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Energy Energy is one of the most fundamental parts of our universe. We use energy to do work.

Energy lights our cities, powers our vehicles, trains, warms our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, gives us pictures on television. Energy from the sun gives us light during the day. It helps plants grow. Energy stored in plants is eaten by animals, giving them energy. And predator animals eat their prey, which gives the predator animal energy. Energy is defined as: "the ability to do work." 1. Electricity figures everywhere in our lives. But what is electricity? Where does it come from? How does it work? The electrons are passed from atom to atom, creating an electrical current from one end to other of the wire. But where does the electricity come from? A power station is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Most power plants use cleaner-burning natural gas to produce electricity. Others use oil or coal to heat the water. There are three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas. The other forms of energy include: 2. "Geo" means earth, and "thermal" means heat. So, geothermal means earthheat so thermal energy is generated and stored in the Earth. Below the crust of the earth, the top layer of the mantle is a hot liquid rock called magma. Deep under the surface, water sometimes makes its way close to the hot rock and turns into boiling hot water or into steam. The hot water can reach temperatures of more than 148 degrees Celsius. 3. Hydro means water. Hydro-electric means making electricity from water power. Hydroelectric power uses the kinetic energy of moving water to make electricity. The river is simply sent through a hydroelectric power plant or powerhouse. 4. We have always used the energy of the sun as far back as humans have existed on this planet. Solar energy can also be used to make electricity. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic cells and can be found on many small appliances, like calculators, and even on spacecraft. 5. Wind can be used to do work. The kinetic energy of the wind can be changed into other forms of energy, either mechanical energy or electrical energy. 6. Another major form of energy is nuclear energy, the energy that is trapped inside each atom. One of the laws of the universe is that matter and energy can't be created nor destroyed. But they can be changed in form. Atoms are made up of smaller particles -- a nucleus of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons which swirl around the nucleus much like the earth revolves around the sun. An atom's nucleus can be split apart. When this is done, a tremendous amount

of energy is released. Einstein said that a very small amount of matter contains a very LARGE amount of energy. This energy, when let out slowly, can be harnessed to generate electricity. When it is let out all at once, it can make a tremendous explosion in an atomic bomb. Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. A nuclear power plant uses uranium as a "fuel." The word fission means to split apart. Inside the reactor of an atomic power plant, uranium atoms are split apart in a controlled chain reaction. How a Nuclear Power Plant works? If the reaction is not controlled, you could have an atomic bomb. Applications of Nuclear Energy The most important application of nuclear energy is for electricity generation in thermonuclear plants. NASA use nuclear energy and assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Used to propel aircraft, carriers, icebreakers and submarines. Radioactive materials, produced in reactors, are used in diagnostic and therapeutic treatments in medicine, weld inspection (radiography). Advantages of Nuclear Energy Nuclear reactions release a million times more energy, as compared to hydro or wind energy. There is no release of greenhouse gases during nuclear reaction. Currently, the high reserves of uranium found on Earth, are expected to last for another 100 years. Nuclear fuel is inexpensive and easier to transport.

Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy It requires large capital cost. Around 15-20 years are required to develop a single plant. The nuclear reactors will work only as long as uranium is available. The waste produced after fission reactions is very dangerous to the environment and remains so, for thousands of years. It is very difficult to store radioactive elements for a long period. The nuclear radiation harms the cells of the body which can make people sick or even kill them. Nuclear energy can be used for production of nuclear weapons. They are a major threat to the world as they can cause a large-scale devastation.

One of the biggest mistake in using the nuclear energy is the weapon form. As an example of this is atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Hiroshima Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6, with Kokura and Nagasaki being alternative targets by American army. The B-29 Enola Gay was launched about six hours flight time from Japan. The release at 08:15 went as planned, and the gravity bomb known as "Little Boy", took 43 seconds to fall from the aircraft flying to the predetermined detonation height above the city. The radius of total destruction was about 1.6 km, with resulting fires across 11 km2. 70,00080,000 people, or some 30% of the population of Hiroshima were killed immediately, and another 70,000 injured. After the Hiroshima bombing, President Truman said: If they do not now accept our terms, they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth. Behind this air attack will follow sea and land forces in such numbers and power as they have not yet seen and with the fighting skill of which they are already well aware. NAGASAKI On the morning of August 9, 1945, the U.S. B-29 Bockscar carried the nuclear bomb code-named "Fat Man", with Kokura as the primary target and Nagasaki the secondary target. At 11:01 Bockscar's bombardier dropped the "Fat Man" bomb over Nagasaki. It exploded 43 seconds later above the ground. The explosion generated heat estimated at 3,900 degrees Celsius and winds that were estimated at 1005 km/h. The radius of total destruction was about 1 2 km. Casualty estimates for immediate deaths range from 40,000 to 75,000. Total deaths by the end of 1945 may have reached 80,000. An unknown number of survivors from the Hiroshima bombing had made their way to Nagasaki, where they were bombed again. And President Harry Truman, on August 9 said I realize the tragic significance of the atomic bomb... It is an awful responsibility which has come to us... We thank God that it has come to us, instead of to our enemies; and we pray that He may guide us to use it in His ways and for His purposes. Its awful what happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki another improper use of nuclear energy was the Chernobyl Accident, a human mistake number 2. Chernobyl Accident This year marks the 26h Anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Accident

On 26 April 1986, at 01:23, reactor four suffered a catastrophic power increase, leading to explosions in its core. This dispersed large quantities of radioactive fuel and core materials into the atmosphere and ignited the combustible graphite moderator. The nearby city of Pripyat was not immediately evacuated after the incident, for the general population of the Soviet Union was not informed of the disaster until 29 April. The pools and the basement were flooded because of ruptured cooling water pipes and accumulated firefighting water. They now constituted a serious steam explosion risk. The reactor itself was covered with bags of sand, lead and boric acid dropped from helicopters. Many of the vehicles used by the "liquidators" remain parked in a field in the Chernobyl area. During the construction of the sarcophagus, a scientific team re-entered the reactor as part of an investigation to locate and contain nuclear fuel in a way that could not lead to another explosion. These scientists manually collected cold fuel rods, but great heat was still emanating from the core. Rates of radiation in different parts of the building were monitored by drilling holes into the reactor and inserting long metal detector tubes. Effects Four hundred times more radioactive material was released than had been by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Approximately 100,000km of land was contaminated with fallout, the worst hit regions being in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. 237 people suffered from acute radiation sickness, of whom 31 died within the first three months. Most of these were fire and rescue workers trying to bring the accident under control. There were no further deaths identified, in the general population affected by the disaster, as being caused by ARS. Among the residents of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, there had been up to the year 2005 more than 6,000 cases of thyroid cancer reported in children and adolescents who were exposed at the time of the accident. Apart from this increase, there is no evidence of a major public health impact attributable to radiation exposure two decades after the accident. The Chernobyl Shelter Fund The plan of the Chernobyl Shelter Fund in 1997 calls for transforming the site into an ecologically safe condition by means of stabilization of the sarcophagus followed by construction of a New Safe Confinement. The NSC is expected to be completed in 2013, and will be the largest movable structure ever built. Even people realize their mistakes and would try to use the nuclear energy just for the human sake there could be the nature disaster. As a real example is Fukushima nuclear accidents from 2011. FUKUSHIMA

The Fukushima I nuclear accidents are a series of ongoing equipment failures and releases of radioactive materials at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, following the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. . Experts consider it to be the second largest nuclear accident after the Chernobyl disaster, but more complex as all reactors are involved. At the time of the quake, reactor 4 had been de-fueled while 5 and 6 were in cold shutdown for planned maintenance. The remaining reactors shut down automatically after the earthquake, and emergency generators started up to run the control electronics and water pumps needed to cool them. The plant was protected by a seawall designed to withstand a 5.7 metres tsunami, but not the 14-metre wave which arrived 15 minutes after the earthquake. Measurements taken by the Japanese science ministry and education ministry in areas of northern Japan 3050 km from the plant showed radioactive caesium levels high enough to cause concern. Food grown in the area was banned from sale. It was suggested that worldwide measurements indicate that the releases from Fukushima are of the same order of magnitude as the releases of those isotopes from the Chernobyl disaster in 1986; Tokyo officials temporarily recommended that tap water should not be used to prepare food for infants. Plutonium contamination has been detected in the soil at two sites in the plant. Conclusion Imagination is more important than knowledge, for knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution. Albert Einstein To make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely. We must all conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new energy technologies of the future. All energy sources have an impact on the environment. Concerns about the greenhouse effect and global warming, air pollution, and energy security have led to increasing interest and more development in renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, wave power and hydrogen. But we'll need to continue to use fossil fuels and nuclear energy until new, cleaner technologies can replace them. One of you who is reading this might be another Albert Einstein or Marie Curie and find a new source of energy. Until then, it's up to all of us. The future is ours, but we need energy to get there.