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1

Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China 2 Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

We study the topological properties of quantum states for the spinless particle hopping in a Mbius o ladder. This system can be regarded as a molecular device possibly engineered from the aromatic Mbius annulenes, which enjoys a pseudo-spin orbital interaction described by a non-Abelian gauge o structure. It results from the nontrivial topology of conguration space, and results in various observable eects, such as optical spectral splitting. The transmission spectrum through the Mbius o molecular device is calculated to demonstrate a topological eect as a destructive interferences in the conduction band. The induced interaction also leads to an entanglement between the transverse and longitudinal modes for any locally factorized state.

PACS numbers: 03.65.Vf, 85.65.+h, 85.35.Ds,78.67.-n

Introduction.- With various potential applications, the molecular based devices have motivated extensive experimental and theoretical investigations (see Ref.[1]). Similar to the semiconductor based articial nanostructures, the engineered molecular architectures also displays dierent novel quantum eects. The concept of Mbius aromaticity was rstly proposed in 1964[2], but o various kinds of Mbius molecule were not designed or o claimed to be synthesized[3, 4] until recent years. With these signicant developments of engineering topologically nontrivial chemical structures, the topological properties of quantum systems become more and more important. Thus, it is natural to consider the various quantum eects induced by the nontrivial topological congurations[5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10], such as the Mbius o molecule. For the topological eects in quantum mechanics, it is a fundamental principle (assumption) that the wave function must be single-valued in a topologically trivial conguration. In this sense, various topological effects such as Aharonov-Bohm (AB) eect can be rationally explained without the introduction of any extra assumption in quantum mechanics[11]. In some conguration with nontrivial topological structure, though the motion of particle requires some complex boundary conditions, such topological non-trivialness of the conguration space can be canceled by introducing a singular gauge eld. A typical example is the phenomena of persistent currents in a mesoscopic or a superconducting ring threaded by a magnetic ux. Here, the U (1) gauge eld can be introduced to cancel the seemingly multi-value of boundary condition with a non-integrable AB phase factor. Another illustration is the fractional statistics of anyons, which describes the eective quantum excitations of the hardcore particles conned strictly in two dimension with the braiding homotopy of the many-body conguration [12]. In this Letter, we show a topology induced quantum eect with a non-Abelian gauge structure, which emerges from the twisted boundary condition in a Mbius ladder. o

The twisted boundary condition results in a local interaction between transverse and longitudinal modes. And, in the continuous limit, the spinless particle moving in the Mbius ladder is mapped to a pseudo-spin coupled to the o orbit corresponding to the longitudinal mode. When we apply a transverse eld, the pseudo-spin seems to be conned in a one-dimensional ring and subject to a texturelike eective magnetic eld, together with an eective magnetic ux threading the ring(see Fig.1). Dierent from the existing setups of mesoscopic ring for persistent currents[13], the eective magnetic ux in our molecular device depends on the pseudo-spin state, namely, there exists a non-Abelian gauge eld induced by the Mbius o topology. Compared with the topologically trivial congurations, i.e. an ordinary tight binding ladder, the quantum state of the Mbius molecule is strongly aected by its congo uration topology. Here, we predict three quantum interference eects, which are distinguished from the ordinary cases obviously: (i) the Stark eect in the electric eld cause more optical spectral splitting, due to the eective Zeeman eect by the induce non-Abelian gauge eld; (ii) the transmission spectrum through the Mbius molecule o is signicantly modied due to the destructive interference caused by the non-Abelian ux; (iii) from the view of quantum information, the entanglement is emerged from the locally factorized state in the Mbius molecule. o Induced non-Abelian gauge structure.- Let us con-

FIG. 1: (a) Schematic illustration of Mbius ladder. (b) o An electron hopping in the Mbius ladder can be mapped o to a pseudo-spin moving in a one-dimension ring, with a spin dependent ux and a texture-like inhomogeneous magnetic eld ().

2 sider the hopping of an electron on the tightbinding lattice with a Mbius ladder conguration o illustrated in Fig.1(a). Since there is no spin ip, the electron is regarded as a spinless particle. There are 2N lattice sites, located at the two edges of the ladder, whose coordinates are rj = (cos j (R w sin[j /2]) , sin j (R w sin[j /2]) , w cos[j /2]), with half-width w and radius R, and j = 2j/N being the polar coordinate. We introduce operators a (aj ) and b (bj ) to denote the creating (annij j hilating) a particle on j-th site of each edges respectively. The rungs represent the coupling between a-chain and bchain. We assume the hopping strength along the ladder is homogeneous. Then the Hamiltonian reads

N 1 N 1

65 60 55 50

Energy

(a)

(b)

-6 -4 -2

k/k

2

0

k/k

2

0

2

Amplitude

(c)

-4

-2

0

Energy

E-2V

H=

j=0

A Mj Aj j

A Aj+1 + h.c. , j

j=0

(1)

where Aj = (aj , bj )T , and the matrix Mj = j z Vj x , for x,y,z being the Pauli matrices, 2j describing the onsite energy dierence between a- and b-particles, and Vj representing their coupling strength. The Mbius boundary conditions are aN = b0 and o bN = a0 , or equivalently, AN = x A0 . It is this boundary condition that results in the interesting topological properties of the quantum state. In terms of the operatorvalued vector j (cj , cj )T = (exp(ij /2)(aj B bj ), aj + bj )T / 2, which is a unitary transformation of Aj , the Hamiltonian is rewritten as

N 1 N 1

FIG. 2: Energy levels (the solid lines with dash marks) for the ordinary ring (a) and the Mbius ladder (b). The doto ted lines with empty square marks are the energy levels in the continuous limit. The allowed transitions induced by a electric eld in the z direction are depicted by the arrows. (c) The optical spectra of the Mbius ladder corresponding to the o transitions shown in (b). The gray peak centered at the origin is the spectra for the ordinary ring. The Lorentz prole are assumed for each peaks with phenomenological broadening. Parameters used in calculation are N = 12 and V = 50.

is an operator, which does not commutate with the Zeeman term , and the gauge eld is called nonAbelian. Topological Stark shift and spectral splitting.- Now, we consider the Mbius molecule subject to a uniform eleco tric eld E = Ez ez along z direction. The electric eld induced on-site energy dierence is 2j = E(rj+ rj ) 2 cos(j /2). By assuming the homogeneous coupling Vj V , the eective magnetic eld j = (1 + cos j ), sin j , V 2 2 (4)

H=

j=0

B (j )Bj j

j=0 T

where j (j cos(j /2), j sin(j /2), Vj ) is a direction vector, and Q diag[exp(i/N ), 1]. It should be emphasized that the operator Bj only requires the ordinary periodic boundary condition, i.e., BN = B0 . So far, we have shown that the nontrivial Mbius boundo ary condition is canceled by the unitary transformation, accompanied by an induced non-Abelian gauge eld associated with j and Q. This point will be seen more clearly in the continuous limit below. In the continuous limit (i.e. N and j [0, 2]), the particle hopping on a Mbius ladder is deo scribed by the two-component Hamiltonian (2), which can be mapped to the continuous Hamiltonian H= i

2

possesses a texture-like distribution [Fig.1(b)] with spatially varying amplitude and direction. The Stark eect, i.e. the energy shift under the weak electric eld, is calculated by the perturbation approach. For simplicity of notation, we present the result in the continuous limit. By taking the unperturbed Hamilto nian H0 = (i )2 + z z , the zero-th order eigenenergy are En = (n 1/2)2 + V and En = n2 V respectively, corresponding to eigen-states denoted as |n, = |n | , for =, and |n = exp(in)/ 2. The energy spectra of these unperturbed states, illustrated in Fig.(2) in comparison with the ordinary ring, shows the obvious spectral splitting. The perturbation H = x ()x + y ()y results in the superposition of the zero-th order states with different pseudo-spin components. The Stark shifts En

+ () .

(3)

This Hamiltonian (3) describes a pseudo-spin moving in a one-dimension ring subject to non-Abelian gauge eld including a spin dependent ux = (z + 1)/4 and an inhomogeneous magnetic eld (). Here, the natural unit is chosen. In this sense, the induced magnetic ux

3

1.0

(a)

0.5

Transmission

(b)

ring at a0 and aN/2 sites, the Hamiltonians of the electron moving in the leads and its tunneling to the Mbius o ring the are written as Hlead = tl k=1 c ci,k+1 + h.c. i,k and Htun = tl (c a0 +c a N )+h.c., respectively, where L,1 R,1 2 ci,k for i = L, R are the annihilation operators of the electron in the leads, and tl describes the electron hopping amplitude. To analyze the transmission for a given injection energy E, we calculate the self-energies L,R to determine the Greens function of the Mbius ring G(E) = o [E H L R ]1 by taking account of the inuence of the semi-innite leads[14]. The self-energies L,R can be obtained numerically, and they give the level broadenings L,R = 2 Im L,R . The transmission coecient T (E) is obtained by the relation T (E) = Tr[R GL G ][14]. The transmission spectrum of the Mbius ring is shown o in Fig.3(b), comparing with that of the ordinary mesoscopic ring with periodic boundary conditions Fig.3(a). For simplicity, j = 0 and Vj = V are assumed. Through the unitary transformation from Aj to Bj , the Mbius o ladder is decomposed into two independent rings (channels), see Fig.3(d). In the strong coupling limit, i.e. V , the energy spectrum of the channels are split into two bands. The energy gap between them is determined by the coupling strength V . Below the energy gap (or in the valence band), the transmission behaviors are locally similar in both cases. It is not aected by the topology of conguration space, since, as discussed before, the induced gauge eld does not present in the valence band channels. Above the energy gap (or in the conduction band), the transmission coecient is completely suppressed in the Mbius ring due to the induced o gauge eld, which equals to a half magnetic ux quanta. The particle could not transmit through the Mbius ring o at such energies, due to the destructive interference between the two arms of the ring. Decoherence from induced Stern-Gerlach eect of pseudo-spin.- The third topological phenomenon is the quantum decoherence of the pseudo-spin caused by the Stern-Gerlach eect of the induced gauge eld[15]. Actually, through the spin-orbit coupling, quantum entanglement between dierent spin states is created so that a quantum measurement can be realized. Similar to the Stern-Gerlach experiment, the spatial degrees of freedom interacts with spin in a non-demolition fashion, and thus measures the spin states. Here, we point out that, the situation may be dierent from the topologically nontrivial case without obvious local coupling. We have shown that the gauge eld can be induced by the Mbius boundary o condition, and the eective pseudo-spin orbital interaction further arises from this gauge eld. Thus, the entanglement could be created by the topology induced eect in the absence of any real local interactions. In order to emphasize the main physical mechanism in our argument, we assume the homogeneous conditions

0.5

Energy

60

70

FIG. 3: Transmission spectra for the ordinary ring (a) and the Mbius ring (b). (c) Schematic illustration of the Mbius o o molecule joining with two leads. (d) Schematic illustration of the topology induced magnetic ux in the conduction band (see text). The same parameters are used as in Fig.2.

under the static electric eld are calculated as En = En 2 (V n 1/8) , 3n2 8V n + (4V 2 V 3/16) 2 (V n + 5/8) = . 3n2 (8V + 3)n + (4V 2 + 5V + 9/16) (5a) (5b)

Together with the non-vanishing transition matrix elements n |H |n + 1 = n |H |n = /2, this energy shifts due to the twisted boundary condition are regarded as an observable quantum eect of the induced non-Abelian gauge eld. In view of the future experiments, the topology state of the Mbius molecule may be detected by the splitting o of the optical spectra. We consider the transitions of the electron in the Mbius molecule under an optical excitao tion. We assume that the molecules are subject to the linearly polarized light, whose electric eld component E(t) = Ez (t)z oscillates in the z direction. The time e dependent Hamiltonian is H(t) = H0 + H (t), where the (t) = E(t) r = H cos t, for being the perturbation H frequency of the pumping light. The transition selection rule shown in Fig.(2) follows from the above mentioned transition matrix elements as (i) |n |n and (ii) |n |n + 1 . The Fermis golden rule is applied to calculate the spectra with various excitation energy. In comparison with the case of ordinary ring, where only one peak is located at frequency = 2V since the only transition (i) is allowed in this case, the optical spectra of Mbius molecule show clear splitting due to the nono trivial topology. Transmission through a Mbius ring.- Besides the o topology induced Stark shift and the spectral splitting, the transmission through the Mbius ring exhibits obvio ous dierences from the ordinary ring[10]. We consider the molecule is connected to two leads as shown in Fig.3(c). The leads are modeled by two semiinnite chains. The electron can hop along the chains and tunnel between the lead and the Mbius ring at the junco tions. By assuming that the leads are connected with the

4

0.5

( )|

Dt

Decoh. Fact. |

Dt

( )|

0.50

0.25

0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

limit with large N , the short time behaviors of the decoherence factor is dominated by only one term with = 0, thus |D(t)| |J0 (2 t)| with an time dependent envelop N/(2t) decaying as inverse square-root of time. Conclusion.- Taking the Mbius ladder as an illuso tration, we have explored the role of topological structure of the conguration space on the quantum states of the particles conned in a topologically-nontrivial manifold. The global properties of the topological system can be locally described by a non-Abelian gauge structure, which can result in some observable eects in the aspects of spectroscopy, such as the topological induced Zeeman splits and the higher energy band suppression of the transmission of the Mbius molecule. We also show o the quantum decoherence of the pseudo-spin and the entanglement due to the pseudo-spin orbital interaction. On the other hand, from the view of chemistry, these observable eects can be regarded as the physical signals of the successful synthesis of some Mbius aromaticity o molecule. These methods may be used to distinguish the topologically nontrivial molecules from the ordinary ones. This work is supported by NSFC No.10474104, No. 60433050, and No. 10704023, NFRPCNo. 2006CB921205 and 2005CB724508. One (CPS) of the authors acknowledges Y.S. Wu for his stimulating discussions.

' t

150

200

250

300 ' t

350

400

450

500

Time

FIG. 4: The decoherence factor as a function of time. Inset: detailed behavior of the decoherence factor (blue line), and its asymptotic envelope (red line) for small t. N = 50 is assumed.

j = 0 and Vj = V . Thus, only is the z component retained, and thus Hamiltonian (2) is of a block-diagonal form, i.e., H = diag[H , H ] with the conditional Hamiltonians

N 1 N 1

H = V

j=0

c cj j

j=0

where {, }, = , and = exp(i/N ). We assume one electron is initially located at a0 the site, i.e. |(0) = a |vac = |j = 0 (| + | ) / 2. In 0 the pseudo-spin representation, this initial state stands for a pseudo-spin pointing in the x direction at the j = 0 site. Obviously, it is a locally factorized state. At time t, the wave function evolves into supera position |(t) = (|+ (t) | + | (t) | ) / 2 where the | (t) = exp (iH t) |j = 0 can be understood as the detector states measuring the pseudo-spin states. As the so-called decoherence factor , the overN 1 lap D(t) = (t)|+ (t) = j=0 G (j, t)G+ (j, t)/2 of | (t) characterizes the quantum coherence of pseudospin states. Here,

+

G (j, t) j| (t) =

k=

(7)

are the propagators of the two spin components, where Jn (x) is the n-th order Bessel function. Here, jk = j + kN represents the j-th site with winding number k with respect to the two decomposed rings, and the two pseudo-spin dependent phases + (jk ) = jk /2 and (jk ) = + (jk ) + jk /N accompany the longitudinal motions in the two rings. It is the induced phase shift jk /N between (jk ) that gives rise to the decoherence of pseudo-spin. Straightforwardly, the decoherence factor is calculated as D(t) = where = 1 2iV t e 2

i JN (2 t)

=

(8)

[1] V. Balzani, A. Credi, and M. Venturi, Molecular Devices and Machines: A Journey Into the Nanoworld (WileyVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2003). [2] E. Heilbronner, Tetrahedron Lett. 29, 1923 (1964). [3] H. S. Rzepa, Chem. Rev. 105, 3697 (2005); M. K. Cyraski, Chem. Rev. 105, 3773 (2005); R. Herges, n Chem. Rev. 106, 4820 (2005). [4] S. Tanda, et. al., Nature 417, 397 (2002). [5] J. Gravesen and M. Willatzen, Phys. Rev. A 72, 032108 (2005). [6] S. Nakamura, et. al., Physica E 22, 684 (2004). [7] F. Mila, et. al. Phys. Rev. B 57, 1457 (1998). [8] K. Yakubo, et. al., Phys. Rev. B 67, 125319 (2003). [9] M. Hayashi and H. Ebisawa, Phys. Rev. B 72, 024505 (2005). [10] S. K. Maiti, Solid State Commun. 142, 398 (2007). [11] N. Byers and C. N. Yang , Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 46 (1961); C. N. Yang, in Proc. Int. Symp. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Tokyo, 1983, pp.5-9. [12] F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1144 (1982); Y. S. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2103 (1984). [13] D. Loss, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1655 (1990). [14] S. Datta, Quantum transport: Atom to transistor (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005). [15] Y. Li, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 130403 (2007).

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