the primary effects of his training; but
they arc secondary elTects.
(g) Prill/oryeffects
Aft..:r th..: compktion of his tr;lining in any
art ()I' craft, if a pcrson SlICt'cl'ds hc will he
able to aequil'l': great \walth l)r cnjt))' a gOt)d
position in the Govcrnment st'r\'il'C or enjl)
various kinds or pleas\lrt's. Thl'SC arc Ih
primary l)f his karning the art.
(II) r'dl IIlId t\l'll "illtis (II ,:O(('t
Similarly thl'rc arc two kinds llf in
the ellsc of evil kllmmas also. For
a man murdi.'r:; person.
Ih'hlks or the may honour
and him; '01' they Illay
him with cash or kind. On the othl!r
hand. tht' rdathe$ of the deceased hate the
murderer, and they will kill the murderer in
or set the 'whel'ls of iustice in motion
so that the murderer may' receive capital
punishment. These resultant efi'l!cts of the
murderer'S kamma-the evil action in killing
a living person-are called the secondary
This murderer, on the dissolution of his
body after death, will be reborn in the Lower
Worlds as the resultant effects of his evil
kamma in killing a man, and undergo
immense suffering. This is his primary effect.
If the murderer, conditioned by his past
wholesome kammas, be reborn as a human
being, he will, wherever he enters into
existence, be of short 1ife:have much sickness
and encounter enmity with his rivals. These
are the primary effects of his present kamma
of killing a man.
Due to his acr of murdering a man, his
relatives wilJ. experience various kinds of
suffering. These are the secondary effects.
The same principle holds good in the case
of wholesome vS?litional aptions done by
beings. I
This secondary effect is also subdivided
into t');o kiq.ds.
They are:
(1) The one that takes effect at the time
of the commission of deeds; and
(2) The one that takes effect when the
relevant kamma ripens in a future
Of these the resultant effect which takes
place at the time of the commission of an
action is not 'regular'. The person who
sustains the secondary effect due to whole-
some kamma may experience 'Suffering',
while the person who sustains the secondary
effect due to an evil action may experience
'Happiness'. But when the relevant kamma
ripens in a future existence, the secondary
effect is 'regular', because evil kamma will
give the resultant effect of 'Suffering' and
good kamma will give the resultant effect of
(i) Primary effect
Primary effect takes place surely; because
morally good kamma will give a good
resultant effect and not :t bad onc, and bad
kamma will give n had resultant effect and
not II good one. Primary effe<..t take') plac,:
in the life-continuum of t/w docr of a volition-
al action and not ill the IIfc-Goflti.1Uulfl of
any other person. (;xpcriencing 'he
primary effects of his kammH, jf a persoll
dies, that primary effect also is exhausted
and no reaction of it ever rem:linc;.
(j) Secondary effect
In the case of the secondary effect, it takes
place in the life-continua of other persons.
So even when the doer of kamma dies, the
reaction of the secondary effect remains
either for the good or evil of others.
I shall explain it more clearly. Suppose
a virtuous and powerful being who had ful-
filled Piiramitiis in his previous births i3
conceived in the womb of a woman of a
certain family.
Since the conception of that supernormal
child, his parents will be successful in all walks
of life and find an increase in wealth, atten-
dants and servants. If the family be a royal
one, wise counsellors and valiant soldiers
or generals will surely exist. The locality
in which the child is conceived in his
mother's womb will have sufficient rainfall,
and the inhabitants of that country will
enjoy prosperity. The country in all will
become prosperous. This is the reaction
of the effect due to that powerful and
virtuous being.
In this connection the Dhammapada says:
"Dullabho purisajaiiiio
na so sabbattha jayati,
yattha so jayati dhi:ro
tam kulam sukham edhati."
-Verse 193.
The thorough-bred man (Buddha) is rare;
he is not born everywhere. Where that wise
man is born that family attains happiness.
(k) Present kamma and secondary effect
Here, I shall explain this with an example.
If an efficient person, by means of his man-
power, wealth or technical knowledge, con-
structs arable lands, gardens, ponds, wdls,
dams, canals and metal roads, these construc-
tions will remain for a great length of time
for the benefit of many other people, and
depending 011 these establishments many
people will be able to reap many
(1) Past kamma and secondary effect
Just as we see the secQndary effect of pre-
sent kamma with our own eyes, in the case of
the sphere in which past kammas operate,
many people can depend on one virtuous
supernormal being. Again, due to the
reaction of evil kammas done by a being
in his past existence, many people will
have to undergo hardship and suffering.
Thus wise men believe that every being
possesses past and present kammas with
their respective primary and secondary
The above is the brief exposition of how
past and present kammas give various kinds
of resultant effects.
13 Exposition of Attii-Diuhi (PersonaIity-
(a) How beings have to wander in the Happy
and Woefui Courses of existence due to
Various kinds of Wrong Views, various
kinds of evil things and various kinds of
kammas lie latent in and accompany the life-
continua of beings who wander in the Round
of Rebirths. On account of these unwhole-
some mental factors, the following con-
spicuously come into existence :
(1) Four Lower Worlds, and
(2) Various kinds of unwholesome voli-
tional actions.
Beings wander in different planes of exis-
tence due to these bad mental factors. To
say the least, even dogs and pigs etc. of the
Four Lower Worlds in the course of the
round of rebirths may become Great
Brahmas. Sometimes they are reborn in the
higher Brahma planes, such as Abhasara,
Subhaki!J.ha, Vehapphala and Formless
Spheres. Although they have opportllnity
to be reborn in these higher Brahma planes,
Conditioned by their wholesome volitional
actions, being; are reborn in Sensuous Sphere,
Form Sphere and even in N'eva-sanna-niisan-
nayatana (Sphere of Neither-Perception
Nor-Non-perception) in the Fine-material
spheres. Even then, when their span of life
expires or when their merit is exhausted they
are reborn in the Woeful Course of
As these Wrong Views, evil mental factors
and evil kammas accompany the life-continua
of beings, although they become Great
Brahmas they are puthujjanas
they are the inhabitants of the mundane
sphere. Just as stones and spears thrown up
into the sky fall down to the ground by the
force of gravity, beings are liable to be
reborn in the four Lower Worlds. As their
life-continua are fully laden with hellish
mental factors they are 'beings bound
for (impermanent) Hades'; as the wicked
mental factors accompany their life-continua,
they are cvil-minded beings destined to do
evil deeds; as they exist in the sphere
where evil kammas abound, they are the
inhabitants of that sphere; as they exist in the
sphere where most beings have no 'Eyes of
Wisdom', they are the inhabitants of that
Which are kWlha-bhumi (plane where
evil kammas abound) and andha-biila-bhumi
(Plane where beings being blinded by folly
have no 'Eye of Wisdom')? The above-
mentioned ptipadi{!hi (Wrong Views), piipa-
dhamma (Wickcdness; evil habit) and ptipa-
kamma (Unwholesome deeds) manifest in
these two planes (or spheres) kaf,lha-bhumi
and andha biila-bhumi. The next question
is: Why do even Great Brahmas exist in
these two planes? Beceause they profess the
Eternity-belief or Personality-belief-'1 am,
I am.'
when their span of life comes to an end or (b) Force of attii-ditthi
when their merit i5 exhausted they have to be f"
reborn ill the Four Lower Worlds. This is The root-cause 0 all. Wrong
the way of the universe. factors and eVil IS .
. dlllhi. So long as these papa-dl!thl eXist m
Vlbhanga says: * the life-continuum of a being, piipa-ditthi.
" Ukkhittli pUi'inatejena, piipa-dhamma and ptipa-kamma will
Kamanipagatim gatli, exist there also. So long as these piipa-di/lhi
Bhavaggatampi sampatta, etc. accompany his life-continuum, he will
Puna gacchanti duggatim." be termed as 'One bOllnd for Hell,' 'Evil-
'" Vibhanga has been translated as ' Distinctions' 'Classifications' 'Distribution '. The late Venerable
Nyanatiloka Mahilthera in his Guide through the Abhidhamma Pitaka says: 'By reason of its first
three treatises, Vibhanga, in a certain measure, is supplementary to Dhamm1sangnni and, at the same
time,a foundation to the Dhiltu-Kathli (two other books of the Abhidhamma Pilaka). Those three
reatises are entirely devoted to an exhaustive investigation of three categories of the highest importance
or a real understanding of Buddhist Philosophy.'
docr'. 'Inhahitant of 1"lIllw-plane' and
'Inhabitant of III1"habcil<l-plane'. Once this
ottiidiUhi Cl'ases. all tllL'se three will be
extinguished ak)ng with all kinds of evils.
Those beings who cannol erndiC'ale alta-
chUhi will become heirs of papa-dillhi. In
what manner? Because a being who professes
at!ii-di{{hi (Personality-belief) cannot get rid
ot these. untold ani uncountable plipa-di!{hi,
etc. which he has been holding for many
world-cycles and existences in the round of
Although beings whose life-continua are
accompanied by attii-di/thi are reborn in
the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-
perception, these piipa-difthi etc. will give
them appropriate resultant effects and
undoubtedly drag them to the lower worlds.
So long as beings cannot dispel this attii-
dillhi, they will have to become, the victims of
these piipa-diuhis etc. in their future
And in whichever future existence they
may arise, they will profess all kinds of
Wrong Views that may arise, perform all
sorts of 'Evil Conduct' they may have oppor-
tunity to do, and commit such weighty
kammas as matricide etc.
In the present life also, those who profess
attii-ditthi will generally have a tendency to
profess Wrong Views, entertaining evil mental
factors and do evil deeds.
(c) How Issaranimmiina View arises due to
It is true that Issaranimmiina View comes
into existence on account of this 'attii-ditthi.
On account of this altii-dif[hi the Great
Brahma who does not know whence he came
from and when he will fall from that Brahma
plane thinks himself to be permanent, immu-
table, eternal, not subject to change and
remain as something eternal. He thinks to
himself: "I am Brahma, the Great Brahma,
the Conqueror, the One who cannot be con-
quered by others, surely All-Seeing, All-
powerful, the Ruler, the Creator, the Excel-
lent, the Almighty, the ( who has already
practised Calm, the Fath f all that are and
all that are to be." he makes
his appearance in the planes of the' Brahmas
who have shorter spans of life and says:
"I am permanent; I am Almighty; I create
you all".
When those Brahmas hear him say those
words, they believe in him and thus become
the holders of this View. Not to say of
those beings who are renorn in the planes of
Devas and the world of men.
(Those who mail1tain this /.I'saranimmiina
View regard him as their Creator God. Con-
ditioned on the words spoken by that Great
Brahmii, this View came into existence in
this world).
(d) No reallzappilleH due to alia
So long as one is not able to get rid
of attii-difthi, although he may become a
Great Brahma who declares himself to be a
Creator God, he will not be able to get out
of the entanglement of piipa-di{{hi etc. that
had already arisen in his life-continuum in
the past existence, th'lt arise in the present
existence and also that will exist in his future
births also; and he will surely be reborn in
the Lower Worlds in his future births.
They are thus the mere of
katzha-plane. just as fishes and
inhabit the great ocean. As they do not
possess 'Eyes of Wisdom" they are the
inhabitants of andhabiila plane.
Those beings whu are reborn at present in
the lower worlds due to their past unwhole-
some kammas, anyone amongst them,
may, in a future become a Great
Brahma who declares himself as Almighty
God, when his past wholesome kammas ripen.
Thus it should be bom.! in mind that, if attii-
ditfhi lie., latent in the life-continua of beings,
they will not be able ;0 find happiness while
wandering in the Round of Rebirths, and will
not be a ble to find an esca:,->e from the samsiira
(Round of Rebirths).
14. Benefits Derived from the Total Destruc-
tion of Attii-DiUhi
(a) No more rebirth in Hell
When the beings are able to eradicate
atta-di!{hi which is the root-cause of papa-
di!{hi etc., these mental phenomena which
had accompanied their life-continua in the
past, accompany in the and would
accomp:ll1y the life-continua of the beings
in future existences, will be totally

They then become the of the whole-
some volitional actions done by them in the
past existence, which are being done in the
present existence, and would be done by them
in the future existence. Once the beings have
expelled attii-ditfhi, all Wrong Views, evil
mental factors and evil kammas which would
lead them to the Lower Worlds will disappear
along with attii-dillhi. They will no more be
reborn in the lower worlds, and will be out
of the grip of the lower worlds in their future
existences. As they will be doing no more
evil actions, they will forever be free from
all evil.
(b) Attainment of Nibbiina
The Full Extinction of Defilements includ-
ing piipa-ditthi etc. and the total extinction
of Evil kammas with the groups of existence
still remaining is called Sa-upadisesa-nibbiina
or the Supramundane Sphere or the Sphere
of the Holy Ones.
(c) No more death
Sa-upadisesa-nibbiina-the state of the
Extinction of Defilements such as piipa-
diUh etc., with the groups of existence still
remaining, never gets spoiled, destroyed or
deteriorates in the world-cycles to come.
This state is permanent and eternal; it
never changes; it never decays; it does not
dissolve; and it does not disappear. This
state has no 'dissolving moment', and so it
is called Amata.
(d) Unoriginatedness
Those who have attained such state of
Extinction of the Defilements and the root-
cause-attii-di!!hi, will find that this state of
Extinction is never destroyed in the future.
Piipa-di{{hi etc. cannot arise in their minds
again. The state of their total abstinnce
from doing Evil that would lead them to the
Lower Worlds will never be destroyed, nor
will it decay. They will no more be reborn.
This state of the Extinction of Defilements
being Amata-dhiitu (the state where there is
no more death or rebirth), it is called
Asankhiita-dhatu - (the Uncreated; the
Unoriginated; Nibbiina).
(e) Planes in which Sotapannas are to arise
Since the time attii-diflhi is extinguished
in the minds of those people who have attain-
ed Sa-upiidisesa-nibbiina, they have passed
the stage of puthujjanas (worldlings) and are
no more within the sphere of worldlings.
They begin to exist in the plane of Holy Ones
and become the inhabitants of that plane.
As they have passed the mundane stage, they
are in the Supra mundane sphere and become
the inhabitants of that sphere.
These people who have eradicated attii-
di!lhi will pass amongst heavenly and human
beings only lIt most seven times more through
the Round of Rebirths and finally attain
(Note - This refers to Sotapannas)
However, there is no number-limit for some
of these people who are reborn or who are to
pass amongst the Brahmas, because they
have become uddhiigiimi-puggalii (beings who
will pass through higher stages).
They may pass amongst the Brahmas for
hundreds, thousands and hundreds of
thousands of existences and world-cycles;
but they will never be reborn in the Lower
Worlds, nor will they pass amongst Devas
and men.
Conditioned by their past and present
wholesome kammas, Holy Ones will
fare-on in the Happy Course of Existence.
In the future also they will only perform
wholesome volitional actions and never
dream of performing unwholesome volitional
actions. Attii-di!!hi which is the root-
cause of piipa-ditthi, piipa-dhamma and
piipa-kamma have been totally extinguished
by them.
These people who have dispelled attii-
diflhi become the heirs of their. present
kammas. They possess wholesome kammas
which will lead them to the Happy Course of
Existence and are bound for that Course only.
As they are endowed with exalted Dhammas,
they become exalted Ones. As they exist in
the sphere where wholesome and pure
kammas abound, they become inhabitants
of that sphere. As they possess the 'Eye
of Wisdom' by means of which they can
realize the Four Noble Truths, they are
Noble Ones. Tn whichever existence they
may wander i_1 the future, they will
be endowed with ariyapanna (Wisdom
pertaining to the Holy Ones) they are
ariyas (Noble. Ones). As they pass the
stage of those puthujjallas who are not
able to dispel attii-ditthi, they become ariyas
the inhabitants of the Supramundane sphere',
During the lifetime of the Omniscient
Buddha, in Savatthi, Banares, Vesali, Raja-
gaha, there were many householders who,
after having dispelled attii-ditfhi became
It is said that Sanankumara, King of
Brahmas once revealed that there had
been a number of Holy Ones.
Those people who became Sotapannas
during the lifetime of the Buddha are now
conspicuously existing in the six Deva planes,
These Sotiipannas, being uddhamsota-puggalii
(persons who are going upwards in the stream
of life) will never be reborn in a Lower plane.
In the ten thousand universes within the
Jiiti-khetta (Realm of Rebirth), there are
decillions and decillions, an incalculable
number, of Ciitumahiiriijika Devas who are
Sotiipallllas. There is also an incalculable
number of Sotapannas in each of the five
other planes of Devas and in the Brahma
planes, such as Brahmaparisajjii plane.
These Sotapannas being uddhagiimi-puggalii
(persons who are going upwards in the
stream of life) will never be reborn in a
Lower plane.
One may question: "Why is soul-belief
the root-cause of evil views, evil thoughts
and evil deeds and why is destruction of
belief the origin of the cessation of these ?
It may be answered in this way: for
example, a certain king has a great attach-
ment to his kingship, pomp and grandeur.
To preserve his kingly status and glory, he
will have to exercise all evil thoughts and
evil deeds in his power. Even a king, if he
has a great attachment to his kingly power
and glory has to protect himself by entertain-
ing all kinds of evil thoughts and performing
aU kinds of evil actions.
Some time later that king sees shortcomings
and blemishes in his kingly duties and glory.
From that time his attachment to his king-
ship diminishes, and he has a great desire to
abdicate his throne and become a
Then he has a mind to keep aloof from all
evil actions that are necessary for the preserv-
ation and protection of his kingly power and
jIOry, ' and henceforth will refrain from per-
. evil actionsJ
time later he will go forth from
life into that of . a samtlna.
a SamD1)a, he deluSively
and body-the five
constituent groups of existence-that . there
is no soul-will have no soul-attachment.
From that moment he will not entertain any
evil thought or commit any evil action, by
means of which he has formerly preserved
'vhat he has considered as his soul and will
preserve himself only by acts of virtue.
He will never deviate from the path of
virtue to protect himself. As a matter of
fact he will sacrifice himself dauntlessly to
preserve the principles of virtue. From the
above analogy it should be understood that
soul-belief is the root cause of all evil and that
destruction of this belief is the origin of the
cessation of evil.
A.tta means 'Self, Ego, Personality, Soul-
essence' ) Anatta means 'Non-Ego, Not-
Self, Atisence of Soul-essence'. The word
anattti is used to convey the foUoVring three
(I) ASQrakatlhena
of being without eaen.ce or sub-
stance it is called f!1'Iiltti;
of not any.."Ownv"I'.oer-
.lonI. it, is.c:alljd
AWl in the ordinary sense means essence
r substance. Those beings who are not
.lblc to discern the momentary arisings and
dissolutions of the physical and mental
phelwlllena of the five constituent groups
of existence and thus not able to realise
the characteristic of {/I/icca (Impermanence)
maintain: "The Corporeality-group is the
and therefore alia of beings; the
is the essence and therefore
alia beings; the Perception-group is the
and therefore G{(ii of beings; the
Fl)rIll:ltk)n-group is the essence and therefore
aWl l)f beings; and the Consciousness-group
is the essence and therefore alta of beings."
This h.i nd of view is known as soul-belief.
Example of a bowl
I shall explain the above with an example.
There are such things as wooden bowl,
cart hen bowl. iron bowl, brass bowl, silver
bowl and gold bowl. A bowl made of wood
has wood as its substance and is called a
wooden bowl; a bowl made of earth has
earth as its substance and is called an earthen
bowl: a bowl made of iron has iron as its
substance and is called an iron bowl; a bowl
made of silver has silver as its substance and
i" called a silver bowl; and a bowl made of
gold has gold as its substance and is called a
gold bowl.
Here, the word 'bowl' is merely the name
by which is indicated a certain pictorial idea
(sant1u'illa-paFiFiatti); and this conventional
term of 'bowl' possesses no essence or sub-
stance as an ultimate thing. Only the con-
ventional terms of 'wood', 'earth', gold' etc.
possess essence or substance (at least for this
purpose). Bv simply hearing the sound
'bowl' one is able to understand the pictorial
idea of a bowl and not its essence orsubstance.
Only when one hears the conventional terms
of 'wood', 'gold' etc. is one able to know the
essence or substance of that bowl.
A question may be asked: "Why is 'wood',
'earth' or 'gold' the essence or substance of
the bowl?"
I shall explain it clearly. In calling a thing
'wooden', 'wood' is the essence or substance
of the pictorial idea of the bowl, and is there-
fore its alia. Without the substance of wood,
the conventional term of 'bowl' cannot exist.
Only a piece of wood that is made in the form
of a bowl called a wooden bowl. This
wooden bowl will last as long as the wood is
durable, and it will be valuable according
to the class of wood. If it is a bowl made of
teak wood, it will be valuable according to
th:: price of teak; if it be made of aloes
wood it will be valuable according to the
price oflhat wood; ifil be made of sandal-
wood il will be valuable according to the value
of sandalwood. As regards the ulility 100,
a teak bowl will be used where it is fit 10 be
used; and so too a bowl made of aloes
wood or sandalwood. As regards the
worthiness too, the teak bowl and the sandal-
wood bowl will be worthy according to their
standards. Thus when wr; say 'the wooden
bowl', the wood is t he essence or su bs! ance
of the bowl. The same principle follows in
the cases of earthen bowl, gold bowl etc.
Similarly a being is composed of the
corporeality-group and has this group as his
essence or substance. What has this group
as its essence or substance is called a
A being is composed of the perception-
group and has this goup as his essence or
substance. What has this group as its essence
or substance is called a being.
A being is comrosed of the mental-forma-
tion-group and has this group as his essencf'
or substance. What has this group as its
essence or substance is called a being.
A being is composed of the consciousness-
group and has this group as his essence cr
substance. What has this group as its essence
or substance is called a being.
In brief, every being is composed of the
five constituent groups of existence and
has them as his essence or substance.
In this analogy a bowl resembles a being
and the substance of a bowl resembles the
five constituent groups of existence which
form the essence or substance of a being.
How attii-di{!hi is formed
Some maintain the following view: "So
long as the five constituent groups of
existence last, do not decay or dissolve,
beings last, do not decay nor dissolve. They
live up to 100 or 1000 years without decav.
death and dissolution, and for such periods
of time the five constituent groups of
existence which are their essence or substance
do not decay nor dissolve." This view is
Some people understand that the essence
or substance of the wooden bowl is wood;
rellliso .. the, manner; The .
state ofexten$jon ' is C()nspicuous " in .a piece
of wood which assumes the shape of a bowl
and these elements of extension are
undoubtedly . the ultimate truth of patlulvi-
(}hat" (the element of extension), and not
'wood' at all. In the same way, the state of
cohesion found conspicuously in that form
or shape is the characteristic of apo-dhatu
(the element of cohesion); the state of heat
or cold found in that shape is the chara-
cteristic of tf'jo-dhiitu (the element of kinetic
energy); and the state of support or motion
found in that shape is the characteristic of
,iiyo-dhiiIU (the element of motion). These
four elements are known as the four great
primaries or the four great essentials (Mahii-
In like manner, the colour of that piece of
wood is (the element of colour): the
smell is called gandlul (the element of smell);
the taste is called rasa (the element of taste);
and nutriment is called oja (the element of
nutril1umt).:. Thus some wise people pene-
trate the truth and realise it.
they have so penetrated the truth,
"Only physical phenomena roll
and if there be no
.. ':IWw. .. -- .-0 there be the. wooden boWl
1(Ifthi1iltiinatO" sense?"

resembleithe \Ie. otio,lIar .. i . '
The corporeal groups
resemble" . the . five cOnstituent
existence. This is the analogy: . i
(As regards the Mentality-group
form. When an object contacts
the body, then consciollsness
disappears immediately. The
sOlii 'the stream of
santly arises and vanishes in the heart.
!.tream of subconsciousness can be t
only when a new object coines irito' contl\it
with it.
Mentality-group has no form hut
santali-pa;,;,atti (concept of continuity):
The continuity of 'seeing'
The continuity of'hearing' is
The continuity of 'smellins'
The cOntinuity' of 'taStma' __ u_.
santati. '\. . ' .
. ' . ' .. :, '''''iIiiJ-
The contanwty of thin .. .
santati andso'on. '.
I','; , , "', . 1 (;.
How PictoNaI

they are not able to realise the momentary
decay and death of these physical and mental
phenomena. They consider tr.ese concepts
of shape and continuity as the essence or
substance of beings and delusively take them
as the atta of beings.
When through Insight-wisdom, people
penetratingly understand the real nature of
Pathavi (elements of extension), the phenom-
ena of Eye-consciousness etc. and realise that
these five constituent groups of existence
are subject to momentary decay, death and
rebirth, it will dawn upon them that these
five constituent groups of existence have
no essence or substance and that they are
very far from being the essence or substance
of beings.
I shall clarify the matter. People think
that beings live for a day, a month, a year, a
hundred years of a thousand years, and that
during those periods there is no such thing
as momentary decay, death and rebirth.
In fact, the physical and mental pheno-
mena contained in the five constituent,
groups of existence which people take as
the essence or substance;. arise and' dissolve
more than one hundred thousand crores *
of times during a wink of the eyelids or the
period occupied by a flash of lightning.
If it be alleged that the Corporeality-
group has atta (essence or substance), the
sensation-group has atta (essence or sub-
stance), the Perception-group has atta
(essence or substance), the Mental-Forma-
tion-group has atta (essence or substance),
the Consciousness-group has atta (essence
or substance), it will mean that beings decay,
die and are reborn through conditions every
moment. Why? Because the essence or
substance of beings are the groups of
existence which are subject to momentary
decay, death and rebirth.
In reality, just as it is not appropriate to
reI v on the rapidly arising-and-vanishing
flashes of lightning and use them as things of
substance, it is also not appropriate to rely
on the momentarily arising-and-vanishing
physical and mental phenomena as things of
substance and to regard them as the essence
or substance of oneself. So the five con-
stituent groups of existence are purely
anatta (without essence or substance).
The meaning of the phrase 'Asamika/thena
anatta' is as follows:-
As these flashes of lightning which do
not last for more than a moment do not
possess any essence, there cannot be any
lord over them, nor can they be one's own.
Just as one can not say that flashes of
lightning are owned by him and so they
are his, one should not say that the physical
and mental phenomena comprising the five
constituent groups of existence belong to
him and are his own, or that one is the over-
lord of these phenomena.
So according to the phrase' Asiimikatthena
anattii', the five constituent groups of
existence are anattii.
I shall expound the phrase' Avasavattanat-
thena anatfli.
As these flashes of lightning do not last
long and do not possess essence, they will not
yield to one's wishes. Just as it is not proper
for one to say that these flashes of lightning
will listen to one's words and that one has
control over them, the physical and mental
phenomena contained in the five consti-
tuent groups of existence being imper-
manent, will not yield to the wishes of any
one. So it is not proper for one to delusively
consider that the five constituent groups
of existence will obey one's orders or that
one has sway over them.
The arising of these flashes of lightning is
due to the relevant causes and conditions, and
has nothing to do with the desire of any
'person', so these flashes of lightning do not
yield to the wishes of anyone. The arising
of the five constituent groups of existence
is due to the causes and conditions which
bring them about and has nothing to do with
the desire of anyone, so these five con-
stituent groups of existenct do not yield
to the wishes of anvbody. Just as it is not
fit to think that these flashes of lightning will
yield to one's wishes, so it is not fit for one
to thin'k that the five constituent groups of
existence yield to one's wishes and to
regard them as one's essence or substance.
So according to the phrase' A lIasal'attanat-
rhenii-anattii', the five constituent groups
* Crore = Ten millions.
Establishl'd in that thev will pass
tlm)\lgh brahm:i-planes world-
('yell'S, l'njoying themsdvsl' as great brahl11iis.
When t11l'Y desire to attain Al/ckc1l11i-magga
(Hoi\' Path of Nl)ll-Returner') they will ,trive
and attain that Holy Path and reach thc third
stage of s;lnctity.
Established in that stage they will pass
through the plane, of brahma for many
world cycles, enjoying themselves as great
When they feel that there is nothing to be
contented with or attached to even in being
great (when they detest being great
brahmas like sputum), they will strive ano.
attain arahatta-magga, the fourth (l.nd final
stage of sanctity and become Arahats. There
they need not further ber; ause they
become khilliisa\'a-dakkhinel'va - arahanta
(Arahats who have extinguished all defile-
ments and are worthy of all alms and
They will remain as Arahats in the fourth
stage of sanctity for many world-cycles; on
death thev will discard the five constituent
groups of existence and attain anupiidisesa
In this connection, the asankhata-nibbiillfl
(Nibbana-the bt'yond of all becoming and
condi1ionality) is called sa-upiidisesa
The reason why it is called sa-upiidisesa
NibbclIl1 is that it is attained while the con-
stituent groups of mel, devas and brahmas
still remain.
'Nibbana without the constituent groups
of existence remaining' or the 'no-more-
continuing of this physico-mental process
of existence' is called anupiidisesa Nibbiina.
These two are not diff'.!rent in principle and
both are aSOl:zkhata (the Uncreated, the
Unoriginated) and amata (deathless).
Animitta-dhamma which has no beginning
nor end, is of one kind only and not two.
Dliring the time also, those
virtuous pef)ple whl> desire to reach the
supra mundane sphere should strive to
estahlish in the rol1uwing five
cilh Is \)r SC/llllllii"ili{ (hi.
(1) Kallllll(/\'sakatci-sammiirli/!hi (Rig,hl
View lilal beings arc the owners or
their own kamma),
(2) Niimarupa - pariggaha - samlrliidi!lhi
(R;ght View arising from full com-
prehension of the characteristics of
the physical and mental phenomena
of existence),
(3) Hetu-paccaya-parit;?gaha - sammaditlu
(Right View arising from full com-
prehension of the root cause and
other causes of the physical and
mental phenomena of existence.
(4) Vipassanii-nii(lG-sammiiditrhi (Right
View arising from perception with
(5) Lokuttarii-magga- phala -sammiidi!!hi
(Right View arising from the
attainment of Holy Paths and
Fruitions thereof).
Of these, Lokuttarii-sammiiditthi is
subdivided into the following:
(1) Sotiipatti-magga - phala - sammiidi{{hi
(Right View arising from Path
of Stream Winner and the Fruition
(2) Sakadiigiimi-magga - phala-sammiidit-
{hi (Right View arising from the
Path of 'Once-Returner' and the
Fruition thereof).
(3) Aniigiimi-magga - phala - sammiidi!{hi
(Right Vi'.!w arising from the Path
of 'Non-Returner' and the Fruition
thereof,) and
(4) Al'ahatta - tnaf!,ga -pha/a - sammad{!hi
(Right View arising fJ'0m the Path
of Arahatta and the Fruition
In the Buddha's Siisana the above four are
consolidated into one. So there are five
kinds of sammiidi!!hi only.
Ever-existing kammassakata
The kammassakata - sammiidifthi has
already been expounded. It exists in innu-
merable universes and world-cycles even
though an Omniscient Buddha does not arise.
Owing to the compicuous existence of this
kammassakata-sammiidiUhi in the world, the
Happy Planes of Existence, namely, the
worlds of men, devas a od brahmas exist.
to-.b,' and Omniscient Buddh<:s-to-be also
exist on account of this kmnmassakatii-
sammiidi! {hi.
Those who have wisdom arising from this
kal11l1lassakatu-salllll1iidillhi are free from all
kinds of Wrong Views:'
It is the 'Great Eye' of the mundane
However, the sOld-belief of those who
merely have this samllliidi!!hi remains intact
and unaffect ed.
(Note.-Atlii-di{{hi (Wrong View of Self,
Ego, Personality), SaHiiya-di!{hi (Personality
belief), .1t1iinudi!!hi (Wrong View following
Personality-belief) and Attal'fidllpiidiina
(Attachment to the Ego-belief) are the same
Dharnma with different names.)
This soul-belief is again subdivided into
four kinds:-
(I) Ati-nl{Jrika-attiidiuhi (Very coarse
(2) 01iirika-atliidi{{hi (Coarse soul-
(3) Sukllllma-attiidi!!hi (Subtle soul-
bel ieL) and
(4) Ati-sllklllll1la-awJdi!!hi (Very subtle
soul-bel icf).
These four degrees of soul -belief should be
eradicated by means of niilllanipa-pariggaha-
sammiidiffhi, hetu-paccaya-SfllllIliiidifflli. vipas-
sanii-nii!w-samll1cJ(/iffhi alld 10k lI:tara-magga-
phala-saml1liidif{hi r.:specti \ely.
Of these salllllliidi{(his Right View arising
from full compr,:hensioll of rcspective chara-
cteristics of the physical and mental pheno-
mena of existence is called
gaha-samllliidiffhi. Right Vicw ari;ing from
full comprehension of the root cause and
other causes of the physical and mental
phenomena, or the Depcndent Originati')11
of these phenomena is called hetll-pacCGya-
pariggaha-sallllniidi!fl1i. Right View arising
from medil:ltion on Imp..:rmancncy (allicca),
Suffering (dl/Hlla) and Impersonality (anattli)
is called l'ipassll.'/{J-';CJ!IlI-t/llsSalll/-SI//lIII/{/lli {{hi.
Knowil:dge arising frol11 the attainmen: of
the Holy Paths and the Fruitions is
called lokuttcmi-lIIl/gga-phtlla-sl//llllliidi(!hi.
These four sammiidinhis can be attainetf
only during the Buddha's Sasana. They
cannot be attained at any other time.
A li-o!iirika-attii-diUhi and di!{hi-visuddhi-
(Very coarse atlii-dirthi versus Wisdom
arising from clearness of view)
Some beings maintain that the five con-
stituent groups of existence are atlii or jiva
(Life, I ndividual, Soul, or Personality).
Some maintain that apart from the five
constituent groups of existence there is a
soul which has sway over them. All those
kinds of delusions are known as ati-u!iirika-
Those who have the niimarupa-patigKaha-
sammiiJit/hi are able to get rid of this false
(Note.-Nlimanipa-pariggha-fiiilJa (Wisdom
arising from rull comprehension of the
of tre physical and J11r11tal
phenomena), niill1arupa - raratthiina - niiIJa
(Wisdom in the physical and
mental phenomena) and dif!hi-risuddhi
(Wisdom arising rrom clearness of view) are
the same. They are mere syno11yms of
With rererence to this Salllflliidillhi it has
been stated in Paramattha-smik/u;pa: "The
self-belief will be disDclled and clearness of
view will arise ir one c;m determine Ndme and
Form (niima-rupa) with rererence to their
respective nature, function, essence,
tendency (or propensity) and basis.)
O/iirika-allii-di!{hi and paccaya-pariggaha-
(Coarse attii-di!fhi and Wisdom arisillg from
full comprehension of the root-cause and
olher causes of the physical alld mental
phenomena of eXistence).
Some people delusive!y maintain that there
is a 'doer or the deeds' ' lnd also 'one \\ ho
takes the consequences'. These
of kiiraka-dif!hi (Wrong View th:lt there is a
doer of deeds) and redl/
,a-t/i!fl1i (there is a
sufferer of consequences) are called coarsc
olt7rik a-at {(J-di! fhi.
Those who have pacca.l'0-pariggaha-.wlII-
miidi!!hi can dispel and
Paccckal-uddha: /1I,/iI'Irilln/ or Si/I'III {sUCUIIlI , is catted .10 Ar.lh.1l who h,\\ rc.lli,cd \\ nhou t
ever in lif\! he.1I I fm n other. 'he Buddlu's dO.; lrme. He docs not possess the to
,proclaim the doct rine to the world.
)'rJn(zlirrhi. They can also dispel alwfuka-
diUhi maintained by those who hold the
'View t)!' the Unc:luscdncss' or exist"nce,
and l'is,lIIli1-ht'lll-di{[hi (misl<lh.en view as to
causes) hc:d by those wh) helieve that th\:!
Supreme Being is the Creator. They arc
also abk to e'terminate S h.inds of Sceptical
Doubt and 16 kinds of In(.;lIcctua\ or Ethical
(Nole.-Paccara - pariggalia - iliilJa and
kall" hiil'itaralla-l'isuddhi-nii/Ja (Wisdom aris-
ing from full comprehension of the root-cause
and other causes of the physical and mental
phenomena of existence and wisdom arising
from purity due 10 all doubts having been
dispelled are the same. They are mere
synonyms of paccaya-pariggaha-samma-
The Venerable Ledi Sayadaw in his
Paramattha-si1likhepa (A short treatise on
the Ultimate Truths) says:-
"If one thoroughly understands the
Dependent Origination of the physical and
mental phenomwa of existence, "he will
attain the knowledge relating to purity rising
over all dJubt dispel!ing 16 kinds of doubt,
8 kinds of :al d;:lUbt :.ll1d various kinds,
of wrong views".
The two kinde of sammii-di{!hi-namanipa
parigf{aha-sammidi! {hi and hetu-p:Jccaya-
sam"Yliditthi are able to root out the coarse
atta-di!!hi which are actually or actively
arising in beings. But they are not able to
root out the subtle that lie latent
in beings, nor are they Hble to root out the
tendency to sceptical d,:mbt.
This proclivity-the subtle soul-belief is
the root-cause or the seed of all Wrong Views.
Sukhurn'l alta-diUhi awl
(Subtle soul-belief and [nsif{hl know/eige
arising from practice of meditation)
When Insight-knowledge has gained
by contemplating on anicca, dukkha and
anatta, the subtle sOlli-belief and sceptical
doubts are extinguished, but the extremely
subtle soul-belief and the latent sceptical
doubts will remain intact.
Atisukhuma-atta-di!!hi and magga-phala-
(Extremely subtle soul-belief and the Wis'lorn
arisin-s/rom the attainment of the Holy Path
and the Fruition thereof)
When the sotapatti-magga-phala-sammadif-
{hi (Insight-knowledge arising from the Path
of Stream Winner and the Fruition thereof)
whieh is the first of the four I,okuttara-
sal/lll1cirliuhi arises, the extremely subtle
alla-di{rlzi and latent sceptical doubts are
When soul-belief and sceptical dOLI bts arc
dispclled completely the evil and mean deeds
that would cause one to arisc in the four
lower worlds or in the woeful course of
existence are also completely extinguished.
From that moment there will permanently
and steadfastly arise in them the 'Eye of
Wisdom' by means of which they can
penetratingly realise the FOLir Noble Truths;
also the 37 'Things pertaining to Enlighten-
ment' will also be permanr:-ntly established
in them. Although they may pass through
the planes of men, devas and brahmas in the
round of rebirths, they will wander as good
and virtuous people who have established
themselves in Right View, Mor:1lity, Concen-
tration and Wisdom, all of which will be
permanent and will neve, be destroyed.
They will always be good and virtuous
people who belong to the higher stages,
enjoying great wealth, glory and having
numerous attendants. They will always be
able to penetrate the Four Noble Truths.
(Note.-This is the exposition of the
benefits of the Buddha's enjoyed by
Sotapannas (Stream Winners) who have
attained the First Holy Path and the Fruition
Example of an iron bowl
I shall give a n example. Suppose a certain
person obtains a substantial iron howl which
is very rusty. He will then strip off the outer
rust by mr:-ans of a chisel and will find the
dark-coloured iron. Again for a second time
he polishes the dark surface of the iron bowl
with oowdered rock and brick-dust, when he
will find the original colour of the iron bowl.
Thirdly, he polishes the remaining impurities
on the surface of the iron b')wl by means
of very fine powdered rock SQ that the surface
of the bowl becomes much brighter. The
iron bowl will be free from the coarse
impurities on the surface.
Although the iron bowl is devoid of the
coarse impurities on the outer surface,
the subtle and the extremely subtle impurities
that lie latent in the inside of the bowl remain
intact, or remain as they were: they do not
. ---- .
The owner of 1.he bow' wi..'ch has be(!n
previoLlslv pO'ishtd on the surface
then soaks It in aCid or ch,;:'nical water
mam limes, and p!jces ,t in ,\ ellcible heated
ttl " 11'gh kIl,pera:ur('; Tlwn thl' sub',,;:
impt..riucs contained I!1 t le iron bo\d 'lre
Dunficd: but the extremel, sui;de iPll)Uril1es
\vhich lie latent in the If(}il do not
disappear and they rcm:iil' ,1\ ,I'ey were,
The bowl b 110t dc\ aid or all impUritIes, If
it comes in contcl"t with conditions w form
new lInpurities, a new layer of impuntIt.5 will
form on the ,urface,
Finallv the owner of that bowl whi 'h has
been somewk'tt purified before, soaks it
again in "very t)OWerflil acid or chemical
. water of a special [,'cipe fa seven days and
nights. and b,,;(es it again in a very great fire
for seven days and seven mghts. Then all
the extremely subtle impurities contained in
the iron bowl become absolutely removed.
From that moment there is no opportunity
for the lmp;.!rilieS to form again in the iron
bowl. The bowl now bc:comes a stainless
bowl posscssmg an ever-brilliant lu:;tre. It
becomes a bowl Which is magl1lflcent and
which is as bniliant as a moon or a sun.

mcnon, \\ hich is prominent amongst the
pi1C110111<?1\:\, which is also a principal
phcn,)m<?lloll, and which is inseparably
aSs('cl:.ttcu with all consciousness.
If develops his menta'l faculti:::s by
concentrating on a fundamentally important
mental (actor, which is inseparably associated
With all consciousness, the otller mental
phenomena will be covered by this contem-
piation, and they need not separatdy C,)i1-
This statement is true. Tn the Nidiina-
I'agga of the salllJufla Nikiiva, the Buddha
declared that if one is able to fully compre-
hend phassa-iihiira (the condition of sense-
contact), he will realise the three kinds or
sensation-agreeable, disagre'::abk indi-
fercnt-anrl will achieve the Goal.
The l3uddh1 also declared that if 0,1':: fuJ:y
comprehends mal1o-sance/aniihiira (the
condition of m..-:nLal volitian), he will realise
the thr;.:e kinds of Craving and achieve the
G,)al; a'\(.1 if one fully comprehend:; viifiiii-
(the condition of consciousness), he
will rc.lIisc Mind and Malter and will achieve
the Goal.*
(The exposition of these three kinds of
elha'a (causes) may bo': taken from the
A'II'ira-dTp.lili' by the late Venerable Ledi
BMl'allel-dJpOIlI thc late Venerable
Ledi Sayadaw.)
In the chapter on Di!lhi-visuddhi in the
Visllddhi-/Jw{j,ga A !!hakalhii the process for
full comprehension of the characteristics
of physical and mental phenomena h'ls been
set out at greal length and in great detail.
But what has been set out there is only for
those who are highiy intelligent and who have
specially gra"pcd the Abhidhamma.
It is not for the beginner in the practice of
This statement is true. The Omniscient
Buddha did not teach in the world of men
this Abhidliall1l11C1 Pila/,a wherein He fully
dealt with such d/7amll1{Js as wholesome
volitional actions, the five constituent
groups of existence etc. He taught this
only to the Devas in the Tavatim<a Deva-
In the world of men. the Omniscient
Burldha declared only such rhysicai and
mentat phenomena as will be suitable to
these beings, and as will enable them
to attain /okuttara-sall7l11e1di!!hi-iiiil)a by con-
templating the same. He did not teach them
all the physical and mental phenomena in
When on( is prosecuting his studies in
Buddhist I iterature, one should understand
In the J{,i/liita(lhiilClllkhaya-slIlIa** also, all the Teachings in the Ahhidhamma Pi/aka.
the Buddha preached to Sakka, KlI1g of Howeve,' when one is contemplating mental
Deva, that if. on::: IS able to comprehend and physical phenomena for the purpose of
vedrll/a (sensalllJn), he IS able to arll1eve th(' acquiring I'ipassallii-iiiil)adassana-sammeidirrhi
Goal. (Right View of anicca, dukkha and anal/a
(Thc c:xposition of I'ce/allii may be takc.21 through Insight-wis,dom), .it is
from Kamma{!!Jc7/la-dlpallf and Allalla- for one to know that IS JI1 the-
r - b th' I:1t..-: Venerable Ledi Abllldhamma PI!aka. One should thJl1k out
(Ipa/ll y -, which Suttanta-method among the methods
Besides, thcre are many other Sutlas where deciared in the Maj;hima-nikiiya and Samyut-
the Btl ddl1a declared the method or ta-nikiiya, is best suited for one's purpose
contemplation bas:::d on just one mental and should try and attain niimarupa-pariggaha
phenomenon. iiiil)a by that method.
In th::: contemplation or physical phenom- In doing so he first get instructions
ena too. ir one COi1templates the Great- from a competent kammarthiina teacher who
Primaries which are conspICUOUS, the. other has already attained niimarupa-pariggaha_
physical phenomena also come wlthl11 the nal)Cl. Otherwise if he simply depends on
of this contemplatIOn. his intellectual power and contemplates
Thc Four Great Primaries have been dealt as he pleases, he may be able to achieve. the
. I . L I 1-11'ln1-dipanf Vi,','ii-lIl1lgga- deSIred gnal only after a very long peflod,
Witl In ClI(/, '.' '-" - b bl 'h' '- 'I 1
1- - (' as"II/wkl-hii- chpal1l and 01 may not e a e to ac, leve llrat goa at al . (ipalll, .JO!1WIl .J >_ " , __
-- S II NkCy' \<1ahi-Vag.,a-Pu'lam'tnala Sutla. Charlha Sang1yani Edn. 322.
* amVlIl, I ,) . ., M h- I h' . kh Ch
** Majjhima Nikaya, Mulapannasa .... Mahayamaka-vagga ...... a a an dsan ya-SUlta. attha
Sangayana Edn. p. 323.
How to acquire paccaya-pariggaha-nalJ
(Knowledge arising from full comprehcnsion
of the root cause and other causes of the
Physical and Mental phenomena of existcnce).
In trying to attain helU-paccaya-pariggaha-
sammaditrhi (Ri ght View arising frllnl full
comprehension of the root cause and other
causes of the physical and mental phenomena
of exi stence), one should contemplate the
following in accorda nce with such texts as
"iihara-sammudaya rapa samudayo" etc.
(1) Because of Nutriment, Material
qualities arise;
(2) Because of Contact, Sensation
(3) Because of Mind and Matter, Con-
sciOllsncsss arises;
(4) Conditioned by the Eye-Base and
the visible object, Eye-conscious-
ness arises;
(5) Mental and physical phenome;1a
arise according to the principle of
Dependt'nt Origination.
How to att ain Insight-Wisdom
In developing one's mental faculties to
attain T nsight-Wisdom. one should con-
template as follows:-
By the cessation or Nutriment, Material
qualities cease;
By the cessalion of Contact, ceases Sen-
salTon ;
By the cessat ion of Kammaformations
ceases Consciousness;
By the cessation of Consciousness, cease
the Mental and Physical pheno-
By the cessation of the Mental anci
Physical phenomena, cease the 6
By the cessation of the 6 Bases, ceases
By the cessation of Contact, ceases
By the cessation of Sensation, ceases
Thus whenever the causes cease, the Gon-
sequences also cease.
According to the Declaration" Yadaniccam,
tam dukkham" a dhamma is really anicca
(Impermanent), is utterly devoid of sukha
(pleasure), and in reality it is dukkha
(Suffering) pure and simple.
According to the Declaration "Yam duk-
kham fadanatla", a dhamma which is Suffer-
ing pure and simple should not be relied on as
atta. This dhamma \,,:hich is Suffering pure
and simple should not be relied on as a
dhamma which can be swayed by one's will.
So it really is anaUa.
(The exposition of Vipassanii-iiiilJadassana
sammiidi!!hi appears in many othcr hooks
written by the Venerable L ~ d i Sayadaw.)
Here ends the exposifion of the five
kinds of sammiidi{rhi.
Here "The Manual of Right Views"
comes to a close. It w a ~ originally written
in pi'ili by the Venerable Ledi Sayadaw and
the Burmese translation of it was carried
out by Ledi Pal)Qita U Maung Gyi, M.A.
at Thaton.
- -
Translated from the Pti!i by
Revised and Edited by
With the residuum translated by
Edited by

1.;" ,
Vol. No. i. (pp. 1- 3)
Vol. IV, No. 3.(Pp. 1.;,13)
Vol. IV. 4, (pp. . 1-14)

.. , . ,r

: ........ rf' ..... iaf.E ..
.... :t1i'''>-'the' nfOre obvious'fluid 6po
.)...... .iJl.:tlPsJD.Uhat liquid. . ..'
. . (Ii) The form of opo denotes, as
hJlS been said, moisture in organic form, such
!rin an IInwithered tree or an undried body.
'({ii) .The "ftuid", such as waters and juices,
if obvious. . Whatever conglomerates in the
least atoms, all are impossible without the
function of cohesion. It has therefore been
said that iipo is primarily the variable internal
cohesion. of solids, fire and air.
. By the third <!ssential quality "Tejo" we
understand either (i) that constant element of
heat, adaptable and pliant, which as "hot"
and "cold" functions in solids, etc., as that
which generates and as that which brings to
maturity; or (ii) glowing heat, or (iii) flaming
heat. It is due to the action of this element
that all material things when they have
reached maturity are reproduced, and make
for growth or for maintenance.
By the fourth essential quality "Vayo" we
understand either (i) that constant element of
mobility, adaptable and pliant, which func-
tions as ftuctuation (or osciIIation) in solids,
etc; or (ii) compressed or tense atmosphere;
or (iii) atmosphere in motion:-for instance
air in a pair of bellows and air inhaled and
exhaled. The mobile element (;) constitutes
the element of force, of resistance in co-
existent essential forms ; bence all material
tbiJ\ss . ' " through this force and resisting power
out their functions.
, . Fbrthermore, all these elements, whilst
ilf*sjlting under the stated conditions, in-
.... in magnitude when there is an efficient
_ ..... 10r hlcrease and decrease in magnitude
otIIere is'aR efficient cause for decrease
.. ..-mllIYsvch a causearise ?In the case '
_ ... 1dIt the c:ohesive element may obtain
;anct die solid substanee be.n to
., J .. the case-of water, heat may pow':
... ".1, ., "', ..
_ .
.... ", .. " ..
.... ;

primal of heat is Just utu. Conversely,
as we . have said above, ulu is the primal form
of fire; Now to return to the "CaloriC
Order." .
The Cal6ric Otder ik the fiXed process that
determines the four-fold succession of evolu-
tion, continuance, revolution (i.e. dissolu-
tion), and void of the universe. It is the
process that determines the ordered
succ.!ssion of the three seasons-winter,
summer and rains... It is again the same
process that determines the specific season
in which tr.:es, creepers, shrubs and grasses
bring forth flowers and bear fruit. And ail
this order has been made and created by DO
"maker" whatever whether human, celestial;
or divine. Inasmuch as it is accomplished
entirely by the fixed (or natural) order that we
know as "utu", it is called
Caloric Order. Thus we read in the I'IHi
texts: .. There comes, Vasettha, a time,
when, sooner or later, after the lapse of ,
long. long period the world-system passes
away. . . . In the course of time, Vasettha.
the radiance of those celestial beings vanishes.
Their 'self-radiance' having thus vanished, the
moon, sun, planets and .stars come into
existence : nights, days, mOlldts, half-months,
and the year with its seasons appear, etc.
b,e .of the rose-apple species, type or family.
1111$ (,\.planation ,applies t9 all trees, creepers,
shrubs and grasses. too, is not made,
nor created by any Maker whatever. '. Inas-
much as it is accomplished entirely by the
fhed or natural order that we know as
germinal. it is called Bija-niyama or Germinal
Order. Thus we read in the Pali-texts :-
.. There are, Bhikkhus, five classes of seeds,
namely, those which are propagated from
roots, from stems, from joints, from shoots* ,
and from the seed proper. ** "
The subject is treated in detail in the com-
ment:uy on the Vinaya, in the section devoted
to behaviour towards plant-life.
(3) The Moral Order.- Kamma (action)
is that by which men execute deeds, good or
evil, meritorious or the opposite. What is
it? It is volition (cetana), moral or immoral.
We are told in the Pali texts: " By Action,
Bhikkhus, L mean volition. It is through
having willed that a man does something in
the form of deed, speech or thought." ***
Here volition (or conation) is the act of
willing (voluntary, or conative action). In
carrying something, good or bad, meritorious
or the opposite, into effect:' it deliberates and
decides upon the steps to be taken, as the
leader of all the mental functi ons involved in
so doing. It provides the tension of those
functions towards the desired object.
The expression "as the leader of all "
implies that in doing its own works,
as well as the works of all the other
psychic processes involved, volition
becomes the chief and supreme leader
in the sense that it informs all the rest.
Volition, as such, brings other psy-
chical activities to tend in one direc-
tion. This is the explanation of our
statement: " Kamma is that by which
men execute deeds."
It should, however, be borne in mind that
the conative process informs other psychical
processes only in the case of one's own works,
not in the case of the works of others.
Accordingly, the latter cannot be brought
within the definition of "volition as the act of
willing". Hence B's actions cannot be called
A's kamma, since there is as much difference
between voluntary and non-voluntary actions
as there is between a goat and a sheep.
* " Lit. from the top" ( agga).
** Samyutta-Nikaya, iii. p. 54.
Voluntary action alone is entitled to the
name. And therefore was it said: "By
karrma Bhikkhus, 1 mean volition."
In all acts the word kamma denotes (a) that
which all deeds have in common, and (b) a
disposition to exertion. And once well form-
ed in the present, through either a good
deed, or again through a bad deed, such a
disposition serves later to call forth the co-
existent aggregates (psycho-physical states),
when the deed is repeated. It is due to the
reawakening of those aggregates that a man
is said, e.g. to be liberal, or given to violent
deeds. In its persistence this disposition
serves to produce the factor that leads to
the concatenation of existence by way of
rebirth in a life to come. It is due to the
origination of such a factor that a man, hav-
ing bestowed gifts or killed living beings, is
reborn into a state of bliss or of woe. This
sort of disposition is therefore described in the
Mahapatthana as the relation of co-existent
kammas, and ,again, of kammas at different
points of time.
The distinctive basis in different lines of
actions **** is attended with great con-
sequences. Once made and established, in one
place and at one time, it continues to be the
cause of some peculiarity with regard to the
body or mind or both. For this reason,
perseverance in reflection upon the order of
things, or, in worldly matters,
in reflection upon such bases, yields great
fruit and reward.
Of the various forms of such bases, two are
attended with greater consequences in their
adjustment and re-adjustment than in. their
natural order. Of these, one is the conative
basis of subjective experience and the other
is the caloric basis (utu) in things external.
As to subjective experience, the variety in
conative tendency is accountable for the
variety in consciousness. As to external life,
the difference in variety of utu is accountable
for the difference in mobility.
By the Moral Order we mean the necessary,
fixed, undesirable result in an evil action, the
necessary, fixed desirable result of a good
action. The course of evil action results in
rebirth into a state of woe. The way of meri-
torious deeds belonging to the realm of
" Rupa " (Form Sphere) leads to rebirth into
*** Anguttara-Nikaya, iii 415 (VI. 6, "Mahavagga Nibbedhika ".
**** Dhatuvikatinam dhatuvikaro nama. On vikaro; cf. Compendium; Pali Index.

Here the expression "The act of killing
life makes a being short-lived"
" implies 'that when a man has once
," .. . killed a human being. or a being of
,! 1 lower order. the act of killing
,. furnishes the cause of his rebirth
. in various ways into a state of
:.'.' : suffering. During the period when
he returns to the state of man,
" the same act as "life killing factor"
makes him short-lived in many
'. . thousands of rebirths. This is
the explanation of the statement :
c. t : " The act of killing life makes a man
,m. .. ; short-lived". The explanation of
!': . the rest is analogous. In many
')::.) "') ,hundreds of other Suttas. various
. " -:. . instances of fixed moral conse
, quences are to be found. Such is
'.Wi the MoraJ Order.
;.-e. itt the P!li texts: ,, " There is no
...... Bbikkhus, no' room (in the conception
drilte1fr(bral order of for a bad action
;: desirable, agreeable ." and
'0 '
.. . 6dbees two kiridfof result:
tfl (inbvltable): that which
'ona'\ ' Here!' '-tbeorder

If;: JWItcn We 'come
. j 4i_d . . '.
. . -'.
Men i ted

". .
aftbr 'c:leatlvdte9. .. . .
ail the more; . SUcIi .
(4) The ,
Th06ght (ella) . .
(the act 'of 'thinldng)j " tt
cognises , an 'object .. '
investigates or 'a8 .
more, thought is, figuratw-ely, "' cililkf '
"varied" owing to. tlhevarying- , fo ... <:rof
thinking of objeets;.
said in the Piili texts: .. I see" Bhikkh1$.:boJ
other thing which is so very varied:qlS
Thought (mind). I see; Bhikkhus, 'ne
group (nikiiya) which is so as .bel.
of a lower order (beasts, birds;etc.) _!
beings of lower older varied only ""
But thought is
to be still more varied than those .
Thought becomes Illore'variecf with' re'gai'dJ
to immoral things than to such as.are moi'al.
It is said .. mind delights in .evil" ' .' n.
beings of lower order . that' are . made.
created by mind are therefore more varied'
than all other beings. . How is that ;1." .h .
said in the Piili texts:" I will
o Bhikkhus. how the world. originates;; ancL
how it ceases. .What is the originatio,nM:
the world. 0 Bhikkhus1 the
eye and objects arises visuill .'1Q,inJtion.
This triad is called of
contact, feeling; because ,Qf,feeling.gaving,
etc. Such is the origination
of ill. Condi40ned:, by, :tjIi pp.,and
obJects ........... by the. Jlos,e ..
tongue ......... by the .... .
,by . "
arIses. mmd-cognlttQIl.,,.;this
Because " . .
feeling, craving,etc.'. i"
of tqe entire, bOdy
iswtiaf' is <:;tlled
:>" '" ' 1', J
,,"h,';f' () .1:n.)1
' '!I .

f feeling. craving, etc.
mplete cessation of that
raving. grasping censes; because of the
sation of grasping, becoming ceases, etc.
uch is the cessation of the entire body
f ill, So with regard to ear and other
.. .:nses. This. 0 Bhikkus, is what is called
the cessation of the world ... *
Here the expression .. conditioned by the
eye and objects arises the visual cognition,
etc ", indicates that in this w.orld the con-
sciousness and thought-procedure of foolish
average folk varv from moment to moment
and become thC' cause of their rebirth in
ditTerent forms of future existence. Admit-
ting this. it will be found that the different
f,)rms of their future existence arc made and
created -by the mind in their present life.
BeCluse of the variation of consciousness,
per.::eption varies. Because of the variation
of their natural desire varies
and because this varies, action (kamma)
varies. Some maintain also that because
kamma varies. the rebirths in the animal
kingdom vary.
Now the phenomena, termed in the
philosophic truth kamma and mind,
become in conventional standards of
truth** "soul" (or" being") and" person".
According to the latter, just as men by
manifold thoughts make divers and mani-
fold things in this world, and just as gods*"
by manifold thoughts create divers and
manifold things, so actions (kammiini) and
the results of actions, diversified by thought,
are endowed with various forms of thinking,
as if t hey were "beings" and "persons".
Hence although neither action nor mind
has the nature of Atman,****who, it is asked,
knows how to rna ke ? who is able to make ?
" Beings", "persons": they know, they
can make all things. But whether there
is any special Being or person making the
infinitely varied world-picture or not it is
impossible for them to say.
By Psychical Order we mean the fixity or
law of the consequences of thoughts or
consciousnesses, varying in function and
in occasion. It is treated of in the Pauhiina
.. Samyutta-Nikiiya, iv 87 .
in the chapter . on .. the Relatioll of
Succession Or Sequence". ***"'*
(5) Nalllrat Phenomenal Sequence (clhamma-
niyama).- A dhamn/a is that which hears
(dhiirC'ti) its own nature, ('.g. its own
to the touch, its specific, individual mark as
well as its universal characters. namely,
growth, decay, dissolution, etc. The IJ/wf1lmas,
categorised under the causal relation "h::ar"
the function of that relation, and tbose cate-
gorised under "effect" "bear" t he function of
the result or eflcct. This meaning ,:pplies to
all dhammas as treated of in the Sut:anta and
the Abhidhamma P'takas. It also embraces
the things enumerated in the Vinaya Pitaka
under the name "the body of precepts"
(sflakkhandha). Why ? Because they are
not outside the given definition of dhammas.
The principal treatment of the order oi
these dhammas and of all other dlzammas
is in the text of the Mahapatthana.
Among the Suttanta texts, the whole of the
Mahanidana-Suttanta, and of the Nidana-
Samyutta is devoted to the Dhamma-Niyama,
so, too, as all other Suttantas which ihrow
light on the conception of cause and effect.
In one Sutta this Niyama is referred to as
"the establishing, the fixity of things as
effects" (dhammatthitata dhammalliycimalii):
"Because of ignorance comes Kamma:-
'now whether, 0 Bhikkhus, Tathagatas arise,
or whether they do not arise, this element
(dhiitu) stands, namely, the establishment of
dhamma as effects. the fixity of dftamlllGS as
effects. Because .of kamllla . . .. and so on
(through all the links of thc causal
formula). ****u It is also referred to in the
dictum: " All conditioned things (sankharas)
are impermanent, full of ills, and of the
nature of 'not self ...... " ",,"'It"''''*
In some passages, this Niyama is called
dhammatii. "Il is dhatl/maf7-the rule, or
order-Bhikkhus, that when a Bodhis:1t
(future Buddha) having fallen from the
Tusita-group, enters into a mother's womb,
a splendid radiance appears throughoHt the
world, including the worlds of gods and
Brahmas .... and the thousand world-systems
tremble and shudder and quake .. ,,********
." Cf. Exposition". .
.. ,. .. Deva; it must be remembered, include all (all of them impermanent) inhabiting either the
heavens as " God", angels. gods, or this earth as "fairies. etc ...
.... u AWl, Self. implies superphenomenal nature. Cf.
Anattalakkha"a-Sutta, Vinaya Texts, i. IOOf.-Ed.
***** This is included in the Tika Patthiina.
* .. **** Samyutta-Nikllya, ii. 2S; cf. Points of Controversy. 87, 383f.
******* Theragllthil (Psalms of the Brethren) ver, 676-678.
*hUU* Dlgha-NiUya, ii. 12 (Dialogues, ii. 9). Dhammata is the abstract noun formed rrom the ':"n,Tetc
.. dhamma .. as if we say" normlOSS ". cr. Pss. of the Brethren. p. 29, n2. 190 ,'II:.
', ;
'Q " ., . .a.;tt e 0ppoSJte:
, " i'i)ie" Bh'i
" 11 .0 a 9()nditioned thing in
. of sOmethjng eternal. Such a thing
.. '" -.-: - " .
can ,t,l9P come to pass, etc.
'liut the character of the Dhamma-Niy4ma
is best summarised in the formula:-
't, When that exists, this comes to be. From
the arising of that, this arises. When that
does not exist, this does not come to be,
When that ceases, then this ceases, ..
Or again- "These, Bhikkhus, are the
three characteristics of a conditioned thing ;
perceivable is its growth, perceivable is its
decay, perceivable is its changing whilst it
lasts. These, Bhikkhus, are the three charac-
teristics of the unconditioned : growth is not
perceivable, decay is not perceivable, chang-
ing and duration is not perceivable."
It is the dhamma of birth that is born, the
dMmma of decay that grows old, the dhamma
of dying that dies. And herein is another
Niy4ma : that of birth. For it is said in the
Pili texts :-
.. Then : '0 Vasenha' said the Exalted
To both of you will I discourse upon
The question of the breeds of living
In due course, e'en as it really is.
By breed, in sooth, differ mutually.
Grasses and trees ye know; albeit ye may
not '
Discern it, birth-made is of each the type.
By breed, in sooth, they differ mutually
.-,-' ..
birlb alid,tItlMIIlJiIift-.

tM false.nodoll!
by. only), he. ' _
among the multitudes,d( hlbdlN. t>1ft1lidi
efforts, are wrought by
merely by birth), and finally;.4 "
ideal Brahmin. Komma ',is sao .. ill',
Sutta as the criterion of the , inferioritJ qjt.
excellence of beings. It is kamma that ....
guishes beings with respect 10 wonb. Out-i
ward appearance is due to breed-variety,.
the parents. Born of bovine breed, one. ,.
the bovine shape and appearance '; similiuiy
as to horses. Hence in the Birth-Niylma a
different procedure is called for when.treating
of animals (paf;Ul) as distinct from higher
beings (satta).
(Dve saccini)
Our task here is to define the two categories
under which all truths may be included :-:-
(I) The Conventional (Sammuti); and (2) the
Philosophic (paramottha) standard..
(1) Conventional Truths.-By this is meant
a truth or fact, generally received as such by
the common consent of mankind. What are
the modes of conventional expressio'Dll"
These are "self", "soul", "being", "person",
woman, man, body, head, hand, leg. h84'. of
the head, down on the body, nails, teeth, skin,
ftesh, nerves, sinews, bone, etc.; the IiameS of
such objec.ts as tree,
house, chanot, carnage, bed, seat, etc. '
None of these are ,names of
existent" dhammos (facts, attrL.,
butes) as mind, contact, ellte_n,
etc. They are all names Whi , ch
as connote only SOlDO pbysical . .
and ita persistence, as such. TbeIi " .
an<\. tboir connol,ation,
a lAIbIlIL:
of, . IOJl.YeIltioDll,
COIDlDQll UIO. : vi:. .
'. ,,-, "!of"
What constitutes the achievement or
prcliicJtlOn of Conventional Truth? "The
is (c\.ists)"; "the living soul is"; " a being
IS" ; thc person is" ; etc. By adopting
such words in comlllon use a man becomes
a conventional truth-speaker. And these
are to be regarded as a correct mode of stating
such truth. Why? Because otherwise con-
stant disputes would result from want of a
common language and common notions.
This is what is termed "Conventional
Truth ".
(2) Philosophic Truth.- This is a fact or
truth recognised from the philosophic
point of view. What are the modes of
philosophic expression? These are: "mind,".
"mental factor" "m:ltter" "Nibbana"
"aggregates", "elements:',
and so on.
These are not merely common or collective
names, but imply something which really as
such (sabhiivato), exists. These are called
the modes of "highest' \ or "ultimate matters",
inasmuch as any import beyond that which
they possess is inconceivable.
What constitutes the achievement or
predication of philosophic truth? "Con-
sciousness exists" ; "contact exists" ; "feeling
exists" ; "extended quality exi sts" ; "cohe-
sion exists" ; "Nibbana exists"; and so on.
By expressing things as they exist in reality,
a man is a Truth-speaker. * Such speech is
also to be regarded as a correct mode of
stating truth. Why? Because it helps us to
avoid falling into the errors of recognition,
sense-consciousness and illusory opinions.
This is what is termed "Philosophic Truth".
It should be noted in this connexion that
"Conventional Truth" provides a safeguard
against falsehood, and "Philosophic Truth"
guards against hallucination. Thus when a
man, from, the conventional point of view,
states, "The self, the soul, the being, the person
exists", etc., he is. not to be considered
as uttering falsehoods, whether the import
of what he affirms is really true or not, whether
it rests upon valid speculation or self. **
Why? Because, in such a case, there is no
fraudulent motive. But it comes within the
province of hallucinations. Why? Because in
these cases the things that are of the nature
of" not self" are taken as of" self". and
stated as such. From the philosophical
point of view there is nothing of "self".
There are only dhammas. And none
of these is of the nature of "self". They
are, on the contrary, of the nature of "not-
self", etc. And when a man speaks like
this his words show neither falsehood nor
hallucination. So we read in the Pali texts :
"These, Bhikkhus, are the four cases of hallu-
cination. What are the four? The. imper-
manen t is taken as permanent." This is the
first floint involved in hallucinations of reco-
gnition, sense-consciousness and illusory
opinion. "That which is ill is taken as weal.
That which is not -self is taken as self. The
ugly and offensive is taken as beautiful
and beneficial." These are the remaining
three cases of the hallucinations of recogni-
tion, sense-consciousness and illusory
Here the expression "The Impermanent"
implies the psychical and physical
facts and conditions that are summed
up in the term "name-and-form", ***
and which are by nature impermanent.
The expression "that which is ill"
implies the facts of common experience
that are categorised under the "Truth
regarding Ill." The expression "the
not-self" implies all that which is of
the nature of "not-self". And the
expression "the ugly and offensive"
implieS the psycho-physical conditions
that fall under "the Truth regarding
IJI" and are, therefore a fortiori
considered to be "ugly and offensive".
By viewing "name and form" in the light
of "being", "person", a man takes what is
impermanent as permanent. Why? Because
"being" or "person" is nothing but a concept.
And a concept, as we know, has not the
atrribute of passing away or moving about.
On the other hand, when it is said that a
being, on coming into a form of existence, is
himself born, that at the end of life he himself
dies, that even before he took on to himself
the present form of existence, he had come
from this or that form of first existence, and
that after death he would be re-born into this
or that form of future existence, it shows that
the being is viewed as engaged in "going".
.. - ... _------------
* Saccaviidi, applied par excellence to the Buddha. Cf. Pss. of the Sisters, 121 n I, and elsewhere.
** Atta, Sanskrit at man. On the implications in this term, see Exposition I.
*** Approximately equal in sense to mind and body.-Ed.
,"} - l ;
'li!e '. .'
y ...... ' ...... .. , ... .
'" means '8.
: ," IS fixed a "lie
',,' li.hit:..(:E)gnitioni-
' 8teb/$Iahr-a:fomn; :contem_tes it,' in
."'4IflaWng. IWORutllvlr;JaacI,a
, ", .i1$iathariot; a istbe
. . "

. ." . , suclrtln etoor from
,: error
, .
r"-. __ ' -'," '.
> :4' ;1.")1'-'- -': .
. ""
'. t;j .... :.
',1 U ., a '
' '" ,,'.,;, " \'
ij .' . '.'. !(tffei:r. IJ, . &om ,' ,':*': , ,
iltlAllJiotie " ' Ftba,. '," 4",, , ' i ' . "
" ". ,ve_ " . ,," I, '

e shall nQW ,system of the
five time-periods called. kappas. They _ are
distinguished as (1)a great kappa, a cycle' or
aeon; (2) anincplculable kappa, four goiq.g
tQ each great kappa; , (3) anincluded kapia,
falling within Qneaf the prt:<ceding; (4) a
life-kappa, or one life-span of any given
being; and (5) acatac1ysm-kappa, or age of
(I) A "great kappa". - This is a notion
of a given time histQrically cut off, so to
speak, and divided intQ some periods in: which
many events happen (in a certain order, and
which repeat themselves). It would follow
from this that a "great kappa" is but a notion
.of time itself. To a kappa as such is given
the name "great" on the ground of its
having been conceived as , the greatest in
duration. H.oW long, then, is the durati.on
of a great kappa?
In order to f.orm an idea of its duration,
let us imagine a m.ountain, which is a single
cube of rock. OGe league * in length, in
breadth; and in height. If a person were to
flick it with a piece .of cloth once at the lapse
.of every hundred years, the time that such a
mQuntain would \ :require to Qe c.ompletely
worn away would not be so long in duration
as is a greaCJcappa; "'., -
How)don.g-;in . duration bas been .the
succession of great kappas 111 Jhe past ?
It is ' said .irL the "Undetel'mined,
BbikkAus, is .'the: beginning. of . ' wp,rld,:
the , fpubbakoti) to 'tpe
_ under the
'Hete' the Pili word for "tifldet""""",
anomota,' which is the sameastPtf#dtb', i1l&
syllable on being euphonic; Amato mealB'IhMt
which is unknown, unascertained. ' So' i.,..
said: "the past extremity" (or begi'nn1si8')'iI;
not ascertainable by calculatiQn: Or,' .t /mly
perhaps mean that which, like the "eelWrtgg-
ling" of the Sophists, ...... sets' itself
In turning back to the proposition - .. the
past extremity ... .is not manifest," it 'is
indeed suggested that here the words, "is not
manifest" mean "does not exist" in the same
way as, in the passage, "If there be, Ananda,
no birth, are old age and death manifested?
Verily they are not, venerable sir"; *"'*
the word "manifest" means "exist", and
"not manifest" means "does not exist".
Whether the one or the other be meant, we
may conclude that the proposition "the past
extremity .... is not manifest," means that the
past extremity as to the succession of great
kappas in general d.oes not exist, while taking
a kappa in particular, this may be said to have
its beginning, its middle, and its end.
Those who fancy that there was actually a
past extremity to the succession of all great
kappas in general have certainly no other
reason f.or it than their own fanciful thinking.
Those who reject the Ariyan mode pf inter-
pretation cafIed "The Theory of Causation,"
commit themselves to the error of the assump-
tion the uncaused, or to that of Theism.
So much as to the nature and extent ofa
great kappa.
(2) IncalcUlable Epochs.-- Such is the name
of a kappa that is not capable of being defirti-
tively enumerated, en\lmeratcd _ even ' by
taking hundreds of thousands of yearsas :a
unit. . These are _ kinds :-
(i.) TheEnveloping Epoch;
(ii.) The

,'; .. ,,- :.
:... "f""
.; \_> .,l"
/".' : ..... : .,:.

(.5) 0/ [)OOIiI or ('(/1(/('/1'.1'111. In till'
\\"rld happen 'at tillll'S thnt
human :Ind disasters.
\'1' thrl'c' kinds: war. :Ind
\\ l' in our te,ts: . 1\
Br,dl'\1:1n ",lid t\, thl' Bk.""d One: ') havc
II \cnerdhk Ciotama. of the
Br:lhm;\ns of \)Itl. of teachers, and thc
"f teachers. that in Conner days this
\\orld W,ls .... penaded by men: \vithin
. the tlil!ht of a cock.' ,,\ere situated the
\ inhahited districts, and the royal
c:ll'iwls. No", what is the cause, what is the
reason that. at the present time, the
of men have dwindled, so that their
paucity in numbers is apparent. and that
villages appear to be no villages, towns
appear to be no towns, and inhabited
countries appear to be uninhabited?'
. The Blessed One said: 'Now Brahman,
bc:catlse men arc attached to immoral
p:1ssions. overpowered by lawless greed, and
victims to false ideals. they with sharp
weapons kill one another. This verily is the
cause. this is the reason why the numbers of
men nave now dwindled: so that their
paucity in numbers is apparent. And fur-
thermore. Brahman, for them who are grown
morally debauched, the sky does not pour
down su fficient rain. the result of which
is the outbreak of famine, on account of
which man) people die.
" And yet again, Brahman, for men who
are grown morally debauched the Yakkhas
let loose ferocious non-human pests, in
consequence of which many people die.' ,,*
Here the e"rression "within the flight of a
cock" signified that villages and towns were
so closely connected lhat cocks might leap
from the boundary of one and alight near that
of another.... "Vic,ims to false ideals"
means lhat they have given themselves up to
false idcals and ceremonies, by which are
meant covetol'sness, ill-will. as well as various
sacrifices accompanied with the slaughter of
"Many people die" implicd that. at times,
in consequence of some matter of administra-
tion. or from atrocities perpetrated by thieves,
l;tC .. a commotion arises in the country,
many people lose their lives, many properties
and means of sustenance arc destroyed, and
many villages, districts, towns and royal
capitals . i'e all th"l account burnt by fire.
Ard this of fear arises sometimes every
three years, sOl11etimes every five or six
somt.:limes every ten or twelve years. lhell
comes a time when war breaks out between
one country and another. betwecn o Ill:
kingdom and another. and many people die
in consquence. This is called a "doom-era"
of anarchy and war.
"The Yakkhas" meant the commanding
beings, placed by the four great rulers of the
four cardinal points as commanders of such
bcings. "The ferocious" meant wicked,
savage, non-human beings, devils and goblins
of terrestrial, aquatic and ethereal origins.
"In consequence of which many people
die" means that the non-human pests, having
got the opportunity came upon the walks of
man in many hundreds and thousands, from
seas or forests. They having caused many
diseases to prevail and to seize upon the
living bodies, devoured fat and blood .
Hence they are designated as "blood-sucking"
and "blood-thirsty". If they failed to seize
upon men, they were said to devour fat and
blood of cows and buffaloes, goats and sheep.
When this kind of pestilence prevailed once
in a country. it prevailed there even for six or
seven years, causing enormous mortality
among the young in men and beasts. The
remedies llsed for such a pestilence were the
potent formulas of spells and incantations,
or offerings to the Yakkhas. In this
connection might be cited the story of
Sakabodhiraja of Ceylon, in the book of
the Gn'a t Chronicle. **
This is called the doomful period of pesti-
lence. Many other types of eras of doom
also appear in this world. We have been
taught, for instance, that ill former days,
through demoniac agency, the kingdoms of
Dandaka, Majjha. Kalinga and Miitanga
ceased to be kingdoms. Even in these days.
in countries, towns and villages. where
destruction of life goes on on a large scale,
many creatures meet with death from great
earthquakes or from great tidal waves. or
from hurricanes, from floods of rain. from
volcanic eruptions, from shipwrecks.
When do these three eras of disaster
mainly come to pass? From the time when
the life-span of men is five hundred years.
We read in the Cakkavatti Sutta :***" Upon
men who live to an age of five hundred years,
Bhikkhus, three things come to full
florescence: unrighteous passions. Ia\\ less
greed and false ideals. "
" iii, 56, or vol. i., 159 f ** The Mahavamsa P.T.S. t ranslation, p. 260 r.
*,.. Digha-Nikaya, iii., 70
'i, -:::"0' .
.'. ,:, :);
'r ....... ,i .. "

.. ,. '''''''''' ." .. ,
- ."j > ,
J \ .
' ,";.,

for .leaCntpg.
'tbet follow that in his case there
is:, $)50 . perform by: virtue of his
S\iperior intellect . . ' If ' this is so, it should
be inferred that, in his religion, the
functions,of teaching and of intellect are far
to '
Concerning this statement, that by virtue
of his superiority in supernormal faculty a
man is capable of doing all possible good to
the world-- 'is capable' means of course
a public, well-attested capacity, visible at any
time no less than moon or sun in the sky.
Otherwise the foolish person who draws
conclusions from the loud-voiced professions
of impostors gaining their living by such
cunning and crafty talk, will in the end find
himself sprawling in empty space under the
delusion that he is on broad earth. But
superiority of intellect can be absolutely
relied upon, and he who, in great and
profound matters, does not seck it is foolish
both by nature and in the eyes of (he world.
The range of iddhi
By iddhi we understand supernormal
faculties developed by special exercises. In
ancient days, when life was long, recluses and
brahmans outside the pale of Buddhism
reckoned five kinds ;-- (i.) supernormal
will-power (iddhividhiibhinnii).. (iL) hype-
raesthesia of sight; (iii.) hyperaesthesia of
hearing; (iv.) discerning the thought of
another (thought-rea.ding, telepathy); (v.)
hypermnesia, or reminiscence of one's own
past history. These five, together with the
insight' known as, the conviction of one's
sC;lf, being free from the four "intoxicants"
are recognised among
Buddha as six kinds of
faCUlties as such.
powers . of ...
events that '
hundreds of birt
envelopment and
world system.
While going above, below t;r
thus began to observe: '
this manner, in a !>ingle momeotNlj
measured so many leagues; '.
various configurations al'!d
the systems of the world, in
cosmic epoch w9uld become _........ .
realised through this the
sensual desires. they .
beC<lme dwellers in the woOds,
meanwhile such things as meditation :on
nature of material things and eu'tivafion
the divine Brahma-life-of good-will,
passion. appreciation and
which a man can attain to the Brahma-world
and mastered five supernormal powcri.
From that time on they had nothing
to do for themselves. At this stage thINl
while living in this world, sought for
hundreds. many thousands, many ,hundreds
of thousands of years to do good to lhe world ..
In so doing there would be revealed to them
very many kinds of various arls and
As to these recluses and Brahmans we
told in Ihe BrahmajaIa-sutta.:
are some recluses and Brahmans whd
rise with regard to what was before the'
of time, and who speculate on wha't
after the aeons of time,etc.'
we can see that their speculati'on
come into the mnge of their
Hence u" to a matter within the
idtiM thei( knowledge. al)d not
men was to be regarded
And 'it was the of
to 'eol}lpte\1end tl1ose':. PoiIlJJto>
by .
It . IS smd IiI
d'iUhi - 'Ttlc're

ba\%g'rltud 'ttilAmw.,,-' t.t.,lfllll1U
4i. ..

. 11 .... .... Bllftom 1his'. txtensive
Oloon, sun and stars,
whoJeteaJm df spaCe, and
worJd'oftrccs; etc; -under:.
1hecause of prosperity and
stRl!l.Bittg::that of 'adversity. It is then
that-Ute: life-span,. -beauty and ' health of men,
in .... living in both of these worlds,
undergo C:liminution.
'owadays . 'men . and trees appear
But we are told, in the
in the days of longevity.
was eighty cubits in
fo the Sixth Book of
- the' height was ninety cubits.
11te DlUin'imikavagga ** tells us that in ancient
of the Kingdom of
ti,.,'Ku'rus Kaa Ii banyan tree, named Suppa-
i t\ltt!IVeo i1eagues in circ:uirifetehce; its
thought and
how; the
fhDU,' st, 'be.' bOrnC' ,lD . ', : ' : ,' ,afkdiriHtti". ' ,', .
' ..
'Ii "

bee" ......
of past Iive.c;. as, ' such are
each realm of bemgs having Its/qwn .supei-
n()rmal powers. . ..
As regards the supernormal , powers of; the
Brahma-gods we are informed/ tin the S4ii..:
khlirupapatti-sutta, **.** of the: presence bB
one thousand to ten thousand Brahmas : that'
of these, one thousand Brahmas permeate
one thousand world-systems with , their
radiance, two thousand Brahmas permeate
two thousand world-systems, ' ahd so on.
These are the Mahabrahmas living on the
plane of the first stage of Jhana-rapture. Now
the gods and men who live beneath this plane
imagine and recognise this or that MaM-
brahma to be the maker of the whole world,
the lord of the whole world, omnipresent,
immutable. eternal saviour of the world. It
is said in the MOla-pal:u)asa, ****** the first
sutta of the Majjhima-nikaya: 'He ( i.e., an
ordinary thinker who is not familiar with the
Ariyan mode of thinking) apprehends
, as Having
as Brahma, he fancies
hini ' to' Brahm.a, conceives attributes
ie.' the ', Brlili,mil" , fan'cies :tnat , the :wQrld .is
jthe BrFlhRji.
fl,04 tile such!
is ,the.

) " ........ . ... ldAId,...
" f l ...... r. ... ie::,',t.ijid1i'"
.. ) ,
" ,m\thc,twQrld; ' ,. (c) Ilc:cording
: opinions, thinking: '" He
a.,: e --uniiliangeable, immutable eternal,
, for ever. '
'he conceives attributes
'implies that he conceives such
. light, such and such splendour,
ijaCh.-.and such supernatural powers in him.
Tht; ,eXpression 'he fancies that the world is
from the Brahma' signifies that he thinks that
this world is born of, i.e" emanates from, this
Brahtriii, comes into existence only in relation
to him. The expression 'imagines that the
Brahma is his' implies that he considers the
Brabma to be . our master, lord, and refuge.
'Extols the Brahma as such' means that he
praises him by saying, 'Ah! how majestic
is he! Ah J how powerful is he ! ' The
expression 'Because this matter is not truly
understood by him' means that it is not
discerned by the threefold mode of disc,erning:
In the first place he does not investigate
it in the light of such an axiom of
knowledge as the Brahmii as such does not
exist, the only existing things are the psychical
and physical facts and conditions classed as
name-and-form '. I n the second place
he does not investigate the matter by the
light of higher reason. which judges the
psychical and physical facts and conditions
as such are by nature impermanent, involve
iUs, and are accordingly not of the nature of
$QuI or deity.
NevertheleSs . these r:eaIly com-
mon, speaking to ali beings. For
all beings, during their 'continual journey in
this endless series of lives, . may travel frem
the nethermost purgatories to the topmost
scale of existence, through all those that are
intermediate. They may attain then to the
state of gods. to that of Sakka. Brahmis,
Mahiibrahmiis, and so on. Again from this
highest scale they may be reborn into .the
states of woe. He who is today the King of
Gods, or a Brahmii, endowed with majestic
powers, may become tomorrow a dog or a
hog. and so o'n in rotation.
Other results of kamllla not within the
range of thought are such as C(lme into effect
among infra-human Besides, in the
bodies of men and of the brute creation there
are physical conditions of the sense-faculties.
resulting from past kammas. These, too, are
of a nature not within the range of thought.
For when in the case of a dead body, or a
dead organ of sense, a man thinks I will
bring it to life again ! he only runs the risk
of losing his reason, or of ruining his health
by his thoughts and efforts. And why?
Because he is striving against the inexorable
working of another's past deeds.
In the Mahlivagga-Samyutta, in the section
dealing with the Four Truths, the ten
tive views, maintaining . that the world
eternal, that it is not .eternal. and so forth,
called technicallt
cI"ttJ). ' B\lt,hcre '!Ie teipa
to be 'fo'Clf\'d -' , . '. . . .
name. .. L.
reQft:iW ly' ".l::t) . .
__ lI '
. . orid.thought ;'J
. flloughlof anothe,:
iYlYLSce; . the,
. . powers of will," a
vanous feats of super-
as ftoating through the
. 1heliitter is manifold, viz., root-
I. : .. C'a .. ' nta.torY., nUmerical . and metallic.
if fc)ot-:c:'ult is that which is rendered
. .... through medicinal roots; the incan-
cult is that which is brought into play
tlitough formulas of spells ; the numerical
cUlt is.ttiatwhich is brought into play through
eight and' nine series of numbers; and the
metaflic cult is that which is brought into
pJay- by means of metals like iron and mer-
cury. And in the Patisambhidiimagga we
read: 'What are the feats of magic?
A magician having recited his spells exhibits
an elephant, a horse, a chariot, infantry. and
various arrays of the army in the sky ,in the
firmament.' In the Upali-sutta of the Maj-
jhtma-pa!J1)3Sa we read; 'What do you
think, . householder? Is a recluse or a
Brahman, who is endowed with supernormal
faculty and has obtained mastery over will,
able to reduce Nalanda to ashes by a single
curse? He is able, venerable sir. '
Here the clause 'who is endowed with
supernormal faculty' means one who is said
tOt be gifted with synergic iddhi applied to
th()ught about the external world.
'Among the four matters not within the
range of the powers of a Buddha
stand highest in rank, iddhi proper comes
, and the supernormal faculties born of
t:Jlo')'csillt of kamma come last. This being
__ e'iAhose who are in the higher worlds
I;. -' ' . ";\VI .'th .. s.u.pernorm .. al faculties of the
.. 0{ kammo, wht;ther they are kmgs of
as the
.. . . .,rulcn of the world, become in the
. ; o(mcJLattendilDts to Buddhas or their
,majestic of
: AD4" tbe same.' 1$ the
.' a11.4: B. s W.'. h. 0 :


_.' .fj" .... 'Y:.Fi w
AmOng 'wit<:ncra :t .. ,'1'"
' ':,' ;':r . ,
. t, ".'
I I ."
messengers' t(HM - , - .
verypowerful. iThey
gods, demons,go'bfins, :*
Men who have $upem8:ffirltri.-.
sometimes in our own'" cHUh,ffIiIiII;I' 1II1Ii
They repair to a forest. and
regularly the occult :formulas:,.anci .
themselves for days and ahHfAl!'"
success, many begin to tour in v"
tMy: '\'. ' .,,'
Instantaneous rehef to thosewhd, ari'!iUQaiiiI
come to them for help, TheyaJio :eJdM
many other feats of wonderfuLmasicPfa\rd
account for this or that fateful :event in!
life of men. But the rulers probibit"'ftiM:
occlilt practices, fearing lest they
rise to violent commotions in the country..l
Here we expound oursystem of the-. worW
under three headings,
(I) Physical Universe, ; .(
(2) Things, and
(3) Being (i.e., Person).
(I) By Physical Unive.;se 'is '
world conceived inspatiil
loka),-as in' wlJicb ' t'hii\ ' ;'1, " ..
beings have their eiCJsterlce.ThpSl ... :\.
earth IS
brutes, apd thlOgs , .ui . t#. . \
purgatory is the "' it
regards infernal beings. n-' (! ' ., .
great earth; the
mou.ntains. *-:
roudwJHeh: seveJl . sU-.a ' '
__ -

1k_ ..... .. lI'i ... , . I' ..... 1
temted:' ;'" .
,!J'here are also three other kinds of world-
(1) Ten-thousand-world system.
which is called the Realm of Existence (joti-
1cIiItla) and it means the Realm in which
ihe Buddhas appear and all the Devas
\ Btahmis therein form the audience of the
, 'Buddhas, (2) Great-thousand-world-system
which is called the Realm of Influence
(.l(ldkhetta) and it means the Realm where
the influence of the Parittas and the Bud-
dhas pervade, and all the Devas and Brahmas
therein accept it, (3) Infinite-world-system
which is called the Realm of Object (Visaya-
khetta) and it means the one which serves
as the object of the Knowledge of the
There are three others also, (I) Sensual
Plane (Kamadhotu), (2) Material Plane (Rapa-
dhiilu), (3) Immaterial Plane (Arapadhiitu).
The first comprises eleven Realms of Kama-
the second sixteen of Rapa, and the third four
of Ariipa.
world of Space and the
are both included among .
Things. But the things when classified
tinctly and separately under the .Iliunes
Realm and Creature have special
assigned to them, such as the 'Worid
Space', and the 'World of Creatures:.
We shall now explain the mode of existence
(san/hiti) in the physical universe. Accord-
ing to our theory, earth rests OR water beneath
it, water rests on air. and air rests on optll
space (aja/iikosa). This open space is infinite
below and on all sides. It is filled with air
without motion, which supports the grea'
volume of air (atmosphere) above it ; 'this
supports in its turn the great volume ofwabir.;.
and that supports this great earth. ' It is saicl-
in the text: This great earth, Ananda;,is
established on water, water is establishecl.oJ).'
air, air on space. A time
when a mighty wind blow".
causes commotion in the
waters being in commotion
quake' (Digha-Nikiiya ii.
(sitil-Icjo) also thL' saille
III t And it is IlOW not
tl.) s;ly anything 0(" the hot-Ihcrm
(lI{dw-tt:io). It is quite clear.
As it IS said 1\\ thc DIIIlI/II//(/.wlligul/[ in the
dmptcr tvtlller: That which is Ihe
!!ro\\ Ih of sphercs is !1c\elopmcnt of
mailer. alld that which is the development of
mailer Is the of the same.' Birth
may be classilied into four birth,
growth. development and continuum. Of
these. birth means the first appearance of the
things. Gro\\th means the first
tart of dcvelopment of appearing things.
Development mcans the gradual extension of
the developing things. Continuum * means
the continuance of the developed and
accumulated things. That is to say things
continue in such quantity as they have
developed and they neither increase nor
decrease. After that, these matters, together
with the element of fermenting heat (jiraIJa-
tejo) which causes the coexistent things to
decay, gradually diminish at the stage of
decay and disappear away at the final stage
of death. 0
The world is considered by us as a system
or order in which everything happens accord-
ing to the laws of causality **. Because the
great earth is being all the time heated, burnt,
decayed, and matured by the twofold coexis-
tent heat [ [ have elsewhere rendered it as
cold-therm (sita-tejo) and hot-therm (uIJha-
tejo),] it cannot overcome the six stages.
i.e., birth, growth, development, continuum,
decay, and death. So with the Mount Sineru,
the circumjaeent mountains, etc. Therefore
in the Developed Epoch, all the earth, moun-
tains etc. that come into being and appearance
pass gradually from the beginning through the
four stages, i.e. birth, growth, development
and continuum. That is to say, they rise,
grow, develop and continue for a long time
till at last they arrive at the stage of decay in
which the influence of all the heat will over-
rule all others. From that time onwards
all the unessential things among them will at
first be destroyed and the essential ones
alone will remain. Then even the essentials
will be consumed in the long run of process
and only the fllore essential will remain.
Thus continuing for an indefinite time, every-
thing will at last arrive at the most extreme
point of degree at which combustion may
* It is bettcr known as "inertia" in Physics.
eaSily plaee like gUll the
mUllition or till: klllg\ army, wllicil apt 10
cOlllbust at the sudden cOlltacl with :1 IoJlark
of fire. '1 hell tllis De\cloped J-pol'h will he
destroyed by till! acllon of' flrl! in llie manncr
said 111 the Satta SGriya Sultant".l hl!re it is
said: Just bhikkhus, there nl) Irace
of ash nor of carbon pereepllbk, after
the butter or the oil is burnt up, so also there,
bhikkhus, will no trace of ash nor of c<Jrbon
be discernible after the earth and Sineru. the
king of have been burnt ' up.
Thus, bhikhus, all the cOllditionl!d things arc
inconsistent und ullstable. It is advisahle.
bhik khus, to be disgusted with all the condi-
tioned things , it is expedient to detach them,
and it is suitable to break free of them. Here,
who would know, who would believe that
this great earth and Sineru , the king of
mountains will be burnt up. will be destroyed,
will relapse into void, except those who have
realised Nibbiina ? '
It is said that the flames of the burning
fire reach as far as the realms of Brahma.
This world-destructive fire burns up every-
thing that exists between the mass of \\ater
below and the first realm of ilziina above.
without leaving asingle atom of things behind.
When the rock-earth (sela-pathmi) is burnt
up there in its place only remain the caloric
energies (ulu-dhiilU)'O) which \\ ill again
become the germinal status of the rock-earth.
Similarly when the dust-eanh(palilsu-pathori)
is burnt up there also remain the caloric
energies which will again become the germiml
status of the dust-earth. So the caloric
energies which arc the remaining d) namics of
fire fill lip the whole sphere. And the fire
itself is entirely extinguished away. It is the
Enveloping Epoch. And the one that con-
tinues in an enveloping state as has been just
explained, is called the Elneloped Epoch.
The duration of each of these Epochs is equal
to that of sixty four Included Eras (an tara-
kappa). What has been now said is the
exposition of the twofold Enveloping Epochs.
In the second epoch. these caloric energies
are carried about by the cxcessl\ely cold
atmosphere and they remain in such condi-
tion as they have been. But when they arrive
at the matured, proficient. and adaptabk
state for re-action, that is to say become
hot, then they transform into rollilig clouds
laying in great heaps and \olumcs. After
** Dhammatii, i.e., dhamma-niyamo. The Manoratha-piiraQi (Buddhaghosa's Commentary on til.: Angul-
tara-NikAya) explains the latter term.
IP . iil the
cool air, generally
And the water thus
into the infinite space
is going to support
enough to do so.
as the air below is capable to do
at once checks the fall of water and
it. All the rain-water becomes
in the establishment of the new
epoch. That is to say they form into
CQnstituents of the universe such as rock, dust,
water, etc. All these things occur according
to the laws of caloric process (utu-niyiima)
and are not created by any World-Lord.
During the establishment of the constituents
of the universe, the natural phenomenal
process (dhamma-niyiimo) plays an important
part. By natural phenomenal process we
mean the proportionate and disproportionate
procedures (sama-dhiiralJa) and (visama-
dhiira1;la) of the elements of extension, etc.
And again proportionate procedure should
be understood as the natural process and
disproportionate procedure as the unnatural
process. Hence when the natural process
goes on, the proportionate procedure takes
place, and if the unnatural cause happens,
the procedure becomes disproportional.
Among the forms also, roundness is the
natural form. Therefore through the
proportionate procedure of elements, all the
constituents of the universe establish in the
round-about shape as if they were
manufactured from machines. The great
earth, the great ocean, the circumjacent
iliduntains, Sineru, the central mountain, the
g1!1Cial oceans (sita-samuddii) and sitanlarika
"-''''--'-- in the hollows of mountains) and the
. ranges (paribhanda-pabbata) all
atabIithin the round-about shapes. It
of natural phenomenal
tional while . evil-mindednessis t:lqp!:.o-
ltY"n:gbemgs ,as
soble of the 'banyan tree" IS propOltional'anCl
the reverse 'should be underStood in the
way. It is also the same way with all . .the
trees, stems, branches, small branches,
sprouts, leaves and fruits. In fact, all the.
infinite varieties of forms, etc. which appear
in the world owe their causes entirely to the
variation of elements. 'To have a full under-
standing of these procedures is within the
province of the knowledge of infinite and
various elements, of the Omniscient Ones.
Those who do not know the various functions
of elements look for the World-Lords. In
fact there are no other World-Lords but
elements and the word 'World-Lord' is
merely the outcome of their fancy.
Now to return to our subject, among the
caloric germs, some densely accumulated
ones become rolls of cloud, other finely
accumulated ones become volumes of water
their respective places. And through the
influence ofkamma of all creatures, there at
the inception of the universe appear uninhabi-
ted abodes and celestial mansions for
both men and devas, and also lunar mansions,
such as the mansions of the Moon and Sun.
In the higher abodes of de vas and in the
first Jhana planes there also appear uninhabi-
ted abodes and mansions for devas and
Here, the word "Suiiiiiilli" means having
no owners, and the owners only
come down from the higher planes
of Brahmas after they have spent
their life-terms there, and tHey
occupy abodes earned by their past
deeds. It is said in the Text: In
such period, bhikkhus, and for
such immeasurable length of time,
the world develops. And while ii is
developing, uninhabited mansion
for Brabmas are established'.
11I,t1itics (citta-('t:IiI.I'ika) known as norm
whkh bl.'lllngs nnly to the \\\lrld or beings, arc
lamed, mental. l'killellts. ('hey arc very
I't,w('lIul. 'lllllltllll11S and thrillinl!,' and the
lln\...llllWablc springs from them.
\l1d at tik' time whl'n men's life-span falls
tll a the inilliences or th-: good deeds
,iOIlL' by till' p('opk who arc at the
t'lltbrl\\\... (he world-destrovin" wars
I'cn'<llk the \\ Ihlk world and raise
again to the innumerahle age.
In the passage"Through the influence of
\...all1nu of all the creatures," by
"\...alllll1a" it includes all the good
deeds performed during the whole
el1\ cloping Epoch in order to reach
the higher planes by all the creatures
who arc frightened at the destruc-
tion of the world, and alsl)
all those good deeds performed
during the two innumerable kappas
by t hose who are reborn in tile
Brahll1a planes. Therefore 'one
should not think as to how the
formation and establishment of
those abodes and mansions are
brought about. *
These celestial mansions are made of, and
decorated with, all kinds of gems but they are
as light as the bodies of the celestial beings
(opapti!ika-salla) and situated on the motion-
less (lir like the heaps of cloud in the sky.
The mansions of the Moon and Sun and
some other lunar mansions, howe\ 'er, move
about. How? There are two currents of wind
in the sh. The one from Mount Sineru and
its surrounding mountains blows out and
the other from the circumjacent mountains
blows in. These two currents of wind,
coming into contact, form a great whirlwind
and turn incessantly round Mount Sineru
very swiftly, keeping it on the right. The
lunar mansions are seen moving about as
they are carried away by these encircling
winds. ** Some of them arc light and some are
lighter. Therefore slowness and swiftness of
their llIovements arc observed. The force of
the two currents arc proportional at one time
and dispropOition:t1 at another, ;111(1 we
obserw till! dilTcn;nt C(IlIlSeS in which the
mansions arc carried away b;I(;I;ward and
forward by the encircling winds. S,lllle (If
the plancts and of the celestial
devas situated bdow the course of thl; wind
do lIot move. What has been !>poken of is the
developing epoch.
From the appearancc of the sLin aild moon
to the beginning of the enveloping epoch is
the fourth incalculable developed epoch and
its duration may calculated as equal to
that of the sixty-four included eras. So
much for the exposition on the two
constructive epochs.
[n this fOLirth develop<.:d epoch of the four
incalculable ones, the gre:ller is the \astness of
the world-stuffs. the more \vill be the violence
of the world-destructive-fire in the first enve-
I,)ping epoch. And the greater is the violence
of the world-destructive-fire, the more
will be the immensity of caloric-stuffs in
the second enveloped epoch. And the more
is the immensity or the caloric-stuffs, the
greater will be the voluminousness of rain-
water in the third developing epoch. Again,
the more is the voluminousness of rain-water,
the greater will be the vastness of the world-
stuffs in the fourth developed epoch. fndeed
it goes O'n for ever in the sa me manner.
Without a known beginning, and without
end, the world or physical universe continues
the same whether World-Lords appear or
not. Not made, not created by any such,
not even a hundred, not even a thousand,
not even a hundred thousand World-Lords
would be able to remove it. By the law of
heat, by the hi,,'" of natural causation, the
order of the physical universe is maintained.
The Organic World of Things. By this
are implied trees, etc. The vegetablc life is
broadly distinguished into seedlings and
growing plants. Here "bijagww" is the
collective term of all the trees which are in the
stage of secdlings, and "hhlilagallla" is the
collective term of all the trees \\ hich h:\\ I."
passed the stage of seedlings and arrived at
the fully grown stage. Just as \\'1." ha\'c said
Ledi Sayadaw intends to indicate the reinstatem:nt of the dcvdoping Epoch or the reorganilation of the
new world with abodes of men and marvdlous mansions for by two causes, i.e .. , material calise and efficient
cause. By the former m'!ans the material or stufTout of which the world or the world of things That
is the primitive matter known as calonc germs or utu.. And by the latter hc thl! force or agent through
which the material phenomena arc put together In val'lous and nhlrvcllous sh'lrcs, forms, ,Ind Sl/es. That is the
mental force known as action or will or kamma. For instance, in the case or a hou,e, th..: iron and bricks
of which it is built up arc the material cause: and the carpenter who tk,i'ln\ and bllilds it, is the drlL'ic'llt callSt'.
Now the wood, etc. arc comparable to material cause of world is constituted and the caq'cntcr
to the mental force, the elIlcH:nt cause by which It IS deSigned. Tr,
.* The expanding Univcrse.
kamma is
of the diversity of
mma. the genus of the animal kingdom is
; and so it may also be maintained
account of the diversities of
and kammas of the
species of the seedlings are
on account of the diversity of
the seedlings. the species of all
trees arc diverse. In the case
the actual result (lI1ukhya-phala)
nredominallt. but here in the case of
s the complementary
result (Ilisallda-phala) is predominant.
The term seed or germ (bija). in its ordinary
popular sense. implies various seeds--roots,
and the resto-as described before. In the
higher sense. however. seed or germ is to be
n:garded as a form of heat--caloric energy
(ufll). If this is so, a mango-stone, which, in
th;: former sense, is called a seed-proper,
cannot. in the latter s<?nse. constitute the
whole sc:;d. For in that olle mango-stollc
then: arc these eight component elements
(qualities primary and secondary): extension,
cohesion. heat. motion. colour, odour.
taste. and nutrition. Of these, heat carries
out the gaminating function. Hence it alone
is radically entitled to the name of seed or
germ. The remaining seven clements are
compkmentary to heat: they do not directly
perform the germinating function.
1\.-Ioreo\'er, the form of heat (or caloric
energY--/i1l1) which is specified ahove as seed
or germ, is the same heat or energy in kind as
that which is considered to be the germinat-
ing factor of the universe of n given period
of time-an aeon. The germinal energy of
seed could not bring its germinating function
into play at the enveloping and enveloped
epoch as it does not get any stimulus. but at
the developed epoeh it gets stimulus from
earth and water and brings forth its germinat-
ing function. Therefore, as there are
only asexual people of apparitionill rebirth
so long as there is no sex distinction among
the world of men, so also there arc no specie
of seedlings and plants so long as the five
kinds of seeds do not appear. but they remain
latent in the state of mere germs in the earth
and water. And afterwards jambu-tree
water. At that time the volumes c
which fall down from the realm of Brahml.
first of all form themselves into rock-earth,
Mount Sineru, surrounding mountains,
circumjacent Mountains, and Himalayan
Mountains, the other places are coverej:! with
water. And then, after a lapse of very long
time. the flavorsome earth becomes hard.
coarse and in-esculent. Then
forms a layer of earth (bhumi-papa[ika).
So it is said. 'when the flavorsome earth
disappears, a la)er of earth deposits it:;elf'.
This is the inception of earth. Ere long this
layer of earth becomes hard and coarse and
unsuitable for eating. Then from among the
germs of seedlings and plants, sweet creepers
(padiilalii), rice. and paddy plants germinate.
After that many different 5pecies of grass,
trees, creepers. and shrubs are propagated
from the germs. Later, when time on
and evil thoughts and bad behaviour increase,
the essence, the sap. the taste and the nutri-
tive properties in the trees dry up ap.d vanish
one after ap.other. At that time the elements
of germs conglomerate in their respective
species. Thus the root-germs conglomerate
in roots, and 50 on. From that time onwards.
those trees which germinate from roots. grow
only from roots and so with the resl. The
functioning of the Caloric Order, Germinal
Order, and Natural Phenomenal Order
by way of proportional and di'proportional.
upon the etc .. have he en already men-
tioned in the foregoing pages. Here end
the exposition on the world l'f things.
The World' of Beings (slltta-!oka). To
understand the nature of life of a Sflua-a
heing. person. indi\'idual--is an e:<ceedingly
dcep and difficult task. It lies nt the basis. at
the bottom of nil philosophic:tl speculations.
We shall approach it from the two standard
of truth: the convcntional sammll1i) and the
philosophic (paroIllCltlha) .
"Nature ad lifo" : In tho author'. orlal"al Pdll pavltti '; II staple term in tho d:
Buddhism. mean"'. on-rolllni. or procedure.
leeSec:tlon 11., "ortbeTwo Scaoclarda of Truth" p. 6 or vol. IV, No. I.
" By 'continuity in time,
t..generally!lundei:'stood .. the continued ,life
from one form of existence
into another. But 'since this being is a mere
concept of" oqr mind, we cannot ascribe to
the theinodes of physical
O,pgination and cessatiori. On the other
hand, ' ntind ;and:, matter, ;as real facts, can
be concewoo'as springinginto existence, and
; .
, A. is said, from the , conventional
slandpoint, 'tO.,bp born, to decay, to die, to
faU from ,oIte , $tate of and to be
into .Taken in: this sense,
a ,<!unngh)s.\wholelife-term,
. ....
"'", '

Sit'HifttrJrfY-b'y J'!a'f beirig;'Uis fmpljed, ,...
sorB iftdiVidti&t
'eOIlSCiousnessl amil\i'iite'Ulf.:
this exists, and 'persisw.nioi
this is, adinittecll aail\' UlWi
frori1:' the' coriVertt.jonalpoint In:;
thlth,;hbwever; such a being is 'not .rectigJized,'
daes . not exist. Only mental and
phenomena exist. And they do not . persist
in a series of transmigrations. They, are
perpetually dissolving, now here; now: there...
Yet here again between the "exist"and-:. tJl<i
"does not exist" there is no real antagonism.
How is this? Because of the distinction drawn
between a being (conventional view) and a.
phenomenal compound of mind and matter
(philosophical view).
If by adhering to the belief that a being
persists in transmigration, we hold that mind
and matter do the same, then this is eternalist
error (sassatadi!lhi). And if by adhering
to the belief that mind and matter do not
persist in transmigration, but break up
and dissolve, now here, now there, we come
to ' hold that a being does the same, this is
the annihilationist error (ucchedadi!!hi) ***,
To maintain the eternalist view is to shut the
gate of Nibbana, How so? Because if
mind and matter transmigrate. then it is to
be inferred that transmigration itself is
eternal. And to maintain the annihilationist
view is to shut the gate of heaven. How so?
Because the working out of Kamma is
thereby suspended, ' Moreover both of
those, views maintain that the living
personality is a soul. And since the soul-
theory is at the root of all false opinions,
we, find ourselves lodged at that root .
WJterefote. avoiding those two extreme
:' llnd adopting the distinction' in
s. ..... p' .. qjll.J.S ..' d. e.scnbed ab. ov . e, let u. s st!l . n. d.
. gateway: to heaven and to
" fina1 Release. . .' . ,'. , ' '
" - ': " .;
" .' . , two Truths, the coming into' being
, j}gs be spoken of by ' wfj,Y
,.' -,.,. 'i.'
... ,. . .... r1llA_
in the world of Brahma (i.e. the first realm
of Brahmii) and in the six abodes of Devas
are established. beings generally from the
realm of Ahhassara come down to be reborn
in these places. Here some one would
say, 'Why are they generally reborn in the
lower stages? As they have been there in
the Abhassara Brahma-Loka for so long is
it not convenient to them to cultivate higher
Jhanas and ascend generally the higher realms
of Brahma ?' Thus it should be replied:
In the Samacitta-Sulta, Anguttara-Nikaya,
vol. II, it is said that there are two kinds of
beings, namely, a being with internal fetters,
and a being with external fetters. Here the
internal fetters are five in number: delusion
of self (sakkaya-diUhi), doubt (I'icikiccha),
adhesion totheefficacy of rites and ceremonies
(silabbataparamiisa), sensual desire (kamac-
chanda), and ill feeling (vyapada). They are
also called downward-lending-fetters (01'0111-
bhagiya). The external fetters are also five
in number: desire to be reborn ill the Ritpa-
loka (ruparaga), desire to be reborn in the
Arupaloka (aruparaga), pride (/IIClna), quiver-
ing of thought (uddhacca), and nescience
(aviUa). These are also ealled upward-
tending-fetters (uddhambhiigiya). Here
"internal"' means the Klima/oka, and "exter-
nal" means the Brahmaloka. Why are they
so called? It is because nearly all the beings
are reborn in the Kamaloka and \ery seldom
do beings take rebirth in the Brahma/oka.
And where there rebirth is most there lust
for various objects is in great swarms.
Therefore Kama/oka is called "internal" of
all the ordinary folks. Brahmaloka should
be understood in the opposite way. In fact,
all these beings are pleased with, gratified
upon, and in, the pleasurable things
which are full to .the brim in the Kamaloka,
while there are none at all in the Brahmaloka.
Why do they all get to the Brahmaloka ?
Because there is no abode at all below that
when the world is destroyed. However,
through the agitation of the downward-
tending-fetters which have not yet been shat-
tered, the beings in the Brahmaloka are
always inclining to be back to Kamaloka.
For instance, when a town is disturbed and
attacked, the people of the town take refuge
in a big forest and stay there till peace is
restored. Now the big forest is a very
pleasant place, without any danger, and full
of shade and water. But the people are
always inclilJing to return to their town and
they are not one moment happy however
pleasant be the forest. Thus should be
understood here also. Therefore the beings
in the Brahmaloka descend generally to the
Kamaloka when the world re-establishes.
When they are reborn as men in the
Kamaloka their rebirth is at first apparitional.
They are like the Brahmas. Everything is
fulfilled at the instance of their wishes. They
live at first upon j hanic interest (jhiinapfti ).
Their bodies are luminous and brilliant.
They live and walk in the sky. Their life-
span is an incalculable one. And the rest.
such as the decreasing and increasing of their
life-span etc. should be understood as is
said in the Aggaiiiia and Cakkaratti suttas.
From the standpoint of ultimate, or
philosophic truth the order (or procedure,
para({i) in the world of rational individuals
(sutra) is by way of causal genesis. Hence
we state the law of that order in terms of the
formula called Causal G'.!nesis (literally
: pa/icca-samup-
pada):-B('cause of ignorance, actions;
because of actions, consciousness; becallse of
consciousness. mind-and-body; because of
mind-and-body, the six (senses
and objects); because of the six sense-spheres,
contact; because of contact, feeling; because
of feeling, craving; because of craving,
clinging; because of clinging, becoming;
because of becoming, birth; because of birth,
decay, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain,
misery, and despair. This is the genetic
process of the entire body of ill.
(1) Ignorance, nescience (a-vijja). Let us
here take the positive form, knowledge, first.
Knowledge is cognising, knowing. Knowing
what? The knowable. What is the know-
able? Facts (called truth). What is tr'Jth,
or fact? That which holds good at all times,
and is a fact (lit., has come to be), which is
"thus" which is not "not-thus," is not other-
wise and not self-contradictory, is called
Truth. How many aspects (vidha) of truth
are there? There are four :-the Fact itself,
its Cause, its Cessation, the Means to its
Cessation. For example, in the Four Noble
Truths concerning Suffering or III :-The
Noble Fact of 111, the Noble Fact of the Cause
(or Genesis) of !II, of the Cessation of Ill, of
the Means (or Path) leading to the Cessation
of III. "Noble" truth here is equivalent to
immoveable (acha/a) truth.
Now, what is the fact of Ill? In the Pa!i
we are told that the five aggregates, or the six
organs of sonse are synonymous with the fact
of J II. ** But why should the matter-group
be comprised under the Noble Fact of III ?
Well, are not the factors of the body, even
though the body be an angel's or a god's,
subject eventually to birth, decay, death,
sorrow, mourning, pain, misery, and despair?
Now this quality "subject to birth" includes
liability to (re-) birth in purgatory, or as a
beast, or in such evil planes of life as those of
Petas or Asuras. It includes the being
involved again and again in passions, in
wrong-doing, in diseases and infirmities.
Hence rebirth in any material shape is a state
of perpetual peril and liability to suffering.
The second Noble Truth is described as the
Cause, or Origin of Ill. Here by the word
origin (samudaya) is implied, that which gives
rise to, or develops Ill. What is that?
Craving (ta1Jha, orR unregenerate desire).
Whoso does not put away sllch desires begets
and fosters all the ills characterising the life
of a mental and bodily organism.
The fact of the cessation of III is kno'.'.n as
the third Noble Truth. We conceive cessation
as two-fold, namely, the cessation of what has
already arisen, and the cessation of what has
not yet arisen. When we include under
cessation the cessation of cravings not yet
actual, we are really referring to ills that are
not yet felt, since cravings are their cause or
root. Hence the task of making to cease is
immediately concerned with cravings, not
with suffering. And by cessation we mean
not temporary removal, but final non-
reappearance. Of two men who each cut
down a poisonous tree, only he Who cuts
away the root ensures the impossibility of
In the fourth Noble Truth, again, the means
or course referred to is in reality the Path
.. -_.-.-- .. _---_._- -------
* No etymology is here intended. It is simply a method of ancient edifying exegesis.-Etf.
** E.g. Samyutta, iii., p. 23 f.; iv., 2, .. etc.
(NOTE: Editorial footnotes are, unless otherWise stated, thr)sc of the ori&inaJ editor.)
leading to the cessation of Craving, and thus
of III ; of those ills, namely, associated, as we
saw, with mental and bodily organic life.
Doctrinally, the Path generally denotes the
Noble Eight-fold Path which consists of
Right View, Right Resolve, Right Speech,
Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right
EfTort, Right Contemplation, and Right
These fall into three groups: insight,
cOllcentrative practice, and moral conduct.
Under insight come Right View and Right
Resolve; in the moral group are Right
Speech, Right Action, and Right Livelihood;
and in the concentration-group' are Right
EfTort, Right Contemplation and Right
It is worthy of note that by the Path we
understand, from another point of view, the
carrying out of the act of comprehension
(pariniiii). The work of comprehension is
three-fold, namely, penetrating insight into
the nature of reality and laws of things;
illversligating comprehension of the three
charactcristic marks of phenomena; and the
comprehension which abandons hallucina-
tions attaching to things of temporal sequence
thus inquired into. More strictly, the term
Path is taken to signify the fullest exercise
of the last-named work of comprehension.
For it is through work of comprehension that
we get rid, first, of belief in a soul; secondly,
of inherent craving for sensuous pleasures;
and thirdly, of inherent craving for rebirth.
Here it should be noted that, instead of a
negative name, such as Cessation of III, we
might give a positive name, such as Attain-
ment of Happiness, to the third Noble Truth.
Happiness is of two kinds; pleasure as experi-
enced by the gods and average men, and thOl
blissful tranquillity reached only by those
who follow thc Noble Path. Pleasure is the
experience of those who are victims to craving
while the experience of blissful tranquillity
is only [or those who are masters of
knowledge. This realm of bliss we call
Nibbiina, where the nutriment for craving is
To slim lip : Knowledge is the act of know-
ing, the knowing what ought to be known,
* i.e. Life from purgatory up to the lower heavens.
i.e., the four Noble Truths. If this be so, and
if Ignorance be rightly understood as the
opposite of knowledge, then it necessarily
follows that Ignorance is the act of not
knowing what ought to be known, i.e., the
four immutable Noble Truths.
(2) Actions (sarikhlirii). These are the
plannings, the activities, "puttings-together,"
in virtue of which living beings accomplish
something; that of which the moral conse-
quence is either good or evil, meritorious or
the contrary, attaches to this I ife or has bear-
ing upon the life that is to follow upon the
present one. In our phraseology, we take
sarikhara to signify all those actions by way
of deed, speech, and thought, which determine
the modes of our existence now or in time to
come or both at present and in future.
Actions so conceived fall into three grades
(or kinds) - the demeritorious, the meri-
torious, and those of an unoscillating nature
(anefija). Of these, demeritorious actions
are bad deeds, words and thoughts;
meritorious actions are good deeds, words
and thoughts belonging to the kama planes
of life; * the third kind are acts of the mind,
involving merit, done in the rupa planes of
life** and good acts of th<: mind done in the
arupa planes of life. *** But how is it that
because of ignorance, actions come to pass?
They who do not understand. do not know
the four Noble Truths; for them the three
types of hallucinations as to their mind and
body, thus conditioned by ignorance, come
into existence. The hallucinations in their
development form what we call craving-
materials, and these materials in their
development form the modes of our existence
now or in time to come. It is thus that
because of ignorance, actions come to
pass. ****
(3) Consciousness This is our
term for knowing (i.e. coming to know) in a
variety of ways. It includes awareness of
cognition through sense and cognition
through work of mind. For example, we
cognise objects by way of sight; sounds by
way of hearing; odours by way of smell ;
sap ids by way of taste; the tangibles by way
of touch, and the cognisables by way of
thought. Accordingly we distinguish cogni-
** Life in the higher material heavens (Brahma-world. etc.).
"H Life in purely mental heavens. See Compelldil/m of Philosophy. Ed.
**** .. Come to pass" is not in the text here or above. The reoder will have noted that the forllluia of
Causal Genesis at the head of this section is a series not of propositions but of correlated terms; "because
of ignorance actions," etc.-Ed.
tion into six modes - visual, auditory,
olfactory. gustatory. tact iii!, and mind
Visual cognition is the mode in which the
process consciousness takes place in
(connection with) the eye, etc. By mind-
cognition we understand the mode in which
the process of consciousness takes place in
connection with thoughts (as distinguished
from sense-perception).
Again, cognition is distihguished into
two kinds, according as it leads to moral or
immoral results.
Our main question is, How is it that
because of actions consciousness comes to
be? It is worth noting that in this case,
actions are but a name for the element of
volition (cetanii-dhiitu) given in a process of
consciousness. The term consciousness, too,
is used in a limited sense for what is called
resultant rebirth-consciousness (i.e, conscious-
ness in a newly-conceived embryo).
Hence the expression "Because of actions,
consciousness" signifies that the rebirth-
consciousness results, or emer3es from the
volitional effort in the previous birth.
It may be asked, How is it possible that,
the r.ction done in the previous birth ceasing
to be, the rebirth-consciousness should now
emerge from it? Here we ought to clear up
the ambiguity that attaches to the expressi n
"ceasing to be." In accordance with our
conception, cessation implies the completion
of an act. There are three stages - the will
to act (kamma-cetanii). the impulse and vim
of the act (kamma-vega, kammiinubhiiva),
and the resultant state (vipiika-bhiiva). Let
us take an illustration.
Suppose a man were to sow a mango-seed.
He does so with a view to obtain mango-
fruits. Obviously, then, his action is pur-
posive. The seed thus sown engenders a
But nobody can say until the
tree bears fruits whether the seed was sound
or not. In the course of time the tree bears
fruits. It is then, and only then we judge,
that what was so far merely potential in the
seed, is now actualised in the fruits. Between
the potential and the actual or resultant there
is the intermediate process, the stimulation
and development of the potential into a living
force, represented in this illustration by the
growth of the mango-tree .. On this we are
entitled to say that the seed contained in some
mysterious way both the end to be realised
and thc active process that eSJcntial to it.
Thus if we say that thc seed ceases to be in
engendering the tree, we mean thereby only
that it has developed into a living force, so as
to reach its end.
Now we conceive volition to be the germ
of rebirth, a motive force in our conscious
activity which brings rebirth-consciousness
into play. Our underlying postulate is that
fruition marks the cessation or completion of
an act of volition. The Omniscient One, too,
declared to the effect : "I declare, bhikkhus,
that no voluntary actions reach a termination
without making the accumulated fruits and
results to be felt". (Anguttara-Nik., v., 292).
(4) Name-and-Form (niima-rupa).
Name is that which bends towards (namati)
objects and Form is that which undergoes
change (ruppati), is transformed as conditions
vary. Under name are grouped sensations,
perceptions and mental Form
includes matter and material qualities. *
"Because of consciousness, name and
form" :-by this we ml an that rebirth-con-
sciousness is the seed or principle of change
as to name and form. In the series of causal
genesis, name and form denote no more than
mind and body in a developing man. We
must note that rupa (rendered here loosely as
form) denotes also a living body. an organism
capable of development from a seed or germ
into a living, thin king individuC'1.
(5) The six sense-spheres (sa!iiyataniini).
The term iiyatana ("going to") is applied
to the six organs of sense, because they serve
as places (fhiiniini) in a living body, where six
external objects, COILing from this or that
source, strike (produce stimulus), and thereby
set up or occasion (i.e., bring into play),
presentative functions (,
and where the mind and mental properties,
with their six inward-turning doors, coming
from this or that seat or basis, set up recep-
tive, or "object-seizing" functions (iiram- The six sense-spheres
are the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, the
body, and the mind. Here the sphere of the
eye denotes the sensitive material quality of
the organ of sight; ear denotes the sensitive
material quality of the organ of hearing;
nose that of the organ of smell; tongue that
of the organ of taste; body that of the organ
* Hence mind-and-body is the better rendering for most purposes-Rd.

,',' :', ' " lnbJd::: :dl'nQtes I the; 'org8n.ic ,
f(bhawinglf>odttl{m). ,-
" 'are ' t'ermed' al$9
' or 'gates. because they
; , ' " 'slld fuatiyse'nsitfve media, through
IfIatWthe' six' eXternal sense-objects arid the
:i;ix' inte'rnal thought-processes (vithi-cittiini),
and leaving the six doors, mix as
and subjects (visaya-v;sayi-bhiivena),
meaning sensitive medium, and not
tphysical aperture.
; ,Of these, the organic consciousness, being
radiant as a pure diamond, is not merely
a , sensitive medium. As it was said:
"Radiant, indeed, is consciousness (cittam),
o bhikkhus."* -
In the case of moisture-sprung and con-
genital beings, the sense-spheres are rather
dull, but in the case of beings of "apparitional
birth," they are of a divine nature, - shining
'and burning ..... .
Bu't how is it that "because of name and
form the six sense-spheres" come to be ?
The answer is to be found in the laws of
,embryological growth. In viviparous beings
the senses and sense-organs develop, as the
embryo develops in the womb. The specific
sel'isl:s and sense-organs develop at various
stages though which the embryo passes."
. (6) Contact (phassa).
Contact is the act of touching. Conscious-
ness cognises each several object. But
contact must be distinguished from such a
sense-cognition. For contact implies that
which alone brings the func-
tiodalactivity of the senses into play. As
.cOmmonly understood,contact may be a
mere physical collision or juxtaposition of
bo' things. But in abhidhamma (or philo-
'sOphy) touching denotes only stimulus
(mngluiuana). Otherwise all material things
"ould , be called tangible objects. But the
r.rceoftheterm "'stimulus" is that there must
"'1D1JiOQ, \ meeting. acting together of all
:rhinp cOtlllfil:tcd with the stimulation. It is
, J1) of$his actin& together that various
)!IOI1itiaDS ... In the Pili
" !'j !! Due to contact,' and condi-
.. i.'
,'"L ': \" "'!J OJ ,.',
., COntact. aa:-ilJgaroed alie) . 'Oifd"antlJllt
'the: four: tinda. of,:iilutritloO;:' q'akenihltMli
sense, Contact is of six kinds : visual; audiaM!y,
oJfactory, gustatory, tactile, and mental. .
' But how is it that because of :ihe six'
spheres contact comes ''1 '
In the Pili we read , :"Becauie of the eye
(organ of vision) visual cognition arise& wjth
regard to visual objects. THe'conjuncture of
these three is contact. The same holds true
of the other special senses." This means that
based upon the sense-organ, and depending
on the sense-impression (n;mittam), sense-
apprehension comes to pass. This being
so, the intensity of impression, in the case of
each special sense, varies with the stimulus.
(7) Sensation, Feeling (l'edanii). Vedanii
means experiencing the enjoying of the
essential property (lit: taste, rasa) manifested
in the object by the contact-stimulus. That
essential property is either pleasant and
agreeable, or unpleasant and disagreeable.
Further, regarded in this aspect, l'edanii is
distinguished into six kinds, corresponding
to the six-fold contact, namely, sensation
born of visual contact, that born of auditory
contact, etc.
Vedanii is also applied to feeling, distin-
guished into three types: joy, grief and
hedonic indifference. According to yet
another classification, vedanii is five-fold:
pleasure, pain, joy, depression, and indiffer-
ence. We hear also of these three kinds of
experience: infernal (or infra-human), human
and celestial or divine (super-human). The
lowest form of infra-human experience (such
as that of hellish beings) is one of unmi-
tigated misery. Average human experience
is of a mixed character, while the highest form
of divine experience is one of absolute bliss.
But the difference is that of degree .... We
have now seen thaUhe pbfase : "becauseof
contact, , feeling", or stimulus
is the necess.ary anteCCdet'lt of reeti!)g. .
. , ... I . . . _..: . , .. -":
(8) Craving (ta(llui) This ,implies hanker-
ing, thirsting one oot
possess, '. Craving. SO J'CPi.ded. )
naturally WO, rry, d pondenq ," , 0 , vcr ,' ',is' .
For ,
...;rx.;;.. "'-
(:IJ'\'JtT"OJ. .' ",!! ' J, .1
"*'J :/M\f.
. ,
have not"! He calculates thus about thc
future: "Should this happen in time to comc,
it would bc for my welfare!" Hc may
worry as wel1 ovcr the prcsent: .. The
things I havc now, I shaH not afterwards
obtain! .. .
ing is six-fold - for sight, for sound,
for smcl1. for taste. for touch, and for things
cognisable or intellectual (dhammas) .... In
the Sutta we read: "Sight is
(looked upon) in this world as pleasant and
agreeable. If Craving arises it arises in
seeing and settles there. And so, too, with
regard to sound, smell, taste, touch, and
cognisable objects". *
Because of feeling, craving comes to be.
This means that feeling (or, sense-experience)
is the necessary antecedent of craving.
(9) Grasping (upiidiina). This means
adopting. laying a firm hold on. Negatively,
it implies the inability to shake off a thing,
even after experiencing great pain due to it,
and perceiving its many evil consequences.
Grasping, so conceived, is said to be four-
fold: sensuality (kiima), dogmatism (or,
orthodoxy, di{thi), belief in works and rites
(sf/abba/a). and the belief in soul (a//al'iida).
Of these, sensuality denotes an intensified
form of craving for all pleasant, agreeable,
and sensuous things.
By dogmatism is to be understood that
orthodoxy which leads a person to think:
"This alone is true, and everything else is
By belief in works and rites is meant the
fixed view, that the man is able to purify
himself, to free himself from pain by means
of external, outward rules, or by means of
self-mortification, self-torture, instead of
religious meditation and philosophic con-
The belief in soul is described as the theory
of animism, as the doctrine of a permanent
ego, or the postulate of Being (sakkiiyadi{{hi).
He who is in the grip of this view, considers
this ever-changing world in the light of a
permanent substratum or unchangeable
essence (sara).
Now "because of craving, grasping comes
to be" means that in our system craving is
regarded as the necessary antecedent of
sensuality, dogmatism, belief in works and
rites, and belief in soul.
* Digha-Nikiiya, ii. 308 (cf. Dialogues, ii., 340.)
(10) Existence (Mal'a). By this we un-
derstand bccoming, or the attainment of
individuali ty (li/: self-ness
Existcnce is conceived by us under two aspects
-(a) action, (b) result. (a) The active side
of existence is for us the life of action (kam-
mabhal'a), the present life in which a man
pt'rforms various actions by way of thought,
speech and deed, moral and immoral, pious,
spiritual and intellectual, determining thereby
his character (smikhiira). or shaping the nature
of his future existence (upapattiblwva). Thus
the term action (kamma) includes, first ten
immoral actions:- the killing of living
beings, the taking of what is not given (i.e.,
not one's own), unchastity, falsehood, slander,
harsh language, idle talk, greed, hafe, and
erroneous views. Secondly, the ten moral
actions :-abstinence from killing, from
thieving, from unchastity, lying. calumny,
harsh language, and idle talk, absence of
greed absence of hate, and right views. And
thirdly, the points of pious duty (puiiiiakiriyii
va//huni):-liberality (diina) , conduct (sUa),
contemplation (bhiil'Qnii), civility, hospitality.
the giving of what has been won (distri-
bution of merit). appreciation (anwl1odana),
and correction of erroneous views of others.
In judging each immoral action. we con-
sider these four "fields of Kamma" :- (n as
one's own act, (2) as instigating another,
(3) as consenting to another's instigation, and
(4) as commending the act.
In like manner, we judge each moral action,
according as (1) it is one's own act. or as (2)
one inspires another to do it. or as (3) one
consents to another's instigation, or (4) one
commends the act.
Again. moral actions are distinguished as
(1) worldly (va{{anissi/a)**, and (2) unworldly
(vil'a{{anissita). Worldly moral actions are
those which arc done with the object of
bringing fame and reputation in this life,
and of securing high rank and fortune in
the life beyond.
And those which are unworldlv denote
these moral actions which are done
with the
desire that they may lead to the extinction of
craving in future. and not with the object of
bringing fame and reputation in this life, or
of securing high rank and fortune in the life
beyond. This last mentioned type of moral
actions is further distinguished as (I) those
** dependent on the Round ( i . e. of rebirth, of lives)-Ed.
which are preliminary (paramipakkhiyo), and
(2) those which are perfective (hodhipakkhiyo).
(b) Existence as (resultant) rebirths
(UpOpolli-hhava). These are snid to be nine-
fold (i ncl ud ing tIl 0* systems of clas,i fication).
According to the first system of classification
the lowest in the scale are rebirths in the
worlds of sentiencc (kama-hharo): the next
higher are rebirths in the heavens of form
(rr,pabhal'o): those higher still are rebirths
in the formless heavens (anipobhara): yet
above these arc placed the hea\'ens called
conscious (.Yanni), the u neonscious (asill/ill),
and the nei ther-consciousness-nor-u ncon-
sciousness (llerasaiilillliisotiill). According to
the sccond system of classification, thesc six
grades of existence are dilided into three :-
those endowed ith one "mode" (ekavokiira).
those endowed with four modes (catu-
roktira), and those with the (pGI/ca-vokilra).
Here those wit:, tive modes include the sen-
tient and corporeal being" endowed with
fi\'e <!ggr('gates; those \\ ith four denote those
-Hflconscious beings who <!rc endowed with
four aggregates; and those \1 ith one denote
the unconscious beings who arc endowed
with one aggregate ....... .
But how docs cxistence (rebirth) come to
he "bccause of grasping" ?
Those average or worldly persons, who
hnl'e not Pllt away the fOllr forms of grasping
or clinging, by the right means or Path,
in each of thc fClIr forms in their
words and All their
actilitics ,!re in olle I\ay or prompted
by their clinging to sensuous desires. to
opinions. to the efficacy of habits and rites,
to their belid in a soul. Acti\ ities thus
accompanied by clinging inelitably bring
about, at death, some form of rebirth, some
re-inst;ilement of khalldhas, or constituent
(II) Birth (jiiri). This c\pression is appli-
cd to the generation of beings, to the mani-
festation of sGlikhiiras, that is to sa), the
apprearance as illdi\ iduals of what the nine
above-named mcdcs of existence are poten-
tially. Sentient existence is di\ idcd into
I hcse four types of beings :-(a) the oviparous;
(b) the \'iviparous : (c) the moisture-sprung;
and (d) opopatika birth (;:PP;lritional. without
physical generation). All the gods of the
six kama-planes, and all the infernal beings
are said to be of the last kind. In the
Developing period**. men \\ere thus born, and
so. too. were animals, spirits, and earthly
gods. Subsequently men appear to have
been*** vi\iparous, and even oviparous and
moisture-sprung. The same holds true of
animals in genera\. All corporeal and incor-
poreal Brahmas of apparitional birth.
But how does birth come to be "because
of Becoming"? I n this way :- the life of
action determines the type of future existence,
and that type of existence becomes manifest
by way of birth.
(12) D,:cay and Death (a)
Decay Corresponding 10 the nine grades
of e\istence. referred to above, decay is said
to be nine-fold. But it is considered also
under these two I]('ads-mental (nama-jara)
and physical (nipll-jaul). Each of these two
kinds of decay is further distinguished into
that which is momentary (kha(liko) and
late nt (apiikata), and that which is prolonged
(santali) and patent (pcikala). The latent is
to be known (inferred) from the patent.
For were there no momentary change, there
would be, a fortiori, no change of a more
prolonged duration.
But how docs the fact of prolonged mental
decay (i.e.. chang.:), (paril'ol/ana) become
evident (or intelligible)? Jt becomes evident
through the occasion of sensations in the
body pleasing or painful; through feelings
of joy or grief in the mind; through the per-
ception of sight, sound ctc.; through such
higher functions of thc mind as reflection,
discursive judgment. etc.; or through such
functions of the understanding as (cognitive
or intuitive) insight. hearing, etc. Here the
meaning of the expression sankamali, "pass
on" is that the old stream (of consciousness)
disappears. and a new stream makes its
appearance. But ithout a priori admitting
decay (parihiilli), it is impossible to conceive
such a disappearance. Besides, one must
admit, the mind changes very quickly. The
Master said: " I do not sec, bhikkus, a single
thing so quickly changeable as mind. And
it is not easy to find an analogue for this
quickly changing mind"**** Obviously, by
* The nine-fotd cxi,tcncc is chsslfkd lhree systems and not under two as remarked by the transtator.
The firq three arc' classified to rtancs, the second three according to perception or consciousness,
and lhe last acc-)rding to constiluent aggregates. U I\)w/U.
** Sec I:xposiri'ill, II
*** That is, passed through the evolulionary stage or.
**** Salilyulla NikJya, ii, 95
.... .... _.
"qukkly changl':lbk," in the
.1 \sllwant tIll' passing on ()f the
of nlUS the' q lIICK
:h:lIlSI.' of mind bl'ing realised, wc arc the
bl'ttl'T abk 10 Clmcl'iw ils decay and dl'ath.
But how dt)e:> the fact of continuous
physical change hecome intelligible? It
becomes intl.'iligibk through bodily move-
Illl.'nts. For instance, in the time of walking,
when the first step has been taken, thell we
can lake the second step. And it becomes
e,ident from all natural changes, such as the
seasons of the year, the months, the fortnights,
the nights and days, and the great periods.
(b) Death. Corresponding to the nine
grades of existence, this is also said to be
nme-fold. Death is distinguished again into
these four kinds: that which is due to
expiration of the term of life; that which
results from the extinction of kamma; that
which results from both of these two causes;
and premature death. Premature death may
be due either to the action of past life, or to
that of present life; either to the drifting
result of action, or to the overflowing result
of action.*
It may be asked, why these three-birth,
decay and death-are included among the
factors of the causal genesis? They
no other than the three characteristics of
compound things. Are they not, therefore,
of slight importance, of slight consequence ?
No, we must not speak thus. For of all
phenomena of life, these three are of the
greatest importance, of the greatest conse-
quence. For these supply the necessity for
the advent of Buddhas. In the words of our
Master: " If these three factors did not exist
in the world, no Buddha would have been
born. But because these exist, Buddhas are
born". That is to say it is in understanding,
penetrating into the root-causes of birth,
decay and death that the knowledge and
mission of the Buddha consist.
The Master himself declared: "Those
recluses and Brahmans who do not know
the causal genesis of decay and death, do not
know what the cessation of decay and death
is. It is impossible that they, overcoming
decay and death, will remain (for ever the
same)." **
Thus it is evident that our whole conception
of the causal genesis (pa/iccasamuppiida),
See Expositions, II.
,.. Samyutta-Nikaya, ii, 46
or the ('ulisal order (tlh{///I/Nol/i)'iilllo)"'" ha;
Ihis end ill vil:w: 10 lInclCrSI:lnd, to penetrate
the callSI: of birlh, decay and dealli. ./ he
knowblgl: or a Iearlll:d, Noble (Who
has gailll:d all insight into thl: law of causal
gl:J1esis) is sci r-I:vident (aparap{/('('(fyc/);
.. There bl:ing ignorancl:, there is kamma;
there being kamma, there IS rebirth-con-
sciousness; .. there being birth, there arc
decay and death. Where ignorance is not,
there kamma is not; where kamma is not,
there rebirth-consciousness is not, " where
birth is not, there decay and death are not."
In conc!usion, this causal genesis, this
causal order, is the basis, the rundamental
conceptioil of our system, the penetrating
wisdom of the Noble ones. It is the Norm
which serves as the door of Nibbana, the gate
of "the Ambrosial." That is to say, it is the
path which leads to the abandonment of all
views of individuality, all theories of soul, all
forms of dogmatism and kinds of craving.
(The following extracts from letters of
U NY ANA, Patamagyaw, and Mrs. C.A.F.
DAVIDS, M.A. are here inserted as
they introduce some comments on the Dham-
ma-Niyama and are worth while to be
recorded for the benefit of the interested
From Mrs. Rhys Davids to U NYana.
" ........ I especially wish to raise the
question as to the Exposition of the term
Dhamma-niyama, both as to the translation
of that section and indeed as to the Exposition
itself-but this with all reverence.
Cordially yours,
From U Nyana to Mrs. Rhys Davids.
" .... Now, dear Upiisaka, I wish to sa)
a few words on the exposition of the term
Dhamma Niyama. First of all if I were to
render into English the terms of the fivefold
Niyama, I would do so as follows :-
.** On Dhamma a. meaninp: "effect, .. cf. Points or Controversy. p. 387.

(I) UIlI-l1i),iillla: the order of things in
relation to climatic
(2) Bija-lIiyullla: the order of things in
relation to germinal
(3) Kalllllla-lIi)'llmll: the order of things
in relation to moral
(4) Cilla-lIir(lma: the order of psycho-
(5) Dhamllla-ni),iillla: The natural order
of things (other
than the above
Mr. S. Z. Aung's rendering as "Natural
Phenomenal Sequence" is a good one but it
docs not, I think, cover the wide meaning of
the term, dhamma. Here dhamma is used
to mean the whole cosmos or universe (the 31
stages or bhumiyo, from the Buddhist point
of view) with its inhabitants both animate and
inanimate. Hence the Dhamma-niyama is
t he whole ordered system of I cosmos.
And the first four niyamas arc only the
specific 'orders specialised from it, as each of
them is universally predominant among
many other orders. So whatever order
remains unspecified or unspecialised, it comes
under the heading of the Dhamma-niyama.
The Dhamma-niyama may be expounded in
many aspects. The revelations of all the
branches of science may be cited for the
treatment of the cosmic order if one is capa-
ble of doing so. But Ledi Sayadaw as a
philosopher is obliged to expound it from
the philos.ophical point. There are also, as
you know, two methods in our Buddhist
philosophy in expounding the dhamma in the
light of their causes and eO'eets, namely,
SUl/allla-naro* and A hhidhall1l11a-l1aro. **
The forme; is more adaptable to all classes
of mind than the latter which is only suitable
to those who have preliminary knowledge
of Abhidhalllll1a, So the Mahalhera chooses
the Sullallla-nayo to expound with. And he,
after treating the cosmic order pretty well,
takes the Palic('{/-samllflpiida for his context.
The whole of the Expositions is meant to
reveal the following facts.
"There is no World-lord, no Creator who
makes or crcatL!S tilL! universe; but the fivefold
order of law. All is IhL! sum total of causes
and L!f1cets which are rising and ceasing
every moment. Nothing is abiding in this
world of transience, wherefore no eternal
peace can be found but on the other har.d, it
can only be found beyond this world of
changes where no juli or becoming is found
through lack of cause. And to reach that
place where eternal peace abides we must
walk along the eightfold Noble Path which,
though it pertains to this world, leads to the
way out, and when we get to the end close to
the Outer-world, (let me say so.) or to NibbulIQ
and as soon as we draw away the lust
foot, set on this world, we at once ascend
the Lokullara-Bhumi, the Nibbiina peace. So
much for the Expositions ....... ' ... ,
With best wishes,
I remain,
Yours in the Order,
From Mrs. Rhys Davids to U N)ana.
", ..... Thank you for your note on the
Ni)'iillla. Personally I Ilnd either of the defini-
tions of Dhamma-niy:lma unsatisfactory.
Any division must seem so to our
Western minds which is cc-ordinated lI'ilh
other divisions and yet claims to inell/de them.
It shocks our sense of proper c1assilication.
It would pass l11uster with us if it was a Sesa-
niyiillla 0111)" for uny orders not included in
1-4. But then it should be so called, and
not Dhaml1la-lIi)'llllla. According to the
Burmese traditional interpretation the whole
5 ought to be called the PaiiCllka-d/llIl11l11l1-
ni)'uma and the 5th the Sesa-(or '!)
niyama. Or there should be a Sixth, the
"Not knowing this traditional intcrprcta-
tion, I, when I introduced the subject to
Western readers, in 111) Buddhism (1912) p.
117 foil:, judged that the 5th lIi,riillll1 \\as not
Dh(/lIlmii. but Dhalll/lI11-lIirllllla. 1 noted
Buddhaghosa's illustration 0'1' it on dhlllllll/(lIii
in the rebirth and appearance of a Salll/'lIcld/1II
on earth-, and it seemed to me a \\llnderful
comcept, and one necessary to the Buddhist
idea of the Cosmos that among the 1:\\\5 {)f
that Cosmos should be the IIflJl;l/li (-IIJI"J1<lIli
you S<I)-) from time to time {If a Sa/>/>aiilill
Buddha. You Buddhists IIIIISf eall this a la\\,
How othL!l'\\ ise do you e",plain the rel'UITellel'
of Buddhas?
Sullanta.nayo; Ac<.:ordil1!! 10 the methods shown in the Sliitas .
.. Abhidhamlll;l-n,IYO: A-:C0l'1Jinil to the methods shown 11\ the AbhiJnumma.
"And to plnn: this wonderful law at the
l'lHl with just any otherTli.l'cll//{/s that have not
bel'n specilied ill 1-4 seems most unsatisfac-
tN\. How I wish I could discuss this in
Bui'mese with the Mahathera, Western
fashil)lI .............. .
Believe me,
Sincercly yours,
~ This letter was translated iuto Burmese
and sent to Ledi Sayadaw who in return
wrote a long note on Dhamma-niyama which
is also printed in this book at the end.)
From U Nyana to Mrs. Rhys Davids.
" ...... With regard to our classification
and definition of Niyiima, I agree with you in
your modification of the word " Dhamma"
as "Sesa" or "Pakinnaka" for the fifth order
only in sense but' not in word-expression.
For we should not only look into the import
of the word but we should respect the moral
importance of J he word-expression as well.
If we use the word "Sesa" for the last order
there should probably be a more definite
number of Niyiima's for it to refer and it
should not have been stated as that there are
only five kinds of Niyiima's. The orders
which the Dhamma-niyiima comprises are so
numerous in quantity and so variant in quality
that even an analyst of intellect and extra-
ordinary gift like Buddhaghosa is sure to
fail in his bold attempt to get all into detail.
And the Buddha even warns his disciples
not to too much contemplate upon the laws
and forces of the natural constitution of the
universe and of life reigning therein in these
words: "Lokacintii, Bhikkhave, ocinteyyii na
cinfetabbii. Yam cintenfO ummadassa vighii-
fassa bhiigi assa," as they give rise to insanity
and fatigue to the vigorous pursuer after
research and as he can never reach, I dare
say, the triumphant goal of his profound
research, however far advanced his observa-
tion, experiment, analysis and classification
of phenomena may be. It is the Buddha-
visayo, * and the entire revelation can only be
safely entrusted to one who is possessed of
SabbannutaniifJa. ** When aspiration for
research after phenomenal occurrence even-
tually arises in His disciples' minds the
* The power of the Buddha.
** Omniscience.
Buddha usually c;alms it with these
words: "Dhallltnatci eMi, bhikkJ/{/w""" or
.. DIIll/1//IIatii" YClfn, bhikkhclI'e, etc.,,.,.. ... lest
they should waste away their valuable
time in unfruitful research. From such
passages and from such data, BuddIJaghosa
after careful observation and speculation
infers that there are five Niyiima'.\'. Now
to turn to our discussion of Se.l'([, it is
only. used, I presume, when it is reg uired
for reference or summing up, but not in
formal classification. I have never come
across, as far as my reading is concerned,
the word "Sesa," "the rest" used even by the
Western Analyst in enumerating his formal
. classification. As regards to the other
word "Paki!p)aka," it is preferable to the
word "Sesa" as it may mean miscell<..neous
order, or order of heterogeneous types, or
order of things not arranged under any dIst-
inct class. But it is doubtful whether it
has a wide and comprehensive sense as the
word "Dhamma". Its proper use is only
in particular case as we find in the "Com-
pendium of Philosophy" as "PakifJIJaka-
cetasika," which is used quite differently
from what Buddhaghosa wishes to explain
in his classification. In Pali language no
suitable word can be found other than the
word "Dhamma" which is a philosophic
expression applied to things in general. It
is neither an introduction of new expression
nol' his own invention that Buddhagosa has
used the term" Dhamma" for the last divi-
sion of Niyiima so as to include all that has
not been said in the previous ones. Jt is
but an adoption. Let me invite your
reference to the classification of AI'Gtal1as
and Dhiifus. Of the twelve kinds of Al'atallo
and eighteen kinds of dhiitu, the last of each
is called Dhammiiyatana and Dhamllladhiifu,
and each claims to include anything included
in the previous ones. According to the
definition "Sabhiiram-dhiirefl fi dhamlllo."
every kind of Ayatana and dhiitu is a dlzalll-
rna and yet each kind stands in co-ordinate
rank with the last one. And the Dhall1l11ii-
yatana***** cannot include them as they ha\c
got their special nan.: (laddha-l1iillla-risesa).
Here the connotation of the Dhallllllo IS
limited and in Pali such term is known as
"Pasiddha-ru{h!" and it has no right to extend
its sphere of nomenclature oyer other terms
*** " That is the Law of Cosmic Order, 0 Monks."
**** .. This is the Law of Cosmic Order, 0 Monks."
***** Mental object as Base.
of laddhaniima-visesa. You may as well see
that in of six Viti.ti.anani (see
Ahhidhalll!l1attha-sal/gaha. ch. IV.) the last
division is called lIlanol'iiiiliinam. and mana
though it is a common term for all
(If consciousness or thought (citta), cannot
claim to include the five kinds of conscious-
ness previously enumerated, such as
CakhhuriiiiirJl/am. elC, for each of which has
its special name; but it is applicable only
to any other cilfas not included in the
previous classes. So also is the same in our
case. The Dhamll7a-nirclll1a cannot claim
to include the above four Ni),iimas though
each is really a d/wl11l17a or a thing within
the legitimate sphere of its definition, but
it is limited to include only what are not
included in 1-4. And the first four have
a right to stand co-ordinately in rank with
the last, and hence you need not also call
them the Pmicaka-dhalllll1a-l1ij'(/mo. Allow
me to give you an instance of Vv'estern
classification. The English grammarians
classify an adverb into the following distinct
classes: as Adverb of time. place, number,
quantity and quality. As each class is co-
ordinate with the other divisions, the ad\erb
of quality, though it may legitimately claim
to include all the other classes in the sense
of its being a qualifying word must be
maintained without any prejudice and con-
tention as the proper classification. Hence
the adverb of quality may mean any adverb
not included in the previous classes. Now
we see that it is on all fours with our method.
With regard to your suggestion to include a
sixth, i.e., Buddha-niyama I think it is not
necessary. It may come under the head of
Dhamma-niyama. It is not a univerasl
order applicable to many others but itself.
It should be borne in mind that the ap-
pearance of a Buddha is not a regular
recurrent one. Some universe has one or
more and others have none at all, and even
in the former case it is not synchronous.
Therefore it seems to Buddhaghosa that the
Buddha-niyiima docs not descrve a special
treatment in his elucidation of the general
laws. It is the dhammate/ that a Buddha
appears only when a Bodhisatta has fully
reached the perfection of the Pare/mlta's and
Buddha-dhamma's . ............ .
Cordially yours,
The aim of the scholiasts in expounding
the fivefold cosmic order should at first be
noted. There are both in this world of men
apd of gods two kinds of conception,
(I) Issara-kutta, and (ii) Brahma-kulla. The
conception by which some people believe
that there is a Supreme Ruler of the three
worlds who ever lives in heaven and by whom
everything is created, is the Issm'a* kutta.
It is also called Issara-l1il17mana (created by
/ssm'a or Israra or Supreme Ruler or God).
And the conception by which some people
believe that there is a Brahmawho ever lives
in heav;:n, who is the great Father and
Great-grand-father of all beings. who
creates everything and supremely rules over
the three worlds, is the nrC/hlJut-k ulla
(created by Brahma). Here lssara and
Brahma differ only in expressions hut each
is the designation of the same Deity. the
World Lord, the creating God. Of the two,
Bra/unCI is the name assigned to the supposed,
supreme Being by the Brahmins and Hindus
and it has become a general notion in the
three worlds of men, gods and Brahmas
since the world begins. As to the name
/ssara it is not a universal nOli on but a later
imaginative adoption by those who fail to
acquire the knowledge of origin of the world
and primary causes of things in existence.
In order to cast away these two immanent
conceptions "the scholiasts have expounded
the fivefold cosmic order.
The fivefold cosmic ordcr is as foIlows:-
(I) Utu-Niyallla, (2) BUa-Niyiillla. (3)
Kalllma-Niyiillla, (4) Ciffa-Niyiillla, und (5)
Dhamma-NiJ'iillla. Of these five. the mean-
ing of "Dha'mma" in the last order should be
first shown. We will quote a few lines from
the Nidiinavagga-Samyutta, Ahiira-\ agga.
X Sulta. page 162, which run: .. Jiilipacca,rii.
bhikkhare, Uppiida ra
Tathagatiil/OJiI Gllllppeida rii Tallle/gatduOIil,
!hira '\'(/ sa dhiitll, c/lwllllllarrhifCI{(i. clhllmma-
II i.l'iilllllta, ida-paccayalci. Bhal'Opaccayii.
bhi/\/.;/wl'e, jati. Uppacla rii Tal/nigartiuOIiI ..
PI' .. ida-paccayarci ...... pc Al'iJjcipaccllyii,
Jlhikkhal'c, Smikhiirii. Uppiit/a rcl Tal/Jtiga-
/eill([li/ ...... pc .. itid-paccaYlllii. Aytllil
Jahwch or Jehovah.
l'/i('cati i'CI{iccas(/l/lllppiido." * In this text the
natural things or phenomena (Sahhal'e-
dhtlll/I/w) an! ilrst shown with the words
"""rUlii. l'tC:' and then the meaning of the
Wl1rd "NiyiiIllCl" is expressed in the
foll(l\\ ing sentence .. Uppada 1'a Talhiigata-
110/11. ('IC." Therefore the word "dlwmma"
denotes both the things which mutually
stand in relation to one another as cause and
effect, for a dhal1lma always depends for its
appearance upon some other dhamma which
again in its turn requires some C)ther antece-
dent for its arising. Hence any dhamma
may be both cause and effect. And the
word "Niyiill1a" expresses the fixity of
sequence of cause and effect. Here is our
intC'rpretation of the sentence "Thilii va sii
dhiilU, dha/l7l11atlhilalii, dhammaniyiimalii,
idapuccayatii." There, indeed, ever exist
in this universe, th;;t natural order of elements,
that establishment of sequence of causes and
effects, that fixity of mutual relation of causes
and effects. and that causal nexus of
individual things or phenomena, such as
arijjli. etc. In this text, the word "dhal11mat-
Ihilalii" is synonymous with "dhal11malii,"
and the word "dhamma-niyammatii" with
"dhal1lll1a-niyiimo". The renderings made
by Maung Shwe Zan Aung and U :t'J"yana on
the word "dhamma-niyiima" seem to be in
conformity with the above quoted text.
Just as the method of word-description
(padasodha!1alla)'o) is expounded at the very
outset in the Expositions of the Ten Books
of Ya!77aka, so also here we should apply that
method first in the classification of the five-
fold Niyama. In the expression "dhamma-
niyiima, "the word "dlwmma" denotes all
mental and material things. Therefore,
bija, kall1ma and citla are all dhamma, and
it comprises all of them. Hence "11114" gets
two names, (I) "dhamma," a general or
common name, (2) and "UIU" an individual
or distinct name. In like manner, hiia,
kamma, and cWa get two names each. But
in the classification of Niyama, the individual
names are used for the first four so as to
particularize and make distinction from the
rest of things, mentals and materials, which
are conveniently treated under one common
name of "dhamma". For this reason the
term "dhamma-niyiima" should not be taken
in its full application, but must be restricted
within bounded limits to denote only the
things which are not included in the first
four. When it is required to treat "ulu" as
Niyama, one should not call it a "dhamma-
niyiima" though it (UIU) is really a dhamma,
but must use the appropriate and individual
name and call it an ulu-niyiima, The same
rule holds good with bija, kal71n1a, and cit-
For instance, we presume that there are
five classes of workers on board a ship, the
Captain, the Engineer, the Pilot, the Officer,
and the sailors. Now ,the owner of the ship.
being very much pleased with the works of
the crew, and wishing to give them a bonus.
sends a man with some money to distribute
among them according to his instruction that
so much should be paid to so and so. When
distribution is made, the Captain and the
other three are not entitled to receive shares
from those of the sailors though they are
working on board the ship under one com-
mon name as sailors, for they have already
* English translation: "What, 0 monks, is Dependent Origination? "Through Rebirth are conditioned
Old Age and Death" : -whether, 0 monks, there be an arising of Tathagatas, whether there be no such arising,
this natural order of elements exists, this establishment of ~ e q u e n c e of causes and effects, this fixity of mutual
relation 0f causes and effects. Concerning that, the Tathagata is fully enlightened, that he fully understands. Fully
enlightened, fully understanding, he declares it, teaches it, reveals it, sets it forth, manifests, explains, makes it
plain, saying" Behold. Through Rebirth are conditioned Old Age and Death.
" Through the Process of Becoming, Rebirth is conditioned;
" Through Clinging, the Process of Becoming is conditioned;
" Through Craving, Clinging is conditioned;
" Through Sensation (feeling), Craving is conditioned;
" Through Contact (impression), Sensation is conditioned;
.. Through the 6 Bases, Contact is conditioned;
" Through Mental and Physical Phenomena, the 6 Bases are conditioned;
" Through Consciousness. Mental and Physical Phenomena are conditioned;
"Through Kammaformations (rebirthproducing volitions), Consciousness is conditioned;
"Through Ignorance, Kammaformations are conditioned.
Whether, 0 moks, there be an arising of Tathiigatas, whether there be no such arising, this natural order of
elements exists, this establishment of sequence of causes and effects, this fixty of mutual relation of causes and
effects. Concerning that, the Tathtlgata is fully enlightened, that he fully understands. Fully enlightened, fully
understanding he declares it, teaches it, reveals it, sets it forth, manifests, explains, makes it plain, saying "Behold.
Through Rebirth are conditioned Old Age and Death. This, 0 monks, is called Dependent Origination. "
(NOTE.-The 6 Bases: The five physical Sense-organs with mind as the sixth. )
(Eds.-The Light of (he Dhn/1/l/Iu.)
receivcd special gratuity under the il1dividual
names of Captain, Engineer, Pilot, and
Officer. Thus it should be understood here
also. So much for the word-description.
Moreover, among the six kinds of objects,
the dhammii-rammana stands last. So also
dhammiivatana and 'dhammadhiitu stand last
in the categories of 12 Ayalanas and 18
dhiitus respectively. Here also the denota-
tion of each should be understood according
to the method of word-description just as in
the fivefold Niyama. We will reproduce
here a few lines from the Books of Vamaka
which will serve as a means to obtain a clear
knowledge of the method of word-descrip-
., Dlwmmo dhammiiyatanam? ti. Dham-
miiyatanath thapetvii, avaseso dhammo
dhammo, na dhammiiyatallam; dhammiiya-
tanam dhammo- c' eva dhammii-yatanan ca.
Dhammii--yalanam hammo? Ii. Amanta."
Ayatana-Yamaka. "Dhammo dhamma-
dhiilu? Ii. Dhamma-dhiilum thapelvii,
avaseso dhammo dhammo, an dhamma-
dhiitu; dhammadhiilu dhammo 'c' eva
dhamma-dhiilu ca. Dhamma-dhiilu dham-
mo? Ii. Amanlii." Dhiilu-Yamaka.
"Is dhammo a dhammiiyatana" Excluding
the dhammiiyatana, the remaining dhammo
is dhammo, and not dhammiiyatanam; but
dhammiiyatanam is both dhammo and dham-
miiyatanam. Is dhammiiyalanam a dhammo ?
Ay." "Is dhammo a dhamma-dhiilu?
Excluding the dhamma-dhiilu, the remaining
dhammo is dhammo, and not dhamma-dhiitu;
but dhamma-dhiitu is both dhammo and
dhammadhiitu. Is dhammadhiitu a dhammo ?
"Now I have dealt enough with, to respond
to the critical observation :-"Any division
must seem to our Western minds which is
co-ordinated with other divisions and yet
claims to include them. It shocks our sense
of proper c1assification."- made by Mrs.
Rhys Davids, in her letter to U Nyana.
With regard to her sound suggestion,-
"It would pass muster with us if it was a
Sesa-Niyiima only, for any orders not includ-
ed in 1-4. But then it should be so called,
and not Dhamma-Niyiima ...... And the
fifth the Sesa - or pakilJlJaka-niyiima," -we
would say thus:
If the fifth order is called the Sesa-Iliyiima,
it would only mean that the above four orders
did not involve in it. But if it is called the
it would not only 1.1ean
that it did not mix up with the above four
orders but it would also allow various kinds
of order, such as the Buddha-Nil'iill/a, etc.,
to be included. However in ou'r Buddhist
Philosophy, the word "dhamma" a"d its
scope of meaning are very important and
extensive. How? it is an ample work for
the word" Dhamma" to uproot and destroy
all the false notions, such as fssara-kutta-
di!!hi, Brahma-kutta-di!!hi, Sakkiiya-di!!hi. etc.
Thewhole of the seven Books of Abhidhamma
is composed with the expressed purpose of
disclosing the meaning of "Dhal1ll1la".
Particularly, the exposition of the fl\e-foJd
Niyiima by the Scholiast is the attempt
to eliminate the unfounded notions of
Issara-kutta and Brahma-kutta. I t will be
clearly shown later how it eliminates. Here
the difference between the power of the
Great Brahma or the so-called Supprcme
Ruler and the influence of the Cosmic Laws
should be shown. The Great Brahma can
shed lustre over many thousands of world
systems with his radiant beauty. He can
see everything in those worlds. can hear
sounds, get to any place and return to his
own at the instance of his will, and read the
minds of men and gods. As to his super-
noromal power (iddhi) concerning creation
and transformation, he can create or trans-
form either his own body or any external
object into many and any forms. But these
are only shadow-like shows and exhibitions
which when he withdraws his power are
sure to disappear away. In fact he cannot
create a real creature or thing, in the least
louse or its egg, which will not disappear
away when the creative po\ver is discon-
tinued. In exhibiting gardens and trees
through his creative power. he can create
and exhibit only temporaL unsubstantial,
unreal. and counterfeit shapes of. and resem-
blances to, the desired things. A tree. a
real, substantial tree, even a blade of grass.
he can never create. Because the appearance
of a phenomenon, the coming into being of
a creature, or the growing of a plant. is not
within the range of supernormal or crcatlYC
power, but it is within the domain of the
Cosmic Orders, such as Dhalll/lw-.\'iyiilll
Kamma-Nil'iima and Bi;a-{\il'/i/l/ll. The
things created only last \\hile the Iddhi is
acting behind thCli1, and they arc liable to
disappcar as soon as the fddhi is withdrawn.
Thc occllrrcnce of hot. rainy and cold
seasons arc the natural procl's$ of climatie
ortkr and not the \)pl'ralion l)f Idclhi. As
regards I>hll/l/l/III-'virtl'"t1. the (lrl':\1 Brahma
can transport thousands of l\\':ll in tlwir
presenl life 10 I kawll if he \\ish.:s, hut th.:re
C;lIllWt to become old
lWr dic, and cven whcn they dic he cannot
debar and save them from falling into or
bdng rl'orn in the abodes of torture.
for, t!'c ment,1l and material aggregates
constituting thc persons of men are under the
wa) of natural laws (Dhamma-niyiima)
of birth, old-age and death. He cannot
also make men or any creatures to be born
in Hcaven after they die because the incep-
tion of new life in new abodes after death is
not within the sphere of the operation of
Iddhi but it is within the domain of Kamma-
lIiyama. In this world, anyone who kills
and eats daily fowls, etc., and always drinks
intoxitating liquor, must fall, in spite of his
daily prayers and attendance to church,
into the planes of misery after death. The
Great Brahma or the Supreme God cannot
save him in any way. Because it is within
the domain of Kamma-niyiima and not within
that of Jddhi. On the other hand, anyone
who disbelieves in the notions of Jssara-
kutta and Brahma-kutta, who is a strong
believer in the laws of Kamma, and who
shuns evil actions and always cultivates
gODd deeds, is sure to ascend the higher
abodes of gods and Brahmas after death.
And the Great Brahma cannot prohibit him
from coming up to Heaven. Because the
influence of Iddhi can never overrule that of
Mo:al Laws. The Great Brahma, were he
to encounter the Cosmic Laws, cannot
defend and save even himself from falling
into their clutches, let alone others. So
much for the differentiation of Iddhi and
Niyama in respect of their influences.
Now to show how the notions of lssara
and Brahma-kutta are refuted. There are
some people who think that there is only
one world, and who do not believe that there
have been many cycles of worlds in the past
and that an unlimited number of worlds will
follow this present one in future. But they
do believe that this present world has both
its beginning and its ehd. And in looking
for the primary cause of its beginning they
utterly fail. However, reflecting upon the
houses and buildings and their designers
and builders, they come to the conclusion
that this world must have its originator and
he must be the Creator or the Supreme
Ruler, or the Great Brahma, or the God.
On the other hand, Buddhism teaches that
many cycles of worlds have been formed in
the past and many others will follow the
present one in succession. It also teaches
that the world has its beginning and its end,
and there are causes, called natural laws,
for the formation and destruction of every
world; and these natural laws exist for ever
and go rolling on in the infinite space of
time. Therefore the followers of Buddhism
have no notion whatever of Issara and
Brahmakutta. So much for the refutation
of the two notions. It has also been
sufficiently dealt with in my Expositions.
Among the fivefold Niyiima, tlTe dhamma-
niyiima is most important. Cakkm'atti and
Agganiia Suttas of the Digha-nikaya are the
fields for Dhamma-Niyiima. In those Swtas
we find the order of life-span, or, under the
common name, the dhamma-Iliyiima, which
reveals the facts that the incessant rise and
fall of human life-span from a decade to a
myriad (asankhyeyya) and vice versa are due
to Kusala and Akusala dhamma. Besides
those Suttas, such kinds of order may be
found in many places in the Text. In the
Dhamma-hadaya-vibhanga of the Abhidhamma
Pi!akaand in the Uposatha Sulfa of the Eighth
Book of Anguttara Nikiiya, the six abodes
of Devas and twenty abodes of Brahmas and
their life-span are definitely expounded. It
is also a kind of Dhamma-niyiima which in
other religions is never heard of, It may be
called the Order of life-span (Ayukappa-
niyiima) if one would like to particularize.
Or it would not be wrong to enter it under
the heading kamma-niyiima.
"Or there should be a sixth, the Buddha-
niyiima"-with this suggestion, we are quite
in concordance. Because in specifying it
separately, the great wonders of the Buddha
would be more conspicuous. I have also
written in my Exposition that there should
be a sixth, the order of birth (jiiti-Iliyama)
which we find in Viise!!ha SUlla (Sulla
Nipiita, Mahii-vagga). Because it seems to
be a distinct class of order from bija and
kamma. With regard to the Buddha-Niyiima,
we cannot say that the appearance of a Bud-
dha occurs in every world. Very few are
the worlds in which a Buddha or Buddhas
appear. We must then assign the Buddha-
niyiima to the occasional occurrences of
certain wonderful and mysterious presages
such as the quaking of ten thousand worlds
etc, during the infinite space of time while a
Bodhisat is fulfilling the Buddha-dhammas,
that is, from the time a Bodhisat receives
the ultimate prediction from a Buddha that
he would certainly become a Saviour like
himself, till he attains to Buddhahood and
enters into the final goal, the Nibbana-dhiitu.
The marvellous occurrences of such wonder-
ful and mysterious presages are recorded in
Buddavafilsa, in the chapter, known as
"Swnedllli's reception of DipGlikiirii's predic-
tion." They occur also when the Bodhisat
in his last life enters the mother's womb,
when he issues from it, when he renounces
the world, when he becomes the Buddha,
when he sets rolling the Wheel of Law, when
he appoints the time of his death, and lastly
""hen he enters into Nibbana. Such occur-
rences are called "dhamma{cl" by the Com-
mentators. There is also a kind of dhamma-
ni),GlI1a which comes under the name of
dhammatii in the Mahiipadiina Sulla, in the
Dighanikiiya. In the Majjhima-nikiiya, it
comes under the name of Acchariya Abbhu(a
Dhamma. See Upari-pa/J/Jiisa, third chapter,
third Sulfa. In the Commen'taries, these
wonderful and mysterious things are classed
under dhamma-niyiima.
If the Buddha-ni),iima be specialized, the
ScI>'Gka-niyiima should not be overlooked.
It should also !Je treated distinctly. And
what then is Siivaka-niyiima ? It is the order
of precept, elC., of the the disciples, com-
prising the laymen, devas and Brahmas who
have received deliverance from anyone
of the many Buddhas, surpassing in number
the sands of the River Ganges, who have
appeared in the cycles of aeons that have no
knowable beginning. Before we proceed any
further, we should here first show the puthu-
jjanabhumi and puthujjana-gati. Of the two,
puthujjana-bhumi or the stage of worldlings
means the potentiality of kilesiis the
immensity of evil deeds, and the open door
of the four planes of misery, on account of
the strong hold of soul theory. The poten-
tiality of kilesas means the capability of
committing the five great sins, i.e., matricide,
'parricide, etc., and the possibility of holding
strongly the three fixed views (Niya/a-di{fhi) ,
i.e., natthika-di{!hi: nihilism, aheluka-diUhi:
anticausationism, and akriya-dif!hi: anti-
moralism. The immensity of evil deeds
means that the innumerable evil deeds com-
mitted in the past arc always following the
personality of the worldling wherever he
goes, and that thc immense number of new
evil deeds arc also surrounding him to fall in
at every moment. How? Bearing in mind
the difficulty of attaining a manhood life
(manu.\sattahhiivo), we arc to understand that
a worldling has spent many myriads of
existences in the abodes of misery before he
had a chance of being n;born in tlie world of
men. Similarly millions of miserahle l i v e ~
precede the fortunate lit'e ofa deva, and many
ten-millions (koris) of life in miserable abodes
arc followed by a life of Brahnll\ only if
circumstance favours. So the more are the
evil existences, the greater is the immensity
of evil deeds. There are evil d e e d ~ which
have given effects and which are to give
effects if they get favourable circumstances
in one's own personality. There are also
many evil deeds which will arise in the world-
ling as long as he clings to self. However
he has also good deeds but they are as few
as the handful of sand while the evil deeds
are as much as the sands of the River Ganges.
Such is the immensity of evil deeds in an
individual who clings to self. What is meant
by "the open door of the four planes of
misery"? A puthujjana, though he be
fortunate enoug)1 to become a human being,'
is always inclining to the miserable existences
on account of the immensity of evil deeds
and clinging to self. Generally- speaking
many are those who are reborn in the four
miserable abodes after their death. It is
also the same with the Devas and Brahmas.
When they die they gradually fall into the
tortured states. These facts are expounded
in the Nakhasikha Sulla of the Samyutta
Nikiiya, in the fifth Chapter, Amakadhaf1l1a-
peyyiJIa of Mahiivagga Sari1yutla. If one
once falls int o the abodes of miserable ones,
it is very difficult for him to be reborn again
in the abodes of men. This fact is also
expounded in Biila-pa/Jrjita Sulla, in the
Suiiiiata vagga of Uparipa!l/Jiisaka, Majjhi-
manik iiya. So much for the Puthujjana-
"Rev: U Nyana,
Dcar Sir,
I have been deeply touched by the good-
ness and great kindness of the Maha Thera
in condescending to answer himself. and to
answer so fully the points I raise in my letter
to you concerning your traditional teaching
of the fiycfold Niyama. He has certainly
madc it very clear that. under ,. Dhamma-
ni)'ama," we have to understand a cosmic
la'w relating to causally-ordered c/hammii or
phcnomena; and not a cosmic la\\ of the
Saddhamma, the second of the Rallll/a//t! )'a-
dhammii which arc in Buddha!).hosas list,
"he/II" rather than "pari)'lIt1i," \\ ill you be
so good as to conyey my respects to him and
my sincere thanks for this kind messag.e, my
great satisfaction at hearing that his health
is restorl:d a nd my best wishes I'Ll!' t hc rl'cLwcry
of his sight and for his continuance in gOL)d
health ....... .
Yours Sincl'rely.
C. A. F, lUll'S DAVlD'""
.: .. : .. : .. : . .: ... :...: .. : .. : . .: .. : .. :.
- -
Translated into English by
Edited by
<L -I dd) " oN 'IA (OA
(1I-1 dd) 't oN 'A loA
.. rJllllU"'Ia 8Ifl fo 1'1
17 a'I.L .. 11.;04 palu!.IdaN
NalJlo Tassel Bhagal'olo Arohalo Somma Sambuddhassa.
Veneration to Him, the Most Exalted, the Purified, the Supremely Enlightened Buddha.
"Phe1)apiI)Qiipamam riipam, vedana
Marlcikupama sanna, sankhara kada-
Mayupamanca vinnanam, desitadicca-
...... Samyutta Nikaya- Khandha-vagga,
Phe1)api ndiipama-sutta. *
The Omniscient Buddha declared, 'The
Corporeality-Group resembles a heap of
foam which is devoid of Soul-entity and
essence; the Feeling-Group resembles water
bubbles which are devoid of Soul-entity and
essence; the Perception-Group resembles a
mirage which is devoid of Soul-entity and
essence; the Group of Mental Formations
resembles the trunk of a banana tree which
is devoid of Soul-entity and essence; and the
Consciousness-Group resembles deceitful
appearances produeed by a magician, and
which are devoid of S'oul-entity and essence.
Ajjhattika. Bahira.
Six Somatic Bases Six External Bases
Eye. Visible Object
Ear. Sound.
Nose. Odoul.
Tongue. Taste
Body. Body-contact
nan am, gandhayatananam, rasayatananam,
photthabbayatananam, dhammayatana-
Monks, the Six Somatic Bases- the Eye,
the Ear, the Nose, the Tongue, the Body, and
t.he Mind-base or Consciousness (Maniiya-
tana) are figuratively termed "a ruined
village". The Six External Bases-visi ble
objects, sound, odour, taste, body-impres-
sions and mental-objects are figuratively
termed "gangs of robbers who plunder thc
village. "
18 Psycho-physical Elements.
eye visible object
ear sound
nose odour
tongue taste
nose-conscio usness
tongue - conscious-
body body-contact body-consciousness
mana-dhiitu (mental-element)
dhamma-dhiitu (mental-object-element)
mana-viiiiiana-dhiitu (mind-conscious ncss-
'According to the Declaration "A ttana
sabhiivam dhiiretfti-dhiitu", as these
psycho-physical elements never act according
to the wishes of beings, but function accord-
ing to their respective natures, they lire
termed dhiitu (elements).
Dependent Origination.
Elem::nts and
The Nidiina-vagga of the Samyulta N ikiiya
Mind-base, Mental-object
- - . '.'Lokasamudayaiica bhikkhave desessami
(Manayatana) (Dhammayalana) lokanirodhanca, I. Kathaiica
"Sunnogamo sunnogamoti kho bhikkhave lakasamudaya? 1. CakkhuDcapaticcarii-
channetam ajjhattikanam ayatananamadhiva- peca uppajati cakkhu-vinnanam, tiJ)
canam; cakkhayatanassa, sotayatanassa, sangatiphasso, phassapaccaya vedana, veda-
ghanayatanassa, jivhayatanassa, kayayata- napaccaya taJ).ha, ta1)hapaccaya upadanam.
nassa; manayatanassa; gamaghatakacora ti upadanapaccaya bhavo, bhavapaccaya jati,
kho bhikkhave channetam bahrranam jatipaccayajaramara1)a sokaparidevadukkha-
ayatananam, riipayatananam, saddayata- domanassupayasa sambhavanti, evametasas
Sarhyutta Nikaya, khandhavaggasarhyutta, khandhasarhyutta, (5) Pupphavagga, (3) Phel)apiDQiipama
sutta. 6th syn: Edition ps 115.
** Sarhyutta Nikaya, sa!il.yatanavagga, sa!iiyatanasarhyutta (4) iisivisavagga, iisivisopama sutta.
*** Samyutta Nikiiya, Nidiinavagga sarhyutta, Nidiinasarhyutta,
6th syn: Edition. pg. 383.
(5) Gahapati vagga, (4) Loka sutta
6th syn: Edition p. 301.
2. Sotaiica palicca saddeca
sotaviiiiiiinam, tij)'ijam sangati

3. Ghanaiica paticca gandheca uppljjati
til}l}am sangati

4. Jivhaiica paticca raseca uppajjati jivhi-
viiliiinam tir:u;tam sangati jlha,so, p<!yyala;
Kayaiica palicca photthabbcc:l uppaj-
jati ka.yaviiiiianam tir:u;tam sangati phJsso,
6. Manaiica paticca dhanmeca uppajjati
manovifiiiiinam liQQJm .;angali phasso.
peyyala, dukkhakkhandilassa_amudaY0 hoti.
cvaiica bhikkhave loka samudayo.
II Kathaiica bhikkhm" lokanirodho?
Cakkhllfica pa!icca rGpeca lIppajjali cakkhu-
viiiiianam tiQQam sangJti phasso, phassani-
rodhii vedana nirodho, vcdananirodha tan-
hanirodho, taQha nirodha upadananirodho.
upiidaraninodhii bhvanirodho, bhavanirodha
jatinirodho. jatinirodha jara maraQ1 soka
parideva dukkha domanassa upaya.;a niruj-
jhanti; evamctassa kcvalass:1 dukkhakkhand-
hassa nirodho hoti; cvanca bhikkhave
2. SOlaiica paticca saddc ca uppajjati
sOlaviilnamlln, liQQam san!'.Iti phasso,
phassanirodha vedanii nirodho. vedanani-
rodha, laQhanirodho. taQhiinirodha uradana-
nirodho. upadananirodhii blnvanirodho.
bhavanirodha iatinirodho. jalinirodhu jara
maraQa soka piuidcva dUkkll:l donan:ls:;upa-
yasii nirujjhanli; evametassa kcvalassa duk-
khakkhandhassa nirodho hOli; evaiica
hhikkhave lokanirodho;
3. Ghiinaiica paticca gandhc ca uppajjali
!!hanaviiliiiinam. tinnarn s:i1ngati pilasso.
phassunirodha ved.inii nirodho, v.:Januni-
rodhii' tanhiinirodho. tanhanirodh:i upiidiina
. lana nirodha blla vanirodho.
jiiti nirodho. jiilinirodha jara
iMva dukk:la
; . evametaSS:1 kevalas;:1 duk-
.... If" holi, evafice bhik-
"'. . ,f\)1(tljiiro'dho;
U C'!:.:
S.I9:yaiica p:;qiecaphotthabbeca' upajjati
kiyavij}.UBadl ) i . tiQ,l)ll.m :J i
phassanirodhi vedaoi nirodho. vedanlniro...
dha, ,taQhi .. irQdho .ta9binirodhi .
nirodho, upadinli nirod.hi, ' &ha vanirodho.
bhavanirodhil jatinirodho, jatinirodha jarl
maral}a sou paridevadukkha donanassu-
payasa nirujjhanti, evametassa kevalassa
dukkhakkhandhassa nirodbo hoti; .evai'ica
bhikkhave lokanirodho;
6, Manaiica paticca dhamme ca uppajjati
manovifinanam. til}r;tam sanghati phasso.
pha;sanirodha vedana nirodho, vedanilni-
rodhcl tar;thanirodho. tar;thanirodha upadana-
niroJho. upadana nirodha bhavanirodho,
bhavanirodha jati norodho jatinirodhi jaril
marar;ta soka parideva dukkha donanassupl-
yiisa nirujjhanti; evametassa kevalassa duk-
khakkhandhassa nirodho hoti, evai'ica
bhikkhave lokanirodho;
The Buddha said: "I will teach you, monks,
the Origin of repeated birth and passing away
of beings in this world. I. What. monks. Is
the Origin ofbeings? On account of the eye,
and visible object. eye-consciousness arises.
Impression (Phas,'a) is the conjunction of the
three; through Phl/ssa, Vedallii (Feeling)
arises; through V('danii, Taf)hii (Craving)
arises; through Taf)ha. Upiidiilla (Grasping)
arises; through Upiidana. Bhava (Process of
Becoming) arises: through Bhava. Jail
(Rebirth) arises; through Jiiti, Jiira-marona
(Decay and Death). S ,ka (Sorrow). Parideva
(Lamentation), Dukkha (Pain). Domanassa
(Grier) and U piiyiisa (D.:spair) arise. Thus
arises this whole mass of Suffering.
2. On account of the ear and sound, ear-
consciousness arises. Phiissa is ' the con-
junction of the three; through Phassa, Vedana
arises; through Vedarlli, Ta"hii
through Taf)hti. U piidiina arises; . through
Uptidiina. Bhava arises; through Bhava,rJiiti
arises: through Jali. &kat
Parid!!va. Dukkha. Domanaysa and Upifllll
arise. Thus arises this whole' , - , ..I ....
. .,' ,,-. :;; .,' _. ,I'
Q( nose,and o4out..D4
conScIOusness anses.

l'ariell'm. Dukk fla. DOIIIG/ICIssa and Up(i),tis(/
rhlls Ihis wholl:: mass 0['
.t. On an'ounl of Ihe tongue and taste,
arises. Phassa is tOe
of the I hree: I hrollgh Phassa,
I '<,dallii arises: through I'edal/ii, arises;
t Tc/(Ihii. U ptidiina arises: through
Upiidtil/tl. Bhal'a arises: Ihrough Bhava,
Jiiti arises: through Jiiti. Jarti-marmJo. Soka,
Paridel'a. Dukkha. Domallssa and Upiiyiisa
arise. Thus arises this whole mass of
5. On account of the body and
bodily impression, body-consciousness arises.
Phassa is the conjunction of the three;
through Phassa, Vedanii arises; through
Vedana. TmJhii arises; through Tal)hii,
Upiidiina arises; through Upiidiina, Bhava
arises; through Bhava. jiiti arises; through
Jii/i. Jal'li-marana. Soka, Parideva Dukkha,
Domanassa and Upiiyiisa arise. Thus arises
this whole mass of suffering.
6. On account of mental element and
mental-object element, mind-consciousness
arises. Phassa is the conjunction of the
three; through Phassa, Vedanii arises; through
Vedanii, Tal)hii arises ; through Tal)hii,
Upiidiina arises; through Upiidiina, Bhava
arises; through Bhava. Jiiti arises; through
Jii/i. jarii-m:lran(l Soka, Parideva, Dukkha,
Domallassa and Upiiyiisa arise. Thus arises
this whole mass of suffering. This is the
origin of beings.
11 What , monks, is the passing away of
beings? 1. Monks, on account of the eye
and visible object. eye-cQ.nsciousness arises.
Phassa is the conjunction of the three;
through the extinction of Impression, Feeling
becomes extinguished; through the extinction
of Feeling, Craving becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Craving, Grasping
becomes extinguished; through the extinction
of Grasping, Rebirth becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Rebirth, Decay and
Death become extinguished, as well as
Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief and
Despair. Thus takes place the extinction
of this whole mass of Suffering. This is
the passing away of beirgs.
2. On account of the ear and sound, ear-
consciousness arises. J mpression is the
conjunction of the three, through the extinc-
tion of Impression, Feeling becomes exting-
uished; through the extinction of Feeling,
Cra ving becomes extinguished; through the
extinction of Craving, Grasping becomes
extinguished; through the extinction of
GrasplIlg, Rebirth becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Rebirth, Decay and
Death become extinguished, as well as
Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief, and
Despair. Thus takes place the extinction of
this whole mass of suffering. This is the
passing away of beings.
3. On account of the nose and odour, nose-
consciousness arises. Impression is the Con-
junction of the three; through the extinction
of Impression, Feeling becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Feeling, Craving
becomes extinguished; through the extinction
of Craving, Grasping becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Grasping, Rebirth
becomes extinguished; through the extinction
of Rebirth, Decay and Death become ex-
tinguished, as w(' l1 as Sorrow, Lamentation,
Pain, Grief. and Despair. Thus takes place
the extinction of this whole mass of suffering.
This is the passing away of beings.
4. On account of the tongue and taste.
tongue-consciousness arises. Impression is
the conjunction of the three; through the
extinction of Impression, Feeling becomes
extinguisehed; through the extinction of'
Feeling, Craving becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Craving,
Grasping becomes extinguished; through
the extinction of Grasping, Rebirth becomes
extinguished; through the extinction of
Rebirth, Decay and Death become extin-
guished, as well as Sorrow, Lamentation
Pain, Grief, and Despair. Thus takes place,
the extinction of this whole mass of suffering.
This is the passing away of beings.
5. On account of the body and bodily
impression, body-consciousness arises.
Impression is the conjunction of the three;
through the extinction of Impression,
Feeling becomes extinguished; through the
extinction of Feeling, Craving becomes
extinguished; through the extinction of
Craving. Grasping becomes extinguished;
through the extinction of Grasping, Rebirth
becomes extinguished; through the extinction
of Rebirth, Decay and Death become
extinguished, as well as Sorrow, Lamentation,
Pain, Grief, and Despair. Thus takes place
the extinction of this whole mass of suffering.
This is the passing away of beings .
6. On account of the mental element and
mental object clement, mind-consciousness
arises. Impression is the conjunction of the
three; through the extinction of (mpression,
nRM .... throU3h,the
th'e "of
of Grasping. Rebirth
through the extinction
Deca.y, and Death become
'ell as Sorrow. Lamentation,
Despair. Thus takes place
the of this whole mass of suffering.
away of beings.
L ''Cakkhuiica paticca rupeca uppajjati
cakkhuviiiililnam" On account of the eye and
viSible object, eye-consciousness arises. - 3
.2., "Sotaiica paticca saddeca uppajjalt
,otaviiiiianam" On account of the car and
sound. car-consciousness arises. - 3 psycho-
physical elements.
3. "Ghiinaiica paticca gandheca uppajjati
ghanaviiiiiiinam" On account of the nose and
odour,.nose-consciousncss arises. - 3 psycho-
physical elements.
4. "Jivhaiica paticca raseca uppajjati
jivhiiviiiiiiinam" On account of the tongue
and taste, tonguc-consciOUSI1l:ss arises. - 3
psycho-physical elements.
5. "IGiyaiica paticca phoHhabbeca uppaj-
jati kiiyaviiii'ianam" On account of the body
and bodily body-con;;ciousness
arises. - 3 psycho-physical elcments.
6. "Mananca p?.!icca dhammeca uppaj-
Ji\ti manoviniiahm" On account of m..:ntal
Clement and mental object dement, mind-
consciousI1C5S arises. - 3 psycho-physical
hus there are six triads making in all the
psycho-physical elements.
Here, Photthabba the combination
'Pathavi (the element of extension), Tejo
element of kinetic-energy) and Vciyo
'ttiifelement ()'f motion).
lliankJiataUlio,; mtf!
,hot' '0::'. -

.. '.,' , . ; : . : .
The Interpretatlon,\ of Duldcba-saeei (NoMe
Truth of SIiR'cring)
The four inherent. characteristics of
Dukkha-saccii are;-
1. Pifanattho -having the characteristic
of orpression,
2. S{!lIkh.7tallflO -having the characteri-
stic of production by a'
combination of causes ..
3. Santiipa!lho -having the characteristic
of continuously burning,
heat, fire.
4. Vipari1;liimauho-having the characteristic
of change,
Thus allY dhaln'l1a that has the -above four
characteri,lics is called Dllkkha-saccii. It
means lhat they are dangers much to be
feared by the wise. As all
lilHled physical and mental phenomena have
the above fonr characteristics, they are all
The interpretation of Samudaya-sacca (Noble
Truth of the Origin of sufferings)
The four cllJracteristics of Samu-
ela ya-saccli are:-
I. Aylill<lllat! fw
2. Nidiil/auho
3. Saml'ogallho
lJ. Pa/ibodha{{ho
-having tile characteristic
of accumulating what
would cause suffering.
-having the characteristic
of constantly supplying,
or bccom:ng a constant
ourcl! of - supply of
-h.lVing the characteristi
2. Pavivek4l1ho,
3. Amatalliw
-A state where there is no
more death . or dissolu-
4. Asankhatallho .,-haNing the characteFistic
of. the Unoriginated
Th1,ls any dhammf! that has the above four
characteristics is called Nirodha-saccii.
Nibblina alone has the above four
characteristics, so it is all Nirodha-iaccii.
The interpretation of Magga-sacci (Noble
Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of
. Suffering)
The four inherent characteristics of
Magga-sacca are:
1. Niyyiinanho -having the characteris-
tic of leading to release
2. Hetullho
3. Dassanallho
or deliverance.
-having the characteristic
of being a cause for the
. 'attainment of A rahat-
ship. .
-having the characteristic
of realization of the four
Noble. Truths, which is
not even, dreamt of in
. the (If Samsiira.
telliltivJ 06 __
tUieJilarc aU lfr __ 'fIII4"".
formed in
J . ";., , ""
2. By way of sovitipa, . . .
. 3.11y WIlY of vipari1,l/Jlntz; "
Any' 'J
burdens any being who clingsio. it iD:t.IiO
following manner:-
In the beginning, it burdens the beiag 'b,
way of sankhata, in the middle, by. way, of
sanliipa, and at the end, by way of vipari1)iima.
These three methods of burden in the begin ..
ning, in the middle and at the end, manifest
themselves as the state of pi/a,atlha.
I. The Burden of Dukkha in the Brahma world.
1. By way of sankhala at the beginning
To attain the five khandhas of the brahma
world (i.e. to be born in brahma world), one
has to practise for jhiina and samiipatti in
his previous existence. This endeavour to
attain such states is the heavy burden of
sankhata at the beginning. Such attain-
ments can be achieved only by one who lives
in remote places such as in forests and on
mountains, and takes severe austerities un-
bearable for an ordinary man.
2. By way of santiipa in the middle means:-
When a being achieves the khandhas of a
brahma as the resultant effect of his having
reached Samiipatli (attainments) while in
world of . men, his body and mind are
incessantly burdened .by the Superiority-
Conceit of 'I am' 'I am.' In the same
other evils, sucb as sassatadillhi
(Eternalist theory). t,lccheda-dillhi (Annibi
i theory), mada (intoxication with,
in. th,i! bra. hma
'pamiida' (neglIgence of. the dhanuna) arid)
burdening. him by
heat; fire). WbcQ., . ,
b.rsalmw 18

mind are the means of burdening him. As
long as that bralllna lives, the groups
(khandlza) which constitute his existence
produce all kinds of ddllements and will
burden him throughout his life.
3. By way of vipariIJtima at the end means:-
The phrase "In the end the being is burden-
ed by way of vipariIJiima (change)" means the
death or dissolution of the Five Groups of
existence pertaining to that being, and that is
his vipariIJama-dukkha (suffering due to
change). Because there is the dissolution
of that Braham's body, he will have to be
reborn in a lower plane-the Sensuous
plane. He may gradually go down till he
reaches Avid. He may be reborn as a
dog, a pig, a fowl, a bird, a mosquito a gad-
fly, a louse, a bug and so forth. Thus the
five groups of khandhas belonging to that
brah>na burden him by way of vipariIJama.
Therefore. that brahma's body is known
as Dukkha-saccti inas much as it has the
four characteristics- palina! fha, sankhatat-
tha, santtipa!!ha and vipariIJama!!ha.
II Burden of Dukkha in Deva World:-
In the six abodes of dl!vas also, the Five
Groups of existence found in any devas will
firstly burden him by way of sankhata, at the
beginning, by way of san tapa. in the middle
and finally by way of virariIJiima.
I. Sankha1a dukkha here the burden by
'sankhata' may be as follows:-
It briefly means almsgiving, restraint of
bodily and verbal actions, and restraint of
mental action. Only when one has performed
these wholesome deees in this present life,
will he be able to arise in the deva-plane in
his next birth and attain the body of a deva.
He will not be able to achieve such a state by
developing his Mental Groups only. By
giving away his property to others in charity,
a person who has wealth of a hundrcd Kyats
or a thousand Kyats m'ly be reduced to
poverty in a single day morality means
strict observance and restraint. If one does
not practise almsgiving and morality, he is
bound to be reborn in the lower worlds in
his next birth. So it is necessary to perform
these wholesome deeds to reach the cleva
world. Even when they arise in the happy
course or existence by virtue of their whole-
some deeds done in the previous existences,
if they have of1crcd on a small scale in thl:ir
past existence, they will have to It:ad :i.base
life in their present existence. The more they
practiced dtina and slla, the better positions
they will ::njoy in their present existence.
So people have to practice almsgiving spend-
ing a lot of money and also observe precepts
with great self-control, because they fear that
they may be low down in lower worlds in
their next existence. When they have to do
this merely because it is essential for their
future welfare, it is dukkha.
Anything that is performed compulsorily
is dukkna. If, without practising dtina and
slla, a bClOg were able to arise in the deve-
plane after his death, or if he were able to
arise in the brahma plane without practising
calm, who wouid care to perform such whole-
some deeds as dana, slla and bhiivanti. 2.
Santapa dukkha? Once the beings obtain
the bodies of devas in the deva planes,
great fire of passions rise up form the body
and burn that deva throughout his life.
Dosa, moha, Soka Parideva, Dukkha,
Domanassa and U ptiytisa, arise in his life
in the fullness of time. This is how a deva
is burdened by way of san/lipa.
3. VipariIJlima dukkha.
Again, while the devas are tbus enjoying
pleasures in the de va-plane, their span of life
expires, and Just like a big fire suddenly put
out by an external agency, these devas die
suddenly and generally they arise in the lower
worlds. In fact. their khandhas cause them
to arise in the lower worlds. This is how
the devas ar .. burdened by way of viparil)ama
Out of three ways of burdening at the
beginning, in the middle and at the end, the
burden of sankhala is very heavy for brahmas.
Because they are able to bear the heavy
burden of sankhala, the san tapa in the middle
becomes a little lighter for them. The
burden of vipariIJama also comes after a
long time. Their life-span is calculated in
terms of kappa (world-cycles).
In the case of de\'as in the 6 del'a-worlds,
the burden of sallkhata is not heavy. The
practice of duna and sila is a thousand time
easier than the practice ofjhiilla and bhiil'allii.
As the burden of sankhala is not heavy and
as kilesa have not even faded, the burden of
sail tap.? is very heavy when one becomes a
del'a. The fire of passion and sensous lust
arisen out of the 6 sense-doors burns those
del'lIs lip to the end of their lives. The
remaining fire of Iktikmcnts also burns when
\ ..... --. . .,-.. .. ---
. .
':'t I... ',,'
m. The BUrden of' Dukkba in the Human
W.Id:- .
In.>tbe case of men too, the mental and
physical-phenomena in their khandhas
burden them in 3 ways of sankhala, santiipa
and :
1. Sitiik/f.ta Dukkha.
As they have not to strive very hard in the
field, of sankhata, their burden of santiipa is
very heavy, and is a hundred thousand times
greater than that of a de va. Their time of
destruction too comes to them very quickly,
Their span of life is an infinitesimal fraction
of that ofa deva,
2. Santiipa Dukkha
How heavily the khalldhas of men arc
burdened by way ofsantdpa may be explained
as '
trouble of being conceived in the womb
o( .a .mother, the' trouble of having to be
bOrn. ;'!he . trouble of feeling warm when
residifig ih a warm region during the warm
weather, the trouble of feeling cold . when
residiflg: ina: \cool '. regibh dtJrfftg 'the ' cold
weaiJter,' thetroubfeof living in the torrid
.... oneselflo. the,Iieatof the
the blowjng' of, hot 'wind and
' ..... rroJ,bC .undel1aken bya cultivator to
those troubles for
his; JiveUl!ood, the trouble of
'a ,tovemment, the of
. '" ........ ..eiwc , duties, th,Urouble
'; .
, .
atislils':6titcW .
6f'sensuous Ute ,. n
or-' earning '"a livelihood' '.,
deeds, the trouble' of maintalniTli' Wi e'tiiilf
children, the trouble of
among people who pl'ofess a flnth InvO'ftJJ'I1
wrong views, thus dr:!gging him to the lower
worlds as long as he remains in that cJ,an IIf
nation, the trubles arising from self-mortifica-
tions by living near fire during the .' hot
season and by remaining in the water during
the cold season etc., which are fruitless and
are the practices of people of wrong views,
the trouble connected with diseases, bruises,
wounds and pains, and the immense troubles
caused by external enemies, such as water,
fire, thieves, rulers and those disliked.
Thus the burdens of santipa for human
beings, in the round of samsllra are various
and heavy. The body of human beings
burdens them in such a manner by way of
3, Viparil.liima Dukkha
The khandhas of men burden them by
1.liima. To have become a man is one
of the rare opportuinties, and even when a
being arises in the world of men, he is liable
to die at any moment from the time of
conception in the mother's womb up to the
end to the span of his life. '
Thus at the embryonic stage immediately
formed after conception, a being has the
appearance of a little drop of butter-oil scum
attached to a fine woolen thread. Then
follows the abbuda (an oval shaped tiny mass),
then the pes; (the lump of flesh), then the
ghana (clot), then the pasakha (off-shoots),
in which later stage, arms, legs etc. are
forming. In the whole of the Rounddf
Rebirths, being arises and perishes countless '
times 'in anyone of the abovementioded
stages of life. Thus khantlhos of men 'buriWl
them ' in the four ways;': ancl ' sO'! tids
purely Dukkha-sacca. ., " ,: " :,.:1,
IV. 11Ie . b*d.. Of'
\'-!/ ,I ,/J <' "I', lOwer ,1Iies{ '
11;\1 ':'11:'''' . ' "'. , )

" , .i<?fJl "

tq .' :<I
\ t J.J. r,; .. !iii
, ,
or beings take
perform evil
wishes and do not
while they c<;n enjoy
according to their inclinations,
burden of sallkhala consequences
said to be not very heavy; but by
the severity of the resultant effecb,
it may be said that its burden of sallkhata
consequences is very heavy indeed.
As regards the beings that ari,;e in the four
lower worlds, the BLdd:l<1 D.:claredthat it was
not possible to explain in ruli Il0W these
beings are burden..:d by salllapa. bccause they
are numerous and it would OC'CUp)' a grcat
deal of time. Tiley have been dJS<.;ussed
generally in the Samvega-vallhu.
Those who arise in hell will have the!r
bones, nerves, flesh, hearts. lungs, brains,
etc., all red-hot and tongue, of fire will
spring out of their skins. Thuo, they wil!
remain for hundreds of thousands, bullions,
trillions. and decillions of years. experiencing
intolerable heat. So lon<:( a'; their resultant
effects are not exhausted they will not be
free from such misery. In like mallner there
are myriads of beings who arc arising in th,;
various lower worlds, and who are sufTc"ing
there for decillions and deciilions of years.
(The Sallll'.'ga-valllw abo describe" the
salltap:d!lkkhe relating to the pelas, ghosts,
asuras (Den1Jns) and anima!s.)
3. VipariJ)ama Dukklza
Even if they happen to be reborn in the
world of men for many a time, in one out
of a hundred of such existences would they be
abie to encounter the BUddha Dhamma and
practise it. They would hold wrong views
or be vicious p.'ople in a greater number of
existences. EI'ii conduct in deeds, words and
thought. done by any being in an existenl'e is
incalculable. So, among worldly beings
existing in the present life, anyone being
possesses myriads of evil actions done by
him in the innull1C!rable past existences that
could drag him to hell.
Those beings who are destined to arise in
the hells. in the pela world and in the asum
world aiso myriads of old accumulated
unwhok,OIl1;! volitional actions; and the
same is ,he case with those who arise in the
planes oC clem:; and hrahmas.
If a being who dies from the world of men,
the clel'a piane or the hralzll1({ plane, happens
to be reboJ'll fo,' a lime in hell, all the
unwholesome kallllll,ls done by him in his
past existences will Ilave the opportunity to
play their parIs. One evil kamlna after
another wl)uld cause him to be reborn con-
tinually in the Com lower wodds and he would
not have an dpportunity to arise i!l the happy
course of existence in anolll.:r one thousand.
ten thods,!l1d or a hundred thousJnd
existences A being bound to be reborn in
the worlds I)y having performed a
comparativelv sll1all of cl'il action,
could ari-;e continllously for a great
nUlnbe( of' aeons due to his successive past
!,-(/III'I/:/S. The;'e are decillions and decillions
of such b:::ings who become 'rooted ill hell'
and who have no opportunity to arise in the
happy cOLlrse of existence.
Here ends tIl'.' brief exposition as to how
th.: being_ bdollging to the fOLlr lower worlds
are burdened by way of saillapa and
v //)(/ rtI /(/I/ W .
This aist) cxpl,\ins holV the khal1dlza of a
bcing in any one is burdened by
S({IIk/w/a, S(//t/I/lll and ripllri(lcilllll.
A lIlultililde 0/ Dukkha for Cultimtors.
The five Gwups of existence Corporeality
Gwup and Groups. of a cultivator
burden him by sal/k!/(/f(/. sal/tapa and vipari-
(lam(/. every hnur. every day every month
and every year.
I. Sal/khata Dllkkha.

. . ... corn,
lOnna com 'in the
of the corn thus stored,
\ of: the corn,
tlUoing"!Utht 'eVtI .,actlons as /oblta, dosa.
"" is.t6":' macchariya-aJl these
bttroen the cuitiwtor by santiipa.
... ", II
3. Yipari(UlmaDukkha. ,
, M'oreovcr, he is burdened by I'Ip;
daily, when he has to COsume his wealth,
thus ' I'educing' the amount. ' Here, one may
argue: "O"lr me destruction of property by
fire or water should be termed "burden".
The gradual decrease of wealth owing to
expenditure should not be tCI'med a
"burden". "This is an arguz.nent advanced
by utterly ignorant persons. If the crop
thus acquired by the cultivator be permanent,
i.e., it can never become .less and exhausted,
his one year's labour would be sufficient to
maintaiilrumpeacefully for the rest of his life.
Tbus he would be free from the trouble of
tilling the ground, again, etc. He would
even have an opportunity to live his whole
life speodinghis time in practising the Buddha
Dhamma and thereby attaining a great deal
of supramundane benefit. As it is, the crop
is not permanent, but impermanent. As the
crop becomes less and exhausted due to
'daily usages ' he is reduced to poverty and
dire straits. ' For that reasoD, when the next
rainy season has . to take the trouble
of tilling his laridand cultivating it. In thi"
manner he wi'll have to continue from year
to year tiUhe.becomes old and dies at last.
Although PIl;S the opportunity
of "tieCOming ill is. a rare oppor-
tunity, as ,he has net opportunity to hear the
powtise it, .hemisses

(oolish'" people
... _ ..... a, ... A.
It,U . S1ato rot

. '1
Wesen.t , (' >
tilling the sciil, etc: ,'111
are the same, whether one loses '
by spending for himself 0r by .
cd by fire or water; .: Ultimately tbey
the sensuous pleasures found 1n the 'wol'kl 'of
men, the planes of devas and
the thirty-one pia nes ,of existence as unsatis-
factoriness of life.
Those foolish people who have no such
kind of understanding would feel sorry , if
their. properties were destroyed by fire or
water, because they could not use them for
themsehcs, but they would not be sorry if
their property lessened owing to their own'
expenditure according to their will
pleasure. They would feel quite satisfied
with that. So long as one's does not
burn at. such wastage and deterioration; one
wit! never have a chance of escaping 'such
suffering. Only when one's mind is moved at
that, will one have a chance to do so. Then
only will one be able to realise the Groups of
Existence found in the world of men, the
dera plane and the brahma plane as suffering.
and not otherwise. Only if a person clearly
discerns the various grades of advantages
enumerated above, will he be able to realise
as suffering all the days, months, years and
world cycles he has wasted in many 'of his
past existences without reaping any benefit.
just like throwing water into the sand.
This'is the answer to the argument.
The above is the exposition how the crops
which are produced and exhausted yearly
burden a cultivator in three ways, sankhata,
santiipll and vipari1;liima.
Relying on this principle, discriminate and
understand how a being is burdened J>y
various kinds of suffering 'for days ahd
months continuously. Ponder over the
matter and understand how in this. cosmos,
earning wealth for one's livelihood and
spending money on food andclotqing are
bllrdening in three ways. Extend this ,to
tile of men; devas and who
llav.e ' enjoyed sensuous .'their
respective planes, by virtue of. their
done ,volitional actions in 'jcSP.t<:t
t>f giftSi men'111-
lfimldOl'iliS '4i2msarQ,' ,H , , ,
it is ple,!surable to the eye. When the
\ isible object is removed, the sense pleasure
to the eye disappears.
When the sound comes into contact with
the car-organ, it is pleasurable to the ear.
Whcn thc sound, is rcmoved, the sense
pleasure to the ear disappears.
The same principle holds good in the
cascs of nose and odour, tongue and taste,
body and tangible object, mental element
and mind object-clement.
Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there
arc 6 kinds of Craving: craving for visible
object" for sounds, odour. taste bodily-
impressions, menial impressio ns; and also
6 kinds of feeling: feeling associatcd with
seeing. hearing, smelling. lasting, bodily-
impression and mental-impression.
To feed the 6 kinds of craving, 6 kinds of
sense-objects have to be kept in readiness.
Those who arc following these sensuous
pleasures cannot get rid 0' t hem. These
sense objects are also subject to decay. So
kelings such as joy and mentally agreeable
kcling burden the bcings in all their existcnces
by sankhata, sail tapa and 1 hey
are not able to get out of tl1is pit of suffering
for many existences and world-cycles. Nor
arc they able to obtain the opportunity of
practising the dhamma which can lcad them
to deliverance. They only deviate from this
course and are tempted to follow the
previously mentioned disadvantageous ways.
The above is ti1e exposition as to how
beings arc continuously burdened by the
Five Groups of Existences at every hour and
at cvery moment. Highly obvious facts
have been sought and set out in thc above
exposition. Further exposition of vipari-
(lama Dukkha.
I now briefly explain the viparilJallla
dukkha alone.
In t!lis Sa/JISClra, suffering in the four lower
worlds is intcnsc. -I hose who know of it
)!n:atly drcad to rail there. As 1'01' those who
do nut know of it, they hav\: 10 sulkr there
for tlll:ir ignorance.
Ul1whoksome volitional actiol1s which arc
thc sc\:(i-; of' birth in worlds cling to
\{//,Uil'(/-di!!iIi bl!lil!f in a p\:rmalll:nt
Whl!n tillS .lIIk/"il(/-cli{!lIi\:sl: lIl1whokslll1ll.' vlliition-
al pow\:rful. WIll!1l th\.'y f'ad\.'
aWilY. those bad !'lIlIlIl/iI.\' also nld\.' away.
When this sakkiiya-di!/hi ceases, those kam-
mas also cease. For example, in introduc-
ing a light into a room, the flame may be
compared to evil kamma. When the fire is
strong, the light becomes bright, and when
the fire becomes weak, the light also becomes
dim. When the fire dies out, the light also
Although the beings with sakkaya-di{{hi
are bound for hell, they may know to some
extent the intensity of suffering in the lower
worlds, and they may perform evil actions,
simply because they are tempted by their
hellish element. What can be said then of
those people who are either utterly ignorant
of this or who maintain false views? Their
hellish element will play its part completely.
While wandering in the samsiira, there are
very few existences where a being can under-
stand what are evil actions and the dangers of
the lower worlds. There are a great number
of existences where they do not know about
it, or where they maintain false views . A
person in one thousand of his existences
might encounter only one existence where
he could differentiate between good and evil.
The explanation given so far is a point to
judge how much greater a being's unwhole-
some volitional actions would be, though
there may be many wholesome volitional
action!' done by him in his past existences,
and while wandering in this round of
Another point to consider is how much
greater a being's volitional
actions will be tl10ugh there may be a great
deal of w
1OIesome volitional actlons in his
future existc!lces, whilc wdndering in this
round of rcbi rths.
How beings have to wander in the Round of
Wholesome deeds such as almsgi\'ing.
morality and mental development p.:rf'ormcd
by worldlings are the action, don.: by
those who dread the dang.:rs of' hdl.
so that thl!Y may escape fron; slIch dang.:rs.
Evcn though they arise ill the plan.:s or mc'n.
dem.l' and I>I'UIlIlIll.l' according tl) the quantity
of wholesome \ olitional actions, tit':l arc'
always accompanied by my riads oi' old
accllillulalc'd 1111\\ hok'l)rl1c' !IIII/IIIIII.I' \.'l)l1pkd
with .\{/f,JI/I{/-di{(lIi. rhl, SIIf..ktiYII.dil!f!1I has
al'L'llinpanlc'd a hC'ing thlllighout hisc',i,tc'nl'C's
as man, clcl'II and hl'cllIlIIlI with the t\'solt l)f
- . - -
.. .' .
. , "... ,," ...... ..... .
multiplying more evil kammas in whatever
he may happen to arise.
wholesome kammas such as almsgiving,
morality and mental development performed
by anyone being in his past existences are
also subject to change (exhaustion-vipari-
They naturally fade away when they
cannot have any further effect.
The Groups of Existence found in men,
del'as and brahmas are also subject to decay.
It is the law of cosmic order that they must
dissolve at the exhaustion of their kammas
and the expiry of their span of life.
The groups of existences of those who are
enjoying sensuous pleasures in the planes of
human beings, devas and brahmas burden
them with death by way of As
soon as the vitality element is cut off, sakkiiya-
di{!hi latent in them causes them to be reborn
in the lower worlds. They then have to
sink in the ocean of suffering in hell which
they dread very much. As explained by the
Commentators previously, these beings will
have no chance to escape the hells and arise
in a higher plane even after a lapse of one
thousand or ten thousand existences. Only
after a very great length of time, will some
have the opportunity to arise in a higher
plane, the happy course of existence.
Some will only have a chance to escape
at the end of the world-system i.e. when it is
de5troyed. Then they have to arise in the
planes of men, devas and brahmas; and again
they who enjoy the sensual pleasures in these
planes are burdened by the Groups of
Existence by As soon as they
die in that state their sakkiiya-dit!hi causes
them to be reborn in the lower worlds. They
then have to sink in the ocean of suffering in
hell and have no chance to escape in a
thousand or ten thousand existences. The
sequences in this respect are the same as
mentioned above.
The above is the textual explanation as to
how beings wander in the Round of Rebirths.
Here, men, devas and brahmas may be
compared to victims, and the Groups of
Existence to the murderers; the Law of
Change may be compared to a very sharp
I n the khandha-vagga of the Samyutta-
Nikiiya,* the Buddha declared: "Corporeality
is a murderer, so too are vedana, sanna,
sankhiira and vinniina". According to this,
it is to be remembered that whenever beings
pass away, their respective khandhas play the
part of murderers. If we examine the causes
of all deaths, we shall find that there can be
no death unless there are dislocation, displa-
cement or change in the body. If there be
no such change, even if lightning were to
strike a person on the head, he would not
die. That shows that the khandhas of a being
are really murdering him.
Another interpretation. As people call
maccu the God of death which itself is Death
personified, the Law of Change
is again termed a murderer. The inherent
quality of the Law of Change found in men,
devas and brahmas cause their death. Thus
the khandhas of men, devas and brahmas are
alway receiving capital punishments, and
therefore are Dukkhadhamma (Suffering
All human beings, who are trying to take
refuge in the world of men because they fear
the dangers of hell are killed and caused to
arise in the lower worlds from time to time
by the Groups of existence and sakkiiya-
di!{hi . The same holds good in the cases
of de vas and brahmas. The khandhas
of beings that are subject to change are
murderers, and the unwholesome kammas
together with soul-belief are constantly
tending to drag them to the lower worlds.
In the cases of men, devas and brahmas who
have already got rid of soul-belief, although
they die through the agencies of their
khandhas, they are never reborn in the lower
planes, but in the higher planes of existence.
This matter will be fully discussed when we
come to the chapter on magga-saccii (the
Noble Truth of the Path leading to the cessa-
tion of suffering).
A question may be raised at this point.
"If what has been said be true, there should
be no inhabitants in the planes of men, dems
and brahmas. But that is not the case.
There are plenty of men in the world of men.
many devas in the deva-worlds and many
brahmas in the brahma-worlds. So, it may
be said that it is an unwarranted threat".
This is the kind of question raised by those
ignorant people who have not the slightest
... r"_ ..... _ ,..,." __ _
- "alllYULla I<nandhavlgga samyutta. (2) Riidhasamyu\ta, (2) Dutiyavagga,
6th syn. Edition. p. 159.
( I) Marasutta.
idea of the vastness therein of the four lower
worlds, and the density of population.
The. happy cou!'se of existence is very
extensIve, but the mhabitants are very few.
An abode of a deva or a bra/ulla is as big as
five or ten of our town ships. Their bodies
are about 3 giivulas high. Each of the
planets we see high abo\'e the sky is of
enormous dimensions.
The woeful Course of existence is also
extensive and the inhabitants there are im-
mensely numerous too. The number of
people in the world of men, and the number
of inhabitants in the 6 deva-worlds and the
20 bralllna-worlds cannot even be equal to
the number of a single kind of insect, say
ants. living in our country of Burma. In our
country alone, even besides ants there are
countless numbers of aquatic and Jand
animals. Just imagine how great would be
the number of those aquatic and land animals
residing in the big islands, small islands,
oceans. seas, mountains, rivers and lakes of
the world excluding those of Burma. Thus,
if the number of occupants in the 27 planes
of the happy course of existence be compared
with those in the animal world, it will be
found to be very insignificant.
Crowded in A vici Hell.
It is said in the Commentaries as follows:-
"There are 8 kinds of Hells, each of which
is as big as lambudipa and is about 1000
yojanas in extent. The lowest of these 8
'hells is Mahii Avid where the inhabitants are
packed to the full like mustard seeds in a
bamboo tube. All those beings who have
committed the evils of the deepest dye
usually take rebirth in Avici, the most
frightful of the many hells. If Avici alone
is packed so much, just consider how many
beings there will be in the 7 other major
hells and many other minor hells. Thus,
if compared with the inhabitants of a single
hell, the number of inhabitants in the other
27 planes of the happy course of existence
is insignificant. Extend this to the cases
of Petas (Ghosts) and Asuras (Demons).
Only the three kinds of wholesome kammii-
almsgiving, morality and mental development
cauSe a being to arise in the happy
cOurse of existence and only when a being
* Sillftyutta NikAya, MaMvagga Slrilyutta,
can objectify a wholesome kamma at the
moment of death, will he be able to take
in the happy course of existence.
On the other hand, if he objectifies an
unwholesome kamma at the moment of
death, he will as a matter of course be reborn
in the four lower worlds.
A countless number of acquatic and land
animals pass away in one day in Burma alone.
Of these very few would be able to objectify a
wholesome kamma at the moment of death.
There will be not even one in a hundred
thousand. The same is the case with all
beings in the lower worlds.
How can the beings who do not know
that is wholesome kamma, objectify such
kamma at the moment of death ? A being
who is reborn in the four lower worlds
usually takes rebirth there for many exist-
ences, and when his old accumulated
kammas wane, the apariipariya-vedaniya
kamma (kamma ripening in successive births)
comes into play and he has no chanc,e to
arise in the happy course of existence.
Those who are able to use logic and reason
and those who are ignorant, think that there
are very many people in this world. By
seeing the planets or constellations high
above the sky, they think that there are
many inhabitants in the deva-worlds. They
'have not the slightest idea as to how difficult
it is to have become a man. They have heard
the discourses about the blind turtle and the
yoke* and the comparison of the small piece
of earth on the finger-nail and the great
earth itself, ** but do not realise their truth.
This is the answer to the question raised
by an ignorant person as mentioned above.
Here ends the exposition as to how the
beings who wander in this round of rebirths
are burdened by the groups of existence to
show that this is purely dukkha-sacca (the
Noble Truth of Suffering).
Here ends the exposition on dukkha-saccl.
Saccasarilyutta, PapAtavagga.
** Sarilyutta Nilcilya, Nidinavanasalilyutta, Opammasatilyutta
6th SVll. Edition. p. 397.
(2) Nakhasikhasutta. .
6Ua aya. Edition. p
, .1:.,
I shall now expound the four different
interpretations of the word 'Samudaya-
sacca'. 'Samudara' means 'the cause of
ever continuing t'his psycho-physical process
of existence'. It also means 'the cause of
ever continuing the unsatisfactoriness of life',
Thert;. is no more continuing of this psycho-
physical process of existence after the death
of an Arahat who has ovcrcome all kinds of
craving, and there is no morc continuing of
suffering in him. Therefore it be
definitcly understood that craving is the
origin of ever continuing the arising of suffer-
ing in the lives of all bein[!s, throughout all
of their existence. In the world there is
kiima-tafJhii (sensual craving), and those who
overcome this era \ ing are free from sail/' hata
(that produced by a combinatiQn of causes),
santilpa (burning), (change) and
suffering connected with the maintenance of
their wives and children. Those who strive
for sensual pk'a5ures are burdened by the,e
til! their Althoufh they have had
the rare opportunity of attaining manhood
during the Bllddha's Siisana, to encounter
which, also, is another rare opportunity, they
have no opportunity to add to the glory of
Learning of the Doctrine and Practice of the
Dhamma. As thev have sown this seed of
craving, the off'-sh-;"ots and branches in , the
of 'desire t(l accumulate wealth',
desire to b\! handsome and good-looking',
'desire' to be wealthy', 'desire to with
others". which ,are but the expansion of
. !!pring f?rth , endless!y.These
. of crav1l1g haye , their relevant
111 each: '''flcnkhata,
, . .. 'PiP . si-

, 'fa tb t
.... .;

for tastes), ' phollhabba-lat)/W (ci.'Yifls
bodily impressions,)dhamma-ta1jha (cravmS
for mental impressions). i' These :cravi'ngs
having four interpretations',in
24 interpretations in all. Rilpa-Io"hil means
craving for pleasant visible objects. For
these objects beings cannot be free from the
burd::-n of sankhata, santapa and Vipo,t"iima.
How? It is in this way:- This craving by
way of iiyuhana (the fever of unsatisfied
longing) forces beings to strive and find ever
fresh delight. They have no desire to get
rid of .stlch delightful objects; This craving
is also expanded in the following ways:-By
way of nidiina (foundation; origin; cause),
they incline to have more and more pleasur-
able objects and enjoy more <lnd more. They
have no contC'ntment of mind. By way of
san/yoga (union; association} they desire
always to be a%ociated with these pll!asant
ohjects. '/ he\' have not the slightest idea
to part with these pleasurable objects. By
way of palibadha (obstruction; hindrance;
impediment). they prevent beings from
parting with tllest: pleasant objects, and also
obstruct the source" of tranquillity of mind.
They do not allow beings to 8!t<lin calmness
of mind obtained bv not mingling with thrse
objects. Thus craving for visible objects
causes beings to sustain suffering by
functioning in these four ways.
'fhe holds good for craving for
sounds, etc. Dhnmma-ta11hii means
craving for vedaniikkhandha (Feeling
Group), sannpkkhandha (Perception Group),
sankharakkhandha (Group of Mcnud
Formations) and l'iiiniilJ1kkhandh'a tCon-
sciousness Group) found in a perSon's life 'or
in the lives of his dear ones .
.. Another way .There are
kinds of They are , (l)
kDma-lal,lhD, (2)bhaJla-talJhii,
la(lh,ii. .: ,KiimfiHqoha , Q:aying' .fpr

'Ra-vms delight ,in
fdlati<n(' llt'fl. .
: ...
palatabk and not very easy to swallow.
When we add ghce, butler, fish soup or beef
soup to it and when we eat it with pork or
chicken, then only can we eat tastefully,
In the same manner, the consciousness of
beings of thc Sensuous Planes, having been
incessantly mixed with such 'burning' things
as sensuous lust, ill-will, etc. , arc very arid
and hot. When thcy have no opportunity
to come in contact with external objects,
they at once bc,'ome monotonous,
and devoid of interest. Just as a dog be-
comes irritable and restless when an ulcer in
its body is eaten by maggots, these cravings
also cannot rest for a moment, and havc to
run immediately aftcr an external object, or
after one of their associates. Only when
these cr<!vings are constantly associated with
external objects, can the agreeableness of
consciousness of beings become conspicuous.
The more attractive are the external objects,
the better will be the state of
of beings.
Thus, beings experience sensuous pleasures
in association with external objects and enjoy
the status of Sakka, the king of de vas,
worldly kings, wealthy persons, de vis,
women, etc,. in the Sensuous Planes. When
they are kept away from these external
objects, they become drowsy and bored.
Then the craving which may here be compar-
cd to a burning fire, arises and longs for
external objccts. To satiate its hunger, it
has to be fed. So, in accumulating the com-
bustible substances for this burning craving,
we find that myriads of cvil actions my-
riads of sufferings accompany the lives of
these beings. This craving is called Sensuous
Craving. This sensuous craving always
murders beings by sinking them in the
ocean of suffering, while the beings of this
Sphere are striving hard for the
maintenance of their wives and children and
also to earn a livelihood. Just as water that
runs down the steep hills, into the river and
carries all dry twigs, branches and leaves
down to the ocean, this never-satiateo
craving carries to the Four Lower Worlds
all those worldlings and men of the Sensuous
Srhcre, who arc not living according to
the Buddha, Dhalnlll(/. 1 his is the exrosition
on SelJsuous Craving of tl'e Origin of
'rhose wise reorlc .who understand the
work of thiS burning craving treat tillS Sen
Sphere on the same level as the four
lower wor lds, discard their properties, become
samana.\' and practise Calm in the S0
that they may be free from such suffering.
The ml!al that is cooked on the JOlipasiJlJo
(a burning glass made of crystal) used by the
Northern Islanders is very deliciou:; anu
palatable. It is comparable to those
delicious dishes of ghec, butter, pork and
chicken found in our country, and if our
dishes happen to be mixed with that meal.
the latter would lose its taste and delicacy
altogether. Thus the union of the two will
have to be much feared. Similarly, one
attains jhiina which is free such
hindrances as selhuality and ill-will.
Detached from sen'will objects, detached
from unwholesome states of miild, he enters
into the first JhiinD, which is by
thought-conception and discui'sive thinldng,
is born of detachment and filid with r"pture.
External obiects are obstacles to him. The
craving for 'such jhiilla, or the arising in tht:
bruhmii plane in the next birth by virtue
of such ihiina, is called bhava-lil!lhrl, Under-
stand the Origin of Suffering in relation to
the bhava-1alJlrii in the same way as has been
explained in the previous chapter where the
suffering in the of constituent Groups
of Existence contained in Brahmiis has been
The ex.position of the origin of suffering in
relation to the vibh[[l'a-lal1hii which is
associated with micciIadi!!hi (wrong belief) is
not !!iven here, as it is not necessarv to be
expl;ined in the Buddha's S.lsa'lG. .
Here ends the exposition of S'Ill1Ildava-
sacca (the Noble Ti'u'h Gf th: Origin' of
Of the four of Ni"ocll",-w(,(\7 (til':
Noble Truth of the Ccs,alion of Suff':i'ii1!!)
and four aspects of ,H:tgga-sacm (th,: Nub!.:
Truth of the P<lth leading to the Cess'llion of
Suffering) both of which arc atlain:lblc and
enjoyable by SOft/"OI/I/:/s (StreamwinIlCfs),
I shall now de:1I with the latter iiI'S!. ,\ $ has
been eXj1lained ber,He there :Ir.:- f,)ur illl,'r-
of ,\/aggll-StI(\'lI. TIl.:-\ :lr.:-:-
(I) lIil'dllllrlm (rekas.:-, ddiwr
an.:,'), (2) h"(/I{(ht> (sllit:IOdity f,'r
the a ttainment of
(3) das\'aI/t1{ho (reali 7 ation of the
truth), (4) at/hipalt'Y.J'a(ho (sover-
eignty; ppwer).
Of thl:sc. 1 shall c\.pound how Sotiipanna\'
are able t{' attain and enioy the niy)'cI'lG{ho
aspcct of the Nob:c' Truth of the Cessation of
Suffering. Whcn a person attains Sotapatti-
magga (the of Stream-\\ inning), mic( lla-
di!!hi (WInng Undrrstanding) lind \'icil,icrha
( Doubt) that him c(me
to an end. All his ar"lll1;lIlatcd old
some /.:allllll(lS and those unwholesome actions
that have been performed bv him in the
life and :lre to take drect in Sl'CCI s,ive
births or future becomr ineffective.
He is thus free from falling to I!pcl)'o-Slltnsara
(rebirth in the Lower Worlds) for ever. At
most he will have to W311(
er in the Happ>
Course of Existence, SUC!l as the world of
men, del'a-planes and flrahlllc( planes. Even
in those planes, never wOllld he arise as one
who commits evil actions and who leads a
bad mode of living; nor \\ou!d arise as
one who is deprived of power, wealth and
glory. He would only arise as one who is
endowed with gloJ") , v. ealth and
power. It;s the Law of Cosmic Order that
such a being would never be rehorn in a
plane lower thnn he has arisen in, after his
passing away from the pre,;"nt plane. If
he so desi:'es, he can take rebirth in the same
old plane, or hc can arise in :1 highcr rlane.
Tn this manner he wantlers in the Happy
Course of Existence for many a worid-cycle.
Although sotapanllas wunder ill the Happy
Course of E.\istence. unlikr the ordinary
worldling, they d,. not drift nlong the
current of S(lIiIsi/(I and arc not destined to
take rebirth in tl'e Lower Worlds. From
the moment they attain thc Path of Strenm-
winning. they are delin:reo fr<llll sllch e\ils as
saH aJar/if (hi (Personal i ty-l'el ief). ricik icchtl,
r/ucarita-durrljira (bil aJld bad liveli-
hood), and i.para-dIlUl;a. and ha\c thus
attnined sa-lipiidi-.Isa/Jihhiill/!* (the Ful:
pf Defilements \\; 111 the Groups of
E.\isknce sti'l 1 he)- then wander
ill til;! ClilIr'e of Existence as Ar(J'as
(Noh!e Ones) ""ho to the Supra-
munen):\! Sphere. Aftcr \\ancieripp in the
planes of human beings. Del'Gs and Bralimas
I\hen th..:\' d0 not to wander any morc
in the H,.ppy Coursc of Existence, th.'Y attain
anupadisesa-nibbiina (the Full Extinction
of Defilements without the groups
remaining, or thr 'no-more-continuing' ()f
this psycho-physical process of
This is the as to bow Sotarwllllas
gradually risr till attain anupiidi-se.w-
nfbbana. This is the definition of niy),all(l!hf).
The above shews the exposition of the as)1ect
of niyyana!(ho attained and cnjoyed by
2. Below is the explaration of asprct
of hetu!/ho (having the charactcristic of being
a cause for the attainment of Arahatship)
atu:ined and enjoyed by SOh7pm://t!.i. From
the mcment the Sotc7palll1aS attain the Path
of the inherent qualities of
the Holy Ones ever exist in them. and they
become stronger and stronge .. in sl:cceecling
existences. The qualities of morality
establi,hed by thcm gr-::at, r llnd
greater. So too are the pov,ers of their
samiidhi (Concentration of mind) und pG/i,ia
(wisdom). So <llso are lhc powers of satipat-
/hc7na-dliamma (Four Applications of Mind-
fulness). samapparlhana-dhamlJll7 (Right
Exertion), iddh i-pc7da-dhall1 111 a (Roads to
Power), indriya-dhaml1lil (Faculties), hala-
dhamma (Powers), bojjhallga (the 7 lin ks
of Enlightenment and lI1aggallga-dhall1l11u
(the Noble Eightfold Path). The dcvelop-
ment of such powers in one existenec after
another is known as hetuttho. The above ie,
the e\position of the aspect of hetllf/ho
(suitability for the attainment of Arahatship)
attained and enjoyed by Sotapallnas.
3. Now comes the aspect of dassalla{ho
(realization of the truth) attained and enjoyed
by Sotapannas. From the moment the
Sotapannas attain the Path of stream-\\ inning
up to the time of their attaining al/-upc7di-
sesa-llibbana, while they arc wandering in the
Happy Course of Existence, they have 110
perplexity of mind in regard to the
of the Four Noble the Noble Truth
of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Origin of
Suffering, the Noble Truth of the
of Sl.ffering anci the Noble Truth of the Path
leading to the Cessation of Suffering. When-
ever they contemplate these Four Nobk
Truths, they at once them vi\ idly.
just as one can distinctly see the pbnets arid
constellations high above the sky. This is
the exposition of the aspect or" clm.I(/l/a/flo
* tw.) in to of In the it is w.':<1 on1v in
of (//'0'/;11<' in til: cas". as here by the Venerable Lcdi Savadaw. it is used in r or "II r,,"r ,I ';
of holin:ss. I word is usC'J only in respect of a"uhal< appears to be more suitable in n:spcct ()f
the remainin!, three.
Thus they are free - from the
'acciltrlUlatiofl, (i)f meriC' 'c-alkd
kh'4ra! They have . attained the highest
ilmongstall the mundane Kammas
milldsbecome as eure as a highly
polished ' conch. These all help them to
attain anupiidi"seso"nibbiina.
the exposition of the aspect of
a4i1ipaleyra{/1O attained anJ enjoyed by
Now I shall expound the four aspects of
Nirodha-sacc{J (the Noble Truth of the Cessa-
tion of Suffering), whidl itsdf is
Nibbcina. There are four aspects of Nirodha-
sacca. They are: (l) niswran{JI{JIO (h:lVing
the characteristic of being an escape), (2)
pavivekattho (having the characteristic of
being free from disturbance ), (3) amatal!hv
(a state' where there is 110 more d<'<llh -Of
dissolution); and {Jsallkhalil!ho (having the
characteristic of the Unorig:nated' Nibbana).
The supramundane sphere of such SVlti-
pannas as VisiikftiJ AnathapilJ(/it.a, and
decillions .of Holy Ones in the Del'a-countries
of Calu-mahiiriijika, Tii.atill1sa, etc. may be
compared to the Great Silo Ocean situated
at tM foot of Mount Meru. Dl-cillions and
deCillions of such Noble may be
compared' to decillions and decillions of
fishes living in that gr('at ocean. In what
respect db they resemble them? It is in this
manner That Great Silti Ocean situated
theYuganda' Mountains is very
mmenselv deep. The water in that
diminished, nor is its
ray'Of the' suil. The
. even a . peacock's
will' sifSk to the bottom
ids the
Ocpan llCed not
getting diminished: ' .. these:.Q1itipamiw
nCH r fea losing , aUrunmerit l
Full Extinction of Defilements with ", the
groups of. existence still remaining.... Just
as the water of thaI Great Ocean is not
ed by the rays of the sun, these Soldpannas
who have ,lttailJf!d SU-IIptidi-sesfl-nii>Mna will
not be polluted Wilhll11Y Defilement ' ot
threatened with the dangers of wandering -in
the Saril.fiira, howe\ el Ion!! they .may have
to wander in the Happy Course of Existl.nce,
and they need not fear thatP.:r-;onality-belief
will accompany them any more.
Just as thc fishes in the Great Ocean need
not bc anxious about the water of the ocean
getting \\arm at any time, tiles\:
also need not be about the defile-
mcnt, which they haw dispelled by
means of the P:lth and Fn:ltion of the streain-
winning. Just as fishes in the
Ocean 'need not be anxiolls about the watet
of the ocean gelling dirty, so also the
pallllas need not be nnxi()us about their state
being polluted with wrong views. sceptical
doubt, evil actions, bad livelihood and hellish
kind' Qf: qlJcstioqis raised by one
who does not realise the greatness and
magnificence ofNibbiina." .
These Sotopailhas, artcr passing amongst
heavenly and bllman beings for a great length
of time finally become Arallafs, and the
Nibbiina they are then to attain after getting
rid of the grollps : of existence is called
AnupOdI-sesa-nihb(lna. This Nibhiinu is not
within the scope of 5,otiipallll{ls. and so
in expounding the by
SOUl pannas.. Anupiidi-se ,a-llirbiill a is not
meant thereby. and therefore not dis(;Usscd.
l. The . nissara(1at{ho (having the
characteristi..: of being an escape) aspect
attainoo and enjoyed by SOIc7pOlliJaS means
the following: (i) kilesa-Ya!{11 (escape t'r"om
the circle of the most evil headed
by "Wrong Views" and "Scrptical Doubt"),
(ii) karnma-valfo (escape from the circle of
unwholesome kamma such as the ten kinds
of evil conduct in deeds, words, and thought,
and also the bad mode of living), andCiii)
vipiikal'af!u (escape from the <;ircle of being
reborn in theFourLower worlds.)
As regards. WMiqlings, although they
wander in the round of rebirths kings of
men, kings, of devas or kings of brahmiis, as
they have not yet attained the state of escape
from ' the: round of rehirths, havc to
wander ' in' it,entangling with wrong views,
sceptical doubt. evil t"onductand bad liveli-
hood . wJUchwo.uJd cause them to arise in the
fOUr IQwet '; . '. ..' .
" I " ,I, 1'J . ".! " ..::,111, '. ; ." -_0 .
lHere eddalthe ,:";"'saanat(ho.
. - .J' 1 . _ "-

.".... '.,
, _."',., ... .,J.: ;!; . :",'c ..
3. Asmikhatatlha " ,;;.;
Bi!low is the 'exposition of asmihhntattJia
(having the chmactaistic of the
ed" Nibbdl/a). f
The Sa-lIp(u/i-I'esa-nihhiina attahed ' by
Sotc7pannas is nc\a destroyed and- <;0 it i"
eternal. That the caSl', it is free from
the trouble of it up anew. There is
no more trouble of diving into the pit of
suffering again to perform alm.,givirig in
the cndeav(lur to attain Nihhllnll. There is
no more suffering for them to practise
morality and also to kad the life ora sallial,lrl.
The state of thc UnoriQ'inakd. UncrcatecL is
callcd the (Jsmikhil!lil!illi aspcct attained. and
enjoyed by SOIl/I'll/lilliI'. Th-:y, Iwwever,
practise alm,;giving, morality and mental
development for the rurpusc of
dispelling some delilcments thal lie latent
in them. They need not worry about
personality-bdief. sceptical doubt and the
ten kinds of evil actions which have already
been extinguished.
Here ends the exposition of asatikhatattha.
4. Amatat{/ul (a state where there is no
more death or dissolution.) '."
another khandha may come, but the state of
Sa-upadi-sesa--nibbiina will go on, and so it
finally merges into An-upiidi-sesa-nihbiina,
Although t hese Sotiipannas may wander in the
round of rebirths for many a world-cycle to
come, they need not fear the loss of the
Cessation of Suffering which they have
experienced and realised. From the moment
t hey attain the path of stream-winning lip to
the time they attain full NibbiinG or
Anupiidi-sesa-nibbiina, this state of Sa-upiidi-
sesa-nibbana remains as the refuge and
dependence of the counties; of
Sotapannas. This state is termed the amata/-
lha (a state where there is no more death or
dissolution) attained and enjoyed by Sota-
Here. ends the exposition of amatat/ha.
The above is the exposition on the four
interpretations of Sa-upadi-sesa-nibbiina.
The same holds good for the four aspects
of Nibbana attained by Sakadligiimf,
Anagami and Araha/s.
(I) The four aspects of the Noble Truth
of Suffering are the functions of pariFiFiii
Full comprehension).
(2) The four aspects of the Noble Truth of
the Origin of Suffering are the functions
of pahiina-pariiiiiii (full overcoming;
(3) The four aspects of the Noble Truth
of the Cessation of Suffering are the funct;ons.
of sacchikarm:za (realization or seeing face to
(4) The four aspects of the Noble Path
leading to the Cessation of Suffering are the
functions of mental development.
If a person fully comprehends and realizes
the four aspects of the Noble Truth of Suffer-
ing, he will automatically realize the twelve
remaining aspects of the Noble Truth of the
Origin of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the
Cessation of Suffering and the Noble Truth
of the Path leading lO the of Suffer-
ing. Moreover, the four of th.: Noble
Tr uth of Suffering are included in the three
characteristics of existence-the characteris-
tic of i mpermanence, suffering and
selfl essness. These four aspects arc als.:>
withi n t he orbit of characteristic of Suffering.
Of the four in1erprl'lations of the Noble
Trutr of Suffering, (change)
IS itself characteristic of impermanencl!, If
t hese fou r of the Noble (' ruth of
Suffering fall within the province of the
characteristi cs of impermanence <lnd suffe r-
ing, they wi ll also be included in the orbit of
cha racteristic impersonality. So, when one
fully comprehends the thre.:: characteristics
of suffering and self-Ies<-ness,
he also fully compiehends the sixteen ..lspects
of the Four Noble Truths, as has been px-
plained before.
'Etesu lisu lakkhanesll ekasmim ditthe
itar',dvayam diqham' neva hoti, Tena
vull'UTI, anicca-sanl1ino anatta-
saniia santhaliti.'-Anguttara Commentary.
(When one ful!y comprehcnds anyone of
the three characteristics of existence, he also
automatically comprchends and realises
ihe remain:ng two chamcteristics. The
Omniscient Buddha declared:" 0 Meghiya,
if one realises one of the three characteristics
of existence, he automatically realiso;:s the
remaining two.")
Of the three characteristics, the characteris-
tic of imDermanence is the fundamental one.
The who'le affair of the characteristic of
impermanence is nothing but marGlJa (death)
which means the continually repeated
dissolution and vanishing of all physical and
menL.d phenomcna and that these
phenomena do not l'lst even for the time
occupied by a wink of the eye, he
ly fully comprehends and realises the charac-
teristics of suffering and self-less-ness.
How? It may be explained as follows:
If one realises all physical and mental in his body continually a'1d
repeatedly dissolve and vanish at every
consciousness-moment, will he haye
any attachment for his body and take
that a, pleasure? Or will he also take it
that this body is soul-essence?
The above clearly shows that of the
ics of ex istence. the cha ractcnstic
of impermanence is the most essential.
If one realises the func1ioning of
the chara-::teristic of impcrmal'cnec in
corporeality out of the five eon"litllent
groups of cxistencl', he is able to attain the
Path of A/lagami (Nl'ver-relUrtll!r). On the
other hand, if he realises the Llt1cti,)ning of
the four mental format ions 01t\ of tilt' t- ktHal
Gt\)lIP, he is able to attain tlh' Path and tllC
Ffluition of Am/lllllll ( H,l\incss),
These two thl!oril!s haw fulh tll'l'n dtsl'uss-
ed withPej/i and its dl!lInition In thl' t-t.lnual
of A/111m DipII/li.)
[ -ttil

of -A StHlihbtfjra' " and _ fully
,mprehendiriB -,', rOUf 8$pectsiof Noble
Truth of the Pa leadin!( to the "Cessation of
Suffering Ilnd the Noble Truth of the
tion of Suffering, should get instructions from
a competent teacher on the full mterpreta-
tions and aspects of the characteristic of
impermanence, and having studied them
cons.:ientiously, should practise Vipavsanii-
bhawmii through the medium of the charac-
Here the concise Catusacca-drpanr, or tbe
Manual of the' Four Noble Truths, comes to
a close. It was written at the Letpandauns
Hill, Monywa, at the request of Ple1dcrs
Maung Kyaw and Maung San Lin, for the
benefit of who to know the
sixteen interpretations of the Four Noble
Tmths and who desire to honour the Tea'b-
ing of the Buddha. It. was finished
during the Vassa of 1265 Burmese Era
(July 1903 C.E.).
Translated into English by
Edited by
Reprin ted from" The Light of the Dhamma"
Vol. VII, No.1, (pp. 11-19)
Vol. VII, No.2, (pp. 5-21)
Vol. VII, No.3, (pp. 15-33)
Vol. VII, No, 4, (pp. 7-17)
MahiIthera Led; Sayadaw, Aggamaluipat'cjita, D. Lilt.
( Translated from the Burmese by U Sein Nyo Tun, late of the Indian Civil Service.)
Hamo ta.JSa bhagavato arahato sammiisari1bllddhassa.
(Veneration to the Exalted One, the Worshipful, the Omniscient.)
The Venerable Ledi Sayadaw's works are
well known in Burma. They are widely known
because they are clear expositions of the
Buddha-Dhamma couched in language easily
intelligible to an ordinary educated Burman.
Yet, the Venerable works are not
meant for an absolute beginner in Buddhist
studies. There are many technical Buddhist
words which require a certain amount of
previous foundation in Buddhist tradition
and pract ice.
The Venerable Sayadaw's exposition con-
tains many technical Pali words which are
used by him as if they were ordinary Burmese
words. Many of these words have been incor-
porated into the Burmese language either in
their original Pali form or with slight varia-
tions to accord with Burmese euphony. These
are words which Burmans have made no
attempt to translate, but have preferred to
absofb them into the normal usage of the
Burmese language. I have, similarly, made
no attempt to translate many of them into
English in the present translation. I have
used these words in their original Pali form
though in all such cases an attempt has been
made to append short explanat0fY footnotes
in order to facilitate continuity in reading.
Though the translation is not verbatim,
yet a careful attempt has been made to
render as nearly a verbatim translation as is
in the circumstances, ha\ing regard
to differences fn the construction ('fsentences
between English and Burmese, to difftrences
in the manner of presentation, and to the
Venerable Sayadaw's penchant for sometimes
using extremely long sentences.
Many of the sub-headings and sub-titlca
are not in the original text, but have beeD
introduced by the translator in order to
assist the English reader.
The Venerable Sayadaw was a prolific
wrikr. His works number over a hundred.
Each of these works was written at the
specific request of one or more of his
innumerable disciples, either as an answer to
certain questions put to him, or as in the
present case, to expound certain important
points or aspects of the Buddha-Dhamma.
135, University Avenue,
Sein Nyo Tun.
In compliance with the request of the
Pyinmana Myo-ok Maung Po Mya and
Trader Maung Hla, during the month of
Nayon, 1266 Burmese Era (June 1904 C.E.),
I shall state concisely the meaning and intent
of the thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhammas
(Facton leading to Enlightenment).
Four C1as8es of Indil'iduals:
It is stated in the Puggala Pai'liiatti (the
Book of Classification of Individuals) and
the A nguttara j..jikaya that, of the beings
who encounter the siiSllniis (Teachings) of the
Buddha6, four classes can be distinguished,
1. Ugghii/itaiiiili,
2. Vipalicitaiiliu,
3. NeJ'ya, and
4. Padaparama.
or these four l'Iasses of beings,
U,ghii/iIUli/ii'i is an illui .. idual who
* Abhidhamma Pilaka, Pussala Panftalli, 6th Syn. Edn.
** SUltanta Pilau, Al'Isuttara NikAya, Calukka-niplita, pase 452, Sixth SYD. EdD.
a Buddha in person, and who is capable of
attaining the Holy Paths and the Holy
Fruits through the mere hearing of a short
concise discourse.
A Vipancitannu is an individual who has
not the capability of attaining the Paths and
the Fruits through the mere hearing of a short
discourse, but who yet is capable of attaining
the Paths and the Fruits when the short
discourse is expounded to him at some
A Neyya is an individual who has not the
capability of attaining the Paths and the
Fruits through the hearing of a short dis-
course, or when it is expounded to him at
some length, but is one for whom it is neces-
sary to study and take careful note of the
sermon and the exposition, and then to
practise the provisions contained therein fer
days, months, and years, in order that he may
attain the Paths and the Fruits.
This Neyya class of individ\1als can again
be sub-divided into many other classes
according to the period of practice which
each individual finds before he
can attain the Paths and the Fruits, and
which further is dependent on the paramfs
(Perfections) which each of them pre-
viously acquired, and the kilesas (defilements)
which each has surmounted. These classes
of individuals include, on the one hand, those
for whom the necessary period of practice
is seven days, and on the other, those for
whom the necessary period of practice may
extend to thirty or sixty years.
Further classes also arise, as for example,
in the case of individuals whose necessary
peroid of practice is seven days, the stage of
an Arahat may be attained of etTort is made
in the first or second period oflifc,. \\hich no
more than the lower stages of the Paths and
the Fruits can be attained if etTort be made
only in the third period of life.
Then, again, putt ing forth etTort for seven
days means exerting as much as is in one's
power to do so. If the effort is n()t of the
highest order, the peroid (,f fl(CCSf<q'y (tTcrt
becomes lengthened according to the laxit)
of the effort. and seven days m:1y become
seven years or longer.
Irthe etTort during t his life is not sufficient ly
intense as to enable one to attain the Paths
and the Fruits, then release from worldly
ills cannot be during the present
Buddha Sasana, \\hile release during future
Buddha Sasanas can be obtained cnly if the
individual {flccunters them. No relea,e
be obtained if no Buddha Sasanii is encoun-
tered. It is only in the case of individuals
who have secured niyata vyakarOlJa (sure
prediction made by a Buddha), is an encoun-
ter with a Buddha Sasanii and release frem
worldly ills, certain. An individu21 who has
not attained niyata vyakarOlJa cannot be
certain either cf enccuntering a Buddha
Siisana or release frem worldly ills,
even though he has accumulated sufficient
paramfs to make both these achievements
are considerations in respect of
those mdividuals who possess the capabilities
of attaining the and the Fruits by
putting forth effert for seHn days, but who
have not obtained niyata l'yiikarOlJa.
Similar apply to the cases of
those individuals who have the potentiality
of attaining the Paths and the Fruits by
putting forth effort for fifteen days, or for
longer perieds.
A Padaparama is an individual v.ho,
though he enccunt(rs a Buddha and
though he puts forth the utmost pNfirle
effort in both the study and practice cf the
Dhamma. cannot attain the Paths ard the
Fruits within this lifetin;e. All that he can
do is to accumulate habits and potentials ...
Such a person cannot obtain frem
worldly ills during this lifetime. If he dies
while practising samatha (Calm) or ripassanii
(Ins ight), and at trin s rebirth either as a human
being or a dew in his next existence, he can
attain release from \\orldly ills in that
existence within the present Buddha Siisan!.
Thus did the Buddha say with respect to
four classes of individuals.
In the same Pi takas referred to above.the
Buddha gave another classification of beings,
dividing them into three classes :;cccrding as
t hey resembled three kinds of sick persons.
The t Ilree kinds of sick persons are:
* Three pn!lods of life are usually Vil., youth, and old Ollie.
Please see page 721, Visuddhimagga by
** Va .. nll: habits and potentia ...
(I) A pl;rson who is certain of regaining
health in due time even though he
does not take any medicine or treat-
(2) A person who is certain ef failing to
make a recovery, and dying frem the
illness, no matter to \\-hat extent he
may take medicines or trcatrr.(nt.
(3) A person who will recover if he takes
the right medicine and treatment,
but who will fail to recover and die
if he fails to take the right medicine
ilnd treatment. These are the three
kinds of sick persons.
Persons Who obtained niy(1{a vYiikarcr;a
(sure predict icn by a Buddha) frc m
previous Buddhas, and "'ho as wch are
certain of obtaining rel<ase frem ",erldly
ills in this life, resemble the first class e f
sick persons.
An individual of the Padaparama class
resembles the second class of si ck
Just as this seccnd class c f si ck p(H(n b :s
no chance of recovery from his illness,
An individual of the padaparama class has
no chance of obtaining release from worldly
ills during this life. In future lives, howevCf,
he can obtain release either within the
present Buddha Sa,ana, or within future
Buddha Sa,anas. The story of the youth
Chattamal)ava,* of the frog who becc:me
a del'a, and of the ascetic Saccaka,"
are illustrations of persons who obtained
release from worldly ills in their next
following existences within the prrsent
An individual of the neyya class resembles
the third class of siek pc rwn. Just as a
person of this third class is related to the
two ways of either recovering or dying frem
the sickness, so is a Neyya individual related
to the two eventualities of either ebt2ining
release frcm worldly ills during the pru(nt
life, or failing to ebtain wch
Vimana Vatthu, p. 76, 6th Syn. Edn .
Vimana Vatthu, p. 73, 6th Syn. Edn.
If such II Neyya individual, knowing what
is good for him according to his age, discards
what should be scanhes for the
right tc,lehn, and obt<lins the rifht guidn:ce
from him and puts forth stIfficicnt dfcTt, he
can obtain release from worldly ills in this
very life. If, however, he becomes zddicted to
wrong views and wrong ways of cenduct, if
he finds himself unable to sensual
pleasures, if although able to disc2Td
pleasures he dees not obtain the guidance of
a good teacher, if although obtaining the
guidance of a goed teacher, he is un!1ble to
evoke sufficient effort, if although inclined to
put forth effort he is unable to do so threugh
old age, if although young he is liable to
sickness he cannot obtain from
worldly ills in this present life. King Ajata-
sattu, .... the miJlionaire Mahadhana's
son, ...... Bhikkhu Sudinna, ...... are
cases of persons who could have obtained
release from worldly ills in this present
King Ajatasattu failed to obtain release
because he had committed patricide. It is
stated that he will drift in future sarhsora
(round of rebirths) fer two aSGlikheyyas (unit
follwed by 140 ciphers) world-cycles, after
which he will become a paccekabuddha
(Solitary Buddha).
The millionaire Mahiidhana's wn indulged
himself so exceEEivtly in semml! pleasures
during his youth that he was unable to attain
tranquillity of mir.d "'hen he grew older.
Far from obtaining frem worldly ills,
he did not even get the opportunity cf
associating with the Ti-Ratanas ...... ..
Seeing his plight at that stage, the Buddha
said to Ananda: "Anandii, if this miJlio-
naire's son had become a bhikkhu in my
sosanii during his youth or first period of his
]ife, he would have become an Arahat and
would have attained Parinibbana ... * ....
in this present I ife. If, otherwise, he had
become a bhikkhu during the second period
of his life, he would have become an
Anagami, and on death
would have been reborn in the Suddhiil'osa
*** Sllttanta Pitaka, Majjhima N,kaya, Mlila-pat:lt:lasa, pp, 288-299, 6th Syn. Edn.
**** Samaiii'iaphala Sutta published by the Union Buddha Sa sana Council. Please see the Light of tbe
Dhamma, Vol. V-No 1 .
.... * Dhammapada Commentary, Book II, Story Q. See also Khuddaka-Nikiiya, Peta Vatthu, paiD
216, 6th Syn. Edn .
..... ** Vinaya Pitaka, Piirajika, p. 13. 6th Syn. Edn .
..... ** Ti-Ratanas-: The Three Jewels, vi., the BLlddha, the Dhamma, the S:ttigha .
........ Full Nibbana. The death of an Arahat is known as attaining parillibbaua .
*** ..... A Non-Returner to the Karna-Iokas.
hrahma toka, * whence he would ha\'e attained
parinibbiino. In the next alternative if he
had become,a bhikkhu in my sasana the
begll1nmg 01 the third pcrcid eflife, he wculd
have become either a Sahdagami ** or a'
Sotapanna, *** and would have attained
permanent release frcm r. birth in the apaya
lokas."****_ Thus said the Buddha to the
Venerable Ananda. Thus, although, he (the
Mahadhana's son) pcsses>cd
paral111 Tlpe enough to make his pr.esent
eXistence hIS last existence, net being a
person who had. secured m)'ata I'Jiika rCIIJa,
he to obtam release from worldly ills
III 11Is present life became of the upheavals
caused by the defilements within him ('nd
this is despite the fact that he had the cpp'or-
tunlty of encGuntering the Buddha Sa,ana.
If furt.her, his period of existence in the apiiya
tokas I s prolonged of evil act s dene
in this existence, he wculd not be able to rise
aga!n and emerge out of those apiiya tokas
III time for the siisanii of the future Metteyya
Buddha. And, after that, the large numbrr
of world-cycles that follow nre world-cycles
where no Buddhas c:ppear, *.*11* there
being no world-cycles within the vicinity cf
the present world where Buddhas nre due to
appear. Alas! f8r indeed is this millioDoire's
son from release from worldly iJls even
though he posscssld piircnii ripe en0ugh to
make hiS present existence his Inst existence_
The general opinion current at the prcEent
day is tha.t, if the paramis 8re complete, cne
cannot miss encountering a Buddha ana
even if one does not wish to do so, and that
one'sreJease from worldly ills is ensurcd even
though one may not desire such re1eaEe.
These people fail to pay attention to the
existence of Ili),ata (cne who has obtained a
sure prediction m2de by a Buddha) 2nd
aniyata (one who has not obtained a
prediction m2de by a Buddha). Considering
the two texts from the Pitakas mentioned
above, and the story of the million<:ire Maha-
dhana's son, it should be remembered that
ani),ata l7e)'ya individunls can attain
from v.orldly ills in this life cnly if they put
fo}-th efrort, (\(n if they
paraml sufficient to enable them to cbtain
such release. If industry and (frert rre
lacking, the Paths and the Fruits cannGt te
attrined within the present Bucdha SUfCna.
Apart frcm these clas,es of pn,cm. tl. (Je
are ah:o an mfJnlte number cf C2ther beings
who, lIke the ascctlCs Alara ard
Uddab, ****** wfFcieilt rare 1111
for re!case frcm v.orldly ills, tut \\110 :0
not get the epportunity. t(e< we they
!1appen to be m one or the othn of the eight
mepportune plrc(s H***U It IS not possible to att,in the Prt1.s
and the :fruits therecf.
ends the part showing the division
of bel ngs In t 0 f cur and three classes 2cce rding
to Puggala Paiiiiatti of the Abhidhzrr,ma
Pi!aka and the Anguttara Nikaya of the
SuttiiJ1t a Pi la ka.)
Necessary Conditions of Practice for Nena
and Padapararna:
Of the four classes of jndividuals men-
t ioncd, the Vgglia{itcfiiill and the VI/aiicitMiiiu
classes can att3in the Sctapalti-rrrua (F,th
()f a Stream-winner) and the ether higher
st2ges cfwisdorr-like Visiikhii ad Ar,atha-
pil)Qika ********-threugh the mere hearing
of a discoune. It is net necu,alY fer !ouch
indi vidals to practise the Dharrma 2ceord-
ing to the stages of such as sila
risudclhi (Purification of virtue), cillal'isuddhi
(Purification cf ad EO en.
Be it remembered that this is al,o the ea,e
when deras and brahmiis attain relc8se frcm
worldly ills.
Hence, it sheuld be noted that the courses
of practice, such as silo-l'isuddhi and citla-
I'isuddhI, laid dov.n in the PaJi Canon, are
only fcr the Neyya and Padap'arama classes
* The 'Pure Abodes', are a group of 5 heavens belonging to the Form-Sphere, where only the Never-
Returners are reborn, and in which they attain Arahatship and Nibb5na .
.. The 'Once-Returner.'
*** The 'Stream-Winner.' See page 5, Ibid.
**** Apaya lokas: The four Lower Regions. They are: the animal wortd, the ghost-world, the demon-
world and hell.
***** SuiHia-kappas: "Zero" world-cycles.
* u* Suttanta Pilaka, MJjjhima Nik5ya, MiJlap:1ll1.dsa, PJsarasi Sutla. p. 220, 6th Syn, Edition,
........ Digha Nikiiya Pathika-vagga. Su:ta, page 248, 61h Syn. Edn.; Anguttara Nikaya III
Al\haka-nip5ta, Sutta, page 60, 6th Syn. Edn. (i) paccanraro-a border district "here
the Buddha SUsana not flourish: (ii) An;pillo -the four Brahma planes of
Formless-sphere; (iii) Vilalillgo - person, wilh congenital defeels such as idiocy, etc.' (iv) Amliliosallo
--a brahma plane of Form-Sl1hcrc of (v) Micch,idillhi-birth among pwpJc
holding wrong views; (vi) Peta world; (vii) Tiracchtlna-the animal world; and (viii)
******** Dhammapada Commentary, stories relattng to verses I and 18 .
. -.: .' . .
. . . .
f individuals before their of the
)t. plltti-mngga. 1 courses of PUlct icc
rc .11:0 for the first three classes of indivi-
dU.ll prior to the achievement of the higher
tng" of the Paths and the Fruits. In the
period after the attainment of
courses ofpracticc are used for the
purposc of dif{ha-dhamTlla-sllkharihiira*
dling at ease in this present existence),
S\ll\:C Arahats have already gone through
After the passing of the first thcmand
years (of the present Buddha Sasana), which
const ituted t he times of the Palisarilbhidhii-
patla Arahat (Arahat possessing Am\lytical
Knowledge), the period of the present Buddha
Sasana comprises the times of the Ne)'J'a and
Padaparama classes of individuals alone.
At the present day, only these two classes
of individuals remain.
Of these two classes of individuals, an
individual of the Neyya class can become a
Sociipallna in this present life, if he faithfully
practises the bodhipakkhiya-dhammii com-
prising salipallhiina (four Applications of
Mindfulness), sammapadhiina (Right Exer-
tion), etc. If he is lax in his practice, he can
become a SOliipanna only in his next existence
after being reborn in the deva planes. If he
dies while still aloof from these (bodhipak-
khiya) Dhammas, such as satipallhiina, etc.,
he will become a total loss so far as the
present Buddha Sa sana is concerned, but he
can still attain release from worldly ills if he
encounters the Sasana of the next Buddha.
1)lIdllparamll-puggala extant:
An individual ('/ the l'(.daJ1aun:(J class (an
at!: in v.itliin tl C I'll!! rt Ju('<il.a
aftn nbilth in the dem pJ;.lICS in his
nc:xt if he can (. ith!ull}' pl. cthe
these (bodJ.i[aJ..J..hiya) DJwnmas in his
present (;xistence.
The Age of Ariyas (Noble Ofi(!s) still:
The five thousand years of the present
Buddha Sasana constituu', all of them, the
Age of Ariyas. This Age of Ariyas will
continue to exist so long as the 1ipitakas
remain in the world. 1 he Padaparama class
of individuals have to utilise the cpportunity
afforded by the encountering of the present
Buddha Susana to accumlate as much of the
nuclei or seeds of Piirami as they can within
this lifetime. 1hcy have to accumulate the
seeds of sila (Morality), They have to
accumulate the seeds of samiidhi (Concentra-
tion). They have to accumulate the seeds
of pannii (Wisdom).
Of these three kinds of accumulations, sila
(Morality), samiidhi (Concentration), Panna
(Wisdom), _the seeds of sila mean: Panca
Sila, ** A}iIO{!hamaka Sila, *** Af!han-
ga Uposalha Sila,**** Dasmiga Sila!****
in respect of ordinary laymen and women,
and the Bhikkhu Sila****** in respect of the
The seed!. of samiidhi mean the efforts to
achieve parikamma-samiidhi (Preparatory
Concentration) through one or othn of the
forty objects of meditation, such as the ten
kasiIJas (meditation dnices), cr. if further
----. I;;;n- Arahat the knowledge of his freedom, and he realises: "Rebirth is no more;
I have lived the pure life; I have done what ought to be done; I have nothing more to do for the
realisation of Arahatship." Thus he lives at ease in this existence.
** The Five Precepts. They are basic and constitute the minimum which every man or woman must
observe. They are: abstention from killing, stealing, improper sexual intercourse, telling lies. and intoxicants.
*** The three constituents of the Morality-group of the Eightfold Path. when comidcrcd in detail
become Ajiratthamaka sila (Morality consisting of the practice of Right Livelihood) in the f"lIowing way:
I. J will 'abstain from taking life. 2. I wiU abstain from stealing. 3. I will abstain from indulging in
improper sexual intercourse and taking intoxicant drugs .. 4. 1 wiH abstain .from teUing lies. 5. I will
absta;n from setting one person against another. 6. I WIll abstaIn from uSing rude and rough words.
7. J will abstain from frivolous talk. 8. I will abstain from improper livelihood.
**** The Eight Precepts are: Abstention from (I) killing, (2) steating, (3) unchastity. (4) lying. (5)
inl'Jxicants (6) eating after midday, (7) dancing, singing, music and shows. garlands, scent, cosmetics
and adorn';'ent etc., (8) luxurious and high beds.
***** The Ten Precepts. This is the polished form of AI!hasila.No. 7 of the Eight Prccepta ia split
into two and No. 10 is 'abstinence from accepting gold and silver.'
****** Bhikkhu Silit: Thc four of Parisuddhi-sila are:-
(J) Restraint with regard to the 227 Yinaya Rules.
(2) Restraint of the senses.
(3) Restraint with regard to onc's livelihood.
(4) Morality with reiard Ie the 4 requ.isitc8.
The sfieds of panna mean the cultivation
of the ability to analyse the characteristics
ad qualities of rupa (Material Phmcmma)
(Mental khandha (Con:
stituent groups of eXIstence), iiyarana (Bases)
dhiitu (Elements), sacca (Truths), and
paliccasamuppiida (Dependent Origination)
and the cultivation of insight into the
cbaracteristics of existt:nce (Iakkha!)a),
namely, anicca (Impermanence), dukkha
(Suifering), anarra (Impersonality).
Of the three kinds of seeds of magga-iiiilJ
and phala-iiii1)a, * sila and samiidhi are
like ornaments that permanently adorn the
world, and exi steven in the suniia world-cycles
that is, world-cycles where no Buddha arise.
The seeds of sila and samiidhi can be obtained
at at any time. But the seeds of panna,
which are related to nlpa, niima, khandhii,
ayatana, dhiitu, sacca, and pa/iccasamuppiida
can be obtained only when one encounters
a Buddha Sasana. Outside of a Buddha
SAsaM, one does not get the opportunity of
even hearing the mere mention of words
associated with panna, though an infinite
number of 'suiina' world-cycles may
elapse. Hence, those persons of the
present day who are fortunate mough to be
borp into this world while a Buddha Sasanii
ftpucisbes, if they intend to accumulate the
.eeds of magga-iiii!)a and phala-iiii(la for the
of securing release from worldly
a future existence within a future
)lDlkULa Sasana, should pay special attention
knowledge of the paramarrha**
realities), which is extremely
to come across, more than
accumulation of the seeds
In the least,
an insight
PrJlnlirie. (maho.-

. obtain a
paMii whiehare Q105t lIiflli .... H
and is so even 1hough they
acqwre any knowWlge of the other .J)Olrtic:ni
of-the Abhidhamma. It 'Can then be said that
the difficult attainment of rebirth witlliD
a Buddha Sasana has been made wOl'ihwhile.
Sila and samiidhi constitute Carana while
pannii constitutes Vijjii. Thus are vijjii:carOTJO
and Conduct) constituted.
Vljfa resembles the eyes of a human being,
'YhIle .resembles the limbs. Vijja is
like eyes In buds, while cara!)a is like wings.
A person w?o is endowed with Morality and
ConcentratIOn, but lacks Wisdcm, is like one
who possesses' complete and whole limbs
but is blind. of both (yes. A person who is
endowed WIth vijjii (Knowledge), but lacks
(Conduct), is like one who has goed
eyeSIght but is defective in his limbs. A
person who is endowed with both vijja aod
cara!)a . is like a noramlly whole person
possessmg both geed eyesight and healthy
limbs. A person who lacks both vijja and
cara1Ja is like one defective in eyes and limbs
and is not one worthy of being called a liviDi
5-ll Soddham'n(l (Th;: seven attlibutes of
good and virtuous men);
2-15 Four Jhiinas-First Jhiilla, Second
Jhiina, Third Jhiilla, and Fourth
These fifteen dhammas are the property of
the highest j!lllllaliibhi (Attainer of Jhiil/as).
So far as sukk!wripassaka (practising Insi"ht
only) individuals are concerned, they
possess the elc\"en of cara(1G dhal1lmas i.e.
wit hout the four JI/(Illas.
For those persons who look forward to
meet ing the next Buddha Sasana, diilla, sila
IIposarha, and the seven saddhammas are the
Those persons who wish to attain the Paths
and the Fruits thereof in this very life must
fulfil the first eleven cara(la-dhamlllas, i.e.
sila, illdriyasarnvara, bhojallematlaniiutii,
jiigariyalluyoga, and seven saddhammas.
Herein, sila means Ajil'allhamaka lIicca sila
(Permanent practice of Morality ending with
right livelihood), Indriyasarnvara means
guarding the six Sense-doors-eyes, ears,
nose, tongue, body and mind. Bhojanemat-
fafiiiutii means taking just sufficient food to
preserve the balance of the corporeality
group in the body and b-:ing satisfied there-
with. means not sleeping
during the day, and sleeping only during one
pel ;od (of the three periods) of the night,
practising bhiivanii (Mental Concentration)
during the other two periods.
Saddbamma means:
1. Saddha (Faith),
2. Sati (Mindfulness),
3. Hiri (Moral Shame),
4. Ottappa (Moral Dread),
5. Bahusacca (Great learning),
6. Viriya (Energy; diligence),
7. Panna (Wisdom).
For those who wish to become SoUipannas
during this life, there is no special necessity to
practise (Ajmsgiving) . . But .let those
who find It IInab1c to evoke suffiCient effort
t owards acquiring the ability to obtain
release from worldly ills during the pr.::sent
Duddha Sasana mak.:: special attempts to
practise dana (Almsgiving) and uposatha
(Precepts observed on Fasting Days).
Order .of Practice and Those Who A''ait the
Next Buddha:
Since the work in the cast: of thos.:: WllO
,depend on and await the next Buddha consists
of no more thln acquiring accumulation of
piirami, it is not strictly necessary for them to
adhere to the order of the stages of practice
laid down in the Pa!i Texts, viz., sila, samiidhi
and pannii. They should not thus defer the
practice of samiidhi before the completion of
the practice of sila, or defer the practice of
pannii before the completion of the practice
of samadhi. In accordance with the order
of the seven rislIdrihis (Purifications), such as
(1) Sila-viSlIddhi (Purification of Virtue), (2)
Citfa-riSllddhi (Purificltion of Consciousness),
(3) Diflhi-visuddhi (Purificltion of View),
(4) KarikhiivitararJa-visudrihi (Purification by
Overcoming Doubt), (5) Maggiimaggaiiii-
r;adassana-l'isuddhi (Purification by Know-
ledge and Vision of What is and What is
Not Path), (6)
(Purification by Knowledge and Vision
of the Way), and (7) IViilJadassalla-l'isuddhi
(Purification by Knowledge and Vision),
they should not postpone the practice of any
course for a visuddhi until the completion of
the respective previous course. Since they
are persons engaged in the accumulation of
as much of t he seeds of piirallll as they can,
tht>y should contrive to accumulate the
largest amount of sila, samiidhi, and paiiiid,
that lies in their power.
Unnecessary to Adhere to the Prescribed
Order of Practice:
When it is stated in the Pi:li Texts that
citta-visuddhi should be practised only after
the completion of the practice of sila-risuddhi,
that di{{hi-l'isuddhi should be practised only
after the completion of the practice of citta-
visuddhi, that kalikhiil'itara(w-l'isuddhi should
be practised only after the completiOl. of the
practice of di{{hi-visuddhi, that the work of
anicca, dukkha, and anatfa bhiirallii (Contem-
plation of Impermanence, Suffering and
Impersonality) should be undertaken only
after the completion of the practice of kan-
khiivitarafJa-visudc1hi, the order of practice
prescribed is meant for those who attempt
the spr.edy realisation of the Paths and the
Fruits thcreof in tllis very lifc. Since those
who find it unable to call forth such effort.
and arc engaged only in the
accumulation of the seeds of {/lirOllli, are
persons occupied in grasping wlhltevcr
can, it should not be said in their case
that the work of s(}III.7tlw II/Cll/(}siklir(l cilla-
vislIddhi ( th.:: practic.:: of of
Consciousness conSisting of adwrtence of
mind to tranquillity) should not b.: under-
taken bdore the fultilmcnt of sila-l'isuJJiu.
the noble
the Dhamma, and
They should be induced to
as much as is in their power,
Chllr8cte:rls'tjc of Joathscm(n(ss in one's
body. should be urged to contemplate
the liability cf onesc:lf and all Cf(aturu to
death. I have come across the case of a
leading fisherman who, as a result of such
encouragement, could repeat fluently from
memory the Pali Text and 'n;ssaya' (word for
word translation) of the Abhidhammatha
Satigaha, and the Paccaya Niddesa of the
PaUMna (Book of Relations), while still
following the profession of a fhhnman.
These accomplishments conslitute V<ry geed
foundations for the acquisition of vijjd
At the present time, whenever I meet my
41yakd updsakds (lay disciples who cont!ibute
to a Bhikkhu's upkeep), I tell them, In the
true tradi tion of a Bhikkhu, that even though
they are hunters and fishermen by profession,
should be ever mindful of the noble
ities of Three Jewels and three
ch:!U'8cterisltics of existence. To be mindful
ble qualities of the Ti-Ratanas
' :I'ribllcn::.ternJ constilutes the secd of cara1)Q.
of the three chracteristics of
----.:. ... s the seed of vijjd. Even
n!l:rlf'rrnen should be encouraged
to..,nrlctl!le of mind. They
is improper for
"'."".'.'A advertence
should be
:--. .-----,,., should
results can be IIcllie"td
(Purification of
ever be the intensity
the uninformed ordinnry folk are bt'JIlWlea
such statements. Thus has
tarliya (Danger to the Dhamma)
These persons became they do not know
the nature of th; present times, will JOEe the
opportunity to attain the seeds of l'ijjd which
are attainable only when a Buddha Sasani
is encountered. In truth, they have not yet
attained rel('ase from worldly ills are
still dtifting in samsura (round of rebuths)
because, though they have. occas!onally
encountered Buddha Sasanas In thelT past
inconceivably long san/.lura \\here
Sasanas more numerous than the grams of
sands on the banks of the Ganges had
appeared, they did not acquire the..fcundation
of the seeds of vijjd.
When seeds are spoken of, there are seeds
ripe or mature enough to sprout into healthy
and strong and there are many
degrees of ripeness cr maturity.
There are also seeds that are unripe or
immature. People \\-bo do not know the
meanings of the passages they re::jtil or w.ho
do not know the right methcds of
even though they know tbe meaDlng,
who thus by cust-om or tradi
and count their beads while I"'JII"'JI .
work of contemplating the
of the Buddha, and
anatltJ; possess seeds I! -.aJ:cJ :,YRlfJR\j
By micchadhammas that are likely to cause
dhammantaraya is meant such views, practices
and limitations as the inability ito' see the
dangers of samsara, the belief that these
are times when the Paths and the Fruits can
no longer be attuined, the tendency to defer
effort uTltil the paramis ripen, the belief that
persons of the present day are dri-hetuka, *
the belief that the great teachers of the past
were non-existent, etc.
In this world, there is a certain person whO'
plans to become a bhikkhu. If anothet
person says to him, 'Entertain the intention
only if you can remain a bhikkhu all your
life. Otherwise, do not entertain the idea',
it amounts to dhammantaraya.
"Cittuppiidamattaliz pi kusalesu dha11ll1lesIl
bahiipakiirOliz ladiimi."
(I declare that the mere arising of intention
for the performance of meritorious deeds is
productive of great benefits). ****
Thus did the Buddha preach.
To disparage either the act of dana (Alms-
giving), or the performer of ,feilla, may invoke
puiiiiantaf(lya ***** on oneself. If the acts of
Moralitv, Concl!ntration and Wisdom, or
those \vho perform them ar.: disparaged,
dhammalltariiya may be invoked. If pUlinan-
tariiya is invoked, one is liable to be bereft of
power and influcnce, of property and riches,
and be abjectly poor. in the existences or
lives that follow. If dhammantaraya is
invoked, one is liable to be defective in
conduct. and defective of sense, and thus
be utterly low and debased in the existences
or lives that follow. Let all beware!
Here ends the part showing how the rare
opportunity of rcbirth as a human being can
be made worthwhile, by ridding oneself of
the micchii-dlzammas mentioned above, and
putting forth effort in thiS life to close the
gItes of the ap'l),alokas (four Lower Worlds)
in one's future samsara (round of rebirths),
or else to accumulate the seeds that will
enable one to attaIn release from worldly ills
in the next follOWing life, or withil\ the next
Buddha Sasanii. through the practice of
Gillm and Insight with resolution ... inteJl'tlO
and bidustry.
I no:v show thirty-seven
dhammas. which me: dhammas
which shJuld attempted with energy and
by those persons wishing to
sama/lia (Calm) and vipassan{l
(fnslght), and thus make the rare opportunity
of rebirth as a human being within the
present Buddha Sasana worthwhile:.
Briefly, the bodhipakkhiya dhammas consist
of seven kinds, namely,
1. Salipa{fliiina,
2. Sam.nappadhiina,
3. Iddhipiida,
4. [ndriya.
5. Bala,
6. Bhojjhw1ga,
7. Maggmiga.
According to the definition "Bodiyii
pakkhe bhavc"ili bodhipakkhiYii", these
dhammas are called bodhipakkhiya, because
they form part of, or thcy are associatcs of
magga-iiiilJa (Knowledge of the Holy Paths).
They are dhammas that are the pada/!hiina
(Proximate cause), salnbhclra (Requisite
1l1gredlents).and upanissaya (Basis or sufficing
conditIOn) of magga-iicllJQ (Knowledge of the
Holy Paths).
The definition of satipa!!hana is:
"Bhusalil ti!!hatili pa{!hilnam; sali eva
pa!{hcil/(lin sal ipa! {I/liJ1(lIn."
[t m !'lns mi ndfulness or hecdl'ulncss which
is firmly established.
There are four sa!ip?{{!ll
l H (Applications
of Mindfulness). They arc:
1. KliyiinupaSSaJl(I-satipaf{liaIlCl,
2. VedaJl(illllpaSsallcl-satiplI( {Iullla,
3. CillcinupassClI/II-.\'lIliplI!{hal/a, and
4. DIWll/l/uinupauiII1:l-sal ipa( {h{IIIG.
I. KaYclllupassallcl-Wlipl/!!Ii{illll mind-
which is lirmly established on
physical phenomcna, slleh as on tllc
exhaled bn:ath and til.: inhalt:d breath.
2. means
which is firmly established
on sensJtions.
3. C.itliinupassan'i-salipa!thrina means mind-
fulness which is firmly established on
thoughts or mental processes, such as
thoughts associated with the passions
or dissociated from the passions.
4. DhammiinupassalUi-satipa{{hiinQ means
mindfulness which is firmly established
on phenomena such as nivara(1G!
(Hindrances), etc.
Of the four, if mindfulness or attention is
firmly established on a plrt of the body, such
as on out-breath and in-breath, it is tanta-
mount to attention being firmly established
on all things. This is because the ability to
place one's attention on any object at one's
will has been acquired.
'Firmly established' means, if one desires
to place the attention on out-breath and in-
breath for an hour, one:'s attention remains
fil"l111y fixed on it for that period. If one
wishes to do so for two hours. one's attenti'on
remains firmly fixed on it for two hours.
There no occasion when the attention
becomes released from its object on account
of the instability of thought-conceptio;l
For a detailed account of the satipat{hiil1'l,
see the Mahasatipaqhana Sutta.*
Why is it incumbent on us to firmly
establish the mind without fail on any object
such as the out-breath and the in-breath?
It is because it is nece:ssary for us to gather
and control the: six Vililiii(ws,** which have
been dl'ifting tempestuously and untrained
throughout the P:lst inconceivably long and
bcginningless SGliiscira (round of rebirths).
I shall make it clearer. The mind is wont
to flit abJut fr,ll11 one to another of the six
objects of t he senses which lie at the
approaches of the six sense-doors.***
As an examp\::', take the C;lse ofa mad man
who has no control over his mind. He docs
not ev..:n know the meal-time, ami wanders
about aimkssly from to plal:e. His
parents look I'M him and give him his Illeal.
After ..:ating flve or six Ilwrs"ls of t\1l1d, he
ovalurns 1 he dish ailli walks :\\\,IY. I Ie' thus
* 1'h:'l1C Ihc I.ll(hl or Ihe Dhaml1l,l. Vol III, No. -I. Digha Nikaya. 1\ 1 ,lh:l\"'I):g.l, :-- tah,h.\til',\\\h;\oa
SUI);l , p. 2H, (,Ill SYIl bill .
" I_ XC-CUlll .; "I ". ""'t ;,\1,,1
.... Lye I ) If, Ii ll' t ,H, N ),;1 ))f. I,) l'lI! .l \ B ) ly- l 1" ;l.ll \ 11.\1 .I) Ir.
quar m 1. To this extent b
ntrol of his mind. He cannot
ntrol hi mind ev n to the e tent of finish
ioa the bu ine s of a meal. In talking,
nnot control his mind to the e){tent of
fini hing or completing a sentence. The
b ginning. the middle, and the end do not
agree with one another. His talk has no
meaning. He cannot b;! of use in any
undertaking in this world. He is unable to
perform any task. Such a can no
longer be classed as a human being, and he
has to be ignored.
This mad man becomes a sane and normal
person again, if he meets a good doctor, and
the doctor applies such stringent methods
of cure as tying him up and putting him in
chains. Thus cured, he obtains control of
his mind in the matter of taking his meals,
and .can now eat his fill. He has control
over his mind in all other matters as well.
He can p:!rform his tasks till they are complet-
ed,just like others. Just like others, he can
also complete his sentences. This is the
In this world, persons who are not insane,
but who are normal and have control over
their minds, resemble sueh a mad person
having no control over his mind, when it
comes to the matter of samatfla and l'ipa.uanii.
Just as the mad man upsets the food dish and
walks away after five or si){ morsels of food
at hough he attempts to eat his meal, these
normally sane p;:rsons find their attention
wandering because they have no control over
their minds. Whenever they pay respects to
the Buddha and contemplate His noble
qualities, they do not succeed in keep!ng
their minds fi){ed on those noble q
but find their attention being diverted many
times on to other objects of thought, and thus
they fail to reach the end of even the 'Ilipiso .. .'
It is as if a man suffering from hydrophobia
who seeks water feverishly with parched lips,
yet runs away from it with fear when he sees
a lake of cool refreshing water. It is also
like a diseased man who when given a diet of
re1i.shing food replete with medicinal qualities,
the food bitter to his taste and unable
16) swallow it,is obliged to spit and vomit it
III just the same way, these persons
find them,elves
contemplation of thcf,' D,iotnfi"q[UalllttieW,
Buddha effectively, fUreD" '''''.
dwelling on them.
If in reciting the '1tipiso' verse their
recitation is interrupted every time diet(
minds wander, and if they haVe to .tart
afresh from the beginning every time such an
interruption occurs, they will never reach the
end of the verse even though they keep on
reciting a whole day, or a whole month, or a
whole yea,r. At present they manage to
reach the end because they can keep on
reciting from memory even though their
minds wander
In the same way, those persons who, on
IIposatha days, plan to go to quiet places in
order to contemplate the thirty-two parts of
the body, such as kesii (hairs of the head)
lomii (hairs of the body), etc. or the noble
qmlities of the Buddha, ultimately end up
in the company of friends and associates,
they lnvc no control over their
minds, and because of the upheavals in their
thoughts and intentions. When they take
part in congregational recitations," although
they attempt to direct their minds to the
samatha (Calm) work of the bra',ma-l'ihiiras
(Sublime Statcs),*** such as reciting the
formula for diffusing mellii (Loving-kindness),
because they have no control over their
minds, their thoughts are not concentrated
but are scattered aimlessly, and they end up
.only with the visible manifestation of the
These facts are sufficient to show how
many p:!rsons resemble the insane whIle
performing kusala kammas (merits).
'Piipasmiril ramate mano'
(The mind takes delight in evil.)*
Just as water naturally flows down frotn
high places to low places, the minds of beings-,
if left uncontrolled, naturally approach evUs.
This is the tendency of the mind.
I shall now draw, with examples, a com
parison between those Who exercis6 no
control over their minds and -the d
person mentioned above.
There is a river with
the rudder, tIoats down the river with the
current. His boat is loaded with valuable
merchandise for trading and selling at the
towns on the low.!r reaches of the river. As
he fioats down, he plsses stretches of the
river lined with mountains and forests where
there are no harbours or anchorages for
his boat. He thus continues to float down
without stopping. Whc:n night descends, he
passes towns and villages with harbours and
anchorages, but he does not see them in the
darkness of the night, and thus he continues
to float dOWll without stopping. When
daylight he com;:s to places with
towns and but not having any con-
trol over the rudder of the boat, he cannot
steer it to the harbours and anchorages. and
thus perforce he continues to float down
until he reaches the great wide ocean.
The infinitely knglhy s:7rilsiira (round of
rebirths) is like the swift flowing river.
having no control over their minds
are like the boatman who is unable to steer
his boat. The mind is like 1 he boat. Beings
who have drifted from one exis nce to
another in the "sufllia" worlLl-cycles, where
no Buddha Sas:lOUS appear, are ii the
boatman dri fling down those strelches of the
riv.!rlined by mountains and forests, where
there are no harbours and anchorages.
When at times these beings are belrn in world-
cycles where Buddha Sasanfls flourish, but
are in ignorance ofth':m because they happen
to be in one or other of the eight at!hak-
khaf)as (inoPPelrtunc they resemble
the boatman who floats down Sli"ctches of the
river lined by towns and with
harbours and anchorageS, but docs not see
them because it is night. When. at other
times, they are born as human beings, del'as
or Brahmas, within a Buddha SJsan:l, but
fail to secure tne Paths and the Fruits
because the V are unable to control th<!i.- minds
and put forth effort to practise ripassallii
(Insight) exercises of the satipa{{lziillas (the
four Applications of Mindfuln;:ss) thus
continuing still to drift in sad/sara, they
resemble the boatman who sees the banks
tilled by towns and villages with harbours and
anchorages, but is unable to steer towards
!Ii!& of his inability to control the
thus continues perforce to
towards the OCI!:tn. In the
salilsdra, those b::ings who
have obtained release from worldly iUs witkin
the Sasaniis of th.! Buddhas who
appeared, whose numbers exceed the
grains of sand on the banks of the river
Ganges, are who had control over
J?inds and who possessed the ability of
retaInIng their attention on any desired
obje;:t at will through the practice of the
This shows the of th;: or
'course of existence', of those beings who
do not practise the satipa!thiinas, eventhough
they are dware of the fact that thev have no
control over minds when it -comes to
the practice of sama/ha and vipassanii (Calm
and Insight.)
Comparisons may also made with the
taming and training of bullocks for the
p'lrpose of yoking to ploughs and carts, and
to the taming and training of rlephants for
employment in the service of the king, or on
In the case of the bullock, the young calf
h3s to be regularly herded and kept in a
C.lttle-pen, then a is pass eLl through
its nostrils and it is ti.:d to a post and trained
to respond to the rope's control. It is then
trained to submit to the yoke, and only when
it becomes amenable to the yoke's burden is
it put to use for ploughing and drawing carts
and thus effectively employed to trade and
profit. This is the example of the bullock.
In this example, just as the owner's profit
and success depends on the employment of
the bullock in the drawing of ploughs and
carts after training it to become amenable to
the yoke, so do th(! true oflay persons
and bhilckhus within the present Siisanii
on training in samatha and vipassanii
(Calm and Insight).
In the present Buddha Sa,;ana, th:! practice
of sila-l'isuddlzi (Purification of
fesembh:s the training of the young calf by
herding it and keeping it in cattle-peos.
Just as, if t he young calf is not so herded and:
kept in it would damage and
destroy the prop.!rties of others and thus
bring liability on the owner, so, if a
lacks sila-I'isuddhi, the three kammas*
run riot, and the concerned
to worldly 'evils an;! to
evil results indicated in the
A person who performs the practice of
samalha and vipasanii (Calm and Insight)
without fir:.t attempting kiiyagatii satipa-
IIhana (Mindfulness as regards body).
resembles the owner whu yokes the still
untamed bullock to the cart or plough with-
out the nose-rope. Such an owner would
find himself unable to drive the bullock at
his desire. Because the bullock is wild, and
because it has no nose-rope. it will either try
to run off the road, or try to break loose by
breaking the yoke.
On the other hand, a p.!rson who first
tranquillises and trains his mind with
kiiyagalii satipalthiina bhiivanii (Contempla-
tion of the Body) before turning his mind to
the practice of samatha and vipassan(l (Calm
and Insight), his attention will remain steady
and his work willl be successful.
In the case of the elephant, the wild
elephant has first to be brought Ollt from the
forest into the field hitched on to a tame
trained elephant. Thence it is taken to a
stockade and tied up securely until it is tame.
When it thus becomes absolutely tame and
quiet, it is trained in the various kinds of
wOllk in whjch it will be employed in the
service of the king. It is only then that it is
use<! in functions and on battlefields.
of sensual resemble
Th::: essential meaning is, whether it be
out-breathing or in-breathing, or by ltfY4-
( PJ tures-going, standing.
slltlllg. lymg,) or by sampajanna. (clear
comprehension), or by dhiitu-manasiklra
(advertence of mind on the elements), or by
atthika-saiiliii (contemplation of bones), one
must put forth effort in order to acquire the
ability of placing one's attention on one'.
body and its p:>stures for as long as ODO
wishes throughout the day and night at all
waking hours. If one can keep one's attea;.
tion fixed for as long as one Wishes, then
mlstery has been obtained over one', mind.
Thus does one attain release from tho state
of a mad man. One now resembles
boatman who has obtained mastery
rudder, or the owner of the tamed
bullock, or the king who . ..;
and trained elephant.
Vip:lssana with such industry that it may
carry kiiYllgafiisllli with it, they will succeed,
provided that they really have the necessary
wisdom :llld industry. The kc/yogaliisali
that is associated \\; [h udayabbaya-fiii(w
lKnowlcdge arising from contemplation of
the arisings and vanishing;; of mental Hnd
physical phenomena), which clearly sees
t heir coming into existence and passing away,
is very indeed.
In the samalha (Calm) method, by practis-
ing the kiiyagaliisali of out-breathing and in-
breathing, one can attain up to rtipiil'acara
callilfhajhiilla (the fourtl
Jliiina of the Forl11-
Sphere); by practising Va(l(l11 /nallasikar61 * of
the kiiyagaliisati or the thirty-two parts of the
body, such as kesii (hair of the head), lomii
(hair of the body), etr., one can attain all the
eight samiipattis;** and by practisillg**'"
paliku!a manasikiira of the same kiiyagalii-
sali one can attain the first Jhana. If
(Insight) is attained in the process,
one also can attain the Paths and the
Even if completion is not arrived at in the
practice of samalha and ripassanii (Calm and
Insight), if the stage is reached where one
attains control over one's mind and the
ability to keep one's attention fixed on
wherever one wishes it to be, it was said by
the Buddha that such a one can be said to be
one who enjoys the savour of amata
nibbiilla. ****
"Amatam tesam paribhutlam, *****
Yesam kiiyagalii sali paribhutlcl."
These who enjoy kiiyagatiisali, enjoy
all/ala (Nibbiina).
Here, amala (Nibbana) means great peace-
fulness or tranquillity of mind, ******
In its original natal statc, the mind
highly unstable in i.ts and thus IS
parched and hot In ItS. nature. Just as the
insects that live on capsicum not aware of
its hcat, just as beings pur!'uing the realm of
la/Jhii (Craving) arc not aware of f(/(d/(i's heat,
just as beings subject and pflde arc
not aware of thl: hl:at of pmle and ang.!l, so
arc unaware of thl: heat of \Inse[tkd
minds. It is only whcn, through kcl,J'(lKlllii-
sali, the unsettlement of their minds
disappear, do they become aware of the heat
of unsettled minds. Having attained the
state of the disappearance of that heat, they
develop a fear of a relapse to that heat. The
case of those who have attained the first
shiina, or udayabbaya fiii(lG, through kayagalii
salipa!!hiilla needs no elaboration.
Hence, the higher the attainments that one
reaches, the more does it become difficult
for one to be apart from kiiyagaliisa!i.
The ariya pugga!as (Holy Ones) use the four
salipa!{itiinas as mental nutriment until they
attain parillibbiina.
The ability to keep one's attention fixed
on parts of the body, Such as out-breath and
in-breath for one or lW0 hours, takes one to
the culmination of one's work in 7 d1YS, or
15 days, or a month, or 2 months, or 3
months, or 4 months, or 5 months, or 6
months, or a year, or 2 years, or 3 years,
according to the intensity of one's efforts.
For the method of practising out-breathing
and in-breathing, sel" my "Anapana
There are many books by past teachers on
the method of the thirty-two parts of the'
body. In this method, kesii (hair of the
head) , lomii (hair of rhe body), Ilakhii (nails),
dania (teeth), laco (skin) are known as laca
paficaka (Group ending with taco as the fifth).
If attention can be firmly fixed on th':se five,
the work of kii),agaliisali is accomplished.
, For ca/U dhiilu vavatthiina (Analysis of the
Four Great Primaries), /'Ilpa vipassallii (Con-
templation of Physical Phenomena). and
Iliima-vipassanii (Contemplation of Mental
Phenomena), see my "LakkhaQa Dipanj",
"Vijja-magga DipanI", "Ahara Dipanj",
and "Anatta DIpanl".
Here endsa concise e:\planation of kiiytlgta-
sa/i Mill' lIlii. which is one of the four saripa-
{{//lilJas, and which has to b.:: established tirst
in the work of bhiil'l1Ilii (Mental Contempla-
tion) by Nl'YYIl and PlIdIlP:l/'tIllI(/ individuals
forthe purpose of attaining the and the'
Fruits within a Buddha S;is:lml.
Here ends SCllipa{{//(llltl.
Aovcrlcnce or mind to colour or appcaruncc. Part or the of rcne,tion onlhc thirt),-two pMts
or the body.
*" 8 sustaincd II I'ranees or the Form-Sphere.
and l'url11lcS Sphcre.
H' Contemplation 01 IO:tlh,olllcncss .
a tcrlll Nlhhana, . . '"
AOI;UlIIltii Nlk, yil, I;kuka-l\lp,lt.l. 20 AlIlatllvaMiI SUII,\,I', 47, blh S}n. I.dn .
.... 'I his mean Kilc a Nibb"I1".
The definit ion of saflllll{/ppadhanQ is:
BhusClln dlwhati vahatiti padhiinalil,
afllllladcl'a paC/hiina ,i, sammappadhiina,h.
(Can carry out exceedingly; hence it is
called padhiina. Dhammas that can carry
out pWPt'r1y and exceedingly; hence they are
ca Ikd sammapadhiina.)
Effort that has not in it any element of
unwillingness is called sammapapdhiina.
It is also called iitiipa I'iriya. It is effort that
can e\'oke the taking of great pains physically
and mentally. It is effort that possesses
four characteristics.
These four characteristics are:
.. KiimClln taco ca nhiiru ca,
A tfhi ca Qjasissatu.
S a ~ f r e upasussatu mamsalohitam,
Ya,iJ tam purisathiimena purisavfriyena
purisaparakkarnena pattabbam.
Na tam apiipunitva viriyassa salJ!hiinam
bhavissati. ,,*
(Let only my skin, and sinews, and bones
remain, and let my flesh and blood in the body
dry up, I shall not permit the course of my
effort to stop until I win that which may be
won by human ability, human effort and
human exertion.)
These characteristics may be summed up as
J. Let the skin, remain,
7. Let the sinews remain.
3. Let the bones, remain,
4. Let the flesh and blood dry up.
It is effort that calls forth the determination
"If the end is attainable by human effort, I
shall not rest or relax until it is attained, until
the end is grasped and reached." It is the
effort of the kind put forth by the Venerable
Bhikkhu Sona** and the Venerable Cakkhu-
paJa... .
It is only when the Jhanas, the Paths, and
the Fruits are not attained after effort is put
forth on this scale, as prescribed by the
Buddha, throughout one's I ife, can it be said
that the cause (of the failure) lies in the nature
of the present times, or in one being dvi-
hetuka (born with two root conditions only),
or in one's lack of sufficient previously
accumulated pammi.
In this world, some persons, far from
putting forth the full scale of the effort
prescribed by the Bhddha, do not even try to
set up ka)'agatiisati effectively in order to
cure their minds of aimless drifting, and yet
they say that their failure to attain the Paths
and the Fruits is due to the fact that these
are times that preclude such attainment.
There are others of the same class who say
tha t men and women of the present day have
not the necessary accumulation of piirami to
enable them to attain the Paths and the
Fruits. There are yet others of the same
class who say that men and women of the
present day are dvi-hetuka. All these people
say so because they do not know that these
are times of the Neyya class of individuals
who fail to attain the Paths and the Fruits
because they are lacking in sammappadhiina
If proper sammappadhiina effort be put
forth with pahilatta intention, where a
thousand put forth effort, three, four, or
five hundred of them can attain the supreme
achievement; if a hundred put forth effort,
thirty, forty, or fifty of them can attain the
supreme achievement. Here, pahilatta
intention means "determination to adhere to
the effort throughout one's life and to die, if
need be, while still making the effort."
The Venerable Sona Thera's effort con-
sisted of keeping awake throughout the three
months of the vassa (Rainy Season), the only
body postures adopted being sitting and
walking. The Venerable Cakkhupala's effort
was of the same order. The Venerable
Phussadeva Thera**-* achieved the Paths and
the Fruits only after twenty-five years of the
same order of effort. In the case of the
Venerable Mahasiva .... * Thera, the effort
lasted thirty years.
At the present day, there is a great need
for such kind of sammappadhiil/a effort. It
happens that those who put forth the effort
have not sufficent foundations in the pariyatti
* At'lguttara Nikiiya. Duka-nipata, 9 Upai'li'\iita Sutta p. 53. 6th Syo. Edn.
** Vinaya Pitaka, Mahiivagga, V 13, 1-10, 267, 6th Syo. Edn.
<iammohavinodani Atthakatha, page 262, 6t.b Syo. Edn.
*** f)hanvnpada, p. 2., 6th. Syo. Edo .
.... ** SJlakkhandha-vagga Atthakath:l, p. 159, 6th Syn. Edn.
Mula-pann:1sl Atthakathll, Satioatth<1na Sutta Vat:lnanil, p. 262, 6th SYn. Edn .
..... DJaha-niUya, Mabc!.vagga Atthakatha, Sakka Pai\IU Sutta, p. 319, 6th Syo. BdD.
(Learning of the Doctrine), while those who
possess sufficient pariyatti foundations live
involved in the palibodhas (obstacles) of the
business of Bhikkhus, according as they live
in towns and villages, such as discussing the
Dhamma, delivering sermons and dis-
courses, and writing books on the
Dhamma. They are persons who are unable
to put forth sammappadhana effort for lenClthy
periods without a break. "
Some persons are wont to say that when
their piiramis become mature and the time
becomes ripe for them to attain release from
worldly ills they can easily obtain that
release and that as such, they cannot put
forth effort now when they are not certain
whether or not that effort \\ill result in
release. They do not appear to compare the
suffering occasioned by thirty years' effort
now with the suffering they will encounter if,
in the interim beFore they attain release, they
are cast in the hell regions for a hundred
thousand years. They do not appear to
remember that the suffering occasioned by
thirty years' effort is not as bad as the
suffering caused by just three hours in the
hell regions.
They may say that the situation will be
the same if no release is attained after
thirty years' effort. But if the person is
sufficiently mature for release, he will attain
that release through that effort. If he is not
sufficiently mature, he will attain release
in the next life. Even if he fails to
attain release within the present Buddha
Sasana, bhiivanii iicilJlJa kamma (the kamma
of repeated efforts at mental development)
is a powerful kamma. Through it, he can
avoid the apiiya regions, and can meet the
next Buddha after continuous rebirths in the
sllgati existence (Happy course of existence).
In the case of those who do not put forth the
effort, they will miss the opportunity of
release even though they are mature enough
to obtain release through thirty years' effort.
For lack of effort they have nothing te gain
and everything to lose. Let all, thereFore.
acquire the Eye of Wisdom, and beware of
the danger.
There are four kinds of sammappadluina,
1. Uppanniinam akllsaliinarn dhammGflarn
pahiiniiya viiyiimo,
2. Anllppanniinam akusaliinGln dhamanam
anuppadiiya viiyiimo,
3. AnuppanniillariJ kllSaliillam dhammiinam
IIppiidiiya viiyiimo,
4. Uppalllliillaril kusaliinam dhammiinaril
blziyyobhiil'iiya viiyiimo.
1. Effort to overcome or reject evil
unwholesome acts that have arisen,
or are in the course of arising;
7. Effort to aviod (not only in this life but
also in the lives that follow) the arising
of unwholesome acts that have not
yet arisen;
3. Effort to arouse the arising of whole-
some acts that have not yet arisen;
4. Effort to increase and to
the wholesome acts that have arisen
or are in the course of arising.
Uppanna and Anuppanna Akllsala Kammas:
In the personality of every being wandering
in sarhsara (round of rebirths), there are
two kinds of akusala kammas Cunwhole-
some volitional actions), namely,
1. UpTJamIG akllsala kamma, and
2. Anllppanna akusala kamma.
Uppanlla akusala kamma means past a!ld
present akusala kammas. They comprIse
ul1w;nlcsome volitional actions committed
in interminable series of past world-cycles
and P1st liv(:s. Among these akusala
kammas there are some that have spent
by having produced rebirths i!l
the apiiya-lokas. There that .awatt
the opportunity of producmg re.blrths In the
apiiya-lokas, and thus constItute poten-
tialities to rebirth in the apiiya-Iokas that
accomp:my beings from world-cycle to
world-cycle and from life to life.
Every being in whom sakkiiya-di!(hi
(Personality-belief) resides, be he a human
being, or a dem, or a brahmii, possesses an
infinitely large store of such past debts, so to
say, consisting of akllsala kammas. (unwhole-
some volitional actions) that have 111 them the
potentiality of rebirths in the
lowest Avid Hell. Similarly, there are
infinite stores of other kammas capable of
producing rebirths in the other apiiya-!okas.
These past karnmas a favourable
opportunity for produc1l1g rebirth resultants
Khuddaka Nikaya, Pa\isarilbhidil-magga, Maha-vagga. p.214, 611 Syn. EdQ.
At\JUttara-nikilya Catukka-nipata, Padhiina Sutta, p. 322, 6th Syn. Edn.
Abbidbammat&ba'Saoaaba, Samucuya-kaJ;vJa, Padhua.
. lIJ.r#1}ifa'ii1luidtit kammas have
itr 'Iilkkr1ya-dillhl (personality-
As long as sakkaya-dil1hi exists they
expended 'Mtliout prOducing result-
ant. There is no case of past kamma
e11cmding itself without producing due
resultants. BUt when, with insight into the
Anatta lakk/un:lil (Characteristic of Imper-
sonality), one rids oneself of sakkaya-difthi
(personality-belief), from that instant all the
uppanna akusala kammas lose their potential-
ity and disappear from the store of past
akusala kammas. From that existence, one
will no longer become subject to rebirth in the
apaya-lokas in future sari/siira even in one's
Anuppanna akusala kammas means future
akusala kammas. Beginning with the next
instant in this life, all the new evil and un-
wholesome acts that one commits whenever
opportunity occurs in the course of this
present life and in the succession of lives that
are to follow, are called anuppanna. These
new akusala duccarita kammas (evil and
unwholesome volitional actions) that one can
commit even during a single lifetime can be
infinite in number.
AU these anuppanna akusala kammas have
their origin in sakkiiya-dillhi.
If at any time sakkilya-dil1hi disappears. all
the new anuppanna akusala kammas also
disappear, even at that instant, from the
personality of the beings concerned, leaving
no residue. Here, 'disappear' means that
there will be no occasion, starting from the
next instant, in futute succession oflives and
future succession of world-cycles, when
new akusala kammas are perpetrated.
Throughout future anamatagga samsiira
(beginningIessround of rebirths), those beings
will not complit, even in their dreams, any
akusaIa (unwhelesome volitional
"tiCh 8S" pi!iatipata (kiUUlg any living

to the
In the great Wll'irl1)oOJ tlU!UQH'e'
purely creatures or
In the infinitely long samsiirll, beina.
to cultivate the desire for encountmns 8
Buddha Siisana, which is an
difficult achievement. Hedged in as
are, from before and behind, by the hell-fires
of uppanna and anuppanna akusala kamrtuu,
they have to cultivate earnestly the desire to
extinguish those fires once and for all.
Hence, those beings who do encounter
Buddha Siisaniis have to make the extinguisli-
ing of the hell-fires of uppanna and anup-
panna their sole task for their future welfare.
The task of extinguishing the akusala
kammas of uppanna and anuppanna consists
of ridding oneself of sakkiiya-dillhi and no
more. If sakkiiya-dillhi is uprooted, the two
akusala kammas (unwholesome volitional
'actions) are entirely extinguished.
"Bon-sin-san" Sotiipannas, like VisilkhA
and Aniithapil)4ika, who are infinitely
numerous among humans, devas, and brahmiis,
are beings who have obtained release from the
state of sinking and drifting in the great '
whirlpool of sari/siira (round of rebirths) from
the moment sakkiiya-di!/hi was uprooted.
They are beings who have attained the first
stage of Nibbiina called sa-upiidisesanibbana
(Nibbiina with the five constituent groups of
existence remaining.) Altho.ugh they are
liable to wander in the round of rebirths for
many more and many more world..cycles,
they are no longer worldly beings. Having
become "Boa-sin-san" Ariyas (Noble Ones),
they are beings of the lokuttara (Supra-
mundane Sphere).
Here ends the part showing uppanna od
anuppanna akusala ktpnmas from which
Sotapannas have obtained their rClICBllC.
Uppaona and Anuppaona Kusala KaII.'-(:'
n It I id thut sarilttira (round CJf
r birth) I ry terrifying. it i because of the
duC'C'Oriltls (e il de d) of uppanna and
onllppallllG .... hich have ditlhi (Wrong View)
a th irroot. When it i said that there is no
hiding place. n hllv"n, nowhere on which one
n d p nd, it i b'cause of the self-same
duccoritas and dil!hi.
When di{{hi i. extinguished. both old and
ne, duccaritns are also extinguished. When
old and ncw till'caritas are extinguished.
r lea e from the snrhmrii of npiiya-lokas is
attained, and only exalted stnges in the
tate ofhumnn ,dcl"Os, and nrahmiis, rem:lin.
Since b.::ing. have to cultivate the desire for
enc unter with a Buddln-Sasana in order to
secure release from the al'(iYll samsara
together with old and new dllccaritas. now
that thev have encountered a Buddha S;isana
in it yes them to make the
attempt of extingui hing the great evil of
DiUhi i established in beings in three
layers, \ iz .
Pariyu!lhiillo, and
The e layers are the renlm of snHlira-
dillhi. They may be c'llIed coarse, middling,
and fine dill hi.
I hall now how how the offspring of
dltthi, the ten du('carilas, enter into di/{hi.
The coarse dl{{h; of \ itikkmlla compri es
the akusnla kammas commit! ed through overt
acts and speech. The di([hi <;>f
jHIrlYUIlht'Ino comprise the.evil tha.t occur.'"
thoushts. Anu.ra)ll dirthi I the evil that lies
Iateat 1ft the personnlttlC: of bing through-
out anamatagga sa,;,sara though it may not
result an m nife tat Ions of act pee h, r
rubbish heaps, clothes, houses, monasteries
and villages.
This fire, the fire that is transferre4 to
another object. resembles the coarse
I'ilakkama di({hi. The fire that bums the
match stick resembles the middling
pariyu({hiina dillhi which is manifested in
the mind every time it comes in contact with
objects of thought. The fire that is latent
in the box of matches resembles the fine
anI/soya di(!lzi that resides in the
of beings throughout the successIOn oflJ\;es
in nnnll1atagga SmilS(ira.
This fire that lies btent in the box of
of m1tches not burst into flame so long
as the nntch h:ad is not rubbed with the
nitrous surface of the match-box. It does
not cause any harm even if it be kept in
contact with liighly inflanlln:lble articles such
as gunpowder. In the . same way. t!Ie
(/Illlsoyn di{!lzi lies latent III the persc;mahty
and dJes not manifest itselfso long as It does
n,){ come into c0ntact with evil objects of
thought or other causes of evil. When.
howeycr, evil objects of thought or other
causcs impinge on the six ense:doors, the
Q111ll'oyn dilllzi is disturbed and to. make
itself manifest in the mind-door, or '" the
plane of thc 1"lriYIl!!/ziiI/(l the fun<:-
tion of volition. If at that time the manl-
festat ions can be suppre sed by good
dlxlrincs. Ihcydis:1ppcar from the pariyull-
'/(il/a plane and return to the allllsaya
ami reside 111\:rc as latent natural
If tht.:v cannot bc 'uppr'''ed, t.hey
to thernsdvc' dev'lopmg vohtlon .
If they an: furthcr di turbed (in tll
}uilla plnnc). thcy. manifc t them In the
\'ilikkClIIIQ plane III the form of e 11 pc h
or evil acts.
Yen '/.nufdIW (t"Uribcati(llns).
As Car as layfolk are concerned, sila means
AJi'raIlhomoka-sila which is nicca-sila
for them.. The Allhairga-uposatha-sila and
Dilsaliga-sila add refinement to nicca sila.
It is a good thing to be able to observe them;
but it does not matter much if they cannot be
observed. For those people who assume the
yellow garb of Isis the Ajiva/thamaka-
si/Il and Dasatiga-sila constitute sila. The
Althatiga-uposatha-si/a is included in the
Dasai/ga-sila. For Bhikkhus, the Catupii-
risuddlU-sila** constitutes sila.
The parikamma bhiivanii, upaciira bhiivanii,
and appanii bhiivanii (also called the eight
Samapallis*), which arise out of mind-
fulness in the body (such as in out-breath and
in-breath), and in the bones of the body,
constitute samiidhi.
The four lokiya (mundane) visuddhis ....
beginning with ditthi-visuddhi, together with
Iokuttara (supramundane) iiiit;ladassana-
.isuddJri constitute paiiiiii.
Among the three planes of di/thi, sila can
destroy the vitikkama plane. This means
that if one possesses sila-visuddhi, upheavals
io acts and speech cannot occur. Samiidhi
can destroy the dilfhi in the pariYUllhlJna
This means that if bhiivanii manasi-
{concentration on the objects ofmedita-
IS firmly established, upheavals in
occur. Pannii destroys the
enti as
I shan now show .the method of Clivi,ion
based on tbis life as the starting point. In
those who have never undertaken to keep
the sila in this life, there is no upponna si/a.
In those who at one tjme or other in this life
have undertaken to keep the silo, such sila
is uppanna. In the same way, in the cases of
sammiidhi and pannii, what was attained in
the past is uppanna, and what had never been
attained in the past is anuppanna.
In the method of division based 00 past
samsiira as the starting point, there are two
kinds of sila, viz .. Lokiya sila and Lokuttara
sila. Lokiya sila is UppOn/lQ, because there is
no being who at one time or other in the past
samsara has not undertaken to keep the
/okiya sila. Lokutwra sila, as far. as puthuj-
jhanas are concerned, is anuppanna.
Samiidhi, also, is of two kinds, viz., lokiya
and lokullara. Since lokiya samiidhi had
been attained on many occasions by beings in
the past samsiira, it is uppanna. Lokutlara
as far as pUlhujjanas are concerned.
Panna, also, is of two kinds. viz .. lok,ya
IOk.uttara. kankhii-
vlltlrat;la-Vlsuddhl, magga-magga Rii(la-dastma-
'1isuddhi, and pOfipadii-iiat;lo-dassona-visut!dhi
are lokiya pannii. These lokiya paliif. are
uppanna to hose 'Who have en erect
Buddha Siisaniis in the past, and Oifft/ItHIItM
to those who have never encGUillered any
Buddha Sisani,
I shall now show the four points of vfriya
The opportunity of ridding oneself com-
pletely of old uppanna akusala kammaJ
arises only when one encounters a Buddha
Sasana. The opportunity of preventing the
appearance of new akusala kammas in the
series of existences that are to follow, is also
one that can arise only when one en-
counters a Buddha Siisana. Even though one's
samsara be infinitely long, if one does not
encounter a Buddha Siisanii, no opportunity
of ridding oneself of these two classes of
akusala kammas can arise. This is because
the business of ridding oneself of these two
akusala kammas is identical with the business
of destroying the anusaya plane of sakkaya-
di!{hi. And, the destruction of the aflusaya
plane of difthi is the work of anatta-bhiivana,
which appears only when a Buddha Siisanil
Those beings who are destined to be
Pacceka-buddhas (Solitary Buddhas) had
acquired first the seeds of anatta bhavanii during
their encounter with a Buddha Siisanii.
When there is no Buddha Siisanii in the
world, even the mere sound of anatta is not
heard. And, by 'the sound of anatta' is meant
the sound of rupa, nama, khandha, iiyatana,
dhiitu, and paticca-samuppiida. The whole
of the Abhidhamma Pitaka is replete with the
sound of anatta. So is the whole of Abhi-
The work of anatta bhiivami consists, first,
of fulfilling sfla-visuddhi, then of setting up
kiiyagatii-sati, and after tranquillizing and
controlling one's madly tempestuous and
unstable mind, of putting forth effort in the